Use of Coconut Coir Geotextiles, a Green Material for Sustainable Low-Volume Roads

  • Original Research Paper
  • Published: 02 October 2023

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research paper on water absorbing roads

  • Dona Lavanya Ravikumar 1 ,
  • Sundeep Inti   ORCID: 2 &
  • Veeraragavan Amirthalingam 1  

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Although geosynthetics have been used in low-volume roads (LVRs), their high costs and non-biodegradability pose notable challenges to the budget-constrained LVR development and environment, respectively. Given their low costs and environmental friendliness, natural geotextiles made from coconut coir have emerged as promising alternative materials for LVRs. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of using coir geotextiles (CGTs) in LVRs and estimate their performance, economic and ecological benefits. First, this study conducted a comprehensive literature review on coir geotextiles' application in LVRs. Despite some discrepancies, the existing studies universally favored the use of coir geotextiles in LVRs. Second, this study developed finite element models with two types of CGTs to assess their impact on the performance of a representative LVR. Using coir geotextiles helped improve road performance by enhancing the subgrade modulus by 37–46%. Owing to the improved modulus, the aggregate layer thickness in the LVRs was 17.5–23.5% lower than that in the case with no reinforcement, and the cost and global warming potential decreased by 15.5–17.3% and 15.0–21.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the application potential of coir geotextiles in LVRs is comparable to that of geosynthetics, offering similar benefits while utilizing renewable and biodegradable resources.

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The authors confirm contribution to the paper as follows: RDL: finite element modeling, interpretation of results, draft manuscript preparation. SI: study conception and design, objective formulation and analysis, interpretation of results, draft manuscript preparation. VA: study conception and design, data collection and analysis, interpretation of results, draft manuscript preparation.

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Ravikumar, D.L., Inti, S. & Amirthalingam, V. Use of Coconut Coir Geotextiles, a Green Material for Sustainable Low-Volume Roads. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. (2023).

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Received : 10 October 2022

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Volume 09, Issue 07 (July 2020)

Construction of water absorbing pavements by using asphalt.

research paper on water absorbing roads

  • Article Download / Views: 5,939
  • Authors : Nilesh Pal , Nikhil Mishra , Ashish Sakharwade , Sujit Akare, Shivani Tadam
  • Paper ID : IJERTV9IS070067
  • Volume & Issue : Volume 09, Issue 07 (July 2020)
  • Published (First Online): 15-07-2020
  • ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
  • Publisher Name : IJERT

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Mr. Nikhil Mishra

Dept of Civil Engineering

J D College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur.

Mr. Sujit Akare

Mr. Ashish Sakharwade

Mrs. Shivani Tadam

Prof. Nilesh Pal

Under Guidance: Dept of Civil Engineering

Abstract Now a days not only India but whole world are suffering from rising temperature, plastic waste, road reconstruction or road construction waste and vehicle sound .As considerable use of natural aggregates for road construction that makes ,the increasing amount of solid waste that makes attention of many researchers in the pigment industries in innovate the feasibility of the application of RCA in Asphalt mixture. construction and demolition wastes, including recycle construction aggregate RCA constitute a major part of municipal solid waste by using RCA in Asphalt gives the significant economic and environmental benefits. However, in spite of such promising potentials, insufficient and inconclusive data and information of the engineering properties of RCA had limited liability and design specifications of RCA. This laboratory investigation included the measurement of RCA strength, particle shape, water absorption, crushing value, weak particles, wet and dry strength variation and particle density. Also porous Asphalt pavements are design for dual duty, As they provide payments for parking and roads and also serve as storm water storage and in filtration system. They are in demand because they offers site planners and public works officials the opportunity to manage storm water in an environmentally friendly way {it makes cost effective attractive parking lots long lifespan} improve water quality.


As the population of world are continuously increasing day by day with an expanding world, the demand or necessity for extensive Road networks. As available natural resources become scare use of recycled material for construction, including payments construction over the past decades, increasing in the application of waste materials in different layers of flexible pavement including Asphalt surface layer base layer now what is so many waste material suggest

plastics tyres glasses are used for construction of flexible pavement Asphalt surface place on fundamental role in flexible payment system. as it is real or with stand varying traffic loads environmental conditions.

