Flood Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on flood.

Flood is one of the most dangerous natural disasters. It happens when excessive water is collected in any area. It usually happens due to heavy rainfall. India is highly prone to flood. There are many regions in the country that face this natural disaster because of the overflowing of rivers. Moreover, it also happens because of the melting of snow. Another reason for floods is when the dam breaks down. If we look at the coastal areas, the hurricanes and tsunamis are held responsible for causing floods. In this essay on flood, we will see the prevention and after-affect of flood.

flood essay

In other words, whatever the cause may be, it is equally dangerous. It has a lot of harmful consequences. Flood damages the living conditions and it takes a lot of time to recover from this disaster. Therefore, the consequences of floods must be known and steps must be taken to prevent it.

After-effects of Flood

Floods interrupt with the day to day functioning of the affected area. The severe floods sometimes cause mass destruction. A lot of people and animals lose their lives due to floods. Several others are injured. Floods also bring a rise in diseases. The stagnant water attracts mosquitoes causing malaria , dengue, and more illnesses.

Furthermore, people face power cuts due to the danger of electrocution. They also have to face expensive pricing. As the supply of food and goods gets limited, the prices naturally grow higher. This creates a big problem for the common man.

Most importantly, the whole country faces economic loss. The resources needed to rescue people and tackle this disaster demands a hefty amount. Plus, the citizens lose their houses and cars which they worked all their lives for.

Subsequently, floods also hamper the environment. It causes soil erosion and this degrades the quality of the soil. We lose out on fertile soil. Similarly, floods also damage flora and fauna. They damage crops and displace trees. Thus, the measure should be taken to avoid these grave consequences.

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Ways to Prevent flood

The government and citizens must work together to formulate ways to prevent floods. Proper awareness must be spread about the steps to take when floods occur. Warning systems must be set up so people get sufficient time to save themselves. In addition, areas that are more likely to have floods must have tall buildings above the flood level.

flooding problem solution essay

Other than that, dams must be constructed strongly. The use of cheap materials causes dams to break. The government must ensure there is a quality building of dams to prevent floods.

In short, we cannot prevent natural causes like rain and the melting of glaciers. However, we can stop the manmade causes like breaking of dams, poor drainage system, installing warning systems and more. We should take inspiration from countries like Singapore that never experience floods despite having heavy rainfall for most time of the year.

FAQ on Flood Essay

Q.1 what are the consequences of a flood.

A.1 Floods cause immense destruction. They are responsible for the loss of human and animal lives. People lose their homes and cars in floods. They also cause soil erosion and uproot of trees.

Q.2 How can we prevent floods?

A.2 Governments must take up certain measures to prevent floods. We can install flood warning systems. Make people aware of what to do in times of flood. Moreover, we can also build a proper drainage system that will ensure no waterlogging.

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7 inventions and ideas to stop flooding and mitigate its effects

From pop-up barriers to lidar flood prevention, these tools could change the future of flood protection around the world..

Trevor English

Trevor English

7 inventions and ideas to stop flooding and mitigate its effects

  • Flooding is a pervasive problem that worsens as the world heats up.
  • From rising sea levels due to melting arctic ice to extreme weather events causing monster storms, populations along coastlines and flood plains face flood threats like those  never before seen . 
  • But how can engineering help solve the problem?

When it comes to flooding , there are essentially two ways to approach it: prevention or protection. Preventing floods involves proper urban planning, seawall construction, and home-building practices. Even with all of the prevention that goes into modern infrastructure, there are many cases where prevention just doesn’t cut it. 

In those cases, what we need is protection. This can involve equipment like sandbags, building temporary flood barriers, etc. Let’s examine seven possible solutions to prevent and minimize the risk of flooding .  

 1. The rapid response water-gate

flooding problem solution essay


When flooding is imminent, you often need a barrier to protect yourself. Sandbags serve this task in many scenarios, but they may require a significant amount of preparation and set-up time, plus it’s cumbersome to carry around. A device known as the Water-Gate can be a useful alternative. This is a rapidly deployable device made of PVC material. It utilizes the pressure of oncoming water to stabilize itself. This essentially means that the floodwaters are used to build their dam. 

It is very compact because the device leverages lightweight PVC and a design that leans on the water pressure to inflate it. Depending on size, it can be deployed by a single person in minutes to hours. 

A makeshift dam is created around the building by surrounding a structure with the Water-Gate. It’s also completely reusable, so it’s an excellent option for those living in a region at risk of flooding .  

2. The Maeslant Storm Surge Barrier in the Netherlands

Netherlands’ Deltaworks system is one of the most comprehensive flood protection systems in the entire world. This complex network of flood barrier infrastructure results from the country sitting almost entirely below sea level. 

One notable barrier that stands as part of the Deltaworks is the Maeslantkering , otherwise known as the Maeslant Storm Surge Barrier. This Barrier was finished in 1997, and today, it is still one of the largest moving structures in the entire world.

As the water rises in the surrounding area, sensors trigger the walls to close and water tanks to fill along the barrier. This water weight causes the walls to push firmly down on their foundation, keeping floodwaters from breaching the gates. 

3. Aquobex flood guard

flooding problem solution essay

We’ve spent some time discussing larger-scale barriers. For a smaller-scale appliance, we have the Aquobex entry barrier system . It’s a small-scale dam designed to seal off doorways and building entrances. By creating a seal with the surrounding surfaces, the rising water is kept from entering the structure when these barriers are applied to all of the building’s entryways. 

The barrier is completely reusable and can be quickly deployed in times of emergency.

4. The Thames Barrier

flooding problem solution essay

Andrew Price/Flickr

Flooding along the Thames River in England has been a persistent problem. Engineers have designed a movable barrier system made of hollow steel to combat this. These structures form water gates that can be revolved shut during high flooding to stop water from flowing through. This design allows ships and other water traffic to pass easily during regular times, but authorities can still form it into a barrier quickly when a flood looms. 

These structures have been in place since construction was completed in 1984 and have been used over 100 times to protect the surrounding area from destruction.

5. Opti is an incredible innovation

Opti is one of the most unique flood prevention systems on this list. Rather than a barrier system, Opti is a company that utilizes data management software to map and optimize the city’s stormwater drainage systems. Most cities worldwide have some planned method of dealing stormwater on the city streets. This can involve a series of stormwater drains and storage tanks, but these systems aren’t always in the right place or functioning 100 percent. 

This startup has raised over $11 million in an initial round of investing. It leverages mapping technology to predict where flooding will occur throughout a city, allowing city planners to know more precisely where to construct retention ponds and other flood management systems. Notably, retention ponds are one of the most useful prevention methods that can be used to protect cities from flooding . They’re just large holes in the ground that fill with excess water from the drainage system. After a storm is over, the water drains out of the pond. However, when overflow of these retention ponds occurs, it can be bad news. 

The software that Opti has developed keeps track of weather forecasts and predicts where flooding is most likely to occur during a storm in a city. In certain cities, engineers control how much water is held in any retention pond. With Opti, those engineers can leverage the software to know when to drain one and when to fill another, all with a correlation back to the actual weather forecast in the area. 

The system has been installed in over 130 cities across the United States. While the company knows it won’t be able to prevent flooding , it hopes its technology will minimize the damage from floods when they do come. 

6. LiDAR flood risk mapping

In Bangkok, Thailand, LiDAR mapping is being utilized to develop elevation plots and models to understand where resources must be focused for flood prevention. LiDAR, or light detection and ranging, allows the creation of a 3D elevation map, allowing engineers to develop highly accurate elevation models for a given city area. 

The city is also using unmanned aerial vehicles to scan the city’s drainage network for obstacles that could prevent water flow, say, a tree stuck in a drain or trash buildup in a pipe outlet.

Thailand has been hard hit by flooding over the last decade, which has caused them to adopt a slew of technology in preventing and planning flooding . 

7. WIPP: Water Inflated Property Protector

flooding problem solution essay

 Source: Hydroresponse

The water-inflated property protector is one of the most basic flood protection systems we’ve discussed on this list, but it doesn’t necessarily mean it’s worse. This system comprises connectable vinyl-coated polyester bags that hold large amounts of water and serve as temporary dams. By fighting the floodwaters with more water, the heavy barrier system is a quick and effective way to stop floodwater ingress from a structure in much the same manner that sandbags work.

And that’s your lot for today.

Flooding is a very serious problem worldwide and requires careful planning to mitigate and protect against it. While we will likely never be able to prevent flooding completely, inventions like the above can at least make the impact less devastating.

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Trevor English <p>Trevor is a civil engineer (B.S.) by trade and an accomplished writer with a passion for inspiring everyone with new and exciting technologies. He is also a published children&rsquo;s book author and the producer for the YouTube channel Concerning Reality.</p>


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A flood of solutions

Sophie johnson, creative commons 4.0.

flooding problem solution essay

Floods in Daxinganling Prefecture, Heilongjiang Province, June 2021.

As an overarching solution to all extreme weather events, we’ve primarily got to tackle climate change at the core. 

We’ve witnessed a record-breaking heatwave in North America, devastating flooding in Germany, Belgium and the UK, and unprecedented torrential rain in China - in the last month alone.

After the hottest week of the year, London and Southern parts of England were deluged with almost a month’s worth of rain in less than 24 hours.

Hospitals had to be evacuated, tube stations were forced to close and motorists rescued by the emergency services after heavy rain caused sudden flooding throughout London over the weekend.

All of these extreme weather events have hit the news worldwide because of the detrimental damage they are causing to communities and the economy.

They’ve caught authorities in some of the most advanced economies in the world entirely off-guard and unprepared.

So far in the UK, climate policy has focused on cutting greenhouse gas emissions, which is of course a primary concern, but the government urgently needs to implement measures to cope with the impacts of extreme weather, as the UK has been falling behind on this. 

Why are the floods occurring

  • Heavier rain caused by climate breakdown

Our atmosphere is getting hotter and hotter. Evaporation is increasing, which is changing how storms occur, with a rise in shorter, sharper intense rainfall. 

Heavy rainfall events are projected to increase through the 21st century, to a level as much as three times the historical average.

Of course, heavy rain does not automatically lead to floods, but it increases the potential for them. Even moderate amounts of rainfall can cause serious damage in places where urban flooding is on the rise.

  • Rising sea levels 

As ocean temperatures rise and ice melts, global sea levels are rising.

