119 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on bipolar disorder, ✍️ bipolar disorder essay topics for college, 👍 good bipolar disorder research topics & essay examples, 🎓 most interesting bipolar disorder research titles, 💡 simple bipolar disorder essay ideas, ❓ bipolar disorder research questions.

  • Psychodynamic Approach: Creativity and Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder in the Criminal Justice System
  • Differences Between Features of Bipolar Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Abnormal Psychology: Bipolar Disorder
  • Mental State Deterioration in Bipolar Disorder Patients
  • Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms and Treatment
  • The General Concept of Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder From Theoretical Perspective Being a complex neurobiological issue, bipolar disorder has an intricate pathway that determines the pathology.
  • Bipolar Disorder as a Prevalent Mental Health Issue In the US the incidence is at 2.8%. BD affects a person’s mood, forcing them to go through periods of manic anxiety and extreme depression.
  • Bipolar vs. Borderline Disorder in a Female Patient The female patient has non-standard behavior. She is prone to excessive activity, delusional thoughts and actions, and promiscuous sexual relations.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Description, Episodes, and Types Bipolar Disorder is a serious mental condition that affects one’s ability to retain mental stability and well-being in a negative way.
  • Bipolar Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Bipolar disorder (BPD), also known as manic depression, denotes a mental disorder characterized by significant mood fluctuations and can be life-threatening.
  • Bipolar Disorder Description, Causes, and Treatment Bipolar disorder is a mentally based disease that mainly affects an individual’s reaction to different situations.
  • Bipolar Disorder Phenomenon in Medicine The bipolar disorder phenomenon, which is regarded by the modern medical community as another epidemic, requires special attention and resources.
  • Bipolar I: Manic-Depressive Disorder Medical Synopsis & Treatment The paper discusses that bipolar I disorder is a severe mental issue that requires medical examination and treatment to live a good-quality life.
  • Bipolar Mental Disorder and Its Impact on an Individual This paper will look at the impact BD has on an individual and the treatment options available for such people.
  • The Link Between Bipolar Disorder and Creativity This paper will discuss bipolar disorder, its neurobiology, and its relationship with creativity. There is a high correlation between bipolar disorder and creativity.
  • Brain Disease: Bipolar Disorder The selected topic for this essay is bipolar disorder. This discussion gives a detailed analysis of this brain disease affecting a large number of people across the globe.
  • Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Key Issues Bipolar disorder among children have some peculiarities and differ from symptoms of adult patients. The article proposes specific treatment measures and interventions for children.
  • Bipolar Disorder: The Diagnosis and Treatment Bipolar disorder is a complex condition that affects almost 3% of the adult population in the US. It is characterized by abrupt changes in mood from depression to mania.
  • Risk Factors of Bipolar Disorder The risk factors involved in the development of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) can include a multitude of components.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Brief History of the Patient This paper discusses Mia is a 21-year-old student who has bipolar disorder. Discussion of her treatment and what measures were accepted.
  • Peculiarities of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a complex mental illness that preconditions changes in mood, emotional swings, and the emergence of manic episodes.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Term Definition Bipolar disorder is an episodic or chronic mental disorder that causes unusual, extreme, and rapid-cycling changes in energy, mood, concentration, and activity
  • General Analysis of the Types of Bipolar Disorder Going by the severity of the modal episodes experienced by a victim, the disorder is divided into three types. The three main types are bipolar one, bipolar two and Cyclothymia.
  • Definition, Causes, and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder The disease creates mood disorders, low-level depressive episodes and elevated modal episodes that are psychologically referred to as mania.
  • Medical Analysis of Bipolar Disorder Previously known as manic depression, bipolar disorder is a psychological condition which affects moods causing them to swing to extremes.
  • Bipolar Disorder: The Childhood and Adult Etiology The theory of bipolar disorder provides a framework for integrating the disparate research into six types of potential etiological factors.
  • Mental Illness and Work: Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder, previously termed manic depressive psychosis, is a serious mental illness characterized by mood swings with episodes of both elevated and depressed moods .
  • Mental Health Counseling in Bipolar Disorder Cognitive and interpersonal techniques help to resolve issues of life problems including demoralization, stigmatization, and lack of opportunity to learn from peer figures.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Risk Factors Analysis The research studies conducted on BAD can be categorized into two major subcategories regarding their approach to the issue
  • Hypersomnia Subtypes, Sleep and Relapse in Bipolar Disorder Kaplan et al.’s “Hypersomnia subtypes, sleep and relapse in bipolar disorder” identifies subtypes of the disease, which promotes the clarification of its definition.
  • Bipolar Disorder, Its Types, Symptoms, Treatments Psychologists believe that bipolar disorder is a critical condition that can encourage patients to engage in risky behaviors. Sometimes the affected patients might become suicidal.
  • Postpartum Bipolar Disorder and Depression The results of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire screening of a postpartum patient suggest a bipolar disorder caused by hormonal issues and a major depressive episode.
  • Bipolar Disorder or Manic Depression Bipolar disorder is a mental illness characterized by unusual mood changes that shift from manic to depressive extremes. In the medical field, it`s called manic depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and Its Three Types The bipolar disorder condition is usually characterized by mood swings. The patient will experience periods of both mania and depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder I, II, and Cyclothymic Disorder In this paper, the researcher seeks to analyze types, causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Factors and Treatment Bipolar disorder is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by changing moods and energy levels that affect the ability of the patients’ memory to function normally.
  • Bipolar Disorder in Medical and Societal Views The objective of this research paper is to analyze the symptoms, causes, and ways of diagnosing bipolar disorder from different points of view.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment Bipolar disorder (formerly manic depression) is a serious and common psychiatric disorder affecting a person’s mood.
  • Bipolar or Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar disorder is a brain illness that causes sudden changes in an individual’s mood, levels of activity, energy, as well as the ability to perform mundane tasks.
  • Bipolar Disorder, Its Symptoms, Causes, Therapy This paper aims at reviewing and summarizing the information on symptoms of bipolar disorder, its possible causes, and the ways to improve the mental state of patients.
  • Bipolar Disorder’ Symptoms and Treatments in Psychiatry The bipolar disorder is an austere, cerebral illness. This paper discusses the signs and symptoms, treatments, as well as management objectives of the bipolar disorder.
  • Co-Occurrence of ADHD and Bipolar Disorder The relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder has received a lot of attention.
  • About Bipolar Disorder: Mind, the Mental Health Charity
  • The Types, Symptoms, and Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Functioning and Behavior
  • Alleviating Bipolar Disorder Through Lithium
  • Bipolar Disorder and Its Stages
  • Abnormal Psychology Bipolar Disorder
  • The Problems Arising With the Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Contexts, and Treatments
  • Understanding Suicidal Tendencies Through Bipolar Disorder
  • What Are the Effects of Bipolar Disorder Mindset?
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius
  • Young Adults Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorder
  • Circuits Regulating Pleasure and Happiness in Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder From Ethical, Legal, and Cultural Perspectives
  • The Cultural, Legal, and Ethical Consideration of Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder Can Affect Men and Women Equally
  • The Causes and Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder in Preschool-Aged Children
  • Bipolar Disorder and Genetic Predisposition
  • Comparing Two Treatments for Bipolar Disorder
  • The Link Between Child Abuse and Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder: Mind and Mental Health
  • The Link Between Bipolar Disorder and Suicide
  • Bipolar Disorder and Manic Depressive Illness
  • Personality Structure and Attachment in Bipolar Disorder
  • Intensive Psychotherapy With Bipolar Disorder
  • Suicidal Ideation Not Necessarily Associated With Bipolar Disorder
  • The Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol
  • Bipolar Disorder and Its Effects Through the Lifespan
  • Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder and Mood Swings
  • How Bipolar Disorder Affects Your Mood and Transmuting Sleep?
  • Bipolar Disorder: The Causes, Effects and Treatment of Manic Depression
  • Family-Focused Treatment vs. Individual Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
  • The Causes and Symptoms of the Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder Studies and Clinical Relations
  • The Link Between Creativity and Bipolar Disorder
  • Improving Treatment Outcomes for Bipolar Disorder
  • Elevated Familial Cardiovascular Burden Among Adolescents With Familial Bipolar Disorder
  • The Characteristics, Symptoms, and Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder, a Mental Illness
  • Bipolar Disorder and Mood Stabilizers
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder and Evaluating the Possible Causes and Treatments
  • The Standard Stabilizing Drugs Used for Bipolar Disorder
  • Distinguishing ADHD and Bipolar Disorder
  • Mental Capacity and Decision Making in Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Symptoms
  • Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder
  • Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction?
  • Bipolar Disorder and Dogs: Manic Depression
  • Acquainting Yourself With Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder and Its Effect on Children
  • Are Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Neuroanatomically Distinct?
  • How Does Bipolar Disorder Affect the Lives of Those Who Suffer From It?
  • Does Crisis-Induced Intermittency Explain Bipolar Disorder Dynamics?
  • What Goes Through the Mind of Someone With Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Disorder Affect a Person’s Brain?
  • Can You Get Free Treatment for Bipolar Disorder?
  • What in the Brain Causes Bipolar Disorder?
  • Does Holden Caulfield From “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger Suffer From Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Disorder Affect Individual’s Mood and Behaviors?
  • What Are the Effects of Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Disorder Affect Children and Adolescents in School?
  • What Would Digital Early Intervention for Bipolar Disorder Look Like?
  • How Is Bipolar Disorder Treated?
  • What Are the Social Effects of Bipolar Disorder?
  • When Do Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Attempt Suicide?
  • Is It Hard to Live With Someone With Bipolar Disorder?
  • What Are the Long-Term Effects of Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Disorder Affect Families?
  • Does Bipolar Disorder Affect Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet?
  • What Triggers Bipolar Disorder?
  • Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Implicated in Histaminergic Dysregulation in Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Affect You Socially?
  • Does Bipolar Disorder Decrease Intelligence?
  • What Part of the Brain Is Affected by Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Does Bipolar Affect a Person in Everyday Life?

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StudyCorgi. (2022, January 16). 119 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/bipolar-disorder-essay-topics/

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StudyCorgi . "119 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics." January 16, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/bipolar-disorder-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2022. "119 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics." January 16, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/bipolar-disorder-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Bipolar Disorder were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on December 27, 2023 .

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121 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Bipolar Disorder is a mental health condition characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy levels, and behavior. It affects millions of people worldwide and can have a significant impact on their daily lives. If you are studying psychology or related fields, you may be required to write an essay on bipolar disorder. To help you with your research, here are 121 bipolar disorder essay topic ideas and examples that cover various aspects of this complex condition.

Understanding Bipolar Disorder:

  • The history and evolution of bipolar disorder as a recognized mental illness.
  • The different types of bipolar disorder and their diagnostic criteria.
  • Exploring the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of bipolar disorder.
  • The role of brain chemistry in bipolar disorder: neurotransmitters, hormones, and their imbalances.
  • The impact of stress and trauma on the onset and progression of bipolar disorder.
  • Comparing and contrasting bipolar disorder with other mental health conditions.
  • The stigma surrounding bipolar disorder and its effects on individuals seeking help.
  • How cultural factors influence the perception and treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the prevalence of bipolar disorder in different age groups and genders.
  • The connection between bipolar disorder and substance abuse: causes and treatment strategies.

Diagnostic and Assessment Tools:

  • The effectiveness and limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
  • The role of self-report measures in assessing bipolar disorder symptoms.
  • The significance of family history and genetic testing in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
  • The use of neuroimaging techniques in identifying biomarkers for bipolar disorder.
  • The importance of early detection and intervention in managing bipolar disorder.
  • The challenges in diagnosing bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.
  • The cultural biases and limitations of existing assessment tools for bipolar disorder.
  • The potential of machine learning and artificial intelligence in improving bipolar disorder diagnosis.