The Asphalt surface is critical for safe and comfortable driving use of solid waste in Asphalt reduced not only environment is associated with waste disposal but also the demand for Asphalt binder and the course and aggregate fine which may result cost saving and economic advantages. The uses of recycled materials in external surface layer can contribute to further improvement of engineering characteristics of Asphalt pavement materials as well as payment performance, representing the value of added solid waste, the selection of waste materials to be used for pavement construction particularly Asphalt surface layer is of importance is the use of waste material should not adversely affect on the structure and functional aspects of the Pavement . The porous pavement is a storm water drainage system which allows rainwater and runoff to make through the payments eventually seeping into the underlying soil. permeable pavement in beneficial to the environment because it reduce storm water volume treat the storm water quality, and replenish the ground water supply and lower air temperatures on hot days. Asphalt pavements with stone reservoirs are a multifunctional low impact development LID technique. this is integrates ecological and environmental goals for a site with land development goals decreases the net environmental impact for a project, they not only provides strong Pavement surface for parking, walking trials and Roads they were designed to treat storm water runoff.

this paper presents the results of an experiment component research for designing Asphalt mixtures for designing Asphalt mixtures involves the process of selecting suitable for proper ingredient, filler, binder, etc.


Performance of pavement can be generally defined as to the change in their condition or function with respect to age. It can also be indicative of the ability of a pavement to carry the intended traffic and satisfy the environment during the design life, both functionally and structurally. With the increased economic and development activities in India, the traffic has increased multi fold during the last 3 decades resulting in the overstressing of road network. The development of higher stresses leads to performance failure of the pavements. If the pavements fail to carry the design loads satisfactorily, then the failure is of structural type. It is of functional type, if the pavement does not provide a smooth riding surface. The uneven surface not only causes discomfort, but also increases the Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC), thus influencing the overall transportation cost. This chapter gives a broad outline of the importance of pavement performance evaluation, type of models, applications of performance models in other countries for their Pavement Management System and the research studies carried out so Far.

The tyre is a complex and high-tech safety product representing a century of manufacturing innovation, which is still on-going. From the material point of view the tyre is made up of three main components materials: (i) elastomeric compound, (ii) fabric and (iii) steel. The fabric and steel form the structural skeleton of the tyre with the rubber forming the flesh of the tyre in the tread, side wall, apexes, liner and shoulder wedge. This engineering process is necessary to transform natural rubber in a product able to ensure performance, durability and safety. In fact, natural rubber is sticky in nature and can easily deform when heated up and it is brittle when cooled down. In this state it cannot be used to make products with a good level of elasticity. The reason for inelastic deformation of not-vulcanised rubber can be found in the chemical nature as rubber is made of long polymer chains. These polymer chains can move independently relative to each other, and this will result in a change of shape. By the process of vulcanisation cross-links are formed between the polymer chains, so the chains cannot move independently anymore. As a result, when stress is applied the vulcanised rubber will deform, but upon release of the stress the rubber article will go back to its original shape. Compounding is finally used to improve the physical properties of rubber by incorporating the ingredients and ancillary substances necessary for vulcanisation, but also to adjust the hardness and modulus of the vulcanised product to meet the end requirement. Different substances can be added according to the different tyre mixtures; these include mineral oil and

reinforcing fillers as carbon black and silica . In general, truck TR contains larger percentages of natural rubber compared to that from car . the general tyre composition of tyres used in cars and trucks in the EU.

Porous asphalt pavements are typically recommended for parking areas and low-volume roadways. Additional applications of porous asphalt are for pedestrian walkwas, sidewalks, driveways, bike lanes, and shoulders (Hein et al. 2013). Also, porous asphalt pavements have been used successfully for residential and urban streets, as well as highways. Porous asphalt pavements can be installed as whole or in part with traditional impervious asphalt.

pavements. When installed in combination with impervious pavements or adjacent to building roofs, porous asphalt can sufficiently contain and treat the additional runoff generated.