Our oceans are approximately seven to eight inches higher than they were in 1900, with about three of those inches added since 1993 alone - a rate of rise per century greater than for any other century in at least the past 2,000 years.

Regardless of the action we take now, over the next 30 years, we will likely see 10-30cm of additional sea level rise. Our oceans are vast volumes of water, which slowly heats and slowly expands.

The sea levels today are based on historical warming, and as we’ve seen in the past month, many countries and places are already feeling the impact of flooding, which is only going to get worse before it gets better.

Why is urgent action needed

  • Economic impact

Flooding causes around £300 million of damage to property every year, and, within our lifetime, we can expect to see that rise by 25-50 percent or so towards the end of the century.

Also, at the rate we’re on, by 2100, 10-20 percent airline routes around the world will be at risk of major disruption with hundreds of airports at risk of flooding.

Insurers are among those most concerned about the impacts of climate breakdown, and have warned that UK households and businesses in some areas could find themselves uninsurable if stronger action is not taken.

  • Contamination and disease

Floodwater isn’t just water. It can often carry raw sewage, leaked toxic chemicals, and runoff from hazardous waste sites and factory farms. This causes polluted drinking water supplies and nasty eye, ear, skin, and gastrointestinal infections. 

When floodwaters recede, bacteria and mold may remain, increasing rates of respiratory illnesses too, such as asthma. 

  • Impact on mental health

The catastrophic loss of life, businesses, possessions, homes and the uprooting of entire communities is of course going to have a long-lasting impact on mental health.

Studies have shown that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) of flood victims is still present over two years’ on. 

It is also most often lower-income people, the elderly, and minority communities who suffer the greatest impacts.

These populations are least likely to have flood insurance, access to transportation during an evacuation, cash on hand, or the ability to relocate. The mental anguish of having to repair and replace possessions is huge. 

How can we tackle extreme flooding

I’ve touched a lot on the negatives, but it’s no real use sharing the problem without any solutions.

What we do now is that It’s too late to stop the effects of climate change from happening, but we can reduce the impacts it will have on our lives.

Action is needed now to improve regulation about where and how properties are built, encourage the use of resilient materials, and consider innovative and natural solutions to climate change.

  • Ramp down fossil fuel use

As an overarching solution to all extreme weather events, we’ve primarily got to tackle climate change at the core, reducing the rising atmospheric temperatures and CO2 emissions. 

At present 350 million tonnes of CO2 is emitted a year in the UK. Therefore, we’ve got to transition away from fossil fuel use and invest in a green new deal which prioritises decarbonisation, zero-emission infrastructure and transport, and the creation of a multitude of green jobs in the process.  

We’d need around £40 billion a year to decarbonise the economy at present, which in the grand scheme would only be one to two percent of GDP growth over 30 years, so it’s fundamentally worth the investment.  

  • Improve flood risk data

The UK really lacks flood risk data due to refusal to invest. The surface water flood hazard maps for the UK have not been improved since 2013 which is ridiculous. 

How can we help people prepare for surface water flooding if they don’t know they are at risk? 

  • Educate people to prepare for flooding

No city, town or village is immune to flooding so we must educate our residents and businesses on how to prepare. This includes:

  • creating a ‘flood kit’ filled with possessions you might need in the event of evacuation such as bottled water, nappies for kids, cash, medication, phone chargers, insurance documents etc. 
  • Purchasing sandbags if not provided free of charge by your local council 
  • Make sure your insurance is up-to-date and take detailed photographs of your property to show to your insurance company, should things take a bad turn

Also, we need to demonstrate the harm floodwaters can bring and encourage residents to remain indoors as watery streets might look harmless, but the water may be full of sewage, can carry remarkably heavy objects, and you can’t see what is under the surface.

  • Rethink our infrastructure 

Long term, adapting to the impacts of increased flooding will require a complete transformation of the UK’s infrastructure, including drainage and water supply systems, transport, energy supply and communications networks.

Large-scale flood barriers like the Thames barrier in London takes substantial engineering, and whilst effective in big cities with flood plains, it isn’t feasible in smaller, rural locations so we need to balance big engineering with small-scale property change. 

Obviously, these changes require vast investment from the government, so we need to make sure preparations for extreme weather events are prioritised, because they’re only going to get worse. 

  • Increase green spaces and invest in sustainable urban drainage systems 

Trees, hedges and vegetation increase water absorption, catch rainfall and slow down surface water run-off so to be honest it’s not surprising that events of extreme flooding are rising as we keep building and paving over our land. 

We also need to implement sustainable urban drainage systems as every time we put in impermeable systems like tarmac on roads, water lands, rolls down the hill, and builds up, increasing flooding risk. These sustainable drainage systems include:   

  • Permeable paving - rain passes through the surface, either through gaps between individual blocks or permeable material such as gravel or porous asphalt. Large amounts of water can be stored temporarily under the surface and slowly infiltrated into the soil below. This reduces the chances of flooding
  • Green roofs - roofs that include a layer of vegetation or patches of vegetation as part of the roof cover, reducing runoff 
  • Swales - shallow, brad vegetated channels on roads designed to store run off 
  • Rethink the UK’s roles and responsibilities for flood protection

One of the problems is that responsibility for flood protection in the UK is split among many authorities, with little central oversight. 

Lead local flood authorities take responsibility for managing it, the Environment Agency for mapping it, and the Met Office for providing early warning. This makes it difficult for the public to have a good understanding of their own risk and what can be done.

Parliament’s public accounts committee warned earlier this year that the government was not doing enough to prevent damage from flooding, and said councils and local authorities needed much more help, including more cash. 

Funding for flooding needs to be devolved to local areas and sit within a new national framework for addressing the climate emergency.

Fighting floods will only get harder as the world gets hotter, but if the government starts prioritising effective measures against climate change and extreme weather events, we can reduce the impact and increase the resilience of our communities, economy and future.

This Author

Sophie Johnson is a Zoology graduate and passionate  conservation blogger  from the UK.

Donate to The Ecologist and support high impact environmental journalism and analysis.

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Essay on Flood

List of essays on flood in english, essay on flood – essay 1 (150 words), essay on flood: reasons, effects and conclusion – essay 2 (250 words), essay on flood in india – essay 3 (300 words), essay on flood: causes, consequences and prevention – essay 4 (400 words), essay on flood: types, causes and adverse effects – essay 5 (500 words), essay on flood: with causes, mitigating steps and warning system – essay 6 (600 words), essay on flood: with causes – essay 7 (750 words), essay on flood in india – essay 8 (1000 words).


Flood, simply put is an overflow of water from several sources. The nature of the world is to have dry land and water. When water gets on dry land in large quantity flood is said to have occurred.

Causes of Flood:

There are several events that can lead to a flood.

A few of them are highlighted below:

1. Heavy rain pours.

2. Melting ice and snow.

3. Rising sea levels and the overflowing river.

4. Bad drainage systems.

How Flood Affects our Environment:

A flood is by far a negative occurrence. Heavy flooding can have a damaging effect on our environment and the infrastructures in it. First, they can destroy houses and make them inhabitable. Also, they can remove sand from farmland making it difficult to grow crops. Aside from the above, flooding also contaminates clean water causing diseases and ailments.


Governments around the world can reduce the risk of flooding by building a solid drainage system. We as individuals could also help by stopping drainage blockage.

Any dry land filled by excess water is called flood. It is a natural calamity caused due to several factors.

Reasons for Flood:

The reasons for floods can be natural and unnatural caused due to human activities. When there is excessive rainfall in river banks and coastal areas, there is an increase in water level which leads to overflow of water into the nearby dry land. Also, natural calamities like earthquakes cause Tsunami in oceans which leads to flooding of lands close to beaches. In heavily populated cities, due to congested buildings and roadways, flooding happens as there is not enough room for water to drain. In such cases clogged drainages lead to even more flooding of the area.

Global warming has resulted in the melting of glaciers which increase water levels of rivers and flooding of river banks. Deforestation also plays a major role in flooding.

Effects of Flood:

Floods cause large scale destruction to life and property. Buildings, roads and bridges are heavily damaged. Vast acres of crops are destroyed. Arable lands turn barren and clogged with salts. Countless homes and cattle get washed away. All electronic and digital communication seizes. Many lives are lost. And it does not stop there. Post flood, there is a huge risk in the spreading of water borne diseases. Scarcity of food and basic necessities arises. On the whole, floods cause multiple hardships and turn the livelihood of affected people upside-down.

Effective weather forecasting systems are to be maintained by the Government for timely intimation and evacuation of flood prone areas which will greatly help in keeping the many losses due to floods in check.

Flood is a natural disaster that involves overflowing of water over a region of land that is dry under usual conditions. It submerges the area with water. They are the most common kind of weather-related disasters and are a costly hazard. The level of flood can vary a lot – from a few inches to a level that goes up to meters high like a roof level of a house.

The causes of floods are many. They can happen during heavy rains when the drainage system is unable to handle the amount of rain fall. It can also happen even if low levels of rain occur continuously for many days. Floods can occur when the snow melts as temperature changes and it can result in bulk movement of water in the plains. Rivers can overflow sometimes and create flood in the neighboring regions. They can also be a result of breaking of dam which can flood the nearby areas.

There has been increase in the frequency of floods recently. Because of global warming, the average temperature of sea has increased significantly. This has led to higher rate of tropical storms in the Caribbean. It is also responsible for increase in sea level because of melting of ice caps and glaciers.

Floods cause large-scale loss to life and great damage to properties. Floods cause severe damage to agricultural regions of the affected area. There is loss of life of humans as well as animals. People and the government both suffer from loss in financial terms. Re-building of affected areas takes a lot of time and money.

In India, there are many regions which are affected by floods. Some of these are the Gangetic plains, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, Brahmaputra valley and South Gujarat. Within this year, more than 70 lakh people were affected by floods in India.

Flood is one of the recurring natural disasters which is an outcome of above average rainfall and accumulation of excessive water in every living area. Floods may occur due to overflow of water from the reservoirs or due to heavy down pour of rain in places where the drainage systems are not properly maintained.

Water may look so harmless and peaceful until the large quantities termed Floods harms us.

Common Causes of Flood:

Some of the common causes of Flooding are Heavy Rains, Overflowing Rains, Broken Dams, Urban Drainage Basins, Storm Surges & Tsunami’s, Channels with steep sides, lack of vegetation and melting of snow and Ice. Although the causes of floods are varied, most of the causes can be managed if not prevented.

