Writing Center

Strategic enrollment management and student success, conclusions and why they matter, a guide to what they are, how they work, and how to master them, conclusions vs. introductions.

Two people talking

Similarly to introductions, conclusions exist to guide readers. While introductions guide readers into essays, conclusions guide readers out. These functions are equally important in the structure of an essay. A conclusion is a paragraph (or set of paragraphs) that comes at the very end of an essay and it must restate the thesis (say what the essay has argued) and summarize the argument.

Think about a conclusion from the reader's point of view as the end of a conversation

Hey!   Don't hang up on me!

Sometimes it's hard to know what to say in a conclusion. after all, you've just written the essay, what else can possibly be left to say? A lot of writers feel this way. However, an essay without a conclusion is similar to hanging up the phone the instant after you've told your friend a great story - your friend is going to think about how rude you were rather than about your story. In a phone conversation, you've got to wrap things up and say goodbye, this is also true for an essay. Make sure to provide your reader with a summary.

  • A summary:   Since good stories are complex and can't be learned by heart the first time, give your reader a device to help remember and master your story (your argument).
  • A sense of relevance:   Help the reader understand the point of your story by explaining the relevance of it.

How conclusions work

Use quotes to support your ideas

What does it really mean to say that a conclusion resembles the end of a phone conversation?

  • All things come to an end.   Of course, you can't keep talking on the phone forever; both you and your friend expect an end to your conversation. At the same time, a conversation is something produced by two people, meaning that its end must be agreed upon, and if you hang up without warning, then you've seized all control, which isn't friendly. Even though the conclusion of an essay may be just a repetition of ideas found elsewhere, a reader needs to be able to see that things are winding down.
  • An end means a last look.   If you sound polite and cheerful in saying goodbye, your friend will be much more likely to recall the story you've told and to look forward to hearing from you in the future. Because the conclusion to an essay is a reader's last impression of a writer's work, the writer must maintain excellence up to the last sentence, not dash something off quickly or run out of steam.
  • A last look is a kind of legacy.   While you probably wouldn't tell your friend a pointless story, or one with no relation to any shared experience, making the relevance clear helps your friend know how to think about your story. Similarly, an essay that leaves a reader with something to think about is an essay that is more likely to be judged favorably and even reread. Connecting the writing to the reader is central to succeeding in communicating the importance of your story.

Acing the conclusion

The strategies below can help you write a conclusion that leaves your reader satisfied and feeling like they've gotten closure on your ideas.

Remind and encapsulate

Remember that even though you are already familiar with your essay, your reader is not. Having a reader who wants to reread your work is great, but your reader shouldn't have to reread. Giving your reader a summary is similar to taking a snapshot of your whole essay. Looking at that snapshot reminds your reader of the main points that have come before. A snapshot is a lot easier to carry around than a thousand little details.

Acknowledge loose ends

Since issues are complex and often do not have a single, neat resolution, the topic of your essay doesn't need to either. What possible resolutions do you see for the issue you have presented? Is there even a resolution? In either case, say what you see. Don't present answers if you haven't found any. Just be honest.

Make connections

Show your reader the point of reading your essay. What did you learn from writing your essay? How might reading your essay be helpful to your reader? What does your essay contribute?

Don't get carried away

You don't have to revolutionize the world or say the absolute final world on an age-old debate. In fact, a grandiose conclusion may seem out of proportion in anything as short as an essay. Communicating an idea is enough.

Now let's apply these ideas to an example conclusion

The trend towards "good taste" in mass-market products draws into question the idea of good taste altogether   (Thesis) . Many things symbolizing high class living are in danger of losing their status simply because they can now be purchased at any Home Depot or Ikea;   (Summary 1: the first main point)   however, critics call décor and furniture exports such as Pier 1 Imports and Pottery Barn "cheap" not for offering sophisticated designs at bargain prices, but for offering them to all, even to mail-order costumers   (Summary 2: the second main point) . Worst of all, Martha Stewart is said to have reduced good taste to merely another brand name by creating a line of home wares for the suburban superstore K-Mart   (Summary 3: the third main point) . The implication is that a fine object loses its fineness as it gains wider appreciation, that beauty and elegance are qualities conferred by the elite and that an object's glow vanishes once too many have touched it, In other words, the wealthy and influential are not content with wealth and influence, but must have a world all to themselves; when others enter this world, they come to destroy   (Relevance 1: a synthesis of the main points that reveals their significance in a wider context) . Martha Stewart would have to disagree. Sconce lights might look out of place on a cattle ranch, but their popularity does not equate them with the neon signs that one sees in the windows of bars - quality is quality. If replacing the average household's melamine plates with porcelain makes some people insecure, then so be it   (Relevance 2: a stance that applies to readers) .

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help them to apply your info and ideas to their own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” them with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Academic Writing: "In Conclusion"...How Not to End Your Paper

Having trouble finding the right words to finish your paper? Are your conclusions bland? This handout covers basic techniques for writing stronger endings, including

  • Diagnosing and improving paragraph cohesion
  • Avoiding 7 common errors when drafting and revising conclusions
  • Answering the reader’s unspoken question—“So what?”

Improve paragraph cohesion

A. make your sentences conform to a “given/new” contract.

“Given” information (familiar to your reader) should come first in the sentence. For example, you could reiterate a main idea in the sentence or two beforehand, or something apparent within the context of the sentence, or an idea that taps into readers’ general knowledge of a topic. “New” information (additional, unfamiliar, and/or more complex) should comprise the second half of your sentence.

The “new” info of one sentence then becomes the “given” or familiar info of the next, improving overall flow and coherence.

B. Use “topic-strings”

Each sentence needs a topic or main idea, which should be in the “given” part of the sentence. Shift “given” info closer to the beginnings of your sentences when you can, so that the topic is clear. As well, each paragraph needs an overall topic, usually established in the first or second sentences. To check paragraph coherence, see whether your sentence topics (“givens”) connect consistently from sentence to sentence. Can you find a consistent topic throughout the paragraph, almost as if you were tracing a single colored thread? A set of sentences with clear topics creates a “topic thread.” This, along with appropriate use of transitions, helps to ensure a coherent paragraph.

  • If your topic thread is not apparent or seems to get lost, revise your sentences according to a “given/new” information pattern.
  • Use transitions where needed to indicate opposition, agreement or linkage, cause & effect, exemplification or illustration, degree, comparison, etc. For more on transitions, see “ Making Connections: Choosing Transition Words ”.

C. Reiterate without being repetitious

Readers appreciate some consistency and won’t usually find a reasonable amount of repetition boring or monotonous.  But avoid repeating the same subjects/topics using exactly the same words each time, and don’t repeat your thesis word-for-word in your conclusion. Instead…reiterate, using key concepts within slightly different sentence structures and arguments. Key concepts are often expressed in introductions, thesis statements, and near the beginnings of paragraphs; they act as a governing “topic thread” for your entire paper.

Avoid these 7 common errors in your conclusions

  • Opening with an empty phrase, the equivalent of “throat-clearing.

For example:

Draft: “And, therefore, it is important to keep in mind that ...” “In conclusion…”

Revision: Omit these phrases. “In conclusion” or “To conclude” may be appropriate for an oral presentation, but in writing are considered redundant or overly mechanical.

Draft: “However, it is important in arriving at such a conclusion to recognize...”

Revision: Just say what we should recognize.

  • Stuffing too much information into one paragraph or not developing the paragraph sufficiently.
  • Not including a clear topic sentence: i.e. one that expresses the key concept governing this paragraph (i.e. “What is this paragraph about?”). It’s usually best to express your governing concept in the first or second sentence.
  • Not checking for cohesion or flow (see “given and new” above). As a result, the sentences aren’t logically organized, or there is a sudden switch in topic, or sentences do not clearly connect to each other.
  • Using transitions too frequently or too mechanically.
  • Ending the paragraph with a different topic. HINT: Use a key word or phrase from the last sentence of the previous paragraph in the first sentence of the new paragraph. This technique helps the reader make connections.
  • Finishing your piece with entirely new information or a quote that isn’t relevant.