Treatment Approaches:

  • The benefits and drawbacks of medication as a primary treatment for bipolar disorder.
  • The role of psychotherapy in managing bipolar disorder symptoms.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in bipolar disorder treatment.
  • The use of mood stabilizers in preventing manic and depressive episodes.
  • The impact of lifestyle changes, such as exercise and diet, on bipolar disorder management.
  • Alternative and complementary therapies for bipolar disorder: evidence-based practices.
  • The role of support groups and peer support in the recovery process for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The challenges of medication adherence in long-term bipolar disorder treatment.
  • The effectiveness of family-focused therapy in improving the overall well-being of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in treating bipolar disorder.

Impact on Daily Life:

  • Exploring the cognitive impairments associated with bipolar disorder.
  • The effects of bipolar disorder on academic performance and educational attainment.
  • The challenges of maintaining employment and career progression for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of bipolar disorder on interpersonal relationships and social functioning.
  • The importance of developing coping strategies to manage bipolar disorder symptoms in the workplace.
  • The role of psychoeducation in empowering individuals with bipolar disorder to self-manage their condition.
  • The impact of bipolar disorder on sleep patterns and the development of sleep disorders.
  • Investigating the link between bipolar disorder and physical health conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases.
  • The role of creative outlets, such as art and writing, in therapeutic self-expression for individuals with bipolar disorder.

Risk Factors and Comorbidities:

  • Investigating the relationship between childhood trauma and the development of bipolar disorder.
  • The connection between bipolar disorder and suicidal ideation: risk assessment and prevention strategies.
  • The prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The comorbidity of substance use disorders and bipolar disorder: causes and treatment implications.
  • The link between bipolar disorder and eating disorders: shared vulnerabilities and treatment challenges.
  • The impact of bipolar disorder on sexual functioning and relationships.
  • Investigating the relationship between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.
  • The co-occurrence of bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Psychosocial Factors:

  • The role of childhood adversity and neglect in the development of bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of social support networks on the recovery process for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence and treatment outcomes of bipolar disorder.
  • The effects of social media and online communities on the well-being of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the impact of stigma and discrimination on the mental health of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The role of family dynamics in the management and treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of bipolar disorder on parenting and child-rearing practices.
  • The challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder in accessing appropriate healthcare and support services.
  • The importance of psychoeducation programs for family members and caregivers of individuals with bipolar disorder.

Pharmacological Interventions:

  • The efficacy and side effects of lithium as a long-term treatment for bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the role of antipsychotic medications in managing acute manic and depressive episodes.
  • The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder treatment: risks and benefits.
  • The effectiveness of mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants in preventing mood swings in bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the potential of new and emerging medications in treating bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of medication non-adherence on treatment outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The role of pharmacogenetics in predicting medication response in bipolar disorder.

Psychosocial Interventions:

  • The effectiveness of psychoeducation programs in improving treatment adherence for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the benefits of psychosocial interventions in preventing relapse and hospitalization in bipolar disorder.
  • The role of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicide risk in individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of group therapy on social functioning and quality of life for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of family-focused therapy in reducing bipolar disorder symptoms and relapse rates.
  • The potential of mindfulness-based interventions in managing mood instability in bipolar disorder.
  • The role of peer support programs in promoting recovery and well-being for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of integrated care models in treating comorbid conditions in bipolar disorder.

Public Health and Policy:

  • The economic burden of bipolar disorder: healthcare costs and productivity losses.
  • Investigating the impact of mental health policies on the accessibility and quality of care for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The role of legislation in protecting the rights and promoting the well-being of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The importance of mental health promotion and early intervention programs for bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of stigma reduction campaigns on the well-being of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The role of community-based mental health services in supporting individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The challenges of integrating mental health and primary care services for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors on treatment outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The potential benefits and ethical implications of genetic testing for bipolar disorder susceptibility.

Psychological and Neurobiological Mechanisms:

  • Investigating the neural circuits and brain regions involved in bipolar disorder.
  • The role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of circadian rhythm disruptions on mood instability in bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the role of neurocognitive impairments in bipolar disorder: attention, memory, and executive functions.
  • The association between bipolar disorder and alterations in reward processing and motivation.
  • The impact of sleep disturbances on the emotional regulation difficulties experienced in bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in bipolar disorder.
  • The potential of neurostimulation techniques, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), in treating bipolar disorder.

Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder:

  • The challenges of diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.
  • Investigating the long-term outcomes and prognosis of childhood-onset bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of childhood trauma on the development and course of bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the cognitive and academic impairments associated with childhood-onset bipolar disorder.
  • The role of family dynamics and parenting styles in the management of childhood-onset bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
  • The potential of early intervention programs in preventing the progression of childhood-onset bipolar disorder into adulthood.

Geriatric Bipolar Disorder:

  • The challenges of diagnosing and managing bipolar disorder in older adults.
  • Investigating the impact of late-onset bipolar disorder on cognitive functioning and dementia risk.
  • The role of comorbid medical conditions and medications in the treatment of geriatric bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions in older adults with bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of social isolation and loneliness on the well-being of older adults with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the role of psychosocial interventions in improving quality of life for older adults with bipolar disorder.
  • The importance of interdisciplinary approaches in the treatment of geriatric bipolar disorder.

Emerging Trends and Future Directions:

  • Investigating the potential benefits and risks of psychedelic-assisted therapy in bipolar disorder.
  • The impact of digital health technologies on the management and treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the role of gut microbiota in bipolar disorder: implications for treatment and prevention.
  • The potential benefits and challenges of personalized medicine approaches in bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of climate change and environmental factors on the prevalence of bipolar disorder.
  • The role of artificial intelligence in predicting and preventing bipolar disorder relapses.
  • The potential of virtual reality-based therapies in managing bipolar disorder symptoms.
  • Investigating the impact of lifestyle interventions, such as exercise and diet, on bipolar disorder management.
  • The role of neurofeedback and brain-computer interfaces in treating bipolar disorder symptoms.
  • Investigating the impact of sleep interventions on mood stability in bipolar disorder.

Case Studies and Personal Narratives:

  • A case study of a successful treatment outcome for an individual with bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the experiences and challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder in their daily lives.
  • The impact of bipolar disorder on the identity and self-concept of individuals living with the condition.
  • Investigating the role of social support networks in the recovery process for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The importance of personal coping strategies and self-management techniques for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The role of resilience and post-traumatic growth in the lives of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • Investigating the impact of family dynamics and support on the well-being of individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • The journey of self-acceptance and empowerment for individuals living with bipolar disorder.
  • Exploring the experiences and challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder in accessing appropriate healthcare and support services.
  • The importance of advocacy and raising awareness for individuals with bipolar disorder.

These essay topic ideas and examples provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects of bipolar disorder. Whether you are interested in the diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, impact on daily life, comorbidities, or emerging trends, there are countless avenues for exploration within this field. With further research and critical analysis, you can contribute to the existing knowledge and understanding of bipolar disorder, and potentially make a positive impact on the lives of individuals living with this condition.

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Understanding Bipolar Disorder: An In-Depth Essay

Imagine living in a world where emotions oscillate between exhilarating highs and crippling lows. Where one moment, you feel invincible, and the next, you are engulfed in a darkness so profound it seems suffocating. Welcome to the complex and enigmatic realm of bipolar disorder.

At some point in our lives, we all experience fluctuations in our moods. However, for individuals with bipolar disorder, these mood swings are extreme, unpredictable, and can have devastating consequences. It is a mental health condition that possesses the power to disrupt lives, strain relationships, and challenge society’s understanding.

In this in-depth essay, we will delve into the intricate facets of bipolar disorder, unraveling its definition, prevalence, and impact. We will explore the different types of the disorder and investigate the causes and risk factors that contribute to its development.

Furthermore, we will examine the symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and the diagnostic criteria used to identify it. We will highlight the challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder and the effects this condition can have on personal relationships. Additionally, we will confront the societal stigma and misunderstandings that permeate the public’s perception of bipolar disorder.

Treatment and management play a critical role in the lives of those with bipolar disorder, and we will explore the medication options, therapeutic approaches, and lifestyle changes that can provide support and stability.

To navigate such a vast and complex topic, it is important to understand how to approach writing an essay on bipolar disorder. We will discuss strategies for choosing a focus, structuring your essay, addressing controversial topics, and providing reliable sources.

This essay aims to shed light on the intricacies of bipolar disorder, debunk myths, and promote understanding and empathy. By gaining knowledge and insights into this often-misunderstood condition, we can facilitate a more inclusive and compassionate society. Join us on this journey of discovery as we strive to comprehend the multifaceted nature of bipolar disorder.

Overview of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a chronic mental health condition that affects a person’s mood, energy levels, and ability to function effectively. It is characterized by extreme shifts in mood, ranging from manic episodes, where individuals experience heightened euphoria and energy, to depressive episodes, where they feel overwhelming sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities.

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a complex condition that involves various biological, genetic, and environmental factors. It affects approximately 2.8% of U.S. adults, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. The onset of bipolar disorder usually occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood, although it can manifest at any age.

During manic episodes, individuals may exhibit symptoms such as increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, impulsivity, inflated self-esteem, and a decreased need for sleep. They may engage in risky behaviors, such as excessive spending or substance abuse. On the other hand, depressive episodes are characterized by symptoms like persistent sadness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.

Types of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is further categorized into several subtypes:

1. Bipolar I Disorder: This is the most severe form of the illness, involving manic episodes lasting for at least seven days or requiring hospitalization. Depressive episodes lasting for two weeks or more often accompany these manic episodes.

2. Bipolar II Disorder: In this type, individuals experience recurring depressive episodes but have hypomanic episodes that are less severe than full-blown mania. These hypomanic episodes do not usually lead to significant impairment in functioning.

3. Cyclothymic Disorder: Cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder where individuals have frequent, but less intense, mood swings. They experience hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms that persist for at least two years, with brief periods of stability.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is not fully understood. However, research suggests that a combination of genetic, biological, and environmental factors contribute to its development. Individuals with a family history of bipolar disorder or other mood disorders are at a higher risk.

Other factors that may influence the development of bipolar disorder include abnormal brain structure and function, neurotransmitter imbalances, hormonal imbalances, and high levels of stress. Substance abuse or traumatic experiences may also trigger the onset or exacerbation of symptoms.

Understanding the different types of bipolar disorder and the contributing factors can help demystify this complex condition. By recognizing the signs and seeking appropriate diagnosis and treatment, individuals with bipolar disorder can lead fulfilling lives and manage their symptoms effectively.

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a complex mental health condition characterized by distinct symptoms that significantly impact an individual’s daily life. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is crucial to ensure appropriate treatment and support. In this section, we will explore common symptoms of bipolar disorder, the diagnostic criteria used for its identification, and how it is distinguished from other mental health conditions.

Common Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary depending on the specific episode and its severity. During manic episodes, individuals often experience an intense euphoria, increased energy levels, and a heightened sense of self-esteem. They may engage in risky behavior, such as excessive spending or engaging in dangerous activities. Rapid speech, racing thoughts, and impulsivity are also commonly observed.

Conversely, depressive episodes are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities. Individuals may experience changes in appetite and sleep patterns, difficulties concentrating, and thoughts of self-harm or suicide. Fatigue, a lack of motivation, and a general feeling of emptiness are also common symptoms.

Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar Disorder

To diagnose bipolar disorder, healthcare professionals refer to the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). According to the DSM-5, the presence of manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes is necessary for a bipolar disorder diagnosis.