Global Warming and Floods:

Another primary factor of Flood is increase in the atmospheric temperature i.e., Global Warming. Heating up of earth’s surface can lead to melting of ice glaciers and ice caps which leads to the rise in sea level thereby leading to overflowing floods in the coastal regions. Global Warming brings instability in the climatic condition of the earth, where one part of the world experiences floods and the other goes through drought.

Consequences of Flood:

Floods mostly disrupt the normalcy of living things on the planet. Floods are a great threat to the living things; floods also make way for mosquitoes to thrive thereby leading to all communicable diseases such as malaria, Dengue etc. Another impact of floods is loss of drinking water . Floods also lead to power cuts, damage of crops and soil erosion. Floods can also have an economic backslide, thus putting the country at risk.

Preventing Floods:

Some of the measures that can be done to prevent Floods are:

i. To ensure the meteorological departments are well equipped to provide flood warnings to the indicated zones.

ii. Flood resilient homes with efficiency to waterproof homes and moving electric sockets which moves higher as the flood rises.

iii. Protecting wetlands and planting trees systematically can help alleviate the direct floods.

iv. Stop encroaching of river beds and allowing the rivers to take its natural course can drastically bring down floods.

Floods can be scary, but it is in the hands of human beings to ensure it doesn’t impact our daily life. Water storing areas such as ponds, lakes and other water reservoirs should be maintained. Floods can be avoided by improving the soil conditions thereby allowing easy water absorption. Flood barriers can be used as a defense during Flood crisis.

Floods can either occur naturally or they can be facilitated by environmental factors that destruct the flow of water. Flood incidences have increased due to global warming. Global warming is an adverse effect of environmental pollution that causes a rise in temperatures on the earth’s surface. Global warming is associated with intense climatic changes like heavy storms, snowing and raised sea water levels. These changes in climate contribute to flooding. A flood is the spilling of water on dry land surfaces and causes it to submerge. It occurs when water overflows from the water bodies beyond its usual boundaries. Floods are destructive to the environment.

Types of Floods:

There are three main types of floods. Surge floods are floods that occur in the coast regions due to surges and tidal changes that occur in the sea or ocean. Hurricanes and storm surges on the sea or ocean can cause minor, moderate or major floods. The extent or severity of the floods are determined by the strength, size, speed and directions of the surges. Surge flood are usually severe and massively destructive.

Another type of floods is fluvial floods that occurs due to overflow of rivers. Rivers overflow due to heavy rains that increase water levels in rivers beyond its capacity therefore resulting in floods. Heavy snowing can also cause fluvial floods when the ice melts. Fluvial floods are risky when dams are involved because the increased levels of water in rivers creates immense pressure that cause increase pressure on the walls of dams and cause breakage which results in excessive flooding and environmental destruction.

The other type of floods is pluvial floods. Pluvial floods are caused by surface water as a result of heavy rainfall. Pluvial floods are destructive because they disrupt the drainage systems and cause an overflow which affects structures. Pluvial flooding occurs together with surge floods and fluvial floods. Although pluvial flooding does not involve a lot of water, it causes massive destruction of the environment and the infrastructure.

Causes of Floods:

Floods occur naturally due to some environmental factors. Heavy rains can cause an overflow of water form water bodies. Breakage of water body boundaries like riverbanks or walls of dams. Catastrophes like tsunamis and surges in storms cause heavy flooding. During heavy rains the lack of vegetation on the surface of the earth.

Adverse Effects of Floods:

Foods are destructive in nature and have negative impacts on the environment and the ecosystem. Floods cause death of living things and humans. Destruction of property and infrastructure negatively affects the economy of the region affected and economic activities are at a standstill due to disrupted livelihoods. Migrations from areas that are prone to floods is common, which results in overpopulation in urban areas. Financial constraints are experienced due to the rehabilitations from flood destructions. Prevention of floods that result from natural causes is a challenge.

In conclusion, it is evident that floods are destructive. The adverse effects of floods affects normal livelihood and the environment.

Flood is one of the natural calamities which is known to wreck a lot of havoc. There are so many different instances wherein floods are known to damage the whole area and bring massive loss of life and property as well.

Let us check further into the possible causes of flood and how we can eradicate it too.

The Causes of Flood:

Of course, there can be a lot of different cases of floods. Some of the key ones among them are as follows.

Heavy rains: owing to climate changes, many a times, it so happen that it rains torrentially. If the rain is much above normal, it can lead to flooding.

Broken dams: Dams help in keeping the water level in check. If the dams get broken sometimes, it is likely to lead to flood.

Tsunami: Natural calamities like tsunami is likely to create problems of flood and can bring massive loss of life and property.

Global warming: Owing to the increase in global temperature, the ice cap is melting and the increased level of water in the river bed is going to cause a flood.

Of course, there can be a lot of other reasons too which leads to flood and it is important to keep an eye on the water levels to issue a warning well in time.

The Mitigating Steps:

Now that we know the key causes which leads to flood, let us focus on some of the best mitigation measures which you can take to steer clear of this problem.

Flood Warning System:

This is by far the most important thing which one needs to do. It is important to have a sound flood warning system in place. When you have a dedicated system, it can help warn people who can move to higher altitude or take the right steps.

Restore Rivers to their Natural Courses:

Owing to the excessive development work which we have been carried out and harming the environment, too many rivers have diverted from their natural courses. This is another important reason for excessive flood. So, the right thing to do is to help in restoring the rivers to their natural course as it may prevent flood.

The Global Warming Remedial:

Action must be taken to cure the problem of global warming as it is definitely the cause of too many natural disasters. By choosing to cut the level of air and water pollution and minimizing the use of non bio-degradable products, we may be able to directly or indirectly help in controlling the problem of flood and its aftermath.

Modern Day Construction:

While flood is a natural calamity which may sometime come unannounced, it is important that we construct buildings in accordance with the modern technical advancements. The buildings should be so made that they are above the flood levels and they should be sturdy enough to withstand flood as well.

So, these are some of the important points which you should keep in mind. While some of them are ways by which we can prevent the implication and aftermath of flood, a few of them would help in preventing its occurrence as well.

Whenever any calamity occurs, it is important to do your bit to create awareness. The kind of destruction which can happen is whopping. By knowing about it a little ahead of time helps people be better prepared for it.

The bottom line remains the fact that we should all try and minimize the negative impact we are having on the environment. Doing this will ensure that we will be able to curtail the frequency of natural disasters like flood.

Flood is simply defined as the overflow of a very huge quantity of water that covers a very large area of land and leads to the destruction of land and properties and sometimes lives in the areas that are affected. A lot of regions in the world experience flooding every year. A flood basically occurs when there is excessive rain and there is no proper or good drainage system. The amount of flood is different from place to place and the extent of destruction also varies. For the overflow of water to be classified as flood, the area of land affected has to be mostly dry. Flooding can also happen as a result of water overflowing from bodies of water like lakes, oceans and rivers. Floods cause mass destruction. The effects and destruction caused by flood can take many years to fix and repair.

There are a lot of causes of flood; a few of them are discussed below:

1. Heavy Rains:

As discussed earlier, flood is mostly caused by an extended period of rain. This can happen if the quantity of rainfall is a lot more than the capacity of the drainage system. Flood can also be a result of high intensity rainfall in a short period of time.

2. Snow Melting:

Mountains that were covered with snow in the season of winter start to melt once temperature begins to rise. The sudden rise of the temperature causes the snow to melt and this leads to the massive movement of a lot of water to the plains and lands around. If the area receiving the water does not have a proper and good drainage system that will help in getting rid of the large quantity of water, there is going to be flooding. Flood that is caused by snow melting is also called a snowmelt flood.

3. Dam Breaking:

Dams are constructed to be able to hold the water that is flowing downwards from an area of land that is higher. The energy of the water can be used to turn and power propellers that can be used for the generation and creation of electricity. The dam can sometimes break when they can’t hold a large quantity of water and this causes the areas nearby to experience flooding. Sometimes, excessive water can be released intentionally by the dam to stop the dam from breaking which also results in flood but the flood from the intentional release of water isn’t as harsh as that from the dam breaking.

4. Water Bodies Overflowing:

Rivers and other water bodies can overflow sometimes and this leads to a situation that is flood like in the areas nearby. The areas that are low lying and are near the water body are the ones that are affected the most during the periods of water overflowing downstream.

5. Coastal Region Winds:

Hurricanes and very strong winds have the ability to carry sea water into coastal lands that are dry and this is a serious cause of flood. The coastal regions can experience severe damage and destruction. Tsunamis and hurricanes are widely known causes of serious devastation to areas of coastal lands.

Apart from all of the causes of flood discussed above, it is very important to note that the major cause of flood is global warming. The frequency and rate of flood has drastically increased recently. Researchers have said that the average temperature of the sea has wildly increased because of global warming and it has led to the increased sternness and rate of storms that are tropical in and around the Caribbean. The storms are said to have caused the countries in the region experiencing heavy rainfall. Global warming causes an increase in the atmosphere’s temperature and also causes the ice caps and glaciers to melt which in turn causes flood in a lot of regions. Global warming is believed to have a very major effect on the ice caps at the poles and it is believed that the situation is only going to get worse with time.

Overall, the climatic conditions of the earth have gone through a lot of very major changes and it is believed that global warming is the main cause of all of the change. It is believed that global warming is the reason why there is extreme drought in some places and serious flood in other places. Even though there isn’t much we can do about the glaciers melting or rain, we can do our part by building very good and reliable drainage systems that can handle water.

What is a flood? In normal terms, the excess availability of water in a region then it can usually hold is called flood. Floods are usually heard of it in news and through channels as every year, large portions of India are drastically affected by floods. It is mainly during the monsoon season with the onset of rain, we hear of different floods and the havoc they have caused to humans, animals and plant life. It is, therefore; very important to understand what floods are all about?