Remember to answer the question "So what?”

Readers need to understand why your argument or research is significant. So consider the single more important idea (key concept) you want your readers to take away with them after reading your paper. It’s not enough merely to repeat your thesis or summarize your main findings in your conclusion; you need to answer the question: “So what”? Options include outlining further areas of inquiry and/or suggesting a sense of significance: e.g. why does what you’ve written matter? What should your reader take away?

For more about writing effective conclusions, visit the following:

“Strategies for Writing a Conclusion” from Literacy Education Online “Conclusions” from the Writing Center at the University of North Carolina

Source for paragraph cohesion strategies: Williams, J. M., & Nadel, I. B. (2005). Style: 10 Lessons in Clarity and Grace (Cdn. ed.).  Toronto: Longman.

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How to Conclude an Essay (with Examples)

Last Updated: April 3, 2023 Fact Checked

Writing a Strong Conclusion

What to avoid, brainstorming tricks.

This article was co-authored by Jake Adams and by wikiHow staff writer, Aly Rusciano . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,201,971 times.

So, you’ve written an outstanding essay and couldn’t be more proud. But now you have to write the final paragraph. The conclusion simply summarizes what you’ve already written, right? Well, not exactly. Your essay’s conclusion should be a bit more finessed than that. Luckily, you’ve come to the perfect place to learn how to write a conclusion. We’ve put together this guide to fill you in on everything you should and shouldn’t do when ending an essay. Follow our advice, and you’ll have a stellar conclusion worthy of an A+ in no time.

Things You Should Know

  • Rephrase your thesis to include in your final paragraph to bring the essay full circle.
  • End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful.
  • Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don’t lose a reader’s attention.
  • Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you’ve already made in your essay.

Step 1 Start with a small transition.

  • “All in all”
  • “Ultimately”
  • “Furthermore”
  • “As a consequence”
  • “As a result”

Step 2 Briefly summarize your essay’s main points.

  • Make sure to write your main points in a new and unique way to avoid repetition.

Step 3 Rework your thesis statement into the conclusion.

  • Let’s say this is your original thesis statement: “Allowing students to visit the library during lunch improves campus life and supports academic achievement.”
  • Restating your thesis for your conclusion could look like this: “Evidence shows students who have access to their school’s library during lunch check out more books and are more likely to complete their homework.”
  • The restated thesis has the same sentiment as the original while also summarizing other points of the essay.

Step 4 End with something meaningful.

  • “When you use plastic water bottles, you pollute the ocean. Switch to using a glass or metal water bottle instead. The planet and sea turtles will thank you.”
  • “The average person spends roughly 7 hours on their phone a day, so there’s no wonder cybersickness is plaguing all generations.”
  • “Imagine walking on the beach, except the soft sand is made up of cigarette butts. They burn your feet but keep washing in with the tide. If we don’t clean up the ocean, this will be our reality.”
  • “ Lost is not only a show that changed the course of television, but it’s also a reflection of humanity as a whole.”
  • “If action isn’t taken to end climate change today, the global temperature will dangerously rise from 4.5 to 8 °F (−15.3 to −13.3 °C) by 2100.”

Step 5 Keep it short and sweet.

  • Focus on your essay's most prevalent or important parts. What key points do you want readers to take away or remember about your essay?

Step 1 Popular concluding statements

  • For instance, instead of writing, “That’s why I think that Abraham Lincoln was the best American President,” write, “That’s why Abraham Lincoln was the best American President.”
  • There’s no room for ifs, ands, or buts—your opinion matters and doesn’t need to be apologized for!

Step 6 Quotations

  • For instance, words like “firstly,” “secondly,” and “thirdly” may be great transition statements for body paragraphs but are unnecessary in a conclusion.

Step 1 Ask yourself, “So what?”

  • For instance, say you began your essay with the idea that humanity’s small sense of sense stems from space’s vast size. Try returning to this idea in the conclusion by emphasizing that as human knowledge grows, space becomes smaller.

Step 4 Think about your essay’s argument in a broader “big picture” context.

  • For example, you could extend an essay on the television show Orange is the New Black by bringing up the culture of imprisonment in America.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Always review your essay after writing it for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation, and don’t be afraid to revise. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 1
  • Ask a friend, family member, or teacher for help if you’re stuck. Sometimes a second opinion is all you need. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 1

does an essay always need a conclusion

You Might Also Like

Put a Quote in an Essay

  • ↑ https://www.uts.edu.au/current-students/support/helps/self-help-resources/grammar/transition-signals
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/argument_papers/conclusions.html
  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
  • ↑ https://www.pittsfordschools.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=542&dataid=4677&FileName=conclusions1.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.cuyamaca.edu/student-support/tutoring-center/files/student-resources/how-to-write-a-good-conclusion.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185935

About This Article

Jake Adams

To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then, use a few sentences to briefly summarize the main points of your essay by rephrasing the topic sentences of your body paragraphs. Finally, end your conclusion with a call to action that encourages your readers to do something or learn more about your topic. In general, try to keep your conclusion between 5 and 7 sentences long. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing an essay conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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does an essay always need a conclusion

Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your conclusion sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement.

Restate your thesis

The first sentence of your concluding paragraph should restate your thesis.

Example: Restated thesis

Thesis: Students should learn an extra language because many doors will be open for them in the future, and it is something they can use the rest of their life.

Restated Thesis: In conclution, children should learn a foreign language because it will create many opportunities for them and become an essential tool for their life.

The thesis changed by implying the main points, instead of stating them directly. Even though the words were changed, the overall meaning did not change. Other ways to restate a thesis include reversing the order of the clauses or using different word forms (e.g., adjective to noun: essential > the importance).

How to Paraphrase a Thesis Statement

A restated thesis statement says the ideas from the thesis statement again but in different words. It is a paraphrase of the original thesis statement.

An Effective Paraphrase:

  • explains the most important parts of the original
  • is written in your own words. 
  • keeps the original meaning. 
  • does not merely cut and copy from the original

How to Make a Paraphrase

  • Determine your purpose. 
  • Read or listen to what you will paraphrase
  • Make a list of the main points
  • Write the paraphrase. 
  • Compare the paraphrase to the original 

(Adapted from Stephen, n.d.)

Apply your thesis to general contexts

There are a few options for the supporting sentences of a conclusion paragraph. All of these options build off the main idea from the restated thesis. 

  • This is done by paraphrasing your topic sentences effectively.
  • This polishes off the essay in a refined way. Including the same ideas in the first paragraph and the last paragraph bookends the essay the same way the covers of a book contain a story. 
  • This is usually done with a large scope in mind. How does your idea impact a larger community or the world? What impact will it have in the future?

Give a closing statement

Your concluding statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your closing statement can be a prediction, suggestion, or opinion.

A conclusion's role in an essay

The primary role, job, of a conclusion in an essay is to finish off the essay in a logical way. Just like if you listened to a song that stopped halfway through if you read an essay without a conclusion, it feels unfinished.

A conclusion is an idea that is reached after someone considers evidence about a topic. All the ideas, details, explanations, and reasonings build up to the conclusion.

Usually, this conclusion is stated in the restated thesis statement. The sentences after the restated thesis statement can either summarize the main reasons that support that conclusion or they can show the impact of that conclusion on the real world. The last sentence, the concluding sentence, should be memorable so that people remember the conclusion from the restated thesis statement. It is like the grand finale in a song that leaves a lasting impression.

All of these pieces build on the ideas from the previous paragraphs, so the reader understands at the end of the essay what the essay was all about, the main idea. 