For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, an individual must have experienced at least one manic episode, lasting for a minimum of seven days or requiring immediate hospitalization. Depressive episodes may or may not occur alongside the manic episodes.

In bipolar II disorder, individuals experience at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, which is characterized by milder manic symptoms that do not cause significant impairment in functioning.

Cyclothymic disorder, a milder form of bipolar disorder, is diagnosed when an individual experiences numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms over a two-year period.

Distinguishing Bipolar Disorder from other Mental Health Conditions

Differentiating bipolar disorder from other mental health conditions can be challenging due to overlapping symptoms. Depression alone, for example, may resemble the depressive episodes experienced by individuals with bipolar disorder. However, bipolar disorder is distinguished by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes, which are not present in unipolar depression.

Other conditions such as borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exhibit symptoms similar to bipolar disorder, further complicating the diagnostic process. Thorough evaluation by a mental health professional is essential to accurately differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Understanding the symptoms and diagnostic criteria of bipolar disorder helps in early identification and intervention, leading to improved outcomes for individuals living with this complex condition. Seeking professional help and support is crucial for accurate diagnosis and developing an effective management plan to mitigate the impact of bipolar disorder on daily life.

Impact of Bipolar Disorder on Individuals and Society

Bipolar disorder not only affects the lives of individuals diagnosed with the condition but also has a significant impact on their personal relationships, daily functioning, and society as a whole. In this section, we will explore the effects of bipolar disorder on personal relationships, the challenges faced by individuals with the condition, and societal stigma and misunderstandings surrounding bipolar disorder.

Effects of Bipolar Disorder on Personal Relationships

Living with bipolar disorder can strain personal relationships. The extreme mood swings, impulsivity, and erratic behavior exhibited during manic episodes can be confusing and distressing for partners, family members, and friends. Loved ones may struggle to understand the sudden changes in mood and energy levels, leading to strained communication and emotional instability within the relationship.

During depressive episodes, individuals with bipolar disorder may withdraw from social interactions, isolate themselves, and have difficulty expressing their needs and emotions. This can result in feelings of loneliness and isolation, further impacting the dynamics of personal relationships.

Challenges Faced by Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

Individuals with bipolar disorder face numerous challenges that affect their daily lives. The unpredictability of mood swings can make it difficult to maintain stable employment or pursue educational goals. Managing relationships, parenting responsibilities, and financial stability may also become more challenging due to the episodic nature of the condition.

Additionally, the presence of comorbid conditions, such as anxiety disorders or substance abuse, further compounds the difficulties faced by individuals with bipolar disorder. The stigma associated with mental illness may also create barriers in accessing proper treatment and support, exacerbating the challenges they encounter.

Societal Stigma and Misunderstandings

Despite growing awareness and understanding of mental health, societal stigma and misunderstandings surrounding bipolar disorder still persist. Many people hold misconceptions that individuals with bipolar disorder are simply “moody” or “unstable.” Such stigmatization can lead to social exclusion, discrimination, and a reluctance to seek help.

Moreover, the portrayal of bipolar disorder in popular culture and media often exaggerates the extreme behaviors associated with the condition, further perpetuating misconceptions and reinforcing stereotypes. This portrayal not only contributes to societal misunderstandings but also hinders individuals with bipolar disorder from openly discussing their experiences and seeking support.

Reducing stigma and promoting understanding are crucial steps towards creating a compassionate society that supports individuals with bipolar disorder. Educating the public about the true nature of bipolar disorder, highlighting the strengths and resilience of individuals living with the condition, and providing resources for support and education can help combat these misconceptions.

By acknowledging the impact of bipolar disorder on personal relationships, understanding the challenges faced by individuals with the condition, and challenging societal stigma, we can foster an environment that promotes empathy, acceptance, and support for those affected by bipolar disorder.

Treatment and Management of Bipolar Disorder

Effective management of bipolar disorder is essential for individuals to lead stable and fulfilling lives. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapeutic approaches, and lifestyle changes. In this section, we will explore the different options available for treating bipolar disorder.

Medication Options for Bipolar Disorder

Medication plays a crucial role in managing bipolar disorder and stabilizing mood swings. Mood-stabilizing medications are commonly prescribed, such as lithium, which has proven efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of manic and depressive episodes. Other mood stabilizers, such as valproate or lamotrigine, may also be prescribed.

Antipsychotic medications can be used to manage acute manic or depressive symptoms. They help regulate neurotransmitters in the brain, reducing the intensity of mood episodes. Antidepressant medications may be prescribed cautiously in combination with mood stabilizers to address depressive symptoms, considering the risk of triggering manic episodes.

It is important for individuals to work closely with healthcare professionals to find the most suitable medication regimen, as each individual’s response to medication varies. Regular monitoring and adjustments may be necessary to achieve optimal symptom management.

Therapeutic Approaches for Bipolar Disorder

Therapeutic interventions, such as psychotherapy, play an integral role in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help individuals identify and modify negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with the disorder. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) focuses on stabilizing daily routines and addressing interpersonal issues that may trigger mood episodes.

Family-focused therapy involves educating and involving family members in the treatment process, enhancing communication, and providing support to both the individual with bipolar disorder and their loved ones. For those experiencing difficulties with medication adherence, psychoeducation can be beneficial in promoting understanding about the disorder and the importance of treatment.

Lifestyle Changes to Support Mental Health

In addition to medication and therapy, adopting certain lifestyle changes can be beneficial in managing bipolar disorder. Regular exercise has been shown to improve overall mood, reduce stress, and promote better sleep patterns. A balanced and nutritious diet can also contribute to physical and mental well-being.

Establishing a consistent sleep schedule is crucial, as disrupted sleep patterns can trigger mood episodes. Practicing good sleep hygiene, such as creating a calming bedtime routine and maintaining a comfortable sleep environment, is recommended.

Avoiding or minimizing the use of alcohol and recreational drugs is important, as these substances can negatively interact with medication and exacerbate mood symptoms. Building a strong support system, including seeking support from support groups or engaging in individual counseling, can provide valuable emotional support.

While bipolar disorder presents unique challenges, it is a treatable condition. By finding the right combination of medication, therapeutic approaches, and lifestyle changes, individuals with bipolar disorder can stabilize their moods, reduce the severity and frequency of episodes, and lead fulfilling lives. A comprehensive treatment approach that addresses the complex biological, psychological, and social aspects of the disorder is key to managing and mitigating the impact of bipolar disorder on daily functioning. Collaborating with healthcare professionals and accessing necessary support systems are vital steps towards successful management of this condition.

Writing an Essay on Bipolar Disorder

Writing an essay on bipolar disorder allows for a deeper exploration of this complex topic. However, it is important to approach the subject with sensitivity, accuracy, and a focus on providing valuable information. In this section, we will discuss key considerations when writing an essay on bipolar disorder.

Choosing a Focus for the Essay

Bipolar disorder encompasses a wide range of topics, so it is essential to narrow down your focus based on your interests and the scope of your essay. Consider exploring specific aspects of bipolar disorder, such as its impact on creativity, the relationship between bipolar disorder and substance abuse, or the experiences of individuals living with bipolar disorder.

Structuring the Essay

Organizing your essay in a logical manner is crucial for conveying information effectively. Consider using the introduction to provide an overview of bipolar disorder and set the context for the essay. Each subsequent section can delve deeper into specific aspects, such as symptoms, diagnosis, impact on relationships, treatment options, and societal understanding. Conclude your essay by summarizing key points and highlighting the significance of promoting awareness and support for individuals with bipolar disorder.

Addressing Controversial Topics

Bipolar disorder is a complex and multifaceted subject that may touch upon controversial areas. When discussing topics such as medication use, alternative therapies, or the link between creativity and bipolar disorder, it is important to present balanced viewpoints supported by credible sources. Acknowledge differing perspectives and engage in evidence-based discussions while considering potential biases or limitations in existing research.

Providing Reliable Sources

To ensure the credibility and accuracy of your essay, consult reputable sources that provide evidence-based information on bipolar disorder. Peer-reviewed academic journals, government health websites, and renowned mental health organizations are reliable sources of information. Remember to properly cite your sources using a recognized citation style, such as APA or MLA, to give credit to the original authors and avoid plagiarism.

Writing an essay on bipolar disorder provides an opportunity to educate and inform readers about this complex condition. By selecting a focused topic, structuring your essay logically, addressing controversies with balanced viewpoints, and using reliable sources, you can create an informative and compelling piece that contributes to understanding and promoting empathy for those with bipolar disorder. It is imperative to approach the topic with sensitivity and respect, recognizing the impact it has on individuals, their relationships, and society as a whole.In conclusion, bipolar disorder is a complex and multifaceted mental health condition that significantly impacts individuals and society as a whole. This in-depth essay has provided a comprehensive understanding of bipolar disorder, covering various aspects such as its definition, prevalence, and impact on personal relationships. We explored the different types of bipolar disorder and the causes and risk factors associated with its development.

Furthermore, we delved into the symptoms and diagnostic criteria used for identifying bipolar disorder while highlighting the importance of distinguishing it from other mental health conditions. The essay also shed light on the challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder, including the strain on personal relationships and the societal stigma surrounding the condition.

The treatment and management of bipolar disorder were extensively discussed, emphasizing the significance of medication options, therapeutic approaches, and lifestyle changes to support mental health. By adopting a comprehensive treatment approach, individuals with bipolar disorder can stabilize their moods and lead fulfilling lives.

Moreover, this essay provided insights into writing an essay on bipolar disorder, guiding readers on choosing a focus, structuring the essay effectively, addressing controversial topics, and providing reliable sources. By following these principles, writers can effectively promote awareness and understanding of bipolar disorder.

It is crucial to recognize the impact of bipolar disorder and combat societal misunderstandings and stigmas. By fostering empathy, educating the public, and providing support systems, we can create an inclusive and compassionate society that supports and empowers individuals living with bipolar disorder.

In conclusion, understanding bipolar disorder is integral to promoting mental health and fostering a more informed and accepting society. By spreading knowledge, reducing stigma, and advocating for appropriate support and resources, we can work towards creating a world where individuals with bipolar disorder can lead fulfilling and meaningful lives.

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How To Write An Essay On Bipolar Disorder

Introduction to understanding bipolar disorder.

When writing an essay on bipolar disorder, it's crucial to begin with a clear definition and understanding of the condition. Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). Your introduction should provide insight into the complexity and seriousness of this disorder, its impact on individuals' lives, and why it's an important topic for discussion. Offer a brief overview of the various aspects of bipolar disorder you intend to explore, whether it's the clinical aspects, treatment options, societal perceptions, or personal accounts.

Examining the Clinical Aspects of Bipolar Disorder

The main body of your essay should delve into the clinical aspects of bipolar disorder. Discuss the symptoms associated with both the manic and depressive phases, and how these can affect a person's behavior, thoughts, and ability to function. Explore the different types of bipolar disorder, such as Bipolar I, Bipolar II, and Cyclothymic Disorder, each having unique patterns of mood swings. It's important to use medically accurate and sensitive language to describe these symptoms and types, relying on reputable sources like psychiatric journals or medical texts. This section should paint a clear clinical picture of bipolar disorder, contributing to a deeper understanding of the condition.

Addressing Treatment and Management

Another critical aspect of your essay should focus on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. Discuss the various treatment options available, such as medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes, and how these can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Explore the challenges of treating bipolar disorder, including the need for personalized treatment plans, potential side effects of medication, and the importance of long-term management. This part of your essay should also touch upon the support systems, like family, friends, and support groups, which play a crucial role in the lives of those with bipolar disorder.