Types of Floods and their Causes:

Flood is not just the excess rainfall we talk about. There is a lot more to it. For instance, there are Flash Floods in which there is a sudden heavy downpour due to a cloudburst and the entire area is flooded within minutes. In India, areas in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttarakhand witness occurrence of flash flood every year. Similarly, we have river floods in which the areas around a river are flooded due to the swelling of the river. Some parts in Delhi witness river flood every year due to the overflowing of the river Yamuna due to excessive rains and the excess flow of water from the Hathnikund Dam. Another type of floods is the inland flooding . In the case of inland flooding, the area witnessing a rainfall get flooded with the roads and lanes all filled with water. This happens usually when proper drainage system is not in place or is inefficient due to severe blockages which obstruct the flow of water and leading to flooding of lanes and roads in the city. Again, Delhi and Mumbai are cities which see such floods even after an hour of continuous rainfall. People living in coastal areas are prone to coastal floods . These floods are usually caused by high tides or Tsunami which bring huge volumes of water on the land thereby flooding it. Another reason for coastal floods is global warming due which the rise in sea level temperatures has led to the subsequent rise in water level in coastal areas. Coastal areas of Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Orissa witness such floods every year.

Deadliest Floods in Indian History:

India witness floods every year in different states. In fact, some regions are sure to be flooded with the onset of monsoon season. However, there have been occurrences of the flood which have caused massive destruction and hence are termed as the deadliest floods. Hence there is a need to know about them so as to understand and analyse what can be done in order to minimise such destruction in future years.

Deadly floods are a common occurrence in India after every few years. One of the deadliest floods in recent times was the flood in Gujarat in the year 1979 in the Machhu Dam-II. The Machhu Dam-II flopped on Aug. 11, 1979, discharging the full power of the Macchu River on the town of Morbi. The flood thus created in western India caused somewhere around 1,335 deaths, as per the Press Trust of India at the time.

Another of the deadliest floods in India is the one that shook Bihar in the year 1987 in the Kosi River. In any case, the Kosi River is prone to floods and is flooded almost every year. However, this year was particularly exceptional. The most decimating surge in Bihar’s history happened in 1987, when an avalanche obstructed the Bhote Kosi River, making it surge and crush more than 1.7 million homes. As per the statistics of the state, government flooding led to the death of 1,399 individuals and 5,302 animals.

The Tsunami that struck coastal India in the year 2004 was another such disaster which engulfed a number of lives. An extent 9.0 quake under the Indian Ocean on Dec. 26, 2004, set off a tidal wave that crushed southern India. As per the Government statistics 10,749 individuals died, 5,640 went missing and 2.79 million people were affected by the wave. It likewise devastated 11,827 hectares of products and demolished the occupation of 300,000 fishermen.

The Recent Kerala and Kedarnath Floods:

The most noticeably bad climate-related floods in India’s history happened in June 2013, when a few days of overwhelming precipitation activated blaze surges and avalanches in the northern territory of Uttarakhand. The downpour struck amid the bustling visitor season in Uttarakhand when a huge number of Hindu pilgrims rush to the region to visit its memorable sanctuaries. The rain happened some time before the start of rainstorm season, getting numerous off guard. An expected 4,094 individuals died and about 1 million were influenced by the catastrophe in Uttarakhand and neighbouring Himachal Pradesh, the worst affected being the region around Kedarnath. The military was brought in to evacuate around 100,000 people from rocky parts of the state, where they had turned out to be caught by the avalanches.

The recent floods in Kerala are another perfect example of how human activities have led to calling of nature’s ire in different forms such as floods. Had it there been a proper drainage system with no blockages, Kerala would not have witnessed such a massive flood.

The Need for Action:

We must not forget that older civilisations emerged around rivers and seas only and they just vanished with time due to the ever-rising water level on the earth. With the recent back to back occurrences in Kedarnath and Kerala, it is high time the Government as well all of us sit down and think what harm we have done to nature. The blooming of industrial units with no waste management in place, the inefficient drainage system and the careless attitude of both the Government and the people are all collectively responsible for these disasters. Not all disasters can be avoided, but, at least measures can be taken to minimise their impact or at least the ones caused by own carelessness can surely be avoided. It is for own good and for the benefit of future generations that we all do our bit to protect the life on earth from the backlash of nature.

Flood , Flood in India , Natural Disasters

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Essay on Flood for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

Essay on Flood for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

In this post read an Essay on Flood (Natural Disaster) for Students and Children in 1000+ Words.

Table of Contents

Essay on Flood (1000+ Words)

This essay includes what is flood?, its causes, effect, and preventive measures.

What is Flood?

Causes of flood.

Due to heavy river rains, several places in the world face natural disaster . Besides, the breaking of the dam is another cause of a flood. Furthermore, this is also triggered by melting ice.

Effect of Flood

Moreover, due to electrical risks, individuals face power outages. They face expensive costs, too. Prices inevitably rise as the availability of food and products become reduced.

Ways to Prevent flood

To devise solutions to avoid flooding, government and people must work together. Proper knowledge of these steps can be taken and disseminated in the aftermath of a natural disaster.

We have split the causes of floods into two stages viz: organic and inorganic floods. First, natural floods would be addressed.

Natural floods

3. Melting of ice from the glacier- The glaciers are starting to melt even more snow owing to the increase in the Earth’s temperature that causes the water to fall from the mountains at a high velocity so this water has become so high. That one can easily knock out every town or village and fully submerge it.

Unnatural floods

1. Dam Breakdown – Large reservoirs are designed for water storage by humans; however, the dam is not reinforced due of corruption and bad design that breaks up a dam full of thousands of liters of water in the next few years.

3. Plastic pollution – A large volume of plastic is often used in India, and this plastic is dumped in such open areas, however, this plastic is stuck in the hair created to drain the water because the water may not get in the hair when it rains as well as the flood situation occurs.

10 Lines on Flood

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Essay on Flood

Students are often asked to write an essay on Flood in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Flood


A flood is a natural disaster that occurs when water overflows onto dry land. This can happen due to excessive rainfall, melting snow, or dam failure.

Causes of Floods

Floods often occur due to heavy rainfall. If the ground cannot absorb all the water, it overflows into nearby areas. Melting snow can also contribute to floods.

Effects of Floods

Floods can cause severe damage. They can destroy homes, crops, and infrastructure. People may lose their possessions and, in severe cases, their lives.

Prevention and Control

We can prevent floods by building dams and levees. It’s also important to maintain a healthy environment, as deforestation can lead to floods.

250 Words Essay on Flood

Floods represent one of the most destructive natural disasters, having catastrophic effects on human life, infrastructure, and the environment. They are typically caused by excessive rainfall, rapid snowmelt, or dam breakage and can occur in virtually any geographical location.

Causes and Types of Floods

The primary cause of floods is the excessive accumulation of water, either from heavy precipitation or from a blockage in the water flow. There are several types of floods, including river floods, coastal floods, and flash floods. River floods occur when the capacity of a river channel is exceeded, while coastal floods are caused by a storm surge or high tide. Flash floods, on the other hand, are sudden and extreme floods usually caused by heavy rainfall.

Impacts of Floods

The impacts of floods are far-reaching. They can cause loss of life, property damage, and displacement of people. Infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings can be destroyed, disrupting daily life and economic activities. Additionally, floods can lead to waterborne diseases and contaminate drinking water supplies.

Flood Management and Mitigation

Effective flood management involves a combination of structural and non-structural measures. Structural measures include constructing dams, levees, and floodwalls. Non-structural measures involve land use planning, flood forecasting, and public education.

While floods are natural phenomena, human activities often exacerbate their impacts. Therefore, understanding the causes and effects of floods and implementing effective flood management strategies is crucial for reducing their destructive potential and ensuring sustainable development.

500 Words Essay on Flood

The causes of floods.

The primary cause of floods is excessive rainfall, particularly when it falls over saturated soil. The water table, already high due to prior precipitation, cannot absorb more water, leading to surface runoff that ultimately causes flooding. Rapid snowmelt and ice jams in rivers can also lead to floods, with the sudden influx of water overwhelming the river’s capacity.

Human activities, such as deforestation and urbanization, also contribute to flooding. Deforestation reduces the land’s capacity to absorb water, increasing surface runoff. Urbanization, with its concrete landscapes, limits the soil’s ability to absorb water, enhancing the risk of flash floods.

The Impact of Floods

Flood management.

Effective flood management requires a combination of structural and non-structural measures. Structural measures include the construction of levees, reservoirs, and floodways to control floodwaters. Non-structural measures involve land use planning, flood forecasting and warning systems, and public education about flood risks and responses.

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Flood Essay

Floods are natural disasters that occur when a body of water, such as a river or ocean, overflows its banks and spills onto the surrounding land. This can happen for a variety of reasons, including heavy rainfall, melting snow, and storms . Here are a few sample essays on floods.

100 Words Essay on Floods

Floods are naturally occurring phenomena that are caused due to overflowing water bodies. A flood can be just a small occurrence that can cause some travel issues to highly destructive events that can cause significant damage to homes, businesses, and infrastructure. In addition to physical damage, floods can also lead to loss of life and can have long-term impacts on the affected communities.

Flood Essay

To protect against floods, people can take steps such as building floodwalls and levees and elevating homes and other structures in flood-prone areas. It is also important for individuals to be prepared for floods by having an emergency plan in place and staying informed about potential flooding in their area.

200 Words Essay On Floods

Floods are natural disasters that occur due to overflowing water sources like ponds, oceans and rivers. The reasons for the occurrence of floods can be heavy rainfall, loose soil, melting of snow, breaking of dams etc.

Impact | The impacts of floods can be far-reaching and long-lasting. In addition to physical damage to homes, businesses, and infrastructure, floods can also lead to loss of life. Floodwaters can carry dangerous debris and pollutants, making them a health hazard for people and animals. Floods can also have economic impacts, as they can disrupt transportation and commerce, and can destroy crops and other sources of food.

Prevention | People living nearby water bodies take preventative measures to reduce the impact of flood damage. Building elevated homes, planting more trees to soak up an extra amount of water, having an escape plan in case of emergencies etc. It is also important for individuals to be prepared for floods by having an emergency plan in place and staying informed about potential flooding in their area. In the event of a flood, it is important to follow the advice of local authorities and evacuate if instructed.

Overall, floods are serious natural disasters that can have significant impacts on communities. By taking steps to protect against floods and being prepared for them, people can reduce the risks and impacts of this type of disaster.

500 Words Essay on Floods

Floods are a common natural disaster that occurs when excess water overflows onto land that is normally dry. This can happen for a number of reasons, including heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and coastal storms.

Types Of Floods

There are several different types of floods, each with its own characteristics and potential impacts. Flash floods, for example, are caused by sudden, intense rainfall and can happen within minutes or hours. They can be particularly dangerous because they often catch people off guard and can lead to flash flooding in urban areas.

On the other hand, river floods are caused by water flowing over the banks of rivers and streams. These floods can be more gradual, giving people time to evacuate and prepare, but they can also be very destructive.

Coastal floods, also known as storm surges, are caused by strong winds and high tides associated with coastal storms, such as hurricanes. These floods can be extremely destructive, as they can cause not only flooding but also strong winds and waves that can damage buildings and infrastructure.

Biggest Floods Recorded On Earth

One of the biggest floods in history was the 1931 China floods , also known as the Central China Floods . These floods were caused by heavy rainfall and the collapse of the Banqiao Dam. The floods affected an estimated 54 million people and resulted in the deaths of 145,000 people.

Another major flood was the 1993 Mississippi River Flood , which affected parts of the United States, including Missouri, Illinois, and Kentucky . The floods were caused by heavy rainfall and resulted in the deaths of 50 people and caused billions of dollars in damages.

In 1998, the Yangtze River Flood in China also caused widespread destruction. The floods, which were the result of heavy rainfall, affected millions of people and resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 people. The floods also caused billions of dollars in damages.

Another recent and devastating flood was the 2010 Pakistan floods, which affected the Indus River Basin in Pakistan. The floods, which were caused by heavy monsoon rains, affected an estimated 20 million people and resulted in the deaths of over 1,700 people.

Forest To Prevent Floods

Forests play a critical role in preventing floods. Trees and other vegetation in forests can act as natural barriers which absorb water. Hence, reducing the speed of flowing water and thereby reducing the risk of flooding.

When it rains, the leaves and branches of trees absorb a significant amount of water. The roots of trees also help to hold the soil in place, preventing it from eroding and being carried away by the water. This helps to reduce the amount of water that flows over the surface and into rivers and streams, lowering the risk of flooding.

In addition to absorbing water, forests also help to regulate the flow of water by releasing it slowly into rivers and streams. This helps to prevent sudden, large increases in water levels that can lead to flooding. Trees and other vegetation can help to reduce the force of the water and protect against erosion, which can help to minimise the damage caused by floods.

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IELTS Writing Task 2 Problem and Solution Essay Lesson

flooding problem solution essay

Problem Solution Essay

This lesson on how to write a problem solution essay will:

  • discuss common mistakes;
  • show you how to analyse the question;
  • show you how to think of ideas;
  • give you a structure that can be used again and again on all problem solution IELTS essays;
  • describe how to write an introduction , main body paragraphs and conclusion; and
  • give you a full band 9 sample answer.

Problem/solution questions are one of the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions on the academic paper. Despite being very common, many students fail to do well in these questions. This post will look at some of the most common mistakes and then take you through how to answer these questions step-by-step.

flooding problem solution essay

Common Mistakes

  • The most common mistake for problem solution essays is not expanding on your ideas and instead simply listing lots of problems and solutions. The examiner does not want a list of all the problems and solutions you can think of, and please don’t do this in the exam. Instead, if you look at how the exam is marked , the examiner wants you to pick one or two problems and solutions and then expand on them with explanations and examples. More on how to do this below.
  • Another common mistake is writing about problems and solutions that are not directly linked to the question. You should be like a sniper when answering the question and only give very specific ideas rather than ideas that generally talk about the overall issue. This has a lot to do with how you identify keywords and micro-keywords in the questions which we will look at below.
  • Lots of people think of good ideas for problems and then fail to link their solutions to these problems. Each problem should have a solution directly linked to it, or in other words, it should solve the actual problem.
  • Finally, some candidates think of really good problems and solutions that answer the question properly and then expand their answers with explanations and examples, but they talk too generally. Instead, you should be thinking of specific examples and explanations. We will look at how to avoid this below.

Analysing the Question 

This is one of the most crucial parts of answering any IELTS writing question. If you don’t take the time to think properly about what the examiner is asking you to do, then it is very difficult to answer the question correctly.

We analyse the question by thinking about three things:

  • micro-keywords
  • action words

Keywords are the words that tell us what the general topic is.

Micro-keywords identify which part of the general topic the examiner wants you to discuss. They often give an opinion, qualify the statement or talk about a sub-category of the bigger general topic.

Action words tell us what the examiner wants us to do.

Problem Solution Sample Essay

Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st Century, and sea levels continue to rise at alarming rates. 

What problems are associated with this, and what are some possible solutions? 

If we look at this question, we can see that the keywords are ‘ global warming ‘. This is our general topic. We will write about this, but we cannot write about any problems associated with global warming. If we do this, we have not answered the question properly. We, therefore, need to look at the micro-keywords.

The micro-keywords are ‘ humans ‘ and ‘ sea level rise ‘. So instead of writing just about the huge topic of global warming and any problems associated with that (such as increased storms, extinction of certain animals, erosion of soil), we have to talk about how particularly sea level rises will affect humans . If we talked about the problems affecting the ‘planet’ or ‘animals’ or the ‘atmosphere’, we would not be answering the question.

The action words are problems and solutions .  Our task is, therefore, to write about that and only that. It does not ask our opinion about the disadvantages, advantages, or causes, just the problems and solutions. If we discussed the causes of sea level rise, we would not be answering the question.

For more information, go to effectively analyse an IELTS question .

How to Think of Ideas 

flooding problem solution essay

Now that we know exactly what the question is asking us to do, we need to think of specific and relevant ideas. There are many strategies for thinking of ideas for IELTS task 2 questions  TO THINK OF IDEAS FOR IELTS WRITING TASK 2  but for problem-solving questions; I like to use something called the ‘coffee shop method’.

Instead of brainstorming or mind-mapping- which take too much time and lead to irrelevant ideas in my opinion- you should pretend you are in a coffee shop with a friend and they have just asked you a simple question. In this case, it would be “What are the problems and solutions associated with sea level rise on humans?”

If you were talking to a friend about this, I’m sure you would have no problem thinking of at least 2 or 3 problems and solutions. This method takes you out of an exam situation and puts your mind into a more relaxed environment. Try it and see. If you don’t like it, try one of my other methods.

There are several problems and solutions, including:

Problem : flooding of people’s homes and businesses

Solution : build flood barriers or move to higher areas

Problem : loss of agricultural land and starvation

Solution : switch to more suitable crops

Problem : displacement of millions of people

Solution : move people in a planned and orderly way before the floods

Problem : groundwater undrinkable

Solution : build desalination plants

As you can see, I didn’t think of lots of problems and then lots of solutions. For each problem, you should think of a solution that directly solves this problem.

You now have lots of ideas, but now you must decide which ones to use. I always tell my students to pick the ones they know most about, i.e. that they can explain and give relevant examples.

flooding problem solution essay

I advise my students to use a basic four-paragraph structure with all problem solution IELTS essays. Your four paragraphs should look something like this:

Paragraph 1- Introduction

Paragraph 2- Problems

Paragraph 3- Solutions

Paragraph 4- Conclusion

At a sentence level, your structure should look like this:


1- Paraphrase question

2- Outline sentence

3- State problems

4- Explain first problem

5- Explain second problem

6- Example of second problem

7- State solutions

8- Explain solution to first problem

9- Explain solution to second problem

10- Example of solution to second problem


Sentence 11- Summary of main points in paragraphs 2 and 3

For more structures, check out our IELTS task 2 structures guide .

Now let’s look at each paragraph in more detail.

flooding problem solution essay

The introduction will have two sentences: a paraphrase of the question and an outline statement.

Paraphrasing is simply saying the sentence again with different words but with the same meaning. We can do this by using synonyms and/or changing the order of the words.

Question-  Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st Century, and sea levels continue to rise at alarming rates. 

Paraphrased- Climate change is among the principal dangers facing people this century, and ocean levels are increasing dramatically.

As you can see above, I have used synonyms to change the words of the questions, but it still has the same meaning. The examiner will look for your ability to do this in the exam, so practising this skill is a good idea.

Our outline sentence is next, which tells the examiner what they will read in the rest of the essay. This makes it very clear to the examiner and makes the rest of the essay much easier to understand. You will, therefore, gain marks for coherence and cohesion.

Our outline sentence should look something like this:

This essay will first suggest that the biggest problems caused by this phenomenon are the loss of land and the flooding of homes and then argue that pollution reduction and building flood protection are the most viable solutions.

Our introduction will, therefore, look like this:

Climate change is among the principal dangers facing people this century, and ocean levels are increasing dramatically. This essay will first suggest that the biggest problems caused by this phenomenon are the loss of land and the flooding of homes and then argue that pollution reduction and building flood protection are the most viable solutions.

It should be noted that this introduction does not contain a thesis statement. This is because this particular question does not ask us for our opinion. However, IELTS problem solution questions sometimes do ask you for your opinion, and you should then include a thesis statement.

Problems Paragraph 

Our problems paragraph will have this structure:

Sentence 1- State problems

Sentence 2- Explain first problem

Sentence 3- Explain second problem

Sentence 4- Example of second problem

State problems : The foremost problems caused by climbing sea levels are that land is being lost and peoples’ residences are often flooded.

Now that we have stated the problems, we must explain these. You should always consider your audience to be someone with no specialist knowledge in this area, and you, therefore, need to explain what everything means. Don’t assume that the IELTS examiner is educated and knows what you are talking about. These assumptions will stop you from writing what you need.

Explain first problem : As water levels rise, low-lying land is submerged, and many countries become smaller.

Explain second problem : Furthermore, millions of people worldwide live in coastal areas, and if the sea rises by even a few feet, they are inundated with water and lose their property.

Now we must give an example of what we are talking about. When we give an example, it should be as specific as possible.

An example of a very general example would be:

Lots of people in the world have experienced floods recently. 

This is far too general to be considered a good example.

Example : The devastation brought about by this was clear for all to see during the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, in which millions of people were displaced.

This example is much more specific. Stating a place and/or date can help you make your examples more specific.

Our second paragraph will look like this:

The foremost problems caused by climbing sea levels are that land is being lost and people’s residences are often flooded. As water levels rise, low-lying land is submerged, and many countries become smaller. Furthermore, millions of people worldwide live in coastal areas, and if the sea rises by even a few feet, they are inundated with water and lose their property. This devastation was clear for all to see during the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, in which millions of people were displaced.

Now we must move on to our solutions.

Solutions Paragraph

Our solutions paragraph will have this structure:

Sentence 1- State solutions

Sentence 2- Explain solution to first problem

Sentence 3- Explain solution to second problem

Sentence 4- Example of solution to second problem

State solutions : Possible solutions to these problems would be to reduce the amount of pollution created and build flood barriers.

We now need to explain how our solution will help solve the problem. Again, do not assume that the examiner has any specialist knowledge of this topic, so you need to explain what you mean.

Explain first solution: If each person reduces their carbon footprint, the negative effects on the environment will be reduced, which will mean that the water level will stop rising.

Explain second solution : Furthermore, flood defences, such as dikes, dams, and floodgates, could be built along coasts and waterways, thereby stopping the water from reaching populated areas.

Example : The Netherlands is one of the most populated areas in the world and one of the most vulnerable to flooding. They have successfully employed various flood defence systems.

Our whole solutions paragraph will look like this:

Possible solutions to these problems would be to reduce the amount of pollution being created and to build flood barriers. If each person reduces their carbon footprint, the negative effects on the environment will be reduced, which will mean that the water level will stop rising. Furthermore, flood defences, such as dikes, dams, and floodgates, could be built along coasts and waterways, thereby stopping the water from reaching populated areas. The Netherlands is one of the most populated areas in the world and also one of the most vulnerable to flooding, and they have successfully employed various flood defence systems.

We have now answered the question and need to sum up what we have said in the conclusion.

flooding problem solution essay

The conclusion should have no new ideas but instead should list the main points from the previous two paragraphs. You can also use synonyms in this paragraph to avoid repetition.

Conclusion : To conclude, stemming the rising tides caused by increasing global temperatures is one of the foremost challenges we face, and it will ultimately lead to some countries losing landmass and many of the world’s cities being left underwater, but possible solutions could be to protect our environment and to utilise the flood prevention techniques already used by countries like Holland.

Our whole conclusion for this problem solution essay will look like this:

To conclude, stemming the rising tides caused by increasing global temperatures is one of the foremost challenges we face, and it will ultimately lead to some countries losing landmass and many of the world’s cities being left underwater, but possible solutions could be to protect our environment and to utilise the flood prevention techniques already used by countries like Holland.

Problem and Solution Sample Essay

Here is the whole essay:

Climate change is among the principal dangers facing people this century, and ocean levels are increasing dramatically. This essay will first suggest that the biggest problems caused by this phenomenon are the loss of land and the flooding of homes and then argue that pollution reduction and building flood protection are the most viable solutions. The foremost problems caused by climbing sea levels are that land is being lost and peoples’ residences are often flooded. As water levels rise, low-lying land is submerged and many countries become smaller. Furthermore, millions of people all over the world live in coastal areas, and if the sea rises by even a few feet, they are inundated with water and lose their property. The devastation brought about by this was clear for all to see during the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, in which millions of people were displaced. Possible solutions to these problems would be to reduce the amount of pollution being created and to build flood barriers. If each person reduces their carbon footprint, the negative effects on the environment will be reduced and this will mean that the water level will stop rising. Furthermore, flood defences, such as dikes, dams, and floodgates, could be built along coasts and waterways, thereby stopping the water reaching populated areas. The Netherlands is one of the most populated areas in the world and also one of the most vulnerable to flooding and they have successfully employed various flood defence systems. To conclude, stemming the rising tides caused by increasing global temperatures is one of the foremost challenges we face and it will ultimately lead to some countries losing landmass and many of the worlds’ cities being left underwater, but possible solutions could be to protect our environment and to utilise the flood prevention techniques already used by countries like Holland.

I hope this post helps you with IELTS problem solution essays, and if you have any questions, please comment below.

flooding problem solution essay

Next Steps 

If you found this lesson useful and it has helped you write a problem solution essay, you should also check out our lessons on task 2 opinions essays , discussion essays and advantages and disadvantages essays .

Do you need me to correct your essays and give you feedback on them? Check out our essay correction service .

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How do we solve our flooding problem?

With the recent floods in the Philippines brought about by Tropical Storm “Gorio,” we are once again reminded of a problem that comes to us with great regularity and increasing severity.

“Bakit bumabaha sa Manila?” Why does it flood in Manila? As a civil engineer teaching at the University of the Philippines Los Baños, I always asked my students that question.

Some blamed the drainage system which they described as poorly designed; others blamed the garbage that clogged sewer lines. Some cited the city’s concrete as lacking the porosity that allows floodwaters to recede faster.

Of course, I appreciated those answers because, indeed, inadequate drainage systems and high imperviousness aggravate the problem of flooding. But if these were fixed, would Manila be flood-free?

The answer lies not in Manila’s drainage system or land cover, but in its geography: Most parts of Manila are situated in a floodplain — the area adjacent to a river that is inundated when water rises.

A floodplain is fertile land suitable for agriculture, but when people transform it into a residential or commercial area, it becomes flood-prone. Therefore, from an engineering perspective, Metro Manila will always be vulnerable to flooding: The drainage system, no matter how well-maintained, can only store water from precipitation itself but not when the river swells. The same may be said of other areas in the country situated near creeks and rivers.

This conundrum begs the question: If floods are inevitable, what can we do about them?

First, we need a reliable flood forecasting system. Fortunately, our scientists have initiated efforts toward this direction, including Mahar Lagmay and his colleagues in Project NOAH, as well as Enrico Paringit et al. of UP Diliman’s DREAM program. But more work needs to be done: There are still many areas in the Philippines without flood maps. In the United States, approximate but expedient terrain-based flood mapping that does not need ground surveys has been gaining popularity. The application of such a method in the Philippines must be explored.

In my studies at the University of Texas at Austin, I have been privileged to witness the United States’ move toward a contiguous National Water Model, which increases forecast locations from 4,000 to 2.7 million.

In the Philippines, the UPLB project of formulating a national water security roadmap — in conjunction with the National Water Resources Board—is a welcome development. But such plans must go beyond what Ernesto Ordoñez, secretary general of the National Water Roadmap Summit, called “ningas kugon” in a presummit meeting held on July 12, which I attended. As with Project NOAH, such initiatives can only stay afloat with enough government support.

Second, there must be interoperability between forecasters and local government units: Forecasts must reach local emergency responders. Our flood warning and response system must be strengthened. Again, there have been advancements toward this end. For instance, an SMS warning system is now in place in vulnerable areas. Also, Project NOAH’s inclusion in the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council has undoubtedly saved thousands through timely warnings of incoming floods. We should support these and similar efforts.

Finally, data sources must be readily available to the public. The fact is that there is no openness of data in our country. While many reasons can be offered for such secretiveness, like security, I find it ironic that when I made Philippine flood maps, I had to rely on US agencies to download Philippine data. Moreover, many researchers around the world—students, for example—would like to study the Philippines’ flooding situation but are impeded because of lack of data. International collaboration will surely accelerate the knowledge and skills required for this.

The Philippines, while blessed with water resources, will continue to be vulnerable to floods. But there are ingenious ways that we can adopt to address this problem. Floods are here to stay, but we need not suffer their consequences.

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Jonathan David Lasco is a PhD researcher majoring in environmental and water resources engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.


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Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Disasters — Flood

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flooding problem solution essay

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Essay on Flood for Children and Students

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Table of Contents

Essay on Flood: Flood is an overflow of huge amount of water covering large areas causing destruction at the places affected. Many regions across the globe face the problem of floods each year.

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Target Exam ---

Flood occurs due to excessive downpour and lack of proper drainage system. The severity of flood may vary from region to region and the destruction caused due to the same varies accordingly.

Long and Short Essay on Flood in English

Here are essays on flood of varying lengths to help you with the topic whenever you required. You can chose any flood essay according to your need:

Flood Essay – 1 (200 words)

Floods are caused in areas where there is excessive downpour and poor drainage system. Flood is also caused because of other reasons including overflow of water from rivers and oceans, overflow of water in the plains due to dam break, excessive flow of water owing to sudden melting of glaciers. In coastal areas hurricanes and tsunamis cause flood. Floods can cause major destruction just as other natural calamities.

Several towns and cities around the world have suffered from severe floods that have cost lives of people and animals, resulted in loss of property and other valuable assets and destruction of soil and plants. Farmers are majorly impacted by floods as their crops get ruined owing to this weather condition. Water accumulated for days at a particular place also results in the outbreak of various diseases. When the condition is severe, the schools and offices are shut and it thus disturbs the normal life of people. Places that face severe floods take months to resurrect.

The irony is that there are certain regions that are hit by flood frequently and even though the government is aware about the problem, proper measures are not being taken to overcome it. The government must build good drainage system and water storage systems to control this problem.

Flood Essay – 2 (300 words)

Flood caused due water logging that is mostly a result of heavy rainfall are known to have fatal consequences. It results in loss of life, rise in diseases, price rise, economic loss and destruction of the environment among other issues. The impact the floods depend on their type and severity.

Types of Floods

Some floods can subside in a few days while others take weeks to subside and have a major impact on the lives of the people living in that area. Here is a look at the different types of floods:

  • Slow On-set Floods

This type of flood is caused when the water bodies such as rivers overflow and affect the nearby areas. This flood develops slowly and may last from a few days to weeks. These spread over several kilometres and mostly impact the low lying areas. Water accumulated due to flood in such areas may cause harm to property and can also be a cause of various diseases.

  • Rapid On-set Floods

These take a slightly longer to build and can last for a day or two. These are also known to be extremely destructive. However, people are mostly warned about these and have a chance to escape before the situation becomes worse. Tourists planning holiday to such places can postpone or cancel the plan when there is still time and avoid the trauma caused by this situation.

  • Flash Floods

Flash floods mostly occur within a very short duration of time such as a few hours or even minutes. These are mostly caused due to heavy rainfall, melting of snow or dam break. These are known to be the most fatal among all and can result in mass destruction as these are almost sudden and people do not get any time to take caution.

Floods disrupt the day to day life in the affected regions. They cause various problems for the people living in such areas. Regions hit by severe floods take months and at times even years to rebuild.

Flood Essay – 3 (400 words)

Flood is a natural disaster that is caused due to the accumulation of excessive water in a region. This is often an outcome of heavy rainfall. Many regions also face flood due to overflow of river or ocean water, breaking of dams and melting of snow. In the coastal areas, hurricanes and tsunamis are known to bring about this condition.

