3.1 Early Civilizations

Learning objectives.

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the attributes of early civilizations
  • Analyze the way human relationships changed with the development of urban areas

Early civilizations, most of which arose along large rivers, were marked by an agriculturally sustained population that remained settled in one area and could number in the tens of thousands. The stability of the population allowed for the development of a discernible culture , which consists of all the different ways a distinct group of people interact with one another and their environment and pass these ways down from generation to generation over time. This is not to say that earlier groups of people lacked social identities. But there were important differences between them and the early civilizations that followed.

The development of early civilizations occurred between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE in just a few specific areas of the world that historians have labeled the “cradles of civilization.” In these locations—today’s Mexico, Peru, China, India/Pakistan, Iraq, and Egypt—the introduction of farming allowed larger populations to settle in one place, and the ability to produce and distribute surpluses of food enabled some people to specialize in such tasks as manufacturing handicrafts, tending to the spiritual world, and governing. The peoples of these cultures experienced radical changes in their lifestyles as well as in the ways their communities interacted with each other and their environments.

Attributes of Early Civilizations

Even after the Neolithic Revolution , many people continued to lead a nomadic or seminomadic existence, hunting and gathering or herding domesticated animals. People produced or gathered only enough materials to meet the immediate food, shelter, and clothing needs of their family unit. Even in societies that adopted farming as a way of life, people grew only enough for their own survival. Moreover, the family unit was self-sufficient and relied on its own resources and abilities to meet its needs. No great differences in wealth existed between families, and each person provided necessary support for the group. Group leaders relied primarily on consensus for decision-making. Order and peace were maintained by negotiations between community elders such as warriors and religious leaders. Stability also became dependent on peaceful relationships with neighboring societies, often built on trade.

Early civilizations, by contrast, arose where large numbers of people lived in a relatively small, concentrated area and worked to produce a surplus of food and other materials, which they distributed through a system of exchange. For farming communities, this food surplus meant family size grew to six or seven children and caused the global human population to skyrocket. Population growth rooted in agricultural production led to larger cities, in which the food produced by farmers in outlying rural areas was distributed among the population of the urban center, where food was not produced. This system of specialization was a key feature of early civilizations and what distinguished them from previous societies. Individuals performed specific tasks such as farming, writing, or performing religious rituals. People came to rely on the exchange of goods and services to obtain necessary supplies. For example, artisans specializing in craft production relied on farmers to cultivate the food they needed to thrive. In turn, farmers depended upon artisans to produce tools and clothing for them. A weaver acquired wool from a shepherd and produced cloth that might then be given to a physician in exchange for medicine or a priest as payment for conducting a religious ritual.

The system of exchange, however, created hierarchies within society. Those who could accumulate more goods became wealthy, and they passed that wealth from one generation to the next. This wealth led, in turn, to the accumulation of political and religious power, while those who continued to labor in production remained lower on the social scale. This social stratification , another characteristic of early civilizations, means that families and individuals could vary greatly in their wealth and status. Those who share the same level of wealth and status make up a distinct class or strata, and these strata or classes are ordered from highest to lowest based on their social standing.

The nature of government also changed as populations grew. In smaller groups, decisions about war and migration were made in concert because no individual or family was likely to survive without the others. Also, in small communities, order and peace were often enforced at the family level. If someone acted badly, the customs of the society were brought to bear on them to correct the offending behavior. For example, the San of South Africa held a ritual dance to contact their elders for advice on how to correct a difficult situation. The act of coming together was often enough for the community to heal. In larger civilizations, officials such as priests and kings possessed the authority to command the obedience of subjects, who relied on the powerful to protect them. In return for physical protection and the promise of prosperity, farmers and artisans provided food and goods and, eventually, paid taxes. This exchange served to reinforce both the developing social hierarchy and the specialization of labor.

As civilizations developed around the world in this way, they shared the features noted. Their existence did not mean the end of older ways of living, however. Nomadic and seminomadic peoples not only remained an integral part of the ancient world, they also provided crucial resources and a vehicle for the exchange of knowledge and culture. They were particularly important as a means of connecting one large city to another.