Concluding with Implications and Personal Reflections

Conclude your essay by summarizing the key points of your analysis and offering a perspective on the broader implications of understanding bipolar disorder. Reflect on the importance of awareness and destigmatization of mental health issues, and how society can better support individuals with bipolar disorder. Consider how advancements in medical research and changes in public perception can impact the treatment and management of the disorder. Your conclusion should not only provide closure to your essay but also encourage further thought and empathy regarding the challenges faced by individuals with bipolar disorder, highlighting the need for ongoing research, support, and understanding.

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Bipolar disorder.

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  • Continuing Education Activity

Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder, is one of the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Bipolar disorder is characterized by chronically occurring episodes of mania or hypomania alternating with depression and is often misdiagnosed initially. Treatment involves pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions, but mood relapse and incomplete response occur, particularly with depression. Continual reevaluation and treatment modification are commonly required during the long-term care of patients with bipolar disorder. Management of comorbid psychiatric and chronic medical conditions may also be necessary. This activity reviews the etiology, classification, evaluation, management, and prognosis of bipolar affective disorder, and it also highlights the role of the interprofessional team in managing and improving care for patients with this condition.

  • Recognize patterns of symptoms suggestive of bipolar disorder, its various subtypes, and related disorders.
  • Implement evidence-based management of bipolar disorder based on current published guidelines.
  • Select individualized pharmacotherapy plans and adjunct therapies for bipolar disorder and comorbidities.
  • Describe the necessity of an interprofessional holistic team approach that integrates psychiatric and medical healthcare in caring for patients with bipolar disorder to help achieve the best possible outcomes.
  • Introduction

Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by chronically occurring episodes of mania or hypomania alternating with depression and is often misdiagnosed initially.

Bipolar and related disorders include bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), cyclothymic disorder, other specified bipolar and related disorders, and bipolar or related disorders, unspecified. The diagnostic label of "bipolar affective disorders" in the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) was changed to "bipolar disorders" in the ICD-11. The section on bipolar disorders in the ICD-11 is labeled "bipolar and related disorders," which is consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). [1]

A World Health Organization study showed "remarkably similar" international prevalence rates, severity, impact, and comorbidities of bipolar spectrum disorder, defined as BD-I, BD-II, and subthreshold bipolar. The aggregate lifetime prevalence of the bipolar spectrum was 2.4%. [2]

BD is often difficult to recognize because symptoms overlap with other psychiatric disorders, psychiatric and somatic comorbidity is common, and patients may lack insight into their conditions, particularly hypomania. Treatment involves pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions, but mood relapse and incomplete response occur, particularly with depression. Continual reevaluation and treatment modification are commonly required during the long-term care of these patients. Management of comorbid psychiatric and chronic medical conditions may also be necessary. This activity provides an overview of the etiology, classification, evaluation, and management of bipolar affective disorder.

Currently, the etiology of BD is unknown but appears to be due to an interaction of genetic, epigenetic, neurochemical, and environmental factors. Heritability is well established. [3] [4] [5]  Numerous genetic loci have been implicated as increasing the risk of BD; the first was noted in 1987 with "DNA markers" on the short arm of chromosome 11. Since then, an association has been made between at least 30 genes and an increased risk of the condition. [6]

Although it is difficult to establish causation between life events and the development of BD, childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse or neglect, has been linked to the later development of the condition. Other stressful life events associated with developing BD include childbirth, divorce, unemployment, disability, and early parental loss. [7] In adulthood, more than 60% of patients with BD report at least one "stressful life event" before a manic or depressive episode in the preceding 6 months. [6]

The etiology of BD is thought to involve imbalances in systems associated with monoaminergic neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin, and intracellular signaling systems that regulate mood. However, no singular dysfunction of these neurotransmitter systems has been identified. [8]

In a recent neuroimaging review article, the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group stated, "Overall, these studies point to a diffuse pattern of brain alterations including smaller subcortical volumes, lower cortical thickness and altered white matter integrity in groups of individuals with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls." [9]  Neuroimaging studies have also shown evidence of changes in functional connectivity. [10] [11]

  • Epidemiology

In the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, the use of mental health services for the bipolar spectrum (BD-I, BD-II, and subthreshold BD) concluded, “Despite cross-site variation in the prevalence rates of bipolar spectrum disorder, the severity, impact, and patterns of comorbidity were remarkably similar internationally.” The aggregate lifetime prevalence of BD-I was 0.6%, BD-II 0.4%, subthreshold BD 1.4%, and bipolar spectrum 2.4%. [2]

There are two peaks in the age of onset: 15-24 years and 45-54 years, with more than 70% of individuals manifesting clinical characteristics of the condition before 25 years of age. [12] [13]  Bipolar disorder shows a relatively equal distribution across sex, ethnicity, and urban compared to rural areas. [7] [14]

Cyclothymia is associated with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 0.4-1% and a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. [15]

  • Pathophysiology

As with the etiology, the pathophysiology of BD is unknown and is thought to involve interactions between multiple genetic, neurochemical, and environmental factors. A recent neurobiology review article discusses in detail the “genetic components, signaling pathways, biochemical changes, and neuroimaging findings” in BD. [10]

Evidence supports a strong genetic component and an epigenetic contribution. Human studies have shown changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) in patients with BD, indicating neurotrophic signaling is a molecular mechanism associated with decreased neuroplasticity. Other proposed mechanisms include mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, immune-inflammatory imbalance, and compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Additionally, neuroimaging studies have shown “evidence of change in regional activity, functional connectivity, neuronal activity, and bioenergetics associated with BD,” and anatomic studies have revealed dendritic spine loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the post-mortem brain tissue of patients with BD. [10] [16]

As mentioned, imbalances in systems associated with monoaminergic neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin, and intracellular signaling systems that regulate mood are thought to be involved. However, no singular dysfunction of these neurotransmitter systems has been identified. [8]

  • History and Physical

Because bipolar disorder is a clinical diagnosis, making the correct diagnosis requires a comprehensive clinical assessment, including the directed patient interview, preferably supplemented by interviews of their relatives and the longitudinal course of their condition. Currently, there is no biomarker or neuroimaging study to aid in making the diagnosis.

Most patients with bipolar disorder are not correctly diagnosed until approximately 6 to 10 years after first contact with a healthcare provider, despite the presence of clinical characteristics of the condition. [17]  Notably, misdiagnosing BD after first contact differs from not recognizing the transition from major depressive disorder (MDD), the most common index presentation, to BD. Estimates of patients transitioning to BD within three years of an MDD diagnosis range from 20-30%; therefore, clinicians must maintain an awareness of the potential for this transition when caring for patients with MDD who initially screened negative for BD. [18] Also, subthreshold hypomanic symptoms can occur in as many as 40% of patients with MDD. [19]

Although not highly sensitive and specific, self-report screening tools for BD may aid clinicians in making an accurate diagnosis. The most studied screening tools are the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (sensitivity 80%, specificity 70%) and the Hypomania Checklist 32 (sensitivity 82%, specificity 57%). [20]  Positive results should motivate the clinician to conduct a thorough clinical assessment for bipolar disorder.

A significant diagnostic challenge is distinguishing between unipolar and bipolar depression because episodes of unipolar major depression and bipolar depression have the same general diagnostic criteria. Clinicians must inquire about past manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes in patients presenting with symptoms of a depressive episode. Inquiry into past hypomanic or manic episodes is particularly important for patients with early onset of their first depressive episode (ie, in patients younger than 25 years), a high number of lifetime depressive episodes (5 or more episodes), and a family history of bipolar disorder. These findings in the patient’s history have been shown to increase the likelihood of a bipolar rather than a unipolar diagnosis. [21]  

Other factors increasing the likelihood of a diagnostic change from MDD to BD include the presence of psychosis, unresponsiveness to antidepressants, the induction of manic or hypomanic symptoms by antidepressant drug treatment, and polymorbidity, defined as 3 or more comorbid conditions. [18] [22]

General DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar and Related Disorders (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013)

BD-I : Criteria met for at least one manic episode, which might have been preceded or followed by a hypomanic episode or major depressive episode (hypomanic or major depressive episodes are not required for the diagnosis).

BD-II : Criteria met for at least one current or past hypomanic episode and a major depressive episode; no manic episodes.

Cyclothymic disorder : Hypomanic symptoms that do not meet the criteria for hypomanic episodes and depressive symptoms that do not meet the criteria for major depressive episodes in numerousperiods (at least half the time) for at least 2 years (1 year in those aged ≤18 years); criteria for major depressive, manic, or hypomanic episodes have never been met.

Specified bipolar and related disorders : Bipolar-like phenomena that do not meet the criteria for BD-I, BD-II, or cyclothymic disorder due to insufficient duration or severity, ie, 1) short-duration hypomanic episodes and major depressive disorder, 2) hypomanic episodes with insufficient symptoms and major depressive episode, 3) hypomanic episode without a prior major depressive episode, and 4) short-duration cyclothymia.

Unspecified bipolar and related disorders : Characteristic symptoms of bipolar and related disorders that cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning but do not meet the full criteria for any category previously mentioned.

The symptoms and episodes used to diagnose these disorders must not be related to the physiological effects of a substance or general medical condition.

BD-I and BD-II can be further specified as rapid cycling or seasonal patterns and whether the episodes have psychotic features, catatonia, anxious distress, melancholic features, or peripartum onset. Rapid cycling refers to 4 or more distinct mood episodes during a 12-month period. 

Mood-congruent delusions may be present in either a depressive or manic episode, including delusions of guilt or grandiose delusions of power and wealth. Psychotic features, by definition, are absent in hypomanic episodes. 

To better account for "mixed features," the current diagnostic criteria implements specifiers. Manic or hypomanic episodes with mixed features meet the full criteria for mania or hypomania and have at least 3 of the following signs or symptoms: depressed mood, anhedonia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, excessive guilt, or recurrent thoughts of death. Major depressive episodes with mixed features meet the full criteria for a major depressive episode and have at least 3 of the following signs or symptoms: expansive mood, grandiosity, increased talkativeness, flight of ideas, increased goal-directed activity, indulgence in activities with a high potential for "painful consequences," and decreased need for sleep. The mixed features must be present during "most days."

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar I Disorder

For a diagnosis of BD-I, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes (hypomanic or major depressive episodes are not required for the diagnosis).

A manic episode is defined as a distinct period of persistently elevated or irritable mood with increased activity or energy lasting for at least 7 consecutive days or requiring hospitalization. The presence of 3 or more of the following is required to qualify as a manic episode. If the mood is irritable, at least 4 of the following must be present:

  • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • A compulsion to keep talking or being more talkative than usual
  • Flight of ideas or racing thoughts
  • High distractibility
  • Increased goal-directed activity (socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation (non-goal-directed activity)
  • Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences, such as engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments

The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or general medical condition.

The symptoms of a manic episode are markedly more severe than those of a hypomanic episode and result in impaired social or occupational functioning or require hospitalization.

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar II Disorder

For a diagnosis of BD-II, it is necessary to have met the criteria for at least one current or past hypomanic episode and a major depressive episode without a manic episode (see below for major depressive episode criteria).

A hypomanic episode is defined as a distinct period of persistently elevated or irritable mood with increased activity or energy lasting for at least 4 consecutive days. The presence of 3 or more of the following is required to qualify as a hypomanic episode. If the mood is irritable, at least 4 of the following must be present:

The episode is an unequivocal change in functioning, uncharacteristic of the person and observable by others. Also, the episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment, is not due to the physiological effects of a substance or general medical condition, and there is no psychosis (if present, this is mania by definition).