*Note: Conclusion vs. Concluding

"Conclusion" and "Concluding" are based on the word "Conclude" which has two different dictionary definitions: one about deciding based on evidence and another about ending something.

Conclusion means "something that you decide when you have thought about all the information connected with the situation". 

Concluding means "[coming] to an end; [bringing] something to an end"

Sources for definitions:

  • https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/conclusion?q=conclusion+  
  • https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/conclude?q=concluding

Exercise 1: Paraphrasing Practice

Pretend you are writing an essay to answer the prompt below. You have already written your thesis statement. You are now writing the restated thesis statement. To practice your paraphrasing skills, write three versions of the same restated thesis statement on the lines below. A completed example done with a different prompt has been given. 

Prompt: What are the effects of eating a healthy diet?

Thesis: Consuming healthy foods leads to an increase in energy, a higher intake of vitamins and minerals, and better overall physical health.   

Completed Example:

Prompt:  Should schools teach foreign languages?

Thesis:   Schools need to teach different languages because it helps the youth to be better prepared for the future, having more opportunities and developing their skills.

Restated Thesis Versions:

 1. In conclusion, students are benefited in schools that teach a foreign language because they are not only better prepared for future opportunities but also they develop skills. 

2. In closing, the preparation for future opportunities and skill development available to students in schools that teach a foreign language are two of the main reasons schools need to teach foreign languages.

3.  In fine, there are many benefits for students learning a foreign language which is why schools should include these courses.

Exercise 2: Concluding Paragraph Analysis

Read the example student's thesis statement and concluding paragraph. 

  • Does the paragraph appropriately restate the thesis?
  • Does the author apply the main idea to general topics?
  • Does the writer include a closing statement?
  • Do you think this is effective as a concluding paragraph? Why or why not?

Thesis Statement: Even though uniforms can transmit an organized image to people outside of the schools, they do not improve students' performance, do not allow students to express themselves, and are a financial burden to families. 


       Even though uniforms are beneficial for the school's economy, they can impact in different ways to the students. They do not allow student expressions of creativity or develop critical thinking. Uniforms affect the parent's finances, and they do not improve students' grades in school. Uniforms have potential on students in different countries. 

Exercise 3: Consider the Cohesion

Analyze the conclusion paragraph from the example essay at the end of this chapter:

Consider these questions:

  • Are all the parts of the conclusion paragraph included?
  • How does this conclusion connect with the rest of the essay?
  • What specific language does the author use that you could use in any conclusion?

This content is provided to you freely by BYU Open Learning Network.

Access it online or download it at https://open.byu.edu/up_writing_winter/conclusion_paragraph .

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Writing Resources

Writing effective conclusions.

Though the final paragraph in an essay is commonly referred to as the conclusion, it is not traditionally the place in which the author draws new conclusions that were not mentioned previously in the essay.

Rather, the goal of an essay’s conclusion is to bring the paper full circle by revisiting the large-scale ideas stated in the introduction, but with the refined perspective created by the preceding arguments in the body of the paper. Conclusions often return to the thesis — which the preceding essay has attempted to make compelling — in an attempt to briefly assess its significance in some larger context.

Conceptual Components

Revisiting the thesis.

Just as the preceding body paragraphs attempted to draw more general conclusions from specific pieces of evidence, the concluding paragraph of an essay reestablishes the essay’s overall argument using the more specific claims argued in the body. Though the thesis is generally reintroduced the first sentence in the conclusion, the remainder of the paragraph should be used to ensure that this return to the thesis moves beyond simply reproducing the introduction.


Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the textual space of your analysis, your conclusion provides a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. This is done most effectively by emphasizing a context for your ideas that makes them relevant or meaningful for your reader. In some cases, this context may be different from the one established in your introduction, and it may push slightly beyond the boundaries of the writing prompt.

Structural Components

Evolved thesis.

Many strong conclusions restate the thesis — in different language from the introduction — in the opening sentence. This allows the concluding paragraph to establish something more than the introduction in which the thesis is usually stated near the end. Restating the paper’s overall argument at the beginning of the conclusion allows for a brief exploration of your essay’s context or broader implications in the final paragraph.

Motive (With a Twist)

In guiding your readers out of the textual space of your paper, it is important to remind them why your arguments are significant. You don’t want your readers to finish your paper thinking “so what?” To prevent this, use your conclusion to reestablish the relevance of your thesis.


Acknowledging the limitations of your argument, while optional, can be an effective way of clarifying the scope of your thesis, particularly in an essay whose claims are rather ambitious. Acknowledging that there are questions that need further research or that your argument is unlikely to convince those who approach the topic with a different set of assumptions is also a useful strategy for bolstering your credibility.

Because an essay is but a small part of a larger discourse on its topic, it is important to describe how your conclusion may serve as a stepping stone for further research. Implicitly you are saying, “Now that I have proven the thesis of my essay, what new questions can we ask about this topic?” In a way, looking ahead to a new question does the work of the three previous components: proposing new areas of inquiry reinforces that you have proven your thesis; showing that, with further research, your claims could have broader implications remotivates your argument; acknowledging that other questions still remain acknowledges the limitations of your central claim.

Final Thought

Since it is the last thing they will read, you want your final sentence to stick in your readers’ minds. Whether you choose to end with emphasis, wit or wonder, your final sentence should be in some way memorable without departing significantly from the overall tone of your essay.

Example Conclusion Paragraph

Here is an example of a conclusion paragraph that we will analyze sentence by sentence:

While the status of homosexuality within American capitalism has evolved from nuisance under industrial capitalism to tool of late capitalism, the interests of capital have always in some way been in opposition to those of the gay community. While, admittedly, progress has been made in the realm of tolerance, it has not been enough; capital has simply found new and more insidious ways to manipulate, marginalize, and oppress homosexuals. If America’s gays and lesbians desire liberation and authenticity, then they must align themselves with the enemies of capitalism and employ new theories and strategies in their struggle. The American gay community has nothing to lose but their overpriced Diesel jeans. They have a world to win.

Example Conclusion Paragraph: Structural Components

In this table, each structural component of the conclusion is listed in the left column, and the corresponding sample text is on the right:

Example Conclusion Paragraph: Analysis

Analysis of each structural component of the example paragraph.

While the status of homosexuality within American capitalism has evolved from nuisance under industrial capitalism to tool of late capitalism, the interests of capital have always in some way been in opposition to those of the gay community.


The opening sentence of the conclusion restates the essay’s thesis that “homosexuality has occupied positions both inside and outside the capitalist system” but that “a common element throughout this dynamic relationship … is the capitalist control of homosexuality and homosexuals in increasingly insidious ways.” It also reestablishes the tension inherent in this thesis between the shifting function of homosexuals within capitalism and their static position within the system. The opening sentence also effectively sums up the essay by using terms — “nuisance,” “industrial capitalism,” “tool,” “late capitalism” — that have been given specialized meanings within the body of the paper. Restating the thesis in the opening sentence of the conclusion allows the author a chance to explore the essay’s broader implications, as he does in the sentences that follow.

While, admittedly, progress has been made in the realm of tolerance,

While this statement is more of a concession to his opposition than an acknowledgement of an argumentative limitation, the admission that progress towards tolerance has been made by working within the capitalist system works against the author’s overall claim that capitalism itself must be opposed. This bolsters the author’s credibility by showing his reader that, though he has ultimately rejected them, he has genuinely considered opposing viewpoints.

it has not been enough; capital has simply found new and more insidious ways to manipulate, marginalize, and oppress homosexuals.

The motivating move in the conclusion is the same as the one the author employs in the introduction to his essay: the truth is not what it would appear to be on a first reading. However, the motives in the introduction and conclusion differ significantly in function. In the introduction, the author argues that, “contrary to what a quick stroll through the GAP or five minutes of watching Queer Eye for the Straight Guy would tell you about homosexuality’s exalted status in modern consumer culture, the history of the relationship between homosexuality and the capitalist mode of production has been a complex and troubled one.” The motive in the introduction ushers the reader into the world of the text by motivating an issue of interpretation. The motive in the conclusion ushers the reader back into the world of daily life by motivating an issue of political action, which is the overall goal of the essay. This incitement to action derives from the author’s claim that, though it may seem that homosexuals are making progress by working within the system of capitalism, the only way to truly achieve acceptance is by resisting capitalism itself.

If America’s gays and lesbians desire liberation and authenticity, then they must align themselves with the enemies of capitalism and employ new theories and strategies in their struggle.

While the author does not pose a new question directly, he suggests a further realm of inquiry. Having established in his essay that homosexuals cannot achieve tolerance by working within the system of capitalism, he looks to the next logical set of questions which require an examination of how to most effectively resist capitalism. While the author does devote some space in the latter part of his essay to sketching out some possibilities, these ideas are not nearly as fully realized as the argument about the impossibility of full tolerance of homosexuals within capitalism. Thus, this new question is also an implicit acknowledgement of a limitation in the author’s previous arguments.

The American gay community has nothing to lose but their overpriced Diesel jeans. They have a world to win.

The author’s reference to the “overpriced Diesel jeans” functions as more than a sort of witty gimmick. As the author moves the reader from the highly theoretical arguments that comprise the majority of his essay into the real world of the reader’s daily life, he chooses to focus on an object from that world. In addition, the reference to giving up Diesel jeans is juxtaposed with the idea that homosexuals have “a world to win” through resistance to capitalism. When placed in these terms, the sacrifice of the material object seems pithy in comparison with the toleration that the author argues homosexuals stand to achieve by aligning themselves against capitalism.

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Learn about the elements of a successful essay conclusion.

The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn’t fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why your topic is important. A conclusion is more than just "the last paragraph"—it's a working part of the paper. This is the place to push your reader to think about the consequences of your topic for the wider world or for the reader's own life!

A good conclusion should do a few things:

Restate your thesis

Synthesize or summarize your major points

Make the context of your argument clear

Restating Your Thesis

You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis:

Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter." This example gives the reader not only the thesis of the paper, but a reminder of the most powerful point in the argument!

Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. For example, if you've written a paper that targets parents of young children, you can find a way to phrase your thesis to capitalize on that—maybe by beginning your thesis statement with, "As a parent of a young child…"

Don’t repeat your thesis word for word—make sure that your new statement is an independent, fresh sentence!

Summary or Synthesis

This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that:

Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis (usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay).

Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible.

One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important:

Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If so, remind the reader of what he/she should do. If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. (In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action.)

Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption.

Remind the readers of why the topic matters to them personally. For example, it doesn’t matter much if you believe in the mission of animal shelters, if you're not planning to get a dog; however, once you're looking for a dog, it is much more important. The conclusion of this essay might say, "Since you’re in the market for a dog, you have a major decision to make: where to get one." This will remind the reader that the argument is personally important!

Conclusion paragraphs

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

does an essay always need a conclusion

Introductions and Conclusions

Have you ever read something that you couldn’t put down and then continued to think about it long after you finished? Good writing has that effect in general, but a strong introduction and conclusion are essential to engaging the reader from start to finish.

The introduction of a paper introduces the topic and scope of the discussion to prepare the reader for what follows, and the conclusion offers thoughtful analytic commentary or a synopsis that wraps up the discussion with final thoughts. In other words, the introduction and conclusion depend on everything that comes between them. With this in mind, an effective strategy for composing an introduction and a conclusion is to write everything that comes between them first. With the body of the paper drafted, you will know the topic well enough to introduce it effectively and you can also more readily determine where and how the discussion should end.

Consider the following characteristics of effective introductions and conclusions:

Characteristics of Effective Introductions

Provides relevant background information : Regardless of the topic, readers need a context to understand your remarks. A good introduction will include necessary background information about the topic that enables readers to understand the topic’s importance and why what you have to say about it matters. Providing context such as background information helps the reader feel grounded so that they can easily follow the development of the discussion.

Engages the reader : A good introduction will capture the attention of readers so that they want to read the paragraphs beyond the introduction. Enough specific information is presented so that readers are interested in the topic and what the writer plans to do with it. An engaging introduction invites readers into the world of the writing.

Sets the appropriate tone : The opening paragraph establishes the tone – the spirit and attitude behind the words – that the writer will use in a piece of writing. The tone should be a conscious choice as it reflects how the writer feels about the subject and about the audience, as well as the degree of formality of the writing. In most academic writing, the general tone is formal, but it may be more or less formal depending on the exact purpose of the writing. For example, a piece of writing with the purpose of introducing a new employee will probably be less formal and more personable than, say, a persuasive essay.

Establishes the focus and purpose : The introduction must make the focus and purpose of the paper clear to readers. Many writers include a thesis statement that establishes the focus and purpose and forecasts the main points. Even without an explicit thesis statement, the focus and purpose of the paper need to be just as clear. If readers do not understand the focus or what the writer hopes to accomplish, subsequent paragraphs may not make sense to readers.

Options for Introductions

The following is collection of some rhetorical strategies for writing introductions. Oftentimes an introduction will have characteristics of more than one strategy, so you should treat this list as a compilation of possibilities, not as a prescription of how certain types of beginnings must look. Try out a number of options to get a sense of the possibilities and then determine which would work best for your topic, purpose, and audience. The more you work on your introduction and think about what you are trying to say in your paper as a whole, the easier it will be to write an effective introduction.

Establish the Issue

Use the introduction to help make the case that the topic you are writing about is important and relevant and to provide context for your readers.

In the last decade or so, American culture has become increasingly tolerant of teenage sexuality. Many parents, too busy in their lives, are not proactive in educating their teens on issues related to sexuality. Educators are often left with the role of providing basic information about the subject even as more and more sexual education classes are cut from the curriculum. Where does this leave curious teens? Statistics show that 75 percent of teens have had sex by the time they are nineteen years old. The teenage birth rate continues to climb as do reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (Healy, 2008). Cleary, it is imperative to develop intervention programs that teach adolescents the effective skills in delaying early sexual behaviors. Early education on delaying sexual activity for teens can drastically decrease teenage pregnancies, prevent the spread of STDs, and help teens to make the right choices that can impact the rest of their lives.

Asking relevant questions can be an excellent way to engage readers and get their attention. In the example below, the writer begins with a universal question that most readers can relate to.

Did you ever think that your life would change dramatically in a matter of twenty-four hours? One day you have a certain kind of life – a home, nearby schools for your kids, a wonderful neighborhood, good job, friends – and the next day it is all gone, irreversibly changed. As a resident of New Orleans, Louisiana, I had always known that a major hurricane could strike, but even knowing this fact could not prepare me for what happened in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina demonstrated the need for residents to evacuate when mandated, for local and state authorities to work more efficiently together, and for the federal government to respond in a timely and responsible manner.

Use a narrative Most people enjoy reading a good story, so beginning with a narrative can be an effective way to connect with your readers.

It was a dark and stormy night. The wind whipped through the trees while lightening flashed and thunder boomed. Up ahead on a hill, a rickety old house stood. In an upstairs window, a single, solitary light shone, casting an eerie shadow across the yard. I was in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on business, and was driving to the outskirts of the city to visit my aunt, an old woman I hadn’t seen in nearly twenty years. According to my directions, that rickety old house was my aunt’s house, but I didn’t know if I had the nerve to knock on the door. In fact, I couldn’t remember a time I had been more scared. Everyone experiences fear just as everyone experiences happiness or sadness. Fear is a natural human emotion to the unknown and is characterized by physical changes to the body, an innate need to escape, and acute awareness of one’s surroundings.

Use an Attention Getter

Begin with a statement that will catch your readers’ attention and makes them want to continue reading.

Some children cannot sit still. They appear distracted by every little thing and do not seem to learn from their mistakes. These children disregard rules, even when they are punished repeatedly. It’s simple—their parents must not know how to control them. The truth is that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD is not understood appropriately. In fact, ADHD is a growing problem that requires more research to understand the issue, better intervention programs to help afflicted children, and improved training and support programs to help parents and educators.

Use an Extended Example or Series of Examples

Providing anecdotal examples can be a very effective way to capture your readers’ attention. Choose relevant, memorable examples.

According to the Federal Highway and Transportation Agency (2008), the majority of Americans, some 57%, do not regularly wear seat belts. Teddy Biro didn’t wear one when the car he was driving skidded on an icy road and hit a utility pole; Biro was catapulted through his front windshield and died of blood loss from a severed jugular vein. The coroner reported he had no other injuries besides minor abrasions. Bob Nettleblatt wasn’t wearing a seat belt when a car rear-ended him at a stop sign. Nettleblatt slammed his head into his front windshield and required 137 stitches to close up the laceration; investigators at the scene said if he had been wearing a seat belt, he would have been virtually unhurt from the 2 mph rear end collision (Fischer, 2007). Despite what is known about the safety of wearing seatbelts, too many Americans still do not buckle up, resulting in enormous emergency medical costs and fatalities that could be avoided. Despite what some people think, wearing a seatbelt is not a choice nor does it violate one’s personal rights. Wearing a seatbelt is the law and more needs to be done to enforce the law, punish those who break it, and educate young drivers to the dangers of not buckling up.

Define an Essential Term

To use this strategy, choose a term that is central to your paper and define it. This will help to engage your readers and make them want to continue reading. In the example below, the writer uses an extended example to define the term “collect.”

My friend George is a record fiend. Every room of his house contains floor-to-ceiling shelves filled entirely with record albums organized alphabetically regardless of genre. Stack after stack of record albums are piled high in the center of rooms, in corners, and in hallways. They are stacked under tables and in cupboards. One entire closet contains by George’s estimation over twenty-five hundred unsorted albums he purchased at flea markets, estate sales, and record shows. The parts of walls exposed contain framed original album covers—the Beatles’ Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, Muddy Waters’ Electric Mud, John Coltrane’s Giant Steps. He owns commercially released albums, limited edition releases, reviewer copies, test pressings, and bootlegs. On most weekends, George travels to record shows and collectors conventions. He writes a weekly blog devoted to obscure records and another on the art of record collecting. His obsession with record collecting has cost him jobs, friends, and a wife. And still he collects.

Dramatize a Scene

Crafting a dramatic scene can go a long way toward making your readers want to read your work!

4 AM, March 28, 1979 and the floor of the control room at Three Mile Island nuclear power station jumps to life. The two control room operators are jolted from their mid-shift doldrums as alarms begin to sound, and the pounding in the auxiliary room is deafening. What those at the station did not know was that the “worst crisis yet experienced by the nation’s nuclear power industry” (Kemeny, 1979, p. 37) had just begun, and its impact wouldn’t be realized for years to come, if ever. Three Mile Island nuclear power station was located on an island in the middle of the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It contained two separate nuclear power plants, TMI 1 and TMI 2. TMI 1 had been shut down for maintenance, but TMI 2 was operating at 97% of rated power providing electricity to the area (Carraway, 2000). Within seconds of the first alarm, a chain of events would commence to destroy the nuclear reactor and with it, the future of the nuclear power industry in this country.

Use a Quote

Using a relevant quotation, whether it is direct or indirect, can also help engage your reader.

An observer once said that New Orleanians are either having a party, recuperating from a party, or planning a party. The biggest and best party of all and the city’s most famous celebration is Mardi Gras, the greatest free show on earth. Despite the image the popular media displays to outsiders, Mardi Gras is a yearly celebration that is much tamer than most realize, brings family and friends together, and promotes unity among diverse groups of people.

Shocking but true statements or statistics can help draw your readers in.

McDonald’s has sold over 100 billion burgers. One hundred billion burgers with bun, stacked on top of one another would extend over 2.9 million miles into space–twelve times as far as the moon (Grimes, 2007). What is the secret of McDonald’s incredible success? To use the words of Ray Kroc, McDonald’s founder, the secret to McDonald’s success is that the fast-food giant produces “consistently mediocre food” (as cited in Thomas, 2001). The McDonald’s corporation has become a model of success due to its understanding of its market niche, its ability to redefine its image over time, and its ability to remain stable and produce a profit even in difficult economic times.

Characteristics of an Effective Conclusion

Brings the writing to a logical close : A conclusion provides the necessary signal to readers that the business of the essay is winding down, and the reader is being returned to the world outside of the essay. This transition should be fluid and the parting content thoughtful so that readers are prepared for and satisfied with the ending.

Reinforces the main idea in an engaging manner : Just as the introduction provides a first impression, the conclusion provides the last impression. The conclusion should reinforce the main idea of the work in a way that is fresh and not merely a perfunctory rehashing of what the essay discussed. Use the ending as your last chance to reach your audience and make sure the main point, its significance and/or its larger implications, are understood.

Leaves readers with something to think about : Ideally, a conclusion will bring the world of the essay to a close in such a way that even though the business of reading has ended, the audience does not stop thinking about what the essay said – its ideas. You don’t want an audience to end reading an essay, thinking “So what?” Provide some content that engages readers with what is important about the topic and your discussion of it so that the meaning of the writing stays with readers.

Options for Conclusions

What follows is a list of possible ways to conclude your writing. Depending on the purpose of the writing, some endings are more appropriate than others, so give careful thought to these techniques and try out a number of appropriate possibilities. Please also keep in mind that these options, like the offerings for introductions, can be combined so that a conclusion may have characteristics of more than one type of ending.

Most of the options for introductions can also be used for conclusions as well. Recall the introduction in which the writer was telling the story of the dark and stormy night he went to visit an aunt he hadn’t seen in decades. The conclusion could pick up where the introduction left off, or it could tell the story of another fearful situation the writer experienced, but the same general technique, a narrative in this case, could be used.

What follows is a list of additional ways in which you can compose a conclusion for your writing.

The idea of the echo is to repeat key words or phrases to create an “echo” that gets at a particular meaning or emphasizes a certain idea important to the writing. In the example below, note how the repetition of “Too many drivers” emphasizes the idea and, in essence, creates an echo readers will hear.

Too many drivers act in inappropriate ways when they get behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. Too many drivers are unnecessarily aggressive, darting in and out of traffic, running stop lights, putting everyone else on the road in peril. Too many drivers are just plain inconsiderate as if they are the only ones on the road. And too many of those drivers are just like you and me – good, decent people until we get in our cars.

Audience Appeal

The writer shows or points out directly to the audience how things are or the likely consequences if certain conditions remain the same. The content is presented in such a way that the burden of responsibility lies with the audience. This approach is well suited for writing that has a persuasive purpose.

The current political culture allows for staggering sums of money to be spent on campaigns. The basic idea is not so much about content as it is about getting the word out and creating a buzz. The more one hears about a candidate, the greater the buzz. And, of course, creating a buzz costs money, but, as advertisers have known for a long time, it is money well spent. Getting elected is a lot like selling laundry detergent, and until American citizens let their governmental advertisers know that they’ve had enough, that spending millions of dollars – even if it’s a candidate’s own money – to hold an office is ludicrous, then they have no one but themselves to blame.

State the “So What?”

With this ending, the writer essentially states the deeper meaning of the piece of writing so that the idea is not only clear, but it is also emphasized.

Today, Maine is one of only ten states that has not passed public charter school legislation. Maine’s current public school choice offerings are slim at best. Current choices include only traditional public schools or private schools. Whether the reason for wanting other alternatives is personal or educational, Maine families should be afforded another choice in public education. It’s time for Maine to recognize that public charter schools are a valuable choice in free public education.