The First Urban Societies

Around 10,000 BCE, wheat was first domesticated in what is today northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, and western Iran, and also in Syria and Israel. This region is commonly called the Fertile Crescent (because of its shape). It includes Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), southern Anatolia (modern Turkey), and the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine) and has yielded the earliest evidence of agriculture ( Figure 3.4 ). This same region saw the rise of the first urban areas in the Neolithic Age , often called Neolithic cities. Examples include Jericho (8300–6500 BCE) along the Jordan River in what is today the Palestinian Territories, and Çatalhöyük (7200–6000 BCE) in southeastern Turkey. Archaeologists have established that these early urban areas had populations as high as six thousand.

Link to Learning

Hunter-gatherer cultures also built large structures, such as the monumental architecture at Göbekli Tepe in southeast Turkey and at Poverty Point in Louisiana in the United States. Listen to this TEDx Talk lecture by the archaeologist who excavated at Göbekli Tepe to find out more about the site. You can learn more about the Poverty Point culture by exploring the Poverty Point website . Look especially at “History and Artifacts.”

Neolithic settlements depended upon the transition to agricultural production to sustain their populations. Such developments were also accompanied by increasing complexity in other areas of life, such as religion. An agricultural surplus enabled religious specialists to devote time to performing bull sacrifices at Çatalhöyük, for example, and freed artisans to hone their skills to create the frescoes that decorated the interior space where these sacrifices occurred. Some form of government must have organized the labor and materials necessary to construct the walls and tower at Jericho, which may have served as an observatory to mark the passage of the solar year. In both Jericho and Çatalhöyük, a shared belief system, or unity behind a leader, must have inspired the inhabitants to labor in the fields and distribute their agricultural surplus. At Jericho, the community may have been united by its veneration of ancestors, whose skulls were decorated and revered as idols. The people of Çatalhöyük may have offered their bull sacrifices to a mother-deity, possibly represented by small figurines of a woman that archaeologists have discovered there.

Beyond the Book

Interpreting evidence from neolithic cities.

Prehistoric peoples left no writings behind, and historians and archaeologists can only attempt to understand their beliefs and attitudes by studying the artifacts they produced. This is challenging because ancient societies had very different religious and social systems from our own. But even the most convincing interpretations may not persuade everyone. We may simply never know what certain artifacts meant to the people who created them.

Consider the famous tower of Jericho, built around 8000 BCE ( Figure 3.5 ). Careful excavation has revealed that the tower likely took more than thirty years to build and had stairs for climbing to the top through the center. Some believe it was made for defensive purposes; others think it was a religious monument or even an observatory. Regardless of its use, it seems likely the city had some type of governing system that served to organize the labor. But that assumption too could be in error.

As another example, consider a decorated skull found in Neolithic Jericho ( Figure 3.6 ). An ancient artisan made it by plastering over a human skull and placing pieces of shell in the eye sockets. Historians and archaeologists have speculated that the people of Jericho venerated such skulls, which may have been seen as relics of ancestors and objects of worship. But perhaps the skull meant something else entirely.

Evidence from the Neolithic city of Çatalhöyük demonstrates that its people venerated bulls. Archaeologists have discovered numerous bucranium (bull heads and horns) at the site ( Figure 3.7 ). But what did these bull symbols mean? Popular interpretation suggests they symbolize the son and lover of an important mother-deity. Other explanations call them female symbols of life and rebirth. Still others propose different interpretations.

  • What do scholars’ interpretations suggest about the way these artifacts are studied?
  • Do their interpretations sound convincing to you? What others can you think of, given what you have read and seen?

The Neolithic cities of Jericho and Çatalhöyük were some of the earliest to emerge. But they are not the only such sites. As early as 7000 BCE, a Neolithic settlement appeared in modern Pakistan, at a site today known as Mehrgarh, whose inhabitants engaged in long-distance trade, grew barley, and raised goats and sheep. Comparable Neolithic settlements in China emerged around 8000 BCE along the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, where people cultivated millet and rice. A few thousand years later in the Americas, Neolithic settlements sprang up in both Mesoamerica and the Andes Mountains region.

Not all the Neolithic settlements endured. Çatalhöyük, for example, was ultimately abandoned around 6000 BCE and never reoccupied. Jericho, on the other hand, was abandoned and resettled a few times and is still a functioning city today. What is important about these Neolithic settlements is what they can tell us about the long transition between the emergence of agriculture and the eventual rise of early civilizations thousands of years later in places like Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River valley.

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  • Harappan Civilization

Harappan civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. It was believed to be a hub of art and culture and architecture. The discoveries made at these architectural sights give us great insight into the lives and lifestyles of our ancestors. Let us learn about this very important part of our history.