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for a Major Depressive Episode

The presence of 5 or more of the following symptoms daily or nearly every day for a consecutive 2-week period that is a change from baseline or previous functioning:

  • Subjective report of depressed mood most of the day (or depressed mood observed by others)
  • Anhedonia most of the day
  • Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain or decrease or increase in appetite
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt
  • Decreased concentration or indecisiveness
  • Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan

To meet the criteria, at least one of the symptoms must be depressed mood or anhedonia, the symptoms must not be attributable to a substance or general medical condition, and it causes functional impairment (eg, social or occupational).

Possible Secondary Cause of Bipolar Disorder

The following characteristics may heighten the clinical suspicion for a possible secondary cause in patients with signs and symptoms associated with bipolar disorder: older than 50 at the first onset of symptoms, abnormal vital signs or neurological examination, a recent change in health status or medications temporally associated with symptom onset, unusual response or unresponsiveness to appropriate treatments, and no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder.

Recommended initial evaluation for a possible secondary cause includes a urine drug screen, complete blood count with blood smear, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid function tests, and vitamin B and folate levels.

  • Treatment / Management

Although numerous clinical practice guidelines exist for the treatment and management of bipolar disorder, there is not enough consistency to generate a ‘meta-consensus’ model. [23]  Authors of a recent systematic review concluded, “The absence of a uniform language and recommendations in current guidelines may be an additional complicating factor in the implementation of evidence-based treatments in BD.” [24]  The following is an abbreviated synthesis of guidelines published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), British Association for Psychopharmacology, International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP), Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT), International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), and Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS). [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

Manic Episode

Mania is considered a medical emergency and often requires psychiatric hospitalization. Initial treatment is aimed at stabilization of the potentially or acutely agitated patient to help de-escalate distress, mitigate potentially dangerous behavior, and facilitate the patient assessment and evaluation. When possible, a calming environment with minimal stimuli should be provided. Adjunctive benzodiazepines may be used concomitantly with mood stabilizers and antipsychotic drugs to reduce agitation and promote sleep.

The patient’s current medications must be considered. For example, a second drug is recommended if the patient presents while the condition is already managed with lithium monotherapy. Also, antidepressants are usually tapered and discontinued in a manic phase. First-line monotherapy includes a mood stabilizer, such as lithium or valproate, or an antipsychotic, such as aripiprazole, asenapine, cariprazine, quetiapine, or risperidone.

Add another medication if symptoms are inadequately controlled, or the mania is very severe. Combination treatments include lithium or valproate with either aripiprazole, asenapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be considered as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy in patients whose mania is particularly severe or treatment-resistant and in women with severe mania who are pregnant. 

Valproate should not be used for women of childbearing potential due to the unacceptable risk to the fetus of teratogenesis and impaired intellectual development.

Hypomanic Episodes

By definition, hypomanic episodes are not severe enough to cause marked impairment, and there is no psychosis; therefore, these episodes can be managed in an ambulatory setting. Pharmacotherapy is similar to that for mania, but higher doses may be required for the latter.

Acute Bipolar Depression

Suicidal and self-harm risk has priority in managing patients with bipolar disorder who present with an acute depressive episode because most suicide deaths in patients with BD occur during this phase. Patients may or may not require hospitalization.

For patients not already taking long-term medication for BD, first-line monotherapy includes quetiapine, olanzapine, or lurasidone (has not been studied in acute bipolar mania). Combination treatment with olanzapine-fluoxetine, lithium plus lamotrigine, and lurasidone plus lithium or valproate may also be considered.

Consider cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as an add-on to pharmacotherapy. However, never consider CBT as monotherapy because there is minimal evidence to support psychological treatments without pharmacotherapy in treating acute bipolar depression.

Also, consider adding ECT for refractory bipolar depression or as a first-line treatment in the presence of psychotic features and a high risk of suicide.

For patients presenting with a depressive episode while taking long-term medication (breakthrough episode), make sure their current treatments are likely to protect them from a manic relapse (eg, mood stabilizer or antipsychotic). When applicable, check the medication dose, patient adherence, drug-drug interactions, and serum concentrations. Also, inquire about current stressors, alcohol or substance use, and psychosocial intervention adherence.

Generally, treatment options for BD-II depression are similar to those for BD-I depression.

Antidepressant medications should not be used as monotherapy in most patients with bipolar disorder, as available evidence does not support their efficacy, and there is a risk of a switch to mania or mood instability during an episode of bipolar depression. Antidepressants can be administered adjunctively to mood stabilizers (eg, lithium and lamotrigine) and second-generation antipsychotics.

Maintenance Treatment

Most patients with bipolar disorder will require maintenance treatment for many years, possibly lifelong, to prevent recurrent episodes and restore their pre-illness functioning. The current recommendation is for continuous rather than intermittent treatment, with treatments that were effective during the acute phase often continued initially to prevent early relapse. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics alone or in combination are the mainstays of maintenance pharmacotherapy.

There is substantial evidence showing lithium monotherapy’s effectiveness against manic, depressive, and mixed relapse. Additionally, lithium is associated with a decreased risk of suicide in patients with BD. Monitoring during treatment, including serum lithium concentrations, is a standard of care.

In addition to the individualized pharmacotherapy plan, essential components of maintenance treatment include medication adherence, primary prevention and treatment for psychiatric and medical comorbidities, and psychotherapy when appropriate. Suicidality surveillance is critical throughout the maintenance phase.

  • Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder includes other conditions characterized by depression, impulsivity, mood lability, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, and psychosis. The most common differential diagnoses are MDD, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, borderline personality disorder, and in the pediatric age group, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. [18] [30]

Bipolar disorder is one of the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. [31]  A recent meta-analysis showed that patients with BD “experienced reduced life expectancy relative to the general population, with approximately 13 years of potential life lost.” Additionally, patients with bipolar disorder showed a greater reduction in lifespan relative to the general population than patients with common mental health disorders, including anxiety and depressive disorders, and life expectancy was significantly lower in men with BD than in women with BD. [32]  A different meta-analysis showed that all-cause mortality in patients with BD is double that expected in the general population. Natural deaths occurred over 1.5 times greater in BD, comprised of an “almost double risk of deaths from circulatory illnesses (heart attacks, strokes, etc) and 3 times the risk of deaths from respiratory illness (COPD, asthma, etc).” Unnatural deaths occurred approximately 7 times more often than in the general population, with an increased suicide risk of approximately 14 times and an increased risk of other violent deaths of almost 4 times. Deaths by all causes studied were similarly increased in men and women. [33]  A more recent systematic review of the association between completed suicide and bipolar disorder showed an approximately 20- to 30-fold greater suicide rate in bipolar disorder than in the general population. [34]

  • Complications

Individuals with bipolar disorder show a markedly increased risk of premature death due to the increased risk of suicide and medical comorbidities, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine causes. [35]  More than half of patients are overweight or obese, which appears to be independent of treatment with weight-promoting psychotropic medications. [36]  One-third of patients with bipolar disorder also meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increases the risks of heart disease and stroke. [37]  Additionally, attempted suicides are more common among patients with concurrent metabolic syndrome. [37]  Comorbid overweight and obesity are associated with a more severe course, an increased lifetime number of depressive and manic episodes, poorer response to pharmacotherapy, and heightened suicide risk. [22] [38]  Migraine is also associated with bipolar disorder. [39]

Psychiatric comorbidity is present in 50 to 70% of patients with BD. Of those diagnosed with the condition, 70% to 90% meet the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, or panic disorder, and 30 to 50% for alcohol and other substance use disorders. [40] [41] [42]  Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with bipolar disorder are associated with a more severe course, more frequent depressive and manic episodes, and reduced quality of life. [22]  Up to half of patients with BD have a comorbid personality disorder, particularly borderline personality disorder, and 10 to 20% have a binge eating disorder, leading to more frequent mood episodes and higher rates of suicidality and alcohol and substance use disorders. [43] [44]

  • Deterrence and Patient Education

Psychoeducation delivered individually or in a group setting is recommended for patients and family members and may include teaching to detect and manage prodromes of depression and mania, enhance medication adherence, and improve lifestyle choices. Patients are encouraged to avoid stimulants like caffeine, minimize alcohol consumption, exercise regularly, and practice appropriate sleep hygiene. [28]  Providers are encouraged to maximize the therapeutic alliance, convey empathy, allow patients to participate in treatment decisions, and consistently monitor symptoms, which have been shown to reduce suicidal ideation, improve treatment outcomes, and increase patient satisfaction with care. [28] [45]  Patients may also benefit from case management or care coordination services to help connect them to community-based resources, such as support groups, mental health centers, and substance use treatment programs.

  • Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The goal of treatment for patients with bipolar disorder is a full functional recovery (a return to pre-illness baseline functioning). This goal can best be achieved by integrating psychiatric and medical healthcare using an interprofessional team approach to manage BD and comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions. [46]  Interprofessional healthcare teams may consist of any combination of the following: case manager, primary care clinician, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, psychiatric physician assistant, psychiatric nurse specialist, social worker, psychologist, and pharmacist.

Ideally, a consistent long-term alliance will form between the patient, their family, and healthcare team members to provide pharmacotherapy management, psychoeducation, ongoing monitoring, and psychosocial support. [26]  Also, patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring alcohol or substance use disorders may benefit from the involvement of an addiction specialist, as there is evidence that effective treatment can improve outcomes. [47]  Pharmacists must perform medication reconciliation to ensure there are no drug-drug interactions that could inhibit effective care and report any concerns they have to the prescriber or their nursing staff. Furthermore, collaborative care models have shown efficacy in improving outcomes when used to treat patients with BD. Key elements include patient psychoeducation, using evidence-based treatment guidelines; collaborative decision-making by patients and their healthcare provider(s); and supportive technology to support monitoring and patient follow-up. [46] [48] [49]

An interprofessional approach is a mainstay in treating patients with bipolar disorder. An interprofessional team that provides a holistic and integrated approach to patient care can help achieve the best possible outcomes with the fewest adverse events. [Level 5]

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Disclosure: Ankit Jain declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Disclosure: Paroma Mitra declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ ), which permits others to distribute the work, provided that the article is not altered or used commercially. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal.

  • Cite this Page Jain A, Mitra P. Bipolar Disorder. [Updated 2023 Feb 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-.