Flood-Prone Regions around the World

Several regions across the globe are prone to frequent floods. The cities around the world that face severe and frequent floods include Mumbai and Kolkata in India, Guangzhou, Shenzen and Tianjin in China, Guayaquil in Ecuador, New York, NY-Newark, NJ, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Miami and New Orleans. Floods are known to have caused mass destruction in these areas in the past.

How to Control the Problem Caused Due to Floods?

From damaging the environment to disrupting the human life – floods have several negative repercussions that are difficult to deal with. It is thus important to take measures to control the same. Here are a few ways to control this problem:

  • Flood Warning Systems

It is the need of the hour to set up better flood warning systems so that people are warned about the upcoming problem right on time and they have enough time to safeguard themselves and their belongings

  • Construct Buildings Above the Flood Level

Buildings in the flood prone area must be constructed above the flood level so as to avoid damage to the property as well as the people living there.

  • Introduce Water Storage System

The government must invest in building water storage systems to store and reuse the rain water. This way the excessive water can be put to use instead of letting it overflow on the plains and cause flood.

  • Strengthen Drainage System

One of the main causes of flood is the poor drainage system. It is essential to build good drainage systems to avoid water logging that results in flood.

  • Install Flood Barriers

Flood barriers should be installed in the areas that are prone to flood. These can be removed once the water recedes.

While the occurrence of rainfall, melting of snow-mountains, overflowing of water bodies and hurricanes can be difficult to control however these can be predicted in most cases and the government can take measures to ensure that water logging, that in turn results in flood, does not happen as a result of these conditions. This can be done by employing few of the methods shared above.

Flood Essay – 4 (500 words)

Floods are caused by a number of reasons including heavy rainfall, overflow of water from water bodies such as rivers and oceans, melting of glaciers, hurricanes and strong winds along the coastlines. When there is a lack of good drainage system to suck up the excessive water it results in water logging that causes flood.

Consequences of Flood

Floods disrupt the normal functioning of the region affected. Severe floods can result in mass destruction. Here is how floods impact life on earth:

  • Threat to Life

Many people and animals lose their lives because of severe flash floods. Many others get injured and are infected by various diseases. Water accumulated at places for days result in the breeding of mosquitoes and other insects that are the cause of various diseases such as malaria and dengue. Cases of dysentery, pneumonic plague and military fever are also on rise during this time.

The supply of electricity and water is disrupted during this time thereby adding to the problems of the general public. There is also a risk of catching current in places where the electricity supply is still intact.

  • Economic Loss

Many people lose their houses and other assets such as automobiles that they take years to earn. It is also a costly affair for the government as it has to deploy a number of policemen, firemen and other officials to conduct the rescue operation. In case of severe floods, the affected regions take years to re-build.

The supply of goods in the flood affected areas lowers as the road transport cannot reach there. Besides, the goods stored in these areas also get spoiled due to floods. There is a shortage of supply and the demand is high and it thus results in increased prices of the commodities.

  • Soil Erosion

When the downpour is too heavy, the soil cannot absorb the entire water and it often results in soil erosion which in turn has dreadful consequences. In addition to the erosion of soil, the quality of soil is also impacted, often degraded.

  • Damage of the Flora

Floods are not just a threat to the human beings and animals but also destroy the flora. Heavy rains are often accompanied by thunder, lightning and strong winds. These storms are a cause of uprooting of trees. Besides, the crops are damaged and several other plants are eroded during floods.

Flood Prone Areas in India

A number of regions in India face the problem of floods year after year. The major areas affected by this natural calamity in the country are most of the Gangetic plains including North Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, Mumbai, Maharashtra, parts of Punjab and Haryana, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, the Brahmaputra valley and South Gujarat. Floods are known to have caused severe damage to these places in the past and are still a threat here.

Floods are one of the natural disasters that are known to have caused major destruction in various regions. It is time the government of India must take this issue seriously and come up with strong measures to control this problem.

Flood Essay – 5 (600 words)

Floods occur when excessive rainfall in a particular region results in the overflow of water on the land that is mostly dry. It can also occur due to the overflow of water from water bodies like river, ocean and lake. Floods are known to cause mass destruction. In certain regions, the destruction caused is so severe that it takes years to repair the loss.

Causes of Flood

Here is a closer look at the various causes of flood:

  • Heavy Rains

Flood like situation arises each time the downpour is more than the drainage system can absorb. At times, heavy rainfall occurring for a short period of time can cause flood while on other occasions light rainfall that goes on for days may result in flood like situation.

  • Melting of Snow

The mountains covered with snow during the winter season begin to melt as the temperature rises. The sudden melting of the ice usually causes the temperature to rise and this results in enormous movement of water into the plains. The areas that do not have proper drainage system to get rid of the excessive water face flood. This is often referred to as snowmelt flood.

  • Breaking of Dam

Dams are created to hold water that flows down from a highland. The power in the water is employed to turn propellers for the generation of electricity. At times the dams break as they are unable to hold large amount of water thereby resulting in flood in the nearby areas. At times, excessive water is deliberately released from the dam so as to stop it from breaking. This may also result in flood.

  • Overflow of Water Bodies

Water bodies such as rivers may overflow at times and cause flood like situation in the nearby areas. The low-lying areas near the rivers are worst impacted during this time as the water flows downstream.

  • Winds in the Coastal Region

Strong winds and hurricanes have the capacity of carrying the sea water to the dry coastal lands and this causes flood. This can cause severe damage to the coastal regions. Hurricanes and Tsunamis are known to have caused major devastation in the coastal lands.

Global Warming: The Main Cause of Flood

The frequency of floods has increased in the recent past. It is said that the average sea temperature has increased a great deal due to global warming and this has resulted in the increased rate and sternness of tropical storms in the Caribbean. These storms are a cause of heavy downpour in the countries in their path. Global warming that is causing a rise in the temperature in the atmosphere is also a cause of the melting of glaciers and ice caps that is again a cause of flood in many regions. This is said to have a major impact on the polar ice caps in the times to come and the situation is likely to worsen.

The overall climatic conditions on earth have undergone a major change and global warming is said to be a cause of this transformation. While certain areas experience extreme floods others experience drought.

Though we cannot do much about the rain or the melting of the glaciers however we can certainly build good drainage systems to deal with the water they bring along. Many countries, such as Singapore that receive heavy rainfall for most part of the year, have really good drainage system. They come out clean even after days of heavy downpour. The government of India must also build good drainage system in order to avoid the problem of flood and the damage it does to the affected regions.

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Flooding Problem in Philippines Research Paper

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Essay Introduction about Flood in the Philippines

The Philippines generally and Metro Manila specifically is a city prone to flooding by its very nature and locality (Warren, 2000). Nevertheless, the city has grown and developed into a world trade commercial center that is always controlled by torrential waterfalls that make it lose its beauty. The Pasig River, which crosses the Manila City, is a landmark that collects the spills of natural waterways and drains excess water occasioned by heavy rains. Manila, Philippines, is characteristic of the heavy downpour that always results in dense flooding that literally disrupts business, learning, and transport as schools and offices are indefinitely closed immediately the rainy season begins.

Background on the Flood

Flooding affects every region of the Philippines neighborhood, and several low-lying regions in the Manila City, such as Espino, Taft, Malabo, and Valenzuela, are usually among the worst hit in every series of flooding that occurs in Philippines (Bankoff, 2003b). Neglect of friendly flood control measures and deeply rooted political interests in the concept of environmental conservation are factors involved (Fano, 2000). Damaged watersheds, enormous slum dwellers living in the echelons natural waterways, and the total disregard for the city’s drainage system continue to make the city of over 15 million people much chaotic, more uncertain, and highly vulnerable to high dense series of flooding.

Geographic Location

Metro Manila City is located in a semi-alluvial floodplain whose escapement is a formation of sediment flow that emanates from the Malabon-Tullahan and Meycauayan the riverbeds far north and the Marikina riverbed in the east (Catalina, 2012). The city stretches onto a land area of approximately 636 kilometers square and measuring nearly 20 kilometers in length, stretching along a north-south axis with an area that again stretches for another 22 kilometers (Afuang, 2001). Geographically, the city is open to Manila Bay unto the western side and adjacent to Laguna de Bay, a large water mass on the southeastern frontier.

Bankoff (2003a) observes that due to these geographical facts, the metropolitan region is made up of a massive urbanized drainage basin that receives frequent instances of river water outbursts that renders the existing system to wobble heavily from the canals that were constructed in the ancient regimes during the Spanish colonial period. In spite of the ever-growing vulnerability to these torrential water masses, rapid urbanization continues to be embraced in the Manila main drainage strip with residential homes, commercial sites, and heavy industries being built in these waterways with no regard to future considerations (Catalina, 2012).

The Climate of the Country

It is no doubt that it floods in the Philippines because it rains, while the rains and the Typhoons that occasion these flooding incidences normally increase in magnitude, observers opine that this is a duty of climate change, and it would be necessary to set out a work plan to stop this menace (Fano, 2000). As Badilla (2008) notes, the weather patterns and rainy seasons are increasingly becoming unpredictable which in essence result in sustained heavy rains that runs for days none stop causing severe flooding in most parts of the country. Large areas of the Manila City and other adjacent cities such as Quezon and Navotas have always shared in the problem as the rainy season sets in (Afuang, 2001). Poor weather conditions and flooding often damage vegetable plantations while heavily reduces the supply and drives up the costs of food; in effect, it makes life unbearable for the greater population of the Philippines nationals ( Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines , 2013).

The risks of flooding in the vast Philippines nation is worse off increased with the potential effects of climate change that is taking place in most parts of the world. Usually, serious flooding is occasioned in the months of August to November, and naturally, most of the flooding that occurs in the low-lying urban region are spill-offs from the slopes overlooking the Sierra Madre mountain strip along the eastern valleys of Marikina (Badilla, 2008).

Research Paper about Flood Control in the Philippines: History of Flood Management

Much of the Philippines flooding history, Manila region was the heart of great flooding trends, while the Pasig River and its branches like Marikina River, which were the main passageways to several settlements in the upcountry (Bankoff, 2003b). Despite that, the fact that the river had a series of destructive flooding instances, the riverbanks has always been considered a potential settlement by those who could hardly afford to obtain land or establish a business in the safer areas of the city ( Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines , 2013). Right from the onset, the population in the Philippines preferred to utilize the water from River Pasig to other sources of water for domestic consumption. Over the years, drawing points stretched to near the banks of the city, and the supply of this commodity was always polluted.