Porous asphalt pavements are an alternative Technology that differs from traditional Asphalt pavement designs in that the structure permits fluids to pass freely really through it, reducing or controlling the amount of runoff from the surrounding area, by allowing precipitation and runoff to flow through the structure this payment type functions are as additional storm water management technique accounting from groundwater recharge both includes improve Stormwater management improve skid resistance production of spray two drivers and pedestrians as well as a potential noise reduction.


The water absorbing capacity, water retention capacity and compressive strength of hard and water retentive motor liquidity of the fresh mortar as well as the rutting resistances, moisture susceptibility low-temperature bending résistance surface slip resistance and cooling effect of water retentive Asphalt concrete where tested using at least three replicate specimen.


to study of porous pavement.

Planning and designing of porous pavement.

Environmental consideration of porous Asphalt.

Development of permeable pavement. ENVIRONMENT BENEFITS

Reduce the surface runoff of the storm water

Pervious concrete pavement reduces or eliminates runoff and permits natural treatment of runoff water

By collecting rainfall and allowing it to infiltrate, groundwater, aquifer recharge, water table level is increased

Pervious concrete is a lightweight pavement material

Effective utilization of waste material such as fly ash makes this technique more eco- friendly

Pervious concrete pavement is ideal for protecting trees in a paved environment.

Although high-traffic pavements are not a typical use for pervious concrete, concrete surfaces also can improve safety during rain.

This this paper concludes that the high linear or correlation of the the values of porous asphalt means the project is precise and accurate.

Design maintenance and water quality control aspects relevant to the practitioner wear out lined for permeable and porous pavement system. the most important target pollutants where hydrocarbon, heavy metals and nutrients.

Recent innovations where highlighted and explained and their potential for further research work was outlined. The development of a combined geothermal heating and cooling water treatment and recycling payment system is promising and therefore in coverage fourther work on the assumptions of self-sustainability encouraged.

The resilient modulus of unbound materials is an important property used for pavement design recycled materials, such as RAP, may exhibit unique properties due

to the existence of Asphalt. this study examine the effect of RAP percentage on the resilient modulus of base materials. A constant head permanent was selected for conducting permeability test for specimens containing RAP as the base for materials.

Dr B V Kiran Kumar, Manjunatha S, Shiva Prasad N. Porous asphalt pavement a tentative mix design guideline new generation open graded friction course approach.

Recycling of Asphalt Pavement. Missouri Asphalt Pavement Associa-tion, Jefferson City. Accessed July 26, 2010.

McGarrah, E. J. Evaluation of Current Practices of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement/Virgin Aggregate as Base Course Material. MS dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, 2007.

Cahill, T.H., M. Adams, & C. Marm(2005). Stormwater Management with Porous Pavements. Government Engineering, March-April, pp. 1419.

CTC & Associates Inc. (2012). Porous Asphalt Performance in Cold Regions. Report 2012-12TS. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, Minn.

Moriyoshi, A.; Jin, T.; Nakai, T.; Ishikawa, H. Evaluation methods for porous asphalt pavement in service for fourteen years. Constr. Build. Mater. 2013.

Ma, X.; Liu, J.; Wu, Z.; Shi, C. Effects of SAP on the properties and pore structure of high performance cement-based materials.

Constr. Build. Mater. 2017

Nakayama, T.; Shizuka, H. Study on pavement performance of porous asphalt pavement withwater saving and cooling. Constr. Build. Mater. 2015.

Shen, P. Development and Performance Evaluation of Water- Retaining Cement Mortar in Semi-Flexible Pavement with Water Retention and Cooling; Chongqing Jiaotong University of China: Chongqing, China, 2012.

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Through this project, we can find a solution for the low ground water level, effective management of storm water runoff, Agricultural problems, etc. Pervious concrete can be introduced in low traffic volume areas, walk ways, sub-base for concrete pavements, inter locking material, etc. Pervious concrete as a paving material has the ability to allow water to flow through itself to recharge ground water level and minimize surface storm water runoff. By replacing a part of cement with conplast SP430, then it results the more strength to the concrete. Hence it acts as an eco-friendly paving material.

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— As a civil engineer and human being it's our prime duty prime to save environment, because lack of water absorption and air permeability of common concrete pavement, rain water is not entered in to the ground directly. It will reduce ground water table, plants are difficult to grow normally, difficult to maintain temperature and humidity of earth. To minimize such affects, the research on pervious concrete pavement widely done for road way application. In this study, determine compressive strength, porosity test on pervious concrete. The compressive strength is relatively low because of its porosity but at the same time we increase water absorption quality. Due to low strength we cannot be used as a road pavement. The pervious concrete can only be applied to footpaths, parking and where low strength is required.

research paper on water absorbing roads

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A pervious concrete is a type of porous pavement that can be used as an infiltration process for stormwater management and contains little or no fine aggregates. Pervious concrete offers one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly solutions available as permeable pavement in order to control uncontrolled run-off, reduce pollution and replenish groundwater. An important part of this research involves determining infiltration rate through pervious concrete sections. Approach used in the investigation included casting 64 pervious concrete cubes (1: 0:4, 1:1:4, 1:1/2:4, 1:1:5) with varying water/cement ratios. While compressive strength was carried out on the hardened concrete cubes, infiltration rate of water through the sections were determined. The infiltration rate of concrete was tested for concrete cast on different sub-grades and without sub-grade by the application of water at a constant rate to the concrete surface. Also, the properties of the sub-grade were investigated to know the effect of the permeability of concrete. The results obtained show that the water/cement ratio in each mix is a major factor to be considered in order to attain adequate strength as well as sufficient infiltration capacity. The optimum mix ratio is the mix 1:1/2:4 with a water/cement ratio of 0.33 because of its adequate compressive strength (22.89N/mm2) and infiltration capacity (200l/m2/min).

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Our Heritage ISSN: 0474-9030Vol-67-Issue-7-November-2019

Monika Verma

As population is increasing, urbanisation is the main cause which leads to increase the impervious surface grounds, which is blocking the snow precipitation and rainfall over the soil. Now a day's cities are covered with structures and the concrete roads. Due to which there is increase in the excessive surface runoff, which can result into bank erosion, downstream floods and also the pollutants get transported into the potable water supplies. In absence of constant water supply into soil, it will be difficult for plants to grow in normal way. Moreover, it's hard to exchange heat and moisture with air for the soil. So, humidity and temperature of the surface of the earth in big cities can't b maintained and the plash on the road surface in the time of a rain reduces the safety of traffic of foot passenger and vehicle. Which has a more effect on the water table. The only solution for this problem is paving roads with pervious concrete. This paper tells about different tests done on pervious concrete.

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science, ISSN:2456-3463 IJIES

–In regions with high precipitation, the accumulation of surface runoffs in public passages where the restriction of traffic load of vehicles and people would potentially cause lots of problems and the necessity of using pervious concrete becomes clear. The structure of this type of concretes is almost the same as the regular concretes; only due to its significant porosity, the surface runoffs can cross through the concrete body. In this forum, while describing the methods of making pervious concretes and their implementation and physical properties, some other advantages of using these concretes especially in regions which are receiving heavy load of rain are addressed; so that, given the performed investigations, in many cases, constructing roads with pervious concretes seems to be more cost effective than using the traditional methods such as asphalt or impervious pavements.

G NarendraGoud

Urban flooding is a major problem in many cities in India and also the ground water table depletion is a serious concern. Employing pervious concrete is one of the engineered solution to address above mentioned issues. Pervious concrete is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flat work applications that allow water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing runoff from a site and allowing ground water recharge. One of the challenge the pervious concrete poses is the strength. Hence, present work aims at striking a fine balance between the compressive strength and permeability of the pervious concrete. Experimental results showed that pervious concrete made without any fiber or admixture had comparatively lower strength and permeability than concrete with admixture or fibers. Usage of fibers does not show any significant effect on permeability but it increases the compressive strength of the concrete significantly. Super plasticizer usage reduced the weight loss in Cantabro test by 8.5 % and usage of polypropylene fibers reduced the weight loss by 17.5% in comparison with neat pervious concrete.


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