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bipolar disorder essay titles

Bipolar Disorder Essay Titles

  • Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments
  • Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis
  • The Impact of Bipolar Disorder on Children and Adolescents in the Classroom
  • Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Treatment Challenges
  • Macbeth Experienced Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
  • Adult Bipolar Disorder Management and Adolescent Child Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis
  • Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Disorder Have Been Misdiagnosed
  • Overmedicating Kids With Bipolar Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
  • Signs and Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder With Early Onset
  • Bipolar and Schizophrenia Symptoms and Treatment
  • Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Family Impact
  • Signs and Symptoms Before Bipolar Disorder Is Diagnosed
  • The Causes and Symptoms of Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder
  • The Causes and Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder in Preschool-Aged Children
  • Bipolar Disorder Characteristics and Treatment Options
  • Bipolar Disorder Characteristics as a Type of Mental Illness
  • Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics, Signs, and Treatment, a Mental Illness
  • Bipolar Disorder Versus Unipolar Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bipolar Disorder’s Impact on Adolescents
  • Bipolar Disorder’s Effects on Self-Development
  • Bipolar Disorder’s Impact on the Human Brain and Behavior
  • The Metabolic Profile of Bipolar Disorder and Its Efficacy

 Essay Topics on Bipolar Disorder

  • How Bipolar Disorder Affects Work Performance
  • The Bipolar Disorder: Its Effect, Types, Cycle, Treatment, and Potential Causes
  • Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A Connection
  • Bipolar Disorder: Its Nature, Symptoms, and Treatment
  • Bipolar Disorder and Reward Sensitivity Neurophysiological Profiles
  • The Issues Relating to Bipolar Disorder
  • Medications Typically Used to Stabilize Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Its Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
  • Research on Abuse, Divorce, and Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder Treatment
  • Bipolar Disorder’s UPS and Downs
  • Quetiapine’s Use in the Management of Bipolar Disorder
  • Therapy or No Therapy for Bipolar Disorder Treatment
  • Trifles: Depression and Bipolar Disorder Needs
  • Considering Potential Causes and Treatments for Bipolar Disorder
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder-Related Mental Health Conditions
  • Bipolar Disorder and Suicidal Behavior: An Overview
  • Knowledge of Facts Related to Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder and Unipolar Depression
  • Bipolar Disorder and Vincent Van Gogh
  • The Experiences and Emotions Associated With Bipolar Disorder

 Research Questions About Bipolar Disorder

  • What Causes Bipolar Disorder, and What Are Its Risk Factors/Triggers?
  • How Do Individual Moods and Behaviors Affect Bipolar Disorder?
  • Are Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Neuroanatomically Distinct?
  • How Do Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Affect Their Schoolwork?
  • Is There a Prominent Connection Between Depression and Migraines?
  • Does Crisis-Induced Intermittency Describe the Dynamics of Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Is Bipolar Disorder Handled?
  • What Kind of Early Digital Intervention for Bipolar Disorder Would It Look Like?
  • How Do Families Affected by Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Do Bipolar Depression and Variable Heart Rates Relate to One Another?
  • Do Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Contribute to Bipolar Disorder’s Histaminergic Dysregulation?
  • Is There a Stronger Connection Between Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders or Depressive Disorders?
  • Does J.D. Salinger’s Holden Caulfield from the Catcher in the Rye Have Bipolar Disorder?
  • What Effects Does Bipolar Disorder Have?
  • Can Patients With Bipolar Disorder Benefit From Electroconvulsive Therapy?
  • Why Does It Take So Long to Get a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis, and How Could It Be Sped Up?
  • Which Drugs Are Best for Treating Episodes and Preventing Relapse in Bipolar Disorder?
  • What Signs and Symptoms Indicate Bipolar Disorder?
  • How Is Bipolar Disorder Detected?
  • Is There a Tool to Assess Bipolar Disorder Severity?
  • What Separates Depression from Bipolar Disorder?
  • Do Psychosocial Factors Affect the Prognosis of Bipolar Disorder?
  • Is Bipolar Disorder Related to Autism Spectrum Disorder?
  • What Is the Quickest Treatment for Mania in Bipolar Mood Disorder Patients?
  • Can Family Stress Trigger Bipolar Disorder and Make a Recovery More Difficult?
  • How Accurate Are the Diagnoses of Bipolar Disorder in Children Based on Current Standards?
  • Is There a Link Between Sodium Deficiency and Bipolar Disorder?
  • What Effect Does Bipolar Disorder Have On Work Performance?
  • How Should a Bipolar Pregnant Woman Be Managed?
  • Who Is at Risk of Bipolar Disorder Development?

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Bipolar Disorder

What is bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder (formerly called manic-depressive illness or manic depression) is a mental illness that causes unusual shifts in a person’s mood, energy, activity levels, and concentration. These shifts can make it difficult to carry out day-to-day tasks.

There are three types of bipolar disorder. All three types involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, irritable, or energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very “down,” sad, indifferent, or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.

  • Bipolar I disorder  is defined by manic episodes that last for at least 7 days (nearly every day for most of the day) or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate medical care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depressive symptoms and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible. Experiencing four or more episodes of mania or depression within 1 year is called “rapid cycling.”
  • Bipolar II disorder  is defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes. The hypomanic episodes are less severe than the manic episodes in bipolar I disorder.
  • Cyclothymic disorder  (also called cyclothymia) is defined by recurring hypomanic and depressive symptoms that are not intense enough or do not last long enough to qualify as hypomanic or depressive episodes.

Sometimes a person might experience symptoms of bipolar disorder that do not match the three categories listed above, and this is referred to as “other specified and unspecified bipolar and related disorders.”

Bipolar disorder is often diagnosed during late adolescence (teen years) or early adulthood. Sometimes, bipolar symptoms can appear in children. Although the symptoms may vary over time, bipolar disorder usually requires lifelong treatment. Following a prescribed treatment plan can help people manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

What are the signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder?

People with bipolar disorder experience periods of unusually intense emotion and changes in sleep patterns and activity levels, and engage in behaviors that are out of character for them—often without recognizing their likely harmful or undesirable effects. These distinct periods are called mood episodes. Mood episodes are very different from the person’s usual moods and behaviors. During an episode, the symptoms last every day for most of the day. Episodes may also last for longer periods, such as several days or weeks.

Sometimes people have both manic and depressive symptoms in the same episode, and this is called an episode with mixed features. During an episode with mixed features, people may feel very sad, empty, or hopeless while at the same time feeling extremely energized.

A person may have bipolar disorder even if their symptoms are less extreme. For example, some people with bipolar II disorder experience hypomania, a less severe form of mania. During a hypomanic episode, a person may feel very good, be able to get things done, and keep up with day-to-day life. The person may not feel that anything is wrong, but family and friends may recognize changes in mood or activity levels as possible symptoms of bipolar disorder. Without proper treatment, people with hypomania can develop severe mania or depression.

Receiving the right diagnosis and treatment can help people with bipolar disorder lead healthy and active lives. Talking with a health care provider is the first step. The health care provider can complete a physical exam and other necessary medical tests to rule out other possible causes. The health care provider may then conduct a mental health evaluation or provide a referral to a trained mental health care provider, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker who has experience in diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder.

Mental health care providers usually diagnose bipolar disorder based on a person’s symptoms, lifetime history, experiences, and, in some cases, family history. Accurate diagnosis in youth is particularly important.

Find  tips to help prepare for and get the most out of your visit with your health care provider.

Bipolar disorder and other conditions

Many people with bipolar disorder also have other mental disorders or conditions such as  anxiety disorders ,  attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ,  misuse of drugs or alcohol , or  eating disorders.  Sometimes people who have severe manic or depressive episodes also have symptoms of  psychosis , which may include hallucinations or delusions. The psychotic symptoms tend to match the person’s extreme mood. For example, someone having psychotic symptoms during a depressive episode may falsely believe they are financially ruined, while someone having psychotic symptoms during a manic episode may falsely believe they are famous or have special powers.

Looking at a person’s symptoms over the course of the illness and examining their family history can help a health care provider determine whether the person has bipolar disorder along with another disorder.

What are the risk factors for bipolar disorder?

Researchers are studying possible causes of bipolar disorder. Most agree that there are many factors that are likely to contribute to a person’s chance of having the disorder.

Brain structure and functioning:  Some studies show that the brains of people with bipolar disorder differ in certain ways from the brains of people who do not have bipolar disorder or any other mental disorder. Learning more about these brain differences may help scientists understand bipolar disorder and determine which treatments will work best. At this time, health care providers base the diagnosis and treatment plan on a person’s symptoms and history, rather than brain imaging or other diagnostic tests.

Genetics:  Some research suggests that people with certain genes are more likely to develop bipolar disorder. Research also shows that people who have a parent or sibling with bipolar disorder have an increased chance of having the disorder themselves. Many genes are involved, and no one gene causes the disorder. Learning more about how genes play a role in bipolar disorder may help researchers develop new treatments.

How is bipolar disorder treated?

Treatment can help many people, including those with the most severe forms of bipolar disorder. An effective treatment plan usually includes a combination of medication and psychotherapy, also called talk therapy.

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong illness. Episodes of mania and depression typically come back over time. Between episodes, many people with bipolar disorder are free of mood changes, but some people may have lingering symptoms. Long-term, continuous treatment can help people manage these symptoms.

Certain medications can help manage symptoms of bipolar disorder. Some people may need to try different medications and work with their health care provider to find the medications that work best.

The most common types of medications that health care providers prescribe include mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. Mood stabilizers such as lithium or valproate can help prevent mood episodes or reduce their severity. Lithium also can decrease the risk of suicide. Health care providers may include medications that target sleep or anxiety as part of the treatment plan.

Although bipolar depression is often treated with antidepressant medication, a mood stabilizer must be taken as well—taking an antidepressant without a mood stabilizer can trigger a manic episode or rapid cycling in a person with bipolar disorder.

Because people with bipolar disorder are more likely to seek help when they are depressed than when they are experiencing mania or hypomania, it is important for health care providers to take a careful medical history to ensure that bipolar disorder is not mistaken for depression.

People taking medication should:

  • Talk with their health care provider to understand the risks and benefits of the medication.
  • Tell their health care provider about any prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, or supplements they are already taking.
  • Report any concerns about side effects to a health care provider right away. The health care provider may need to change the dose or try a different medication.
  • Remember that medication for bipolar disorder must be taken consistently, as prescribed, even when one is feeling well.

It is important to talk to a health care provider before stopping a prescribed medication. Stopping a medication suddenly may lead symptoms to worsen or come back. You can find basic information about medications on  NIMH's medications webpage . Read the latest medication warnings, patient medication guides, and information on newly approved medications on the  Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. 

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy, also called talk therapy, can be an effective part of treatment for people with bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy is a term for treatment techniques that aim to help people identify and change troubling emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. This type of therapy can provide support, education, and guidance to people with bipolar disorder and their families.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an important treatment for depression, and CBT adapted for the treatment of insomnia can be especially helpful as part of treatment for bipolar depression.

Treatment may also include newer therapies designed specifically for the treatment of bipolar disorder, including interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) and family-focused therapy.

Learn more about the  various types of psychotherapies .

Other treatment options

Some people may find other treatments helpful in managing their bipolar symptoms:

  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)  is a brain stimulation procedure that can help relieve severe symptoms of bipolar disorder. Health care providers may consider ECT when a person’s illness has not improved after other treatments, or in cases that require rapid response, such as with people who have a high suicide risk or catatonia (a state of unresponsiveness).
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)  is a type of brain stimulation that uses magnetic waves to relieve depression over a series of treatment sessions. Although not as powerful as ECT, rTMS does not require general anesthesia and has a low risk of negative effects on memory and thinking.
  • Light therapy  is the best evidence-based treatment for  seasonal affective disorder (SAD) , and many people with bipolar disorder experience seasonal worsening of depression or SAD in the winter. Light therapy may also be used to treat lesser forms of seasonal worsening of bipolar depression.

Unlike specific psychotherapy and medication treatments that are scientifically proven to improve bipolar disorder symptoms, complementary health approaches for bipolar disorder, such as natural products, are not based on current knowledge or evidence. Learn more on the  National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website  .

Finding treatment

  • A family health care provider is a good resource and can be the first stop in searching for help. Find tips to help prepare for and get the most out of your visit .
  • To find mental health treatment services in your area, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357), visit the SAMHSA online treatment locator  , or text your ZIP code to 435748.
  • Learn more about finding help on the NIMH website.

If you or someone you know is struggling or having thoughts of suicide, call or text the 988 Suicide & Crisis Lifeline   at 988 or chat at 988lifeline.org   . In life-threatening situations, call 911.

Coping with bipolar disorder

Living with bipolar disorder can be challenging, but there are ways to help make it easier.

  • Work with a health care provider to develop a treatment plan and stick with it. Treatment is the best way to start feeling better.
  • Follow the treatment plan as directed. Work with a health care provider to adjust the plan, as needed.
  • Structure your activities. Try to have a routine for eating, sleeping, and exercising.
  • Try regular, vigorous exercise like jogging, swimming, or bicycling, which can help with depression and anxiety, promote better sleep, and support your heart and brain health.
  • Track your moods, activities, and overall health and well-being to help recognize your mood swings.
  • Ask trusted friends and family members for help in keeping up with your treatment plan.
  • Be patient. Improvement takes time. Staying connected with sources of social support can help.

Long-term, ongoing treatment can help control symptoms and enable you to live a healthy life.

How can I find a clinical trial for bipolar disorder?

Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.

Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. We have new and better treatment options today because of what clinical trials uncovered years ago. Be part of tomorrow’s medical breakthroughs. Talk to your health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you.

To learn more or find a study, visit:

  • NIMH’s Clinical Trials webpage : Information about participating in clinical trials
  • Clinicaltrials.gov: Current Studies on Bipolar Disorder  : List of clinical trials funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) being conducted across the country
  • Join a Study: Bipolar Disorder – Adults : List of studies being conducted on the NIH Campus in Bethesda, MD

Where can I learn more about bipolar disorder?

Free brochures and shareable resources.

  • Bipolar Disorder : A brochure on bipolar disorder that offers basic information on signs and symptoms, treatment, and finding help. Also available en español .
  • Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens : A brochure on bipolar disorder in children and teens that offers basic information on signs and symptoms, treatment, and finding help. Also available en español .
  • Bipolar Disorder in Teens and Young Adults: Know the Signs : An infographic presenting common signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder in teens and young adults. Also available  en español .
  • Shareable Resources on Bipolar Disorder :  Digital resources, including graphics and messages, to help support bipolar disorder awareness and education.
  • NIMH Experts Discuss Bipolar Disorder in Adults : Learn the signs and symptoms, risk factors, treatments of bipolar disorder, and the latest NIMH-supported research in this area.
  • Mental Health Minute: Bipolar Disorder in Adults : A minute-long video to learn about bipolar disorder in adults.
  • NIMH Expert Discusses Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults :  A video with an expert who explains the signs, symptoms, and treatments of bipolar disorder.

Research and Statistics

  • Journal Articles   : This webpage provides information on references and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine).
  • Bipolar Disorder Statistics : An NIMH webpage that provides information on the prevalence of bipolar disorder among adults and adolescents.

Last Reviewed: February 2024

Unless otherwise specified, the information on our website and in our publications is in the public domain and may be reused or copied without permission. However, you may not reuse or copy images. Please cite the National Institute of Mental Health as the source. Read our copyright policy to learn more about our guidelines for reusing NIMH content.

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Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment, Essay Example

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Bipolar Disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe elevations of mood and fluctuations in activity and energy levels. Bipolar Disorder affects the ability of the victim to perform day-to-day activities. The mood swings caused by the disorder are classified by severity and the accompaniment of psychosis.  When the moods of the victim are incredibly high, the condition is classified as mania. During hypomania, the individual gets extremely happy and energetic. The effects mostly affect behavior, judgment, activity, sleep and the individual’s ability to think usually. During manic, the victim lacks sleep and may often avoid eye contact with other people. The victim may end up harming themselves and in some extreme cases, committing suicide. The causes of Bipolar Disorder have never been well understood. However, it is believed that social, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Substance abuse and anxiety disorders are commonly associated with the condition. This paper expounds on the causes, symptoms, risk factors and prevention techniques of the disorder.

Bipolar Disorder

There are three main categories of Bipolar Disorder. The first category is Bipolar I Disorder. Bipolar I Disorder is characterized by manic episodes that occur and cause severe symptoms to the victim. Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder last for a minimum of seven days. If the episode was depressive, it might last for a minimum of fourteen days. The severity of the conditions requires the victim to be hospitalized immediately. For Bipolar II Disorder, the individual may suffer more hypomanic episodes as opposed to the long manic episodes of Bipolar I Disorder. The third category is cyclothymia characterized by numerous periods of hypomania accompanied by depressive symptoms that last for a minimum of two years. When cyclothymia occurs in children and adolescents, the depressive symptoms may last for at most one year. Apart from the three main categories, there are other types of bipolar disorder whose symptoms which are not very common.

Possible causes of Bipolar Disorder

The main cause of Bipolar Disorder is still poorly understood. However, researchers have associated it with a combination of environmental, genetic and biochemical factors that affect either the norepinephrine, serotonin or dopamine which are the main neurotransmitters of the brain (Nordqvist, 2017).

Other researchers have associated Bipolar Disorder with genetic factors related to other disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Some chromosomes in the genes of the victims have also been associated with the disorder with no clarity whether the disorder is a variation another condition or independent. The condition is also triggered by social factors such as emotional trauma and stressful life events.

Risk Factors associated with Bipolar Disorder

There are several factors considered to trigger the occurrence of Bipolar Disorder in an individual. These factors include:

Age. Bipolar disorder commonly attacks people between the fifteen and thirty years of age. Although it may attack a person on any age, Bipolar Disorder is not as common in children and old people as it is in the people at the age of about twenty-five years. When it occurs to old people, the condition often accompanies neurological disorders such as stroke.

Gender. The cyclothymia type of Bipolar disorder has higher incidences in women than men. Cases of mixed states and rapid cycling associated with the disorder are also more common in women (Merikangas K.R, 2011) than in men. Similarly, men suffering from the condition tend to be victims of drug and substance abuse than it happens with women.

Family history. People from families with cases of Bipolar and psychiatric disorders such as major depression, ADHD, anxiety disorders, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia tend to be more vulnerable to the condition than others.

Signs and symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

Unique symptoms characterize each of the three main categories of Bipolar Disorder. The symptoms, however, remain the same regardless of the intensity of the disorder as explained below.

Bipolar I disorder. For this category, the victim is subject to a manic episode commonly followed or preceded by a major depressive episode or hypomania. In extreme cases, the individual may experience psychosis as a result of prolonged episodes of mania. The individuals, therefore, may have abnormal behaviors such as speaking rapidly in uncontrollable tone, having no attention and racing thoughts. These behaviors can extend to hypersexuality, agitation and urge to perform activities that are goal oriented. The individual ends up not working or socializing as expected. If the condition is not noted early, it may last for periods not less than six months. Due to the changes in the conventional thinking of the victim, they may have a decrease in the need to sleep, excessive speaking and making judgments that are impaired. The victims may also express violent behaviors after they experienced some appetite changes, psychomotor, mood changes or sleep disturbances

Bipolar II disorder. For this category, the individual experiences a hypomanic episode accompanied by a depressive period. Individuals with Bipolar II Disorder do not encounter manic episodes. Individuals with hypomanic episodes suffer similar disabilities like those in manic episodes. However, a hypomanic person can still socialize and work but with reduced psychotic capabilities such as hallucinations and delusions. The victim, therefore, does not need hospitalization like it would be for one with a manic episode. The person with hypomania usually has increased functioning capabilities which at times are thought to be defensive mechanisms practiced by the victims in opposition to depression. The conditions hardly advance to full-fledged manic episodes. Visible signs of hypomania include poor judgment by some of the victims and increased activity.

Persons with hypomania may often feel good due to the forgetfulness of actions they do to those around them. Some explain the experience as stressing and painful and may deny any recognition of their mood swings by friend and family. The event is not problematic unless it is accompanied by depression. When the victim experiences mercurial, volatile or uncontrollable mood swings for a long time, hospitalization would be essential to avoid any effects that would be because of the activities governed by the condition.

Cyclothymic disorder. Individuals with cyclothymic experience less severe depressions accompanied by hypomania. Individuals with depressions portray hopelessness, too much sleep, excessive and unfit guilt, little or no interest in activities which they previously enjoyed, quick excitability or excessive sadness. The victims may also feel fatigued, worthless, self-loathed, with no appetite or have suicidal thoughts. If the victim is not hospitalized, they may develop severe bipolar disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions. The condition commonly lasts for about two weeks and may lead to suicide if the individual is not carefully monitored.

Therapies and treatment

Bipolar disorder treatment involves administration of medicine and psychotherapy. Since the disorder is lifelong, the treatment may be continuous over a long period. The individual may at times need to try several medications before getting their most suitable one. The medications administered to Bipolar Disorder patients can be an antidepressant, atypical antipsychotic or a mood stabilizer. Typical examples include Lithium and Lamotrigine. Lithium is used to reduce the risk of the individual committing self-harm or suicide. Lamotrigine is used to treat bipolar depression especially when it is severe.

Psychotherapy is often done in combination with the administered medication. Psychotherapy is used to provide guidance, education, and support to the victim and their close associates who may monitor them. Some of the psychotherapy treatments include family-focused therapy, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal & social rhythm therapy (NIMH, 2017).

Prevention and Control

No way has been proved effective in the prevention of the bipolar disorder. However, it is essential to seek treatment and further guidance as soon as the disorder is suspected. When the condition is treated in its early stages, it is not common for it to get to critical stages (Kessler R.C., 2005). Even so, some strategies can help prevent the symptoms experienced from getting to their full-fledged levels.

Paying attention to suspected signs. If a pattern in the episodes or something triggering them is noticed, it is advisable to seek medical advice since the symptoms may be prevented from getting to full-blown levels.

Avoid drugs substance abuse. The abuse of drugs such as alcohol may impair the symptoms and at times even bring them back after they have been controlled.

Taking medications as directed. Individuals with Bipolar Disorder may be subjected to medication all they life. If they feel like the symptoms have disappeared, they may be tempted to stop the medication which may worsen effects or cause some seized symptoms to return.

Individuals suffering from any of the three main categories of Bipolar Disorder may experience declined cognitive functioning before the first hypomanic or manic episode, and the dysfunction may end up being permanent. During acute phases, the impairment may get more severe causing impaired psychosocial functioning when the episodes occur even with fully remitted moods. People with Bipolar I Disorder may have a higher degree of impairment compared to those with Bipolar II Disorder. The number of manic episodes experienced before proportional to the degree of impairment. It is therefore advisable to seek intervention as soon as an individual is suspected to have the disorder so that the cognitive impairment progression can be controlled. The overall effect of the condition will be easily managed when noted in its early stages.

(NIMH), T. N. (2017, October 12). Bipolar Disorder . Retrieved from Health and Education: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

Kessler R.C., D. O. (2005). Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders. N Engl J Med , 2516-2521.

Merikangas K.R, J. R.-M.-V. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Arch Gen Psychiatry 241-51 , 4-8.

Nordqvist, C. (2017, July 7). Bipolar disorder: Causes, symptoms, and treatment. Retrieved from Medical News Today: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/37010.php

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The Bipolar Disorder and Its Management Exploratory Essay

Introduction, signs and symptoms, causes of the disorder, diagnosis and treatment.

Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by intermittent moods and fitful energy levels thus affecting the ability of the patient to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The functions of the brain rely upon the intermittent moods of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) observes that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002).

The disorder mostly affects adults although some cases in children occur due to the inheritable nature of the disorder. Prevalence studies by the American Psychiatric Association shows that, approximately 1.5% of the American adults suffer from bipolar disorder. Given the fact that the disorder is long-term, proper handling mechanisms is paramount to both the patients and health professionals. This essay explores the nature of the bipolar disorder and its management.

The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect the physical and psychological functions of the patients causing them to have abnormal behaviors. During the depressive episode, the patient experiences low moods and loss of interests in the daily activities.

The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include anxiety, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, petulance, sleep disturbance, suicidal feelings, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier, & Wilkins, 2007, p.2).

The state of severe bipolar depression may last for about two weeks to several months in adults but in children, it may take several hours to days. Patients at the depressive episode have low mood and energy to perform usual activities.