Following numerous failed attempts to mitigate this problem and manage the quantity of the supply of water, the Board of Water and Sewerage Commissioners formed to counter this menace tasked the city’s water engineering to discern and assess the variables in this concept (Bankoff, 2003b). The strategy of attempting to mitigate floodgates of water by taking the water point offshore continued inwards with slam dwellers increasingly encroaching on the waterways until the extension became impractical. As the populations continue to grow, the seizure of the suburban region also continued to expand, giving Manila City the need to construct additional pumping stations.

According to Bankoff (2003a), this necessitated the digging of new lake tunnels which were well supplied by intakes that fed the cribs, and by 1898 the task of combining several pumping systems and tunnels ended up in this present-day integration, a system with enhancements which stands out as the present supply of Philippines springs. In those years, the Pasig River was mild such that after the installation of the waterways, it became obvious that flooding was a menace. In addition, the construction of the many industries along the Manila City downtown further made the problem hard to accommodate ( Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines , 2013).

Recent Floods (New Flood’s Happened in 2013-2014 or 2012)

In recent years, instances of heavy downpour resulting in massive flooding have been witnessed in various parts throughout the Philippines. Flooding in the Philippines, in most cases, is occasioned by heavy rainfall at the mountainside or in the upper regions in the Manila north. The rains in these regions have been characterized by torrents, and so massive floods descend in the Manila City and other adjacent towns. In 2013, the worst flood was recorded as having reached over 30 feet that left many houses submerged as a business came to a standstill while learning in most places were called off for the better part of the rainy season.

Manila, by its nature, is an urban city-state that historically and up to date has had a series of water pollution problems (Badilla, 2008). It is no doubt that the flooding problem in the Philippines is because of the poor drainage management in Manila City and its internal waterways (Afuang, 2001). The Pasig River is nonetheless a contributory factor, and it is most probable that the north shore does not sufficiently discharge its waterways sufficiently whenever it rains because of the slum settlements and other industrial projections in these waterways.

According to Bankoff (2003a), several Philippines cities fall short for these harmful practices, which under normal circumstances, should be given priority by the nation’s regulatory authority. In an attempt to mitigate this nuisance, the government of the Philippines has lately embarked on diverting the waterways as well as the presumably attempting to evacuate the slum settlements and industrial projections in these waterways, that for a long time have inhibited the smooth sailing of the rainwater down the streams.

Problems and Destructions

Over the years, several households residing near the riverbeds have been subdued by these massive floods. In most cases, whenever it rains, the river burst its banks and spill over to the neighborhoods with overarching consequences (Doracie, 2000). During the escalating heavy torrential waterfalls or typhoons, the flooding in the streets of the Manila City swells to a high of two to three meters making most of the informal settlers to vacate their houses and seek shelter in evacuation points until the water pool recedes to bearable levels. Generally, these concerns disrupt the normal life of the Philippines residents, with all these in force, the business normally comes to a standstill in the worst-hit areas as transport and other factors that supplement commerce are subdued (Doracie, 2000).

Learning in most parts of the country, instantaneously becomes disrupted as most schools and colleges are prematurely closed down, disrupting the general learning calendar in several regions. In addition, normally, these flooding sequences are normally accompanied by instances of malaria and cholera outbreaks as mosquitos find it the most opportune moment for breeding. This, as Doracie (2000) notes, often comes at the backdrop of the closure of most social amenities as hospitals in most places become defunct. As a way of survival, the locals usually have to rely on aid from the state or non-governmental organizations that often steps in for various support factors ( Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines , 2013). In these difficult times, houses are usually brought down by the submerging water levels, and roads are indefinitely washed away.

Risk Management in the Country

Because of the influx of urbanization, slum villages usually develop; these often occur along the downtown hindering the free flow of the waterways in the adjacent rivers. Of much worry to the Philippines has been the projection of several cottage industries along the waterways in the City of Manila downtown. Much of the urban riverbanks are dotted up with informal settlements. Currently, the Philippines authorities have embarked on a housing and resettlement program that seeks to address the housing and resettlement situation in most of the cities in the region (Catalina, 2012). This is done at the backdrop proper drainage system so that the systematic and proper relocation to some identified places could be achieved for the benefit of all while keeping the ecosystem safe and relevant to the people.

As part of the government efforts, the affected house3holds are usually moved to amicable settlements within the national housing projects. Benchmarking its effort on the foundation that the Philippines topography is another factor to contend with, the government has also embarked on a work-plan aimed at digging trenches to aid the water flow down the streams. Alongside these programs will be the installation of dams along the waterways, as well as expanding the width of the existing ways and rivers to contain more water and eventually curb the frequent spillover onto the Manila streets ( Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines , 2013).

Solutions and Measurements to Solve Issues

The Philippines’ government has been on record lately as being at the forefront in tackling the excessive torrents of massive water occasioned by heavy rains or by the city’s adjacent Pasig River. Bausa and Reyes (2007) speculate that some wayward industries are still reluctant to bring down their installation as part of the risk management process. Research holds a greater volume of the county’s rainwater is directed into the city, which apparently lies in the lower regions geographically. For the suppression of doubt, these exemplifications only offer a remote preview to the most complex situation of the land-lies the experience, which has been great. The Manila City residents must learn to live by the definition of their unfortunate topography by reducing on the practices that naturally tend to demean their surroundings (Bausa & Reyes, 2007).

Further, Warren (2000) recommends that they must always be willing to reach out to outside assistance to mitigate the pollution in the Pasig River as well as the perennial floods imposed upon their city’s water supply. The Manila City that has been unparalleled and adversely affected by the unending instances of floodgates of water pollution must step up rapid response teams to tackle water pollution issues. In the event that these measures are not responded to in time, Bausa and Reyes (2007) note that there might be a concern for worry given that the scale of environmental degradation is great and swift, and eventually, things might never be the same again in Manila – its suburbs and the mainland. Borrowing heavily from history, during the mid-1800, the Philippines profoundly dealt with the Pasig River water pollution in ways that were best fitting for the time. Today, many technological changes have taken shape, eventually altering the way humans solve contemporary problems (Warren, 2000).

While the society is better prepared, more informed, and well equipped as never before, it would serve as a duty of negligence by the authorities to offer solutions that seek to mitigate the many instances of perennial floods. The 19 th -century engineers, however, were not concerned with the scourge of a diminishing reality of large water bodies, rather, they were concerned with the protection of urban populations from the scourge of lack of water hence the need by building the city-states near large water bodies (Bausa & Reyes, 2007).

Research Paper about Flood Control in the Philippines: Essay Conclusion

Proper drainage and disaster preparedness will always remain key in the concept of flood management in the Philippines. The concerns of flood management, as well as its mitigation program, are usually the duties of the communities living in flood prone regions. Governments should always enforce realizable measures that are aimed at curbing the impacts of the heavy downpour that results in massive flooding, as has been the case with most of the Philippines’ cities. While perfecting on these strategies is not always an easy achievement; monitoring by the regulatory authority is always necessary.

Afuang, B. (2001). Floods and the City . Web.

Badilla, R. (2008). Flood modeling in Pasig-Marikina basin . Web.

Bankoff, G. (2003a). Cultures of disaster; society and natural hazard in the Philippines . Routledge Curzon, London: Sage Publishers. Web.

Bankoff, G. (2003b). Constructing vulnerability: The historical, natural, and social generation of flooding in metropolitan Manila. Disasters , 27 (3), 95–109. Web.

Bausa, J. W., and Reyes, G. V. (2007). Proposal report flood hazard mapping project in Philippines . Web.

Catalina, M. (2012). Structural Measures for Flood Management in the Philippines . Web.

Doracie, B. (2000). Flood Hazards in Metro Manila: Recognizing commonalities, differences, and courses of action. Social Science Diliman , 1 (1), 60-105. Web.

Fano, N. (2000). Flood control and drainage network/operations/plans in Metro Manila . Web.

Flood disaster mitigation and river rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines (2013). Web.

Warren, J. F. (2013). A Tale of Two Decades: Typhoons and Floods, Manila and the Provinces, and the Marcos Years. The Asia-Pacific Journal , 11 (3), 1-11. Web.

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Behind the Deadly Unrest in Kenya, a Staggering and Painful National Debt

Kenya, the fastest growing economy in Africa, is on the brink of a fiscal calamity. Across Africa, nations are spending more on interest than on health or education.

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A uniformed police officer, wearing a helmet and a body suit, faces off with a protester while other demonstrators look on, many with their arms outstretched or fists in the air.

By Patricia Cohen and Keith Bradsher

Patricia Cohen reported from London, and Keith Bradsher from Shanghai.

The immediate trigger for the raging protest that gripped Kenya’s capital on Tuesday was a raft of proposed tax increases — additional shillings that ordinary citizens would owe their government. The underlying cause, though, are the billions of dollars their government owes its creditors.

Kenya has the fastest growing economy in Africa and a vibrant business center. But its government is desperate to stave off default. The country’s staggering $80 billion in domestic and foreign public debt accounts for nearly three-quarters of Kenya’s entire economic output, according to a recent report from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Interest payments alone are eating up 27 percent of the revenue collected.

The Kenyan president, William Ruto, had promoted the tax bill as necessary to avoid defaulting on the country’s debt, but the violent reaction to Parliament’s approval prompted Mr. Ruto to abruptly reverse course on Wednesday and reject the legislation he had asked for. “Listening keenly to the people of Kenya,” he said, “I will not sign the 2024 finance bill, and it shall subsequently be withdrawn.” He proposed a 14-day period of discussions to chart a new economic course.

Mr. Ruto’s turnaround may have temporarily quieted protests, but it leaves the country’s finances more precarious than before. Just two weeks ago, the International Monetary Fund and Kenyan authorities had reached an agreement on a package of comprehensive reforms and tax increases needed to get the country on a more stable financial footing.

The policy review, required when the I.M.F. lends money to distressed nations, warned of a “significant shortfall in tax collection” and a deteriorating fiscal outlook. I.M.F. lending to the troubled East African nation now totals $3.6 billion.

The type of debts that are causing misery in Kenya can be found across Africa. More than half the people on the continent live in countries that spend more on interest payments than they do on health or education.

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