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Introduction to harappan civilization.

Harappa is known to be a 4700 years old city in the subcontinent which was discovered around the time 1920. Soon after the discovery of cities like Lothal, Dholavira, Mohenjodaro, and Kalibangan have also been discovered and were come to be known as the Harappan cities or also the advent of Harappan Civilization. These cities were discovered around the river Indus , henceforth proving the existence of the Indus Valley Civilization .


The Harappan city was divided into two or more parts of which the part to the west was smaller, however higher, known to be as a citadel. Also, the part to the east was comparatively larger but lower and the archaeologists called it ‘the lower town’. The citadel comprised granaries, religious buildings, public buildings, and assembly halls while the lower town was divided into rectangular sections cut by wide roads at right angles to each other.

write a short essay on civilization

Harappan objects were made of stone, Shell, and metal. Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments, and vessels. Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels. Harappans also made stone seals. They made pots with beautiful black designs. Bricks were so well made that they had seemed to have lasted for thousands of years and were laid in an interlocking pattern which made the walls strong. About a hundred and fifty years ago, many of these bricks were taken away by engineers.

People built one or two-story houses on either side of the roads with rooms built around a courtyard. The Harappan city had a well-planned drainage system where every house had a drain connected to the street drains which further were connected to the bigger drains. The drains were also covered with the stone slabs that were laid in straight lines along with inspection holes for the cleanup purpose.

Some of the farming methods and rearing as followed by the Harappan farmers and herders are –

  • Harappans grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed, and mustard. They also developed some new tools known as plough and was used to dig earth for planting the seeds and turning the soil. A method of irrigation was used due to less rainfall .
  • The Harappan reared cattle sheep, goat, and buffalo. Water and pastures were present around many sites. People collected fruits, fish and hunted wild animals.

Mohenjodaro , Harappa, and Lothal also had huge storehouses used for storing grains and hence were called granaries. Big fire altars are found at Kalibangan and Lothal used for performing sacrifices. Lothal also has revealed a huge dockyard for the loading and unloading of goods.

Solved Questions for You

Q: Describe the people of Harappan cities.

Ans. There were three basic occupations of people living in Harappan cities.

  • They planned the construction of special buildings in the city. They probably sent people to distant lands to get raw material. And they kept the most valuable objects for themselves.
  • Scribes were people who knew how to write. They prepared the seals.
  • Crafts-persons. People who made all kinds of things were called Craftspersons .

Some farmers and herders also lived outside the city helping with food to the people.

Q: What could have been the possible reasons behind the end of the Harappan civilization?

Ans. The Harappan civilization suddenly seems to have started to end around 3900 years ago. People stopped living in many cities. Writing seals and weights became extinct. Raw materials were now rarely imported.

Some scholar says that it is due to the drying of rivers while some have explained it to the cause of deforestation. In some areas, there were floods that have been the main reason due to which the rulers have lost control. The people have consequently abandoned Sind and Punjab and had moved to the newer smaller settlements to the east and the south.

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Essay on World Civilization to 1500

The emergence of the hunter-gatherer concept as an independent type of society is closely related to the term “unilinear” or “state.” Economic and technological criteria were widely used in the late 19th century to classify the many diverse world populations into general patterns. This perspective of cultural diversity is based on several deep assumptions: foraging is seen as an essentially inferior way of life, and hunters and gatherers were seen as the conceptual “basis” for overall development, while Western civilization is seen as an essentially inferior way of life.

The culmination of culture, technology, and culture. This is accompanied by the implicit belief that hunters and gatherers are relatively simple, with no internal innovation or cultural complexity. Societies did develop, but not in hunter-gatherer groups that were generally believed to be culturally extinct and trapped in the early stages of ancient cultural development. Forestry turned into extensively utilized as a meal manufacturing machine in lots of components of the sector at some stage in this period (Larsen, 2021). Many woodland parks had been created in prehistoric instances alongside forested riverbanks and on humid hills. As increasingly more households step by step expands around them, beneficial tree and vine species are identified, covered, and improved, and unwanted species are eliminated. Over time, the maximum brought types had been decided on and planted withinside the garden. As the variety and length of farming groups increased, they moved to lands usually utilized by hunters and gatherers (Rose & Allen, 2018). This method of agricultural growth caused the formation of the primary varieties of authorities in agricultural establishments which include the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Olmec, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Norte Chico.