During the manic episode, the patient experiences high mood with high energy levels in the body that results into increased body activity. The signs and symptoms of the manic episode include increased activity, extreme irritability, high energy levels, little sleep, aggressive, poor judgment and distractibility amongst other symptoms. If these signs and symptoms occur daily for a period of two weeks, then the patient is in the manic episode. The activity of the patient is due to the high energy levels that the body generates.

At some instances, patient may experience moderate effects of mania referred to as hypomania ; “ Hypomania may feel good to the person who experiences it and may even be associated with good functioning and enhanced productivity … ” (Simeonova, & Chang, 2005, p.5). Apart from depressive and manic episodes, a patient can also experience mixed episodes of the bipolar disorder and this complicates the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the disorder.

Scientists have discovered that a bipolar disorder occurs due to the combination of different factors. Many scientific studies suggest that the possible causes of the bipolar disorder are genetic, environmental, and physiological conditions. Genetic studies indicate that, “children with a parent or sibling who has bipolar disorder are four to six times more likely to develop the illness, compared with children who do not have a family history of bipolar disorder” (Simeonova, & Chang, 2005, p.624).

This implies that the bipolar disorder is genetic disease and that parents with the disorder predispose their kids to the same. Family history studies of the patients suffering from the bipolar disorder revealed that, at least one or more members of their families had suffered from some other psychiatric condition if not bipolar disorder. The prevalence of the disorder to certain families proves that it is a genetic disorder.

Further scientific studies have proved that environmental conditions also can cause bipolar disorder. Prospective and case studies reveal that the historical experiences of the patients determine their susceptibility to the bipolar disorder. “There have been repeated findings that between a third and a half of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder report traumatic/abusive experiences in childhood, which is associated on average with earlier onset, a worse course, and more co-occurring disorders” (Simeonova, & Chang, 2005, p. 625).

These findings affirmed that interaction of the genetic and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility to the bipolar disorder. Case studies of adult patients showed that they experienced harsh environmental conditions as compared with those having with the genetic predisposition.

Another cause of the bipolar disorder is the physiological condition of the brain due to its structure. The comparative examination of brains shows that bipolar patients have relatively abnormal brain structure. Imaging studies reveal, “…the pattern of brain development in children with bipolar disorder was similar to that in children with ‘multi-dimensional impairment,’ a disorder that causes symptoms that overlap somewhat with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia” (NIMH, 2002).

The abnormal structure of the brain affects the physiological chemicals that are critical in normal functioning of the brain. For instance, insufficient neurotransmitters and neuron with defects contribute in causing the bipolar disorder.

The diagnosis and the treatment of the bipolar disorder require the concerted efforts of the family and psychiatrists. The family members should aid the psychiatrist by noting the clinical symptoms and providing the historical information for the psychiatrist to ascertain the cause of the disorder. “Anyone who is thinking about committing suicide needs immediate attention, preferably from a mental health professional or a physician …anyone who talks about suicide should be taken seriously” (NIMH, 2002).

Family members should note the conditions of the patient and report them to the psychiatrist who will conduct diagnostic procedures. For example, a psychiatrist may conduct brain scan and blood test to rule out complications of a tumor before considering the disorder as a bipolar disorder.

The psychiatrist will then evaluate the diagnostics tests and determine whether the condition is a bipolar disorder or not. Information concerning family history with regard to the disorder coupled with some clinical signs in most cases is enough to determine if the condition under investigation is bipolar disorder or not.

Since bipolar disorder is a long-term illness, the management of the disorder entails the use of chemotherapy and psychotherapy techniques.

Chemotherapy involves the use of medications that control and alleviates the devastating clinical symptoms. Usually, “…people with bipolar disorder continue treatment with mood stabilizers for extended periods of time and other medications are added when necessary, typically for shorter periods, to treat episodes of mania or depression that break through despite the mood stabilizer” (Simeonova, & Chang, 2005, p.628).

These medications are very important in regulating and stabilizing intermittent moods that characterize the bipolar disorder. Lithium and valproate are very effective drugs in stabilizing the mood of the patients for they are mood stabilizers.

Psychotherapy is another method used in treating bipolar disorder. Many psychiatrists have found out that psychotherapy can be very effective in stabilizing the mood of the patient. “Cognitive behavioral therapy, family focused therapy and psycho-education have the most evidence for efficacy in regard to relapse prevention, while interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy appear the most effective in regard to residual depressive symptoms” (Grier, & Wilkins, 2007, p.10).

Cognitive behavioral therapy and psycho-education helps the patient to recognize and control the negative moods. Focused family therapy encourages the family members to create a homely environment that will not trigger moods swings of the patient. For effective treatment, family environment and medication are essential in management of the bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder is a neurological and psychological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. Periodic moods changes characterize the disorder in that the patients experience manic and depressive episodes depending on the psychological condition. The signs and symptoms vary from low moods through intermediate moods to high moods.

Varied studies have shown that physiological, environmental, and genetic factors predispose an individual to the bipolar disorder. Although the disorder is a long-term illness, chemotherapy and psychotherapy has proved to be the current effective ways of managing the disorder. In the view of the technological advancement, scientists are still designing effective chemotherapy methods coupled with other clinical interventions that would help in managing the disorder in a better way.

Grier, E., & Wilkins, A. (2007). Bipolar Disorder: Educational Implication for Secondary Students. National Associations of Psychologists, 1-12.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Bipolar Disorder . Web.

Simeonova, D., & Chang, K. (2005). Creativity in Familial Bipolar Disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research , 39 (7), 623-631.

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  1. 119 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics & Research Titles at StudyCorgi

    Bipolar disorder is an episodic or chronic mental disorder that causes unusual, extreme, and rapid-cycling changes in energy, mood, concentration, and activity. General Analysis of the Types of Bipolar Disorder. Going by the severity of the modal episodes experienced by a victim, the disorder is divided into three types.

  2. 128 Bipolar Disorder Research Paper Topics

    The death of a loved one or an instance of abuse can serve as a trigger for the condition. Implications of Diagnosing and Treating Patients With Bipolar Disorder. The purpose of this essay is to examine a variety of legal, ethical, and cultural implications in treating patients with bipolar disorder.

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    Conclusion. Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder that is characterized by extreme mood changes that range from mania to depression. Risk factors include lifestyle, genetics, environment, drug and alcohol abuse, and major life changes such as death or abuse. Symptoms depend on the type of mod.

  4. 121 Bipolar Disorder Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    To help you with your research, here are 121 bipolar disorder essay topic ideas and examples that cover various aspects of this complex condition. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: The history and evolution of bipolar disorder as a recognized mental illness. The different types of bipolar disorder and their diagnostic criteria.

  5. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: In-Depth Essay

    In this in-depth essay, we will delve into the intricate facets of bipolar disorder, unraveling its definition, prevalence, and impact. We will explore the different types of the disorder and investigate the causes and risk factors that contribute to its development. Furthermore, we will examine the symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and ...

  6. ≡Essays on Bipolar Disorder. Free Examples of Research Paper Topics, Titles

    1 page / 609 words. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. This essay will explore various aspects of bipolar disorder, including its causes, symptoms, available treatments, and the... Bipolar Disorder.

  7. Bipolar Disorder Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

    22 essay samples found. Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings between emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). Essays on this topic could explore the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for bipolar disorder. Additionally, discussions might extend to the impact of bipolar ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder and Its Impact on Humans Essay

    Bipolar is a mental illness that affects an individual's mood causing fluctuations in energy and activity levels (Chengappa & Gershon, 2013). Bipolar is also known as manic-depressive illness and its effects can abhorrently affect personal relationship with others. Patients suffering from the bipolar disorder exhibit exaggerated mood changes ...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with bipolar disorder: A review for

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic illness associated with severely debilitating symptoms that can have profound effects on both patients and their caregivers (Miller, 2006).BD typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood and can have life‐long adverse effects on the patient's mental and physical health, educational and occupational functioning, and interpersonal ...

  10. The challenges of living with bipolar disorder: a qualitative study of

    Background. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and (hypo)mania (Goodwin and Jamison 2007).According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5), the two main subtypes are BD-I (manic episodes, often combined with depression) and BD-II (hypomanic episodes, combined with depression) (APA 2014).

  11. Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder, is one of the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Bipolar disorder is characterized by chronically occurring episodes of mania or hypomania alternating with depression and is often misdiagnosed initially. Treatment involves pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions, but ...

  12. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Treatment, and ...

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a mental illness that affects an individual's mood, behavior, thoughts, and perceptions, leading to abnormal shifts in energy, mood, and functioning (Huxley, 2002).The symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe and can result in broken relationships, poor performance in school or work, and even suicide in extreme cases.

  13. Bipolar Disorder Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    Genetics, Brain Structure & Behavior. Bipolar disorder is biological problem which affects the brain that causes unusual shifts in mood (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). It is also known as manic-depressive illness. Bipolar disorder is different than regular mood swings and daily ups and downs of the average person's life.

  14. Treatment, Symptoms, and Prevention Strategies for Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that affects millions of people around the world. It is characterized by episodes of manic and depressive moods, which can significantly impact an individual's daily life and relationships. In this essay, we will delve into the treatment options, symptoms, and prevention strategies for bipolar disorder.

  15. Bipolar Disorder Essay Topics

    Bipolar Disorder Essay Titles. Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis. The Impact of Bipolar Disorder on Children and Adolescents in the Classroom. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Treatment Challenges. Macbeth Experienced Bipolar Disorder and ...

  16. Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder (formerly called manic-depressive illness or manic depression) is a mental illness that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, activity levels, and concentration. These shifts can make it difficult to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are three types of bipolar disorder. All three types involve clear changes in ...

  17. Bipolar II disorder

    Bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is a mood disorder on the bipolar spectrum, characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression. Diagnosis for BP-II requires that the individual must never have experienced a full manic episode. Otherwise, one manic episode meets the criteria for bipolar I disorder (BP-I).. Hypomania is a sustained state of elevated or ...

  18. Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment, Essay Example

    The effects mostly affect behavior, judgment, activity, sleep and the individual's ability to think usually. During manic, the victim lacks sleep and may often avoid eye contact with other people. The victim may end up harming themselves and in some extreme cases, committing suicide. The causes of Bipolar Disorder have never been well understood.

  19. The Bipolar Disorder and Its Management Exploratory Essay

    At some instances, patient may experience moderate effects of mania referred to as hypomania; "Hypomania may feel good to the person who experiences it and may even be associated with good functioning and enhanced productivity …" (Simeonova, & Chang, 2005, p.5). Apart from depressive and manic episodes, a patient can also experience mixed episodes of the bipolar disorder and this ...

  20. Essay Paper on Bipolar Disorder

    6. This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples. Cite this essay. Download. Bipolar disorder, today, can be defined as a brain disorder that causes changes in a person's mood and energy that cause significant impairment in daily functioning.

  21. Bipolar Disorder: Definition, Symptoms and Features: [Essay Example

    A person may feel worried and have trouble concentrating. They may experience memory and appetite disturbances. Feelings or thoughts about suicide and death are common. A person with Bipolar disorder can experience both manic and depressive symptoms at the same time which is called a mixed episode (NIMH, 2016).

  22. Bipolar Disorder Overview

    Bipolar Disorder Overview. Bipolar Disorder. The word bipolar means having to or relating to two poles or extremities. For the many millions diagnosed with bipolar disorder around the world, life is split between two different realities; elation and depression. For a person transitioning between these emotional states it can feel impossible to ...

  23. Diseases, disorders, therapies, and more

    The capitalization of diseases, disorders, therapies, and related terms is covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 6.16 and the Concise Guide Section 5.6. This guidance is new to the 7th edition.