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How to write strong essay body paragraphs (with examples)

In this blog post, we'll discuss how to write clear, convincing essay body paragraphs using many examples. We'll also be writing paragraphs together. By the end, you'll have a good understanding of how to write a strong essay body for any topic.

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Table of Contents

Introduction, how to structure a body paragraph, creating an outline for our essay body, 1. a strong thesis statment takes a stand, 2. a strong thesis statement allows for debate, 3. a strong thesis statement is specific, writing the first essay body paragraph, how not to write a body paragraph, writing the second essay body paragraph.

After writing a great introduction to our essay, let's make our case in the body paragraphs. These are where we will present our arguments, back them up with evidence, and, in most cases, refute counterarguments. Introductions are very similar across the various types of essays. For example, an argumentative essay's introduction will be near identical to an introduction written for an expository essay. In contrast, the body paragraphs are structured differently depending on the type of essay.

In an expository essay, we are investigating an idea or analyzing the circumstances of a case. In contrast, we want to make compelling points with an argumentative essay to convince readers to agree with us.

The most straightforward technique to make an argument is to provide context first, then make a general point, and lastly back that point up in the following sentences. Not starting with your idea directly but giving context first is crucial in constructing a clear and easy-to-follow paragraph.

How to ideally structure a body paragraph:

  • Provide context
  • Make your thesis statement
  • Support that argument

Now that we have the ideal structure for an argumentative essay, the best step to proceed is to outline the subsequent paragraphs. For the outline, we'll be writing one sentence that is simple in wording and describes the argument that we'll make in that paragraph concisely. Why are we doing that? An outline does more than give you a structure to work off of in the following essay body, thereby saving you time. It also helps you not to repeat yourself or, even worse, to accidentally contradict yourself later on.

While working on the outline, remember that revising your initial topic sentences is completely normal. They do not need to be flawless. Starting the outline with those thoughts can help accelerate writing the entire essay and can be very beneficial in avoiding writer's block.

For the essay body, we'll be proceeding with the topic we've written an introduction for in the previous article - the dangers of social media on society.

These are the main points I would like to make in the essay body regarding the dangers of social media:

Amplification of one's existing beliefs

Skewed comparisons

What makes a polished thesis statement?

Now that we've got our main points, let's create our outline for the body by writing one clear and straightforward topic sentence (which is the same as a thesis statement) for each idea. How do we write a great topic sentence? First, take a look at the three characteristics of a strong thesis statement.

Consider this thesis statement:

'While social media can have some negative effects, it can also be used positively.'

What stand does it take? Which negative and positive aspects does the author mean? While this one:

'Because social media is linked to a rise in mental health problems, it poses a danger to users.'

takes a clear stand and is very precise about the object of discussion.

If your thesis statement is not arguable, then your paper will not likely be enjoyable to read. Consider this thesis statement:

'Lots of people around the globe use social media.'

It does not allow for much discussion at all. Even if you were to argue that more or fewer people are using it on this planet, that wouldn't make for a very compelling argument.

'Although social media has numerous benefits, its various risks, including cyberbullying and possible addiction, mostly outweigh its benefits.'

Whether or not you consider this statement true, it allows for much more discussion than the previous one. It provides a basis for an engaging, thought-provoking paper by taking a position that you can discuss.

A thesis statement is one sentence that clearly states what you will discuss in that paragraph. It should give an overview of the main points you will discuss and show how these relate to your topic. For example, if you were to examine the rapid growth of social media, consider this thesis statement:

'There are many reasons for the rise in social media usage.'

That thesis statement is weak for two reasons. First, depending on the length of your essay, you might need to narrow your focus because the "rise in social media usage" can be a large and broad topic you cannot address adequately in a few pages. Secondly, the term "many reasons" is vague and does not give the reader an idea of what you will discuss in your paper.

In contrast, consider this thesis statement:

'The rise in social media usage is due to the increasing popularity of platforms like Facebook and Twitter, allowing users to connect with friends and share information effortlessly.'

Why is this better? Not only does it abide by the first two rules by allowing for debate and taking a stand, but this statement also narrows the subject down and identifies significant reasons for the increasing popularity of social media.