In the Upper Paleolithic, the unfold of Homo sapiens in Eurasia and the simultaneous diffusion of blade generation are the principal barriers to using modern culture, however, those are best the broadest technological variables. During the Upper Palaeolithic, there may be growing proof of recent varieties of social and monetary relationships, however best in a few looking groups. This early improvement seems to have increased and unfold with the onset of the Holocene. The modifications in social family members appear to be as compared with simultaneous seems at different technologies, economies, and cultures (Gowdy, 2020). In the Upper Paleolithic, maximum of those tendencies appear to have focused on corporations of hunters amassing regions complete of snow gardens and wealthy in megafauna. Many of those websites incorporate early symptoms and symptoms of sizable use, cave paintings, sedentary and seasonal. There also are preliminary indicators of significant inequalities in private and own circle of relative’s wealth, which include the burial of vintage and young (Kidder, et al., 2017). The later levels of the Upper Paleolithic display growth with the inside of furnishings and different crucial objects.

The earliest civilizations had been constructed at the banks of rivers, famous examples from historic Egypt at the Nile, Mesopotamia at the moon with inside the Fertile Crescent at the Tigris / Euphrates, historic China at the Yellow River, and historic India at the Indus. This first civilization existed from the time of the Neolithic Revolution around 12,000 BC. Chr. Nature. The rivers had been a famous enchantment for historic peoples due to the fact they often furnished ingesting water and made the soil fertile for agriculture (Earnshaw, 2017). In addition, items and those couldn’t be without problems transported, and the humans of this civilization may want to fish and hunt many animals that got here to drink water. In addition, the ones misplaced within inside the desolate tract can go back to civilization via way of means of taking walks alongside the river, wherein the principle populace facilities are concentrated.

The first civilizations arose in places where geography favored intensive agriculture. In ancient civilizations, geography influenced them in various ways such as the climate, the resources, and the geography they used. The weather hit them as they were often offended by the rainy season which brought heavy rains and winds to the area. The mountains offered them protection against invasions, but the mountains were also used to exchange needed resources with others.

All these civilizations grew up where they grew up, not because the people who lived near the river were much civilized than in other areas, but because of the geography of the area. These large freshwater rivers are many good sources of water and food, as seasonal floods provide fertile land for cultivation. With the ability to grow, produce excess food, and have water, you don’t have to move from place to place in search of resources. In addition, without spending every minute of the day looking for food, older people can participate in more enjoyable activities such as reflecting on life (e.g. religion) and develop plans and methods for their relationship with them, such as civilization and religion (Rose & Allen, 2018). These ancient rivers and geography didn’t necessarily lead to the birth of civilization, but they certainly determined where it happened.

This principle can be applied to almost any time in the history and development of civilization. Just look where the major cities in the United States are. The United States of America started as a series of British colonies, and their colonial economy was based primarily on trade with Britain and other parts of the British Empire. As a result, many major cities in the eastern United States are located by the sea (which provides a major port) or another major waterway (Meshkani & Razaviyan, 2021). For example, New York, Boston, Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and others are located on the Atlantic Ocean or waterways with easy access to the high seas. Inland cities such as Chicago and Detroit are also located on wide waters with access to shipping routes.

In ancient Greece, they used much of their geography to help them become the civilization they wanted to be. Mountains help them to be isolated and separated from other city-states, making them more independent. They used the Mediterranean to farm and provide additional crops, but they became skilled sailors and developed extensive trade networks to trade with others (Coscioni, 2020). The weather is always warm and dry, which sometimes affects plant growth at this time of year.

Ancient Egypt used the Nile and the Sahara to their advantage in many ways. Ancient Egypt was divided into two distinct states, the black state, and the red state. Black soil is the fertile land created by the Nile, and red soil is the Egyptian desert. They used the Nile for the fertile land left over after the river was not flooded so that they could use this fertile land for agriculture. They also use the Nile to fish, washcloths and sometimes trade necessary resources with others. The Sahara was used to protect itself from other invading armies (Lopes & Almeida, 2017). The weather is always warm and very dry; which makes farming very difficult when you live in the desert.

Human settlements and cultural development are determined by areas such as mountains, deserts, and water. Other factors that contribute to cultural development are climate, location, environment, water resources, and natural resources. The geography of China contributed to the development of the earliest civilizations because the river areas that cut crops and livestock were the first Chinese to be able to produce.

Coscioni, F. J. (2020). Ellsworth Huntington: considerations on the letters of the “distribution of civilization” map of Civilization and Climate.  Geousp–Espaço e Tempo (Online) ,  24 (1), 51-68.

Earnshaw, J. (2017). Maritime Origins, Niche Construction, and the Emergence of Complexity among the Northwest Coast Societies and the Norte Chico Complexes.  PlatForum ,  15 , 27-43.

Gowdy, J. (2020). Our hunter-gatherer future: Climate change, agriculture and uncivilization.  Futures ,  115 , 102488.

Kidder, T. R., Henry, E. R., & Arco, L. J. (2017). Rapid climate change-induced collapse of hunter-gatherer societies in the lower Mississippi River valley between.

Kidder, T. R., Henry, E. R., & Arco, L. J. (2018). Rapid climate change-induced collapse of hunter-gatherer societies in the lower Mississippi River valley between ca. 3300 and 2780 cal yr BP.  Science China Earth Sciences ,  61 (2), 178-189.

Lopes, H. T., & Almeida, I. (2017). The Mediterranean: The Asian and African Roots of the Cradle of Civilization.  Mediterranean Identities: Environment, Society, Culture , 1.

Meshkani, L., & Razaviyan, M. T. (2021). Fundamentals and categories of the discourse of human civilization in shaping the geographical landscape.  Geography ,  67 (67), 0.

Walker, J. M. Industrial Internet of Things Revolution, Death of Distance and Geography-Centric Economy and Civilization.

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The history of the human civilization essay

In the history of the human civilization, numerous events have drastically changed the flow and nature of the society bridging forth differences and conflicts in the relationship and structure of the people. Among these numerous events, the First World War has been noted to have caused a significant change in the historical pages of the human development. The conflicts and political divisions among the society in the vast continent of Europe have resulted to a destructive war that altered the relationship and social structure of the people in this continent.

The First World War has been noted as a significant war that changed the European world as noted by Sir Edward Grey himself. Grey compared the event of the First Great War as the act of putting out forever the light of the European society. Indeed, the aftermath of the war has permanently changed the political institutions, ruling classes, economic affairs and social life among the European societies. The First World War has drastically changed the European society affecting all of the social institution, organization and political system in the said land.

On the social ground and humanitarian ground, the war has brought end to countless lives on both the civilian and military sector with its numerous battles, sieges, and even genocides. This is further worsened due to the outbreak of certain health problems and diseases taking also toll on the population. Regarding the political relationship between each society, many peace treaties have been formalized to control the political and military power of both factions involved in the war.

However, the views and relationship between each party have been permanently ruptured making political trust and trade relationship even tighter and stricter. Political boundaries and territories have also been strengthened to protect the interest and condition of each society and faction. In addition, new political identities have been born after the war due to the separation and independence of certain countries. Postwar colonization has also resulted to many conflicts, which further divides the European society. As a whole, the European population has experienced social trauma from where their development has greatly suffered.

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In general, the First Great War has brought complications and division in the European society that have permanently and significantly changed the said continent from its previous image.


Coetzee, Frans & Coetzee, Marilyn Shevin (2002). World War I: A History in Documents. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN-10: 0195137469. Mackaman, Douglas Peter & Mays, Michael (2000). World War I and the Cultures of Modernity. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN-10: 1578062438. Spiering, Menno & Wintle, Michael (2002). Ideas of Europe since 1914: The Legacy of the First World War. Palgrave Publication. ISBN-10: 0333984021.

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Write a short note on deontological ethics.

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions;

7. Write a short note on deontological ethics. (150 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4, Key Demand of the question: To write about deontological ethics in detail. Structure of the answer: Introduction: Begin by defining deontology. Body: Explain that Deontology is duty ethics, so it compares a person’s actions against some duty or imperative. Discuss the rationale behind it. Write about the significance of the deontological ethics and with suitable illustrations explain it. Write about its critique.  Conclusion: Completed by summarising their importance.

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    This paper will discuss the main issues in the Euthyphro, the Apology, and the Crito, and how these issues impact the western civilization. Western Civilization in "The Agricola and the Germania". The book the Agricola and Germania is about the history of Tacitus who was a senator and a famous Roman historian.

  9. Civilization Essay Example

    Introduction. Civilization is a society defined by fundamentals such as a method of writing, a growth of social classes, and cities. Some of the early civilizations include the ancient Greece, classical Rome, Mesopotamia, and classical China. All have made unique contributions to societies that are felt to date by the modern society.

  10. History of Mesopotamia

    History of Mesopotamia is an article that explores the origins, achievements, and legacy of one of the world's oldest civilizations. Learn how Mesopotamia shaped the history and culture of the Middle East and beyond, from the invention of writing and law to the rise and fall of empires. Discover the rich heritage of the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and compare it with other ...

  11. Essay on Egyptian Civilization

    The Egyptian civilization is not only viewed as one of the oldest civilizations, but also as one of the most durable ones. It is traditionally divided into the following major periods: 1) Pre-Dynastic period (Prior to 3100 BC). During this period 42 territorial and political unities were formed.

  12. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia

    The civilizations of Mesopotamia placed a great value on the written word. Once writing was invented, c. 3600-3000 BCE, the scribes seem almost obsessed with recording every facet of their cities lives and, because of this, archaeologists and scholars in the present day have a fairly clear understanding of how the people lived and worked.

  13. Harappan Civilization: Introduction, Architecture, Farming ...

    The Harappan civilization suddenly seems to have started to end around 3900 years ago. People stopped living in many cities. Writing seals and weights became extinct. Raw materials were now rarely imported. Some scholar says that it is due to the drying of rivers while some have explained it to the cause of deforestation.

  14. Essay on Ancient Chinese Civilization

    Essay on Ancient Chinese Civilization. Good Essays. 1149 Words. 5 Pages. 1 Works Cited. Open Document. China has had many changes throughout its history. China unlike many other countries had the opportunity to grow with minimal outside interference. Due to this they created unique Chinese philosophy, writing, and government.

  15. Free Ancient History Essay Examples & Topic Ideas

    An ancient history essay is a type of assignment that requires students to analyze events, historical figures, and past societies. Based on this research, you will make a claim that should be supported with proof and historical evidence. That is why our experts prepared a list of tips and advice on how to succeed in writing your following paper ...

  16. Essay on World Civilization to 1500

    Essay on World Civilization to 1500. The emergence of the hunter-gatherer concept as an independent type of society is closely related to the term "unilinear" or "state.". Economic and technological criteria were widely used in the late 19th century to classify the many diverse world populations into general patterns.

  17. Essay on the Indus Valley Civilisation

    In this essay we will discuss about Indus Valley Civilisation:- 1. Introduction to Indus Valley Civilisation 2. Race of Indus Civilisation 3. Date 4. Town Planning and Architecture 5. Social Life of the People 6. Economic Life of the People 7. Religion of the People 8. Art and Craft 9. Causes for the Destruction of Indus Valley Culture 10. Contribution of the Indus Valley Civilisation ...

  18. The history of the human civilization essay

    Civilization, Free Essays, History, Human. In the history of the human civilization, numerous events have drastically changed the flow and nature of the society bridging forth differences and conflicts in the relationship and structure of the people. Among these numerous events, the First World War has been noted to have caused a significant ...

  19. Essay on Harappan Civilization

    Students are often asked to write an essay on Harappan Civilization in their schools and colleges. And if you're also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic. Let's take a look… 100 Words Essay on Harappan Civilization Introduction to Harappan Civilization

  20. Write a short essay in Writing

    Writing: The civilization developed a writing system, which enabled the recording of history, literature, and other forms of knowledge. Science and Technology: The civilization made advancements in fields such as astronomy, mathematics, and engineering, contributing to the progress of human society as a whole.

  21. Society, Culture, and Civilization Essay (Critical Writing)

    This term involves the achievements derived from prolonged periods of culture and society's evolution. People use these attributes—agriculture, monuments, writing, warfare—to enhance their lives. Therefore, civilization comprises the highest results of human actions converted into commodities and immaterial entities.

  22. Write a short essay on Civilization

    #civilization #essay #preparestudies #handwriting #english Write a short essay on Civilization Write a short essay on Acharya Jagdish Chandra Bose : https://...

  23. Resources Dictionary

    Resources Dictionary | Instructions Write a short essay in Writing Tutor describing the six key features of your chosen civilization. Be sure to include how your chosen civilization advanced human society as a whole. Pick one: Mesopotamia Egypt India China Key features: Specialization Government Cities Religion Trade Written Records Required ...

  24. Write a short note on deontological ethics.

    Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; 7. Write a short note on deontological ethics. (150 words) Difficulty Level: Moderate Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications. Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper - 4, Key Demand of the … Continue reading "Write a ...