Clinching Statement

With this type of conclusion, the writer uses a thought-provoking final statement that communicates the essence of the piece of writing and stays with readers.

For most residents living in hurricane-prone New Orleans, the first of June simply marks the beginning of another local season—hurricane season. The media quickly saturate the airwaves with hurricane season predictions, hurricane preparedness reminders and checklists, evacuation routes and guidelines, mini-lessons on the benefits of super Doppler imagery, and, certainly up until Katrina, doomsday predictions of what could happen if a major hurricane hit New Orleans. The information delivered was such standard fare that few gave it much thought. Hurricane Katrina changed all that. Katrina taught New Orleanians to be mindful of hurricane season and to pay attention—really pay attention—to what was swirling out near or in the Gulf. And even though by meteorological standards, Katrina was not the Big One, the apocalyptic aftermath of the storm and the physical and psychological damage it caused added up to something far greater than anyone expected.

Back to the Beginning

This ending uses content that in some way refers back to the beginning of the essay, not in a redundant way but in a manner that makes an important connection.

While friends will drift in and out of our lives, disappearing and maybe reappearing, some will be as constant as the stars in the sky. These friends – the essence of true friends – we will keep forever. These few friends will always be around, will see us through thick and thin, good and bad, no matter what, because that is what true friends do.

While the tendency when writing a conclusion is to offer a summary of what came before, now you have options for a conclusion that will move beyond a mere summary and bring the writing to a thoughtful and graceful exit.

Ernest Hemingway, the great 20th century American writer, claimed to have written 256 different endings for his short novel The Old Man and the Sea . According to Hemingway, he needed to get it right. While you may not have the time to try so many different conclusions, do keep in mind what Hemingway clearly knew: For a conclusion to be successful, it needs to be satisfying. Good endings create a sense of closure, a sense that the business of the essay has come to a completion; the reader is not expecting more. Like an introduction that makes a good first impression, the conclusion makes the final impression, and you want it to be lasting.

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does an essay always need a conclusion

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

does an essay always need a conclusion

A well-structured conclusion is considered an important element of a strong essay and is often a part of the grading criteria.

Some instructors or grading rubrics might be more lenient on this aspect, while others might place a higher emphasis on it. To avoid potential point deductions, it's generally a good practice to include a well-structured conclusion, which usually takes 10-15% of your work (e.g., a 2,000-word essay should have a 250-word conclusion). In this article, you will find out how to write a concluding paragraph, what are the elements of an A-grade conclusion, as well as a couple of great examples.

How to Write a Conclusion Step by Step

Writing an effective conclusion paragraph involves several steps. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to write a conclusion for your essay:

how to write a conclusion for an essay

Restate the Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating the thesis statement. This reminds the reader of the overall argument or point of your essay. However, don't simply repeat things word for word; rephrase them to add a sense of closure.

Summarize Key Points

Summarize the main argument and the paper's main points. You don't need to go into great detail - simply repeat the main idea. Briefly touch upon the most important ideas discussed in the body of your essay.

Connect to the Introduction

Link your last sentence back to the introductory paragraph. Refer to something mentioned in the introduction or use similar language to create a sense of unity and closure in your essay.

Offer a Final Insight or Perspective

Provide a final perspective related to your topic. This can be a thought-provoking comment, a recommendation, a call to action, a broader implication of your argument, or even a provocative insight. Consider the "So What?" question – why should the reader care about your essay's topic?

Avoid Introducing New Information

Your final sentence is not the place to introduce new information or arguments. Stick to summarizing and tying up what you've already presented in the essay without any new ideas.

Keep It Concise

Essay conclusions should be concise and to the point. Maintain control by avoiding extensive detail or rehashing the entire essay. Aim for clarity and brevity.

Avoid Clichés

Avoid overused phrases and clichés. Instead, find more creative and engaging ways to write good conclusion sentences.

Consider the Tone

The tone of your conclusion should match the tone of your essay. If your essay is formal, keep the conclusion formal. If it's more casual or personal, maintain that tone. Always conclude essays on a positive note.

After writing your conclusion, take the time to proofread and edit it. Ensure there are no grammatical or spelling errors and that the language is clear and concise. This will leave a good final impression.

Think About the Reader

Put yourself in the reader's shoes. Consider what you would want to take away from the essay and what kind of conclusion would be most satisfying and impactful for them.

Remember that knowing how to start a conclusion paragraph can significantly impact the reader's overall impression of your essay. A well-crafted conclusion not only provides closure but also reinforces your main points and leaves a lasting impact.

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Why Conclusion Writing Is Important

Writing a conclusion is important because it provides closure and completeness to the essay, reinforcing the main points and giving the reader a final perspective on the topic.

Many students wonder if it's possible to turn in an essay without a closing sentence. Some see it as a creative choice; others - because they don't understand how to write a good conclusion.

Basically, the absence of a conclusion in an essay can affect the overall quality and coherence, so we always recommend finishing any academic article with a strong concluding paragraph.

Here are several reasons why a conclusion is a must-have in any essay:

  • Summarizes key points: A conclusion provides an opportunity to recap the main points and arguments made in the essay. It serves as a summary of the entire essay, reminding the reader of the most important information and ideas presented.
  • Reinforces the thesis statement: The conclusion should reiterate the thesis statement or the central argument of the essay. This reinforces the main message and helps the reader remember the purpose and focus of the essay.
  • Provides closure: A well-written conclusion gives the essay a sense of closure. It signals to the reader that the essay is ending and provides a satisfying wrap-up to the discussion.
  • Offers a final perspective: In the conclusion, you can provide your final thoughts and insights on the topic. This is an opportunity to express your perspective or offer suggestions for further research or action related to the subject matter.
  • Leaves a lasting impression: The conclusion is your last chance to leave a strong impression on the reader. A well-crafted conclusion can make your essay more memorable and impactful.
  • Connects to the introduction: A good conclusion should link back to the introduction, creating a sense of unity and coherence in the essay. It reminds the reader of the journey they've taken from the beginning to the end of the essay.
  • Encourages reflection: The conclusion invites the reader to reflect on the content of the essay and its significance. It can stimulate critical thinking and leave the reader with something to ponder.
  • Guides the reader: A conclusion can guide the reader on what to take away from the essay. It can suggest implications, applications, or further considerations related to the topic.

Knowing how to make a conclusion is important because it helps tie together the various elements of an essay, reinforces the main points, provides closure, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader. It is a critical component of effective essay writing that can enhance the overall impact and understanding of your work.

If you'd like to know more about how to write an essay , we've prepared some useful tips for you. In the meantime, we'd like to demonstrate a couple of great conclusion examples essay authors shared for your reference needs.

Three Essentials of a Perfect Final Paragraph

We want to share some practical tips regarding how to write a conclusion for an essay. First and foremost, a concluding passage should start with restating a thesis statement.

It involves rephrasing or summarizing the key arguments of your essay while maintaining the original intent and meaning.

Don't forget to use different wording, parallel structure, and link back to the introduction. E.g.:

Original: "The advancement of technology has had both positive and negative effects on society."
Restated: "Society has experienced a range of consequences, both beneficial and detrimental, due to technological progress."

Secondly, summarize key points and prioritize the main ideas. Focus on the most significant and relevant key points that support your thesis.

You don't need to mention every detail, only the most crucial elements. Be concise and to the point in your summaries. Avoid using lengthy sentences or providing too much context.

Get straight to the core of each key point. Present the key points in a logical order that follows the structure of your essay.

This helps the reader follow your thought process. If your key points in the body of your essay were related to the benefits and drawbacks of technology, this is how you summarize them:

"In summary, this essay has explored the multifaceted impact of technology on society. We have discussed its positive contributions, such as increased efficiency and connectivity, but also examined the negative aspects, including privacy concerns and overreliance on screens. These key points underscore the complexity of our relationship with technology and the need for balanced, informed decision-making."

Thirdly, it's hard to imagine how to conclude an essay without connecting the conclusion to the introduction. Try to use similar or parallel language in your conclusion that was used in the introduction.

This could be in the form of specific words, phrases, or even sentence structures. Such a linguistic connection will reinforce the relationship between the two sections.

If your introduction posed a question, hypothesis, or series of questions, use the conclusion to provide an answer, reflect on the evolution of thought, or address how these questions have been explored and answered in the essay.

Discuss the significance of the introduction's ideas or themes in light of the discussion that has unfolded in the body of the essay. E.g.:

Introduction: "In a world driven by technological advancements, the impact of our digital age on interpersonal relationships remains a topic of great interest."
Conclusion: "As we navigate the ever-changing landscape of the digital age, the significance of maintaining authentic and meaningful connections in our interpersonal relationships becomes even more apparent. The insights gained in this essay reaffirm the importance of striking a balance between the virtual and the real, ensuring that technology enhances rather than hinders our connections."

Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion

Writing essay conclusions can be challenging, so students should know how to write a conclusion correctly. Here are ten hints to help you prepare excellent concluding paragraphs:

mistakes to avoid while writing conclusion

  • Repetition of introduction.
  • Introducing new information.
  • Being too vague.
  • Lack of clarity.
  • Overlength.
  • Failure to address the "So What?" question.
  • Inconsistency with the essay's tone.
  • Lack of connection to the introduction.
  • Neglecting to revisit the thesis.
  • Not leaving a lasting impression. ‍

Don't repeat these mistakes, and you'll know how to make a conclusion in an essay perfectly well. It's essential to plan your conclusion carefully, review your essay thoroughly, and consider the reader's perspective.

Practice and feedback from instructors can also help. However, if it isn't sufficient, buy essay online in a few clicks to get the upper hand.

How Much Time Does It Take to Start Writing Proper Essay Conclusions

Practice makes perfect. To master the art of writing conclusions, you'll have to demonstrate patience, skill, and experience.

The time it takes to learn to write great conclusions for essays varies from person to person and depends on several factors, including your starting point, your dedication to improvement, and the quality of feedback and guidance you receive.

There is no fixed timeline for writing great essay conclusions. It doesn't happen overnight.

However, with consistent effort and a willingness to learn from your experiences, you can steadily improve your ability to craft effective concluding paragraphs.

It's also worth noting that writing is a continuous learning process, and even experienced writers continue to refine their skills over time.

How an Effective Conclusion Paragraph Should End

Good conclusions should always end with concluding phrases that can provide a strong, memorable finish to your essay. Remember that the effectiveness of these phrases depends on the context and the specific message you want to convey in your conclusion.

Choose the one that best suits the tone and content of your essay while providing a clear and impactful ending:

  • In conclusion.
  • In summary.
  • To wrap it up.
  • In a nutshell.
  • To put it simply.
  • Ultimately.
  • In the final analysis.
  • As a result.
  • To conclude.
  • In essence.
  • For these reasons.
  • In light of this.
  • With all factors considered.
  • Taking everything into account.
  • Given these points.
  • In the grand scheme of things.
  • To bring it all together.

Knowing how to end a conclusion will help you convey the overall purpose and message of your essay to readers.

It will provide closure and give the reader a sense of completeness while reinforcing the main points and leaving them with a final thought.

Since we speak a lot about conclusions and connecting them to introductions, you might also like to brush up on how to write an outline for an essay .

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Conclusion Paragraph Examples

"In essence, mastering the craft of how to write conclusion of essay is essential for creating impactful and well-structured essays. By reiterating the thesis, summarizing key points, and leaving a lasting impression, we are writing conclusions that not only provide closure but also reinforce the central message of our essays. As we continue to hone this skill, our ability to communicate effectively through our writing will undoubtedly improve, making our essays more persuasive and memorable."
"In summary, learning how to write a conclusion paragraph requires careful consideration and practice. By reiterating the main point, summarizing key arguments, leaving the reader with a thought-provoking final message, and keeping the conclusion format in mind, we can create conclusions that not only provide closure to our essays but also leave a lasting impact on our readers. As we continue to refine this skill, our ability to write compelling conclusions will enhance the overall quality of our essays and make our writing more engaging and persuasive. As writers, we should continually refine our knowledge of how to end a conclusion paragraph to make our essays more memorable and impactful."
"To sum up, producing an effective conclusion is vital for any writer. Understanding how to write a good conclusion ensures that our essays have the power to resonate with readers, leaving a lasting impression and reinforcing the central message of our work. By following these principles, we can elevate our experience with how to make a good conclusion and engage our audience effectively. It's a skill that, once honed, can distinguish our essays and make them truly memorable, leaving a lasting impact on those who read them."

In this article, we've demonstrated how to write a conclusion - a vital skill for crafting effective college articles.

This knowledge will prove highly beneficial to your educational progress.

By guiding you in restating the thesis, summarizing key points, offering closure, reflecting on significance, and avoiding introducing new information in conclusions, we've equipped you with the tools to leave a lasting impression on your academic work.

This newfound expertise regarding how to end a conclusion in an essay will undoubtedly enhance your college success and contribute to your overall academic achievement.

Why Writing a Conclusion Is Important?

Writing a conclusion paragraph is important because it provides closure, summarizes key points, reinforces the thesis, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader, ensuring that your message is effectively communicated and your work is well-rounded and impactful. Knowing how to write a conclusion sentence allows you to tie together the main ideas presented in your writing. It offers an opportunity to reflect on the broader implications of your work. It allows your audience to leave with a clear understanding of the significance of your argument or findings. Moreover, a strong conclusion can leave a memorable mark on your reader, making it a critical element in effective communication and achieving the desired impact with your writing. That's why every student should know how to write a good conclusion for an essay.

What Is an Essay Conclusions Outline?

A conclusion paragraph outline is a structured plan that helps writers summarize key points, restate the thesis, provide closure, and reflect on the broader significance of their essay. It serves as a roadmap for crafting a well-organized and impactful conclusion. This outline typically includes a section summarizing the main arguments or findings, followed by a restatement of the thesis to reinforce the central message. It also guides writers in discussing the broader implications or significance of their topic. Writing a conclusion for an essay ensures that you effectively encapsulate the essay's core ideas and leave a strong and lasting impression on the reader.

How to Write a Good Conclusion?

Demonstrate that you know how to write a conclusion by restating your thesis, summarizing key points, providing closure, and reflecting on the broader significance of your work. Avoid introducing new information, and aim to leave a strong and memorable final impression on the reader. A good conclusion should tie back to the introduction and the main body of your work, creating a sense of completeness. While learning how to end a essay, it's essential to maintain a consistent tone and style with the rest of the piece, ensuring a harmonious flow. Engage the reader by highlighting the relevance and real-world implications of your topic, leaving them with a clear understanding of why your argument or findings matter. According to MBA essay writing service experts, a good conclusion is an integral part of grading criteria and should be featured in the article.

Any Tips on How to Write a Concluding Paragraph?

The concluding paragraph is a critical component of effective writing, serving as the last opportunity to make a compelling impression on your audience. If you'd like to learn how to write a good conclusion paragraph, start by reiterating your thesis or central argument, reinforcing the core message. Summarize the key points and arguments presented in the body of your work, providing a concise overview of your main ideas. Next, offer closure by crafting a conclusion that brings your narrative or argument to a logical and satisfying end. Lastly, refrain from introducing new information, as this can disrupt the flow and purpose of your conclusion. When practicing how to write conclusion in essay, focus on reinforcing the existing content and leaving a memorable final impression on your readers.

Consider the following thesis for a short paper that analyzes different approaches to stopping climate change:

Climate activism that focuses on personal actions such as recycling obscures the need for systemic change that will be required to slow carbon emissions.

The author of this thesis is promising to make the case that personal actions not only will not solve the climate problem but may actually make the problem more difficult to solve. In order to make a convincing argument, the author will need to consider how thoughtful people might disagree with this claim. In this case, the author might anticipate the following counterarguments:

  • By encouraging personal actions, climate activists may raise awareness of the problem and encourage people to support larger systemic change.  
  • Personal actions on a global level would actually make a difference.  
  • Personal actions may not make a difference, but they will not obscure the need for systemic solutions.  
  • Personal actions cannot be put into one category and must be differentiated.

In order to make a convincing argument, the author of this essay may need to address these potential counterarguments. But you don’t need to address every possible counterargument. Rather, you should engage counterarguments when doing so allows you to strengthen your own argument by explaining how it holds up in relation to other arguments. 

How to address counterarguments 

Once you have considered the potential counterarguments, you will need to figure out how to address them in your essay. In general, to address a counterargument, you’ll need to take the following steps.

  • State the counterargument and explain why a reasonable reader could raise that counterargument.  
  • Counter the counterargument. How you grapple with a counterargument will depend on what you think it means for your argument. You may explain why your argument is still convincing, even in light of this other position. You may point to a flaw in the counterargument. You may concede that the counterargument gets something right but then explain why it does not undermine your argument. You may explain why the counterargument is not relevant. You may refine your own argument in response to the counterargument.  
  • Consider the language you are using to address the counterargument. Words like but or however signal to the reader that you are refuting the counterargument. Words like nevertheless or still signal to the reader that your argument is not diminished by the counterargument. 

Here’s an example of a paragraph in which a counterargument is raised and addressed.

Image version


The two steps are marked with counterargument and “counter” to the counterargument: COUNTERARGUMENT/ But some experts argue that it’s important for individuals to take action to mitigate climate change. In “All That Performative Environmentalism Adds Up,” Annie Lowery argues that personal actions to fight climate change, such as reducing household trash or installing solar panels, matter because change in social behavior can lead to changes in laws. [1]  

COUNTER TO THE COUNTERARGUMENT/ While Lowery may be correct that individual actions can lead to collective action, this focus on individual action can allow corporations to receive positive publicity while continuing to burn fossil fuels at dangerous rates.

Where to address counterarguments 

There is no one right place for a counterargument—where you raise a particular counterargument will depend on how it fits in with the rest of your argument. The most common spots are the following:

  • Before your conclusion This is a common and effective spot for a counterargument because it’s a chance to address anything that you think a reader might still be concerned about after you’ve made your main argument. Don’t put a counterargument in your conclusion, however. At that point, you won’t have the space to address it, and readers may come away confused—or less convinced by your argument.
  • Before your thesis Often, your thesis will actually be a counterargument to someone else’s argument. In other words, you will be making your argument because someone else has made an argument that you disagree with. In those cases, you may want to offer that counterargument before you state your thesis to show your readers what’s at stake—someone else has made an unconvincing argument, and you are now going to make a better one. 
  • After your introduction In some cases, you may want to respond to a counterargument early in your essay, before you get too far into your argument. This is a good option when you think readers may need to understand why the counterargument is not as strong as your argument before you can even launch your own ideas. You might do this in the paragraph right after your thesis. 
  • Anywhere that makes sense  As you draft an essay, you should always keep your readers in mind and think about where a thoughtful reader might disagree with you or raise an objection to an assertion or interpretation of evidence that you are offering. In those spots, you can introduce that potential objection and explain why it does not change your argument. If you think it does affect your argument, you can acknowledge that and explain why your argument is still strong.

[1] Annie Lowery, “All that Performative Environmentalism Adds Up.” The Atlantic . August 31, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/08/your-tote-bag-can-mak…

  • picture_as_pdf Counterargument


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  1. Ending the Essay: Conclusions

    Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay: Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas. Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up ...

  2. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis. To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis.

  3. Conclusions and why they matter

    These functions are equally important in the structure of an essay. A conclusion is a paragraph (or set of paragraphs) that comes at the very end of an essay and it must restate the thesis (say what the essay has argued) and summarize the argument. Think about a conclusion from the reader's point of view as the end of a conversation.

  4. Conclusions

    The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings. Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or ...

  5. Academic Writing: "In Conclusion"...How Not to End Your Paper

    Avoid these 7 common errors in your conclusions. Opening with an empty phrase, the equivalent of "throat-clearing. For example: Draft: "And, therefore, it is important to keep in mind that ..." "In conclusion…". Revision: Omit these phrases. "In conclusion" or "To conclude" may be appropriate for an oral presentation, but in ...

  6. How to End an Essay: Writing a Strong Conclusion

    End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful. Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don't lose a reader's attention. Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you've already made in your essay. Method 1.

  7. Conclusions

    A conclusion's role in an essay. The primary role, job, of a conclusion in an essay is to finish off the essay in a logical way. Just like if you listened to a song that stopped halfway through if you read an essay without a conclusion, it feels unfinished. A conclusion is an idea that is reached after someone considers evidence about a topic.

  8. Writing Effective Conclusions

    Here is an example of a conclusion paragraph that we will analyze sentence by sentence: While the status of homosexuality within American capitalism has evolved from nuisance under industrial capitalism to tool of late capitalism, the interests of capital have always in some way been in opposition to those of the gay community. While ...

  9. The Beginner's Guide to Writing an Essay

    The essay writing process consists of three main stages: Preparation: Decide on your topic, do your research, and create an essay outline. Writing: Set out your argument in the introduction, develop it with evidence in the main body, and wrap it up with a conclusion. Revision: Check your essay on the content, organization, grammar, spelling ...

  10. Essay Conclusions

    The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn't fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why ...

  11. PDF Effective Conclusions

    Effective Conclusions The conclusion of an essay is the reader's last impression of the writer's work and allows the writer to finalize ... Being overly emotional in your conclusion typically does not parallel the tone of the rest of your paper. It is more fitting to play on sophisticated commentary rather than

  12. How to End a College Admissions Essay

    Option 4: End on an action. Ending on an action can be a strong way to wrap up your essay. That might mean including a literal action, dialogue, or continuation of the story. These endings leave the reader wanting more rather than wishing the essay had ended sooner. They're interesting and can help you avoid boring your reader.

  13. Conclusions

    Conclusions. Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future ...

  14. Introductions and Conclusions

    While you may not have the time to try so many different conclusions, do keep in mind what Hemingway clearly knew: For a conclusion to be successful, it needs to be satisfying. Good endings create a sense of closure, a sense that the business of the essay has come to a completion; the reader is not expecting more.

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay (Examples Included!)

    Also read: How to Write a Thesis Statement. 2. Tying together the main points. Tying together all the main points of your essay does not mean simply summarizing them in an arbitrary manner. The key is to link each of your main essay points in a coherent structure. One point should follow the other in a logical format.

  16. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    Reinforces the thesis statement: The conclusion should reiterate the thesis statement or the central argument of the essay. This reinforces the main message and helps the reader remember the purpose and focus of the essay. Provides closure: A well-written conclusion gives the essay a sense of closure.

  17. Counterargument

    The most common spots are the following: Before your conclusion. This is a common and effective spot for a counterargument because it's a chance to address anything that you think a reader might still be concerned about after you've made your main argument. Don't put a counterargument in your conclusion, however.

  18. What goes in an essay conclusion?

    Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example: In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text; In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event; In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political ...

  19. 3 Tips On How To Write The Conclusion Of An Essay?

    Does an essay always need a conclusion? An essay conclusion is typically expected in most academic or professional writing, but it is not always necessary. When you write very short essays or highly technical reports, a conclusion may not be required.

  20. How to Write an Essay Introduction

    Table of contents. Step 1: Hook your reader. Step 2: Give background information. Step 3: Present your thesis statement. Step 4: Map your essay's structure. Step 5: Check and revise. More examples of essay introductions. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about the essay introduction.