In conclusion : A strong thesis statement takes a clear stand, allows for discussion, and is specific.

Let's make use of how to write a good thopic sentence and put it into practise for our two main points from before. This is what good topic sentences could look like:

Echo chambers facilitated by social media promote political segregation in society.

Applied to the second argument:

Viewing other people's lives online through a distorted lens can lead to feelings of envy and inadequacy, as well as unrealistic expectations about one's life.

These topic sentences will be a very convenient structure for the whole body of our essay. Let's build out the first body paragraph, then closely examine how we did it so you can apply it to your essay.

Example: First body paragraph

If social media users mostly see content that reaffirms their existing beliefs, it can create an "echo chamber" effect. The echo chamber effect describes the user's limited exposure to diverse perspectives, making it challenging to examine those beliefs critically, thereby contributing to society's political polarization. This polarization emerges from social media becoming increasingly based on algorithms, which cater content to users based on their past interactions on the site. Further contributing to this shared narrative is the very nature of social media, allowing politically like-minded individuals to connect (Sunstein, 2018). Consequently, exposure to only one side of the argument can make it very difficult to see the other side's perspective, marginalizing opposing viewpoints. The entrenchment of one's beliefs by constant reaffirmation and amplification of political ideas results in segregation along partisan lines.

Sunstein, C. R (2018). #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

In the first sentence, we provide context for the argument that we are about to make. Then, in the second sentence, we clearly state the topic we are addressing (social media contributing to political polarization).

Our topic sentence tells readers that a detailed discussion of the echo chamber effect and its consequences is coming next. All the following sentences, which make up most of the paragraph, either a) explain or b) support this point.

Finally, we answer the questions about how social media facilitates the echo chamber effect and the consequences. Try implementing the same structure in your essay body paragraph to allow for a logical and cohesive argument.

These paragraphs should be focused, so don't incorporate multiple arguments into one. Squeezing ideas into a single paragraph makes it challenging for readers to follow your reasoning. Instead, reserve each body paragraph for a single statement to be discussed and only switch to the next section once you feel that you thoroughly explained and supported your topic sentence.

Let's look at an example that might seem appropriate initially but should be modified.

Negative example: Try identifying the main argument

Over the past decade, social media platforms have become increasingly popular methods of communication and networking. However, these platforms' algorithmic nature fosters echo chambers or online spaces where users only encounter information that reinforces their existing beliefs. This echo chamber effect can lead to a lack of understanding or empathy for those with different perspectives and can even amplify the effects of confirmation bias. The same principle of one-sided exposure to opinions can be abstracted and applied to the biased subjection to lifestyles we see on social media. The constant exposure to these highly-curated and often unrealistic portrayals of other people's lives can lead us to believe that our own lives are inadequate in comparison. These feelings of inadequacy can be especially harmful to young people, who are still developing their sense of self.

Let's analyze this essay paragraph. Introducing the topic sentence by stating the social functions of social media is very useful because it provides context for the following argument. Naming those functions in the first sentence also allows for a smooth transition by contrasting the initial sentence ("However, ...") with the topic sentence. Also, the topic sentence abides by our three rules for creating a strong thesis statement:

  • Taking a clear stand: algorithms are substantial contributors to the echo chamber effect
  • Allowing for debate: there is literature rejecting this claim
  • Being specific: analyzing a specific cause of the effect (algorithms).

So, where's the problem with this body paragraph?

It begins with what seems like a single argument (social media algorithms contributing to the echo chamber effect). Yet after addressing the consequences of the echo-chamber effect right after the thesis sentence, the author applies the same principle to a whole different topic. At the end of the paragraph, the reader is probably feeling confused. What was the paragraph trying to achieve in the first place?

We should place the second idea of being exposed to curated lifestyles in a separate section instead of shoehorning it into the end of the first one. All sentences following the thesis statement should either explain it or provide evidence (refuting counterarguments falls into this category, too).

With our first body paragraph done and having seen an example of what to avoid, let's take the topic of being exposed to curated lifestyles through social media and construct a separate body paragraph for it. We have already provided sufficient context for the reader to follow our argument, so it is unnecessary for this particular paragraph.

Body paragraph 2

Another cause for social media's destructiveness is the users' inclination to only share the highlights of their lives on social media, consequently distorting our perceptions of reality. A highly filtered view of their life leads to feelings of envy and inadequacy, as well as a distorted understanding of what is considered ordinary (Liu et al., 2018). In addition, frequent social media use is linked to decreased self-esteem and body satisfaction (Perloff, 2014). One way social media can provide a curated view of people's lives is through filters, making photos look more radiant, shadier, more or less saturated, and similar. Further, editing tools allow people to fundamentally change how their photos and videos look before sharing them, allowing for inserting or removing certain parts of the image. Editing tools give people considerable control over how their photos and videos look before sharing them, thereby facilitating the curation of one's online persona.

Perloff, R.M. Social Media Effects on Young Women's Body Image Concerns: Theoretical Perspectives and an Agenda for Research. Sex Roles 71, 363–377 (2014).

Liu, Hongbo & Wu, Laurie & Li, Xiang. (2018). Social Media Envy: How Experience Sharing on Social Networking Sites Drives Millennials' Aspirational Tourism Consumption. Journal of Travel Research. 58. 10.1177/0047287518761615.

Dr. Jacob Neumann put it this way in his book A professors guide to writing essays: 'If you've written strong and clear topic sentences, you're well on your way to creating focused paragraphs.'

They provide the basis for each paragraph's development and content, allowing you not to get caught up in the details and lose sight of the overall objective. It's crucial not to neglect that step. Apply these principles to your essay body, whatever the topic, and you'll set yourself up for the best possible results.

Sources used for creating this article

  • Writing a solid thesis statement : https://www.vwu.edu/academics/academic-support/learning-center/pdfs/Thesis-Statement.pdf
  • Neumann, Jacob. A professor's guide to writing essays. 2016.


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How to Write a Body Paragraph for a College Essay  

January 29, 2024

how to write a body paragraph college essay

No matter the discipline, college success requires mastering several academic basics, including the body paragraph. This article will provide tips on drafting and editing a strong body paragraph before examining several body paragraph examples. Before we look at how to start a body paragraph and how to write a body paragraph for a college essay (or other writing assignment), let’s define what exactly a body paragraph is.

What is a Body Paragraph?

Simply put, a body paragraph consists of everything in an academic essay that does not constitute the introduction and conclusion. It makes up everything in between. In a five-paragraph, thesis-style essay (which most high schoolers encounter before heading off to college), there are three body paragraphs. Longer essays with more complex arguments will include many more body paragraphs.

We might correlate body paragraphs with bodily appendages—say, a leg. Both operate in a somewhat isolated way to perform specific operations, yet are integral to creating a cohesive, functioning whole. A leg helps the body sit, walk, and run. Like legs, body paragraphs work to move an essay along, by leading the reader through several convincing ideas. Together, these ideas, sometimes called topics, or points, work to prove an overall argument, called the essay’s thesis.

If you compared an essay on Kant’s theory of beauty to an essay on migratory birds, you’d notice that the body paragraphs differ drastically. However, on closer inspection, you’d probably find that they included many of the same key components. Most body paragraphs will include specific, detailed evidence, an analysis of the evidence, a conclusion drawn by the author, and several tie-ins to the larger ideas at play. They’ll also include transitions and citations leading the reader to source material. We’ll go into more detail on these components soon. First, let’s see if you’ve organized your essay so that you’ll know how to start a body paragraph.

How to Start a Body Paragraph

It can be tempting to start writing your college essay as soon as you sit down at your desk. The sooner begun, the sooner done, right? I’d recommend resisting that itch. Instead, pull up a blank document on your screen and make an outline. There are numerous reasons to make an outline, and most involve helping you stay on track. This is especially true of longer college papers, like the 60+ page dissertation some seniors are required to write. Even with regular writing assignments with a page count between 4-10, an outline will help you visualize your argumentation strategy. Moreover, it will help you order your key points and their relevant evidence from most to least convincing. This in turn will determine the order of your body paragraphs.

The most convincing sequence of body paragraphs will depend entirely on your paper’s subject.  Let’s say you’re writing about Penelope’s success in outwitting male counterparts in The Odyssey . You may want to begin with Penelope’s weaving, the most obvious way in which Penelope dupes her suitors. You can end with Penelope’s ingenious way of outsmarting her own husband. Because this evidence is more ambiguous it will require a more nuanced analysis. Thus, it’ll work best as your final body paragraph, after readers have already been convinced of more digestible evidence. If in doubt, keep your body paragraph order chronological.

It can be worthwhile to consider your topic from multiple perspectives. You may decide to include a body paragraph that sets out to consider and refute an opposing point to your thesis. This type of body paragraph will often appear near the end of the essay. It works to erase any lingering doubts readers may have had, and requires strong rhetorical techniques.

How to Start a Body Paragraph, Continued

Once you’ve determined which key points will best support your argument and in what order, draft an introduction. This is a crucial step towards writing a body paragraph. First, it will set the tone for the rest of your paper. Second, it will require you to articulate your thesis statement in specific, concise wording. Highlight or bold your thesis statement, so you can refer back to it quickly. You should be looking at your thesis throughout the drafting of your body paragraphs.

Finally, make sure that your introduction indicates which key points you’ll be covering in your body paragraphs, and in what order. While this level of organization might seem like overkill, it will indicate to the reader that your entire paper is minutely thought-out. It will boost your reader’s confidence going in. They’ll feel reassured and open to your thought process if they can see that it follows a clear path.

Now that you have an essay outline and introduction, you’re ready to draft your body paragraphs.

How to Draft a Body Paragraph

At this point, you know your body paragraph topic, the key point you’re trying to make, and you’ve gathered your evidence. The next thing to do is write! The words highlighted in bold below comprise the main components that will make up your body paragraph. (You’ll notice in the body paragraph examples below that the order of these components is flexible.)

Start with a topic sentence . This will indicate the main point you plan to make that will work to support your overall thesis. Your topic sentence also alerts the reader to the change in topic from the last paragraph to the current one. In making this new topic known, you’ll want to create a transition from the last topic to this one.

Transitions appear in nearly every paragraph of a college essay, apart from the introduction. They create a link between disparate ideas. (For example, if your transition comes at the end of paragraph 4, you won’t need a second transition at the beginning of paragraph 5.) The University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Writing Center has a page devoted to Developing Strategic Transitions . Likewise, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Writing Center offers help on paragraph transitions .

How to Draft a Body Paragraph for a College Essay ( Continued)

With the topic sentence written, you’ll need to prove your point through tangible evidence. This requires several sentences with various components. You’ll want to provide more context , going into greater detail to situate the reader within the topic. Next, you’ll provide evidence , often in the form of a quote, facts, or data, and supply a source citation . Citing your source is paramount. Sources indicate that your evidence is empirical and objective. It implies that your evidence is knowledge shared by others in the academic community. Sometimes you’ll want to provide multiple pieces of evidence, if the evidence is similar and can be grouped together.

After providing evidence, you must provide an interpretation and analysis of this evidence. In other words, use rhetorical techniques to paraphrase what your evidence seems to suggest. Break down the evidence further and explain and summarize it in new words. Don’t simply skip to your conclusion. Your evidence should never stand for itself. Why? Because your interpretation and analysis allow you to exhibit original, analytical, and critical thinking skills.

Depending on what evidence you’re using, you may repeat some of these components in the same body paragraph. This might look like: more context + further evidence + increased interpretation and analysis . All this will add up to proving and reaffirming your body paragraph’s main point . To do so, conclude your body paragraph by reformulating your thesis statement in light of the information you’ve given. I recommend comparing your original thesis statement to your paragraph’s concluding statement. Do they align? Does your body paragraph create a sound connection to the overall academic argument? If not, you’ll need to fix this issue when you edit your body paragraph.

How to Edit a Body Paragraph

As you go over each body paragraph of your college essay, keep this short checklist in mind.

  • Consistency in your argument: If your key points don’t add up to a cogent argument, you’ll need to identify where the inconsistency lies. Often it lies in interpretation and analysis. You may need to improve the way you articulate this component. Try to think like a lawyer: how can you use this evidence to your advantage? If that doesn’t work, you may need to find new evidence. As a last resort, amend your thesis statement.
  • Language-level persuasion. Use a broad vocabulary. Vary your sentence structure. Don’t repeat the same words too often, which can induce mental fatigue in the reader. I suggest keeping an online dictionary open on your browser. I find Merriam-Webster user-friendly, since it allows you to toggle between definitions and synonyms. It also includes up-to-date example sentences. Also, don’t forget the power of rhetorical devices .
  • Does your writing flow naturally from one idea to the next, or are there jarring breaks? The editing stage is a great place to polish transitions and reinforce the structure as a whole.

Our first body paragraph example comes from the College Transitions article “ How to Write the AP Lang Argument Essay .” Here’s the prompt: Write an essay that argues your position on the value of striving for perfection.

Here’s the example thesis statement, taken from the introduction paragraph: “Striving for perfection can only lead us to shortchange ourselves. Instead, we should value learning, growth, and creativity and not worry whether we are first or fifth best.” Now let’s see how this writer builds an argument against perfection through one main point across two body paragraphs. (While this writer has split this idea into two paragraphs, one to address a problem and one to provide an alternative resolution, it could easily be combined into one paragraph.)

“Students often feel the need to be perfect in their classes, and this can cause students to struggle or stop making an effort in class. In elementary and middle school, for example, I was very nervous about public speaking. When I had to give a speech, my voice would shake, and I would turn very red. My teachers always told me “relax!” and I got Bs on Cs on my speeches. As a result, I put more pressure on myself to do well, spending extra time making my speeches perfect and rehearsing late at night at home. But this pressure only made me more nervous, and I started getting stomach aches before speaking in public.

“Once I got to high school, however, I started doing YouTube make-up tutorials with a friend. We made videos just for fun, and laughed when we made mistakes or said something silly. Only then, when I wasn’t striving to be perfect, did I get more comfortable with public speaking.”

Body Paragraph Example 1 Dissected

In this body paragraph example, the writer uses their personal experience as evidence against the value of striving for perfection. The writer sets up this example with a topic sentence that acts as a transition from the introduction. They also situate the reader in the classroom. The evidence takes the form of emotion and physical reactions to the pressure of public speaking (nervousness, shaking voice, blushing). Evidence also takes the form of poor results (mediocre grades). Rather than interpret the evidence from an analytical perspective, the writer produces more evidence to underline their point. (This method works fine for a narrative-style essay.) It’s clear that working harder to be perfect further increased the student’s nausea.

The writer proves their point in the second paragraph, through a counter-example. The main point is that improvement comes more naturally when the pressure is lifted; when amusement is possible and mistakes aren’t something to fear. This point ties back in with the thesis, that “we should value learning, growth, and creativity” over perfection.

This second body paragraph example comes from the College Transitions article “ How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay .” Here’s an abridged version of the prompt: Rosa Parks was an African American civil rights activist who was arrested in 1955 for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Read the passage carefully. Write an essay that analyzes the rhetorical choices Obama makes to convey his message.

Here’s the example thesis statement, taken from the introduction paragraph: “Through the use of diction that portrays Parks as quiet and demure, long lists that emphasize the extent of her impacts, and Biblical references, Obama suggests that all of us are capable of achieving greater good, just as Parks did.” Now read the body paragraph example, below.

“To further illustrate Parks’ impact, Obama incorporates Biblical references that emphasize the importance of “that single moment on the bus” (lines 57-58). In lines 33-35, Obama explains that Parks and the other protestors are “driven by a solemn determination to affirm their God-given dignity” and he also compares their victory to the fall the “ancient walls of Jericho” (line 43). By including these Biblical references, Obama suggests that Parks’ action on the bus did more than correct personal or political wrongs; it also corrected moral and spiritual wrongs. Although Parks had no political power or fortune, she was able to restore a moral balance in our world.”

Body Paragraph Example 2 Dissected

The first sentence in this body paragraph example indicates that the topic is transitioning into biblical references as a means of motivating ordinary citizens. The evidence comes as quotes taken from Obama’s speech. One is a reference to God, and the other an allusion to a story from the bible. The subsequent interpretation and analysis demonstrate that Obama’s biblical references imply a deeper, moral and spiritual significance. The concluding sentence draws together the morality inherent in equal rights with Rosa Parks’ power to spark change. Through the words “no political power or fortune,” and “moral balance,” the writer ties the point proven in this body paragraph back to the thesis statement. Obama promises that “All of us” (no matter how small our influence) “are capable of achieving greater good”—a greater moral good.

What’s Next?

Before you body paragraphs come the start and, after your body paragraphs, the conclusion, of course! If you’ve found this article helpful, be sure to read up on how to start a college essay and how to end a college essay .

You may also find the following blogs to be of interest:

  • 6 Best Common App Essay Examples
  • How to Write the Overcoming Challenges Essay
  • UC Essay Examples 
  • How to Write the Community Essay
  • How to Write the Why this Major? Essay
  • College Essay

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Kaylen Baker

With a BA in Literary Studies from Middlebury College, an MFA in Fiction from Columbia University, and a Master’s in Translation from Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis, Kaylen has been working with students on their writing for over five years. Previously, Kaylen taught a fiction course for high school students as part of Columbia Artists/Teachers, and served as an English Language Assistant for the French National Department of Education. Kaylen is an experienced writer/translator whose work has been featured in Los Angeles Review, Hybrid, San Francisco Bay Guardian, France Today, and Honolulu Weekly, among others.

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While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence) 

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim 

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim 

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis 

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
  • picture_as_pdf Thesis

Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write a thesis statement + examples

Thesis statement

What is a thesis statement?

Is a thesis statement a question, how do you write a good thesis statement, how do i know if my thesis statement is good, examples of thesis statements, helpful resources on how to write a thesis statement, frequently asked questions about writing a thesis statement, related articles.

A thesis statement is the main argument of your paper or thesis.

The thesis statement is one of the most important elements of any piece of academic writing . It is a brief statement of your paper’s main argument. Essentially, you are stating what you will be writing about.

You can see your thesis statement as an answer to a question. While it also contains the question, it should really give an answer to the question with new information and not just restate or reiterate it.

Your thesis statement is part of your introduction. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our introduction guide .

A thesis statement is not a question. A statement must be arguable and provable through evidence and analysis. While your thesis might stem from a research question, it should be in the form of a statement.

Tip: A thesis statement is typically 1-2 sentences. For a longer project like a thesis, the statement may be several sentences or a paragraph.

A good thesis statement needs to do the following:

  • Condense the main idea of your thesis into one or two sentences.
  • Answer your project’s main research question.
  • Clearly state your position in relation to the topic .
  • Make an argument that requires support or evidence.

Once you have written down a thesis statement, check if it fulfills the following criteria:

  • Your statement needs to be provable by evidence. As an argument, a thesis statement needs to be debatable.
  • Your statement needs to be precise. Do not give away too much information in the thesis statement and do not load it with unnecessary information.
  • Your statement cannot say that one solution is simply right or simply wrong as a matter of fact. You should draw upon verified facts to persuade the reader of your solution, but you cannot just declare something as right or wrong.

As previously mentioned, your thesis statement should answer a question.

If the question is:

What do you think the City of New York should do to reduce traffic congestion?

A good thesis statement restates the question and answers it:

In this paper, I will argue that the City of New York should focus on providing exclusive lanes for public transport and adaptive traffic signals to reduce traffic congestion by the year 2035.

Here is another example. If the question is:

How can we end poverty?

A good thesis statement should give more than one solution to the problem in question:

In this paper, I will argue that introducing universal basic income can help reduce poverty and positively impact the way we work.

  • The Writing Center of the University of North Carolina has a list of questions to ask to see if your thesis is strong .

A thesis statement is part of the introduction of your paper. It is usually found in the first or second paragraph to let the reader know your research purpose from the beginning.

In general, a thesis statement should have one or two sentences. But the length really depends on the overall length of your project. Take a look at our guide about the length of thesis statements for more insight on this topic.

Here is a list of Thesis Statement Examples that will help you understand better how to write them.

Every good essay should include a thesis statement as part of its introduction, no matter the academic level. Of course, if you are a high school student you are not expected to have the same type of thesis as a PhD student.

Here is a great YouTube tutorial showing How To Write An Essay: Thesis Statements .

how to make thesis body

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Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

  • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
  • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
  • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

  • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
  • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

  • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

  • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college
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Traditional Academic Essays In Three Parts

Part i: the introduction.

An introduction is usually the first paragraph of your academic essay. If you’re writing a long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to introduce your topic to your reader. A good introduction does 2 things:

  • Gets the reader’s attention. You can get a reader’s attention by telling a story, providing a statistic, pointing out something strange or interesting, providing and discussing an interesting quote, etc. Be interesting and find some original angle via which to engage others in your topic.
  • Provides a specific and debatable thesis statement. The thesis statement is usually just one sentence long, but it might be longer—even a whole paragraph—if the essay you’re writing is long. A good thesis statement makes a debatable point, meaning a point someone might disagree with and argue against. It also serves as a roadmap for what you argue in your paper.

Part II: The Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs help you prove your thesis and move you along a compelling trajectory from your introduction to your conclusion. If your thesis is a simple one, you might not need a lot of body paragraphs to prove it. If it’s more complicated, you’ll need more body paragraphs. An easy way to remember the parts of a body paragraph is to think of them as the MEAT of your essay:

Main Idea. The part of a topic sentence that states the main idea of the body paragraph. All of the sentences in the paragraph connect to it. Keep in mind that main ideas are…

  • like labels. They appear in the first sentence of the paragraph and tell your reader what’s inside the paragraph.
  • arguable. They’re not statements of fact; they’re debatable points that you prove with evidence.
  • focused. Make a specific point in each paragraph and then prove that point.

Evidence. The parts of a paragraph that prove the main idea. You might include different types of evidence in different sentences. Keep in mind that different disciplines have different ideas about what counts as evidence and they adhere to different citation styles. Examples of evidence include…

  • quotations and/or paraphrases from sources.
  • facts , e.g. statistics or findings from studies you’ve conducted.
  • narratives and/or descriptions , e.g. of your own experiences.

Analysis. The parts of a paragraph that explain the evidence. Make sure you tie the evidence you provide back to the paragraph’s main idea. In other words, discuss the evidence.

Transition. The part of a paragraph that helps you move fluidly from the last paragraph. Transitions appear in topic sentences along with main ideas, and they look both backward and forward in order to help you connect your ideas for your reader. Don’t end paragraphs with transitions; start with them.

Keep in mind that MEAT does not occur in that order. The “ T ransition” and the “ M ain Idea” often combine to form the first sentence—the topic sentence—and then paragraphs contain multiple sentences of evidence and analysis. For example, a paragraph might look like this: TM. E. E. A. E. E. A. A.

Part III: The Conclusion

A conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay, or, if you’re writing a really long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to conclude. A conclusion typically does one of two things—or, of course, it can do both:

  • Summarizes the argument. Some instructors expect you not to say anything new in your conclusion. They just want you to restate your main points. Especially if you’ve made a long and complicated argument, it’s useful to restate your main points for your reader by the time you’ve gotten to your conclusion. If you opt to do so, keep in mind that you should use different language than you used in your introduction and your body paragraphs. The introduction and conclusion shouldn’t be the same.
  • For example, your argument might be significant to studies of a certain time period .
  • Alternately, it might be significant to a certain geographical region .
  • Alternately still, it might influence how your readers think about the future . You might even opt to speculate about the future and/or call your readers to action in your conclusion.

Handout by Dr. Liliana Naydan. Do not reproduce without permission.

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How to Structure a Thesis: A Complete Guide

Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout. "How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components.

how to make thesis body

This guide discusses how to structure a thesis effectively. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.  

A thesis or dissertation is a long academic document that a master's or doctoral candidate writes to obtain a relevant academic degree. Hence, writing a quality thesis is crucial for college and university students. A good thesis demonstrates a student's academic prowess in their field of study as well as helps hone their analytical and research skills. Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout.

"How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components. If you are also struggling to initiate the writing process for your thesis, follow this guide and get over your writer’s block.

How to Structure a Thesis: Examining the Constituents of a Thesis Structure

Here we have a list of all major sections that a thesis structure generally comprises. The entire thesis structure is segregated into 3 sections, with each section comprising its relevant subsections to facilitate greater legibility.

Front/Preliminary Matter of a Thesis Structure

1. abstract.

An abstract is a concise summary of an entire thesis and consists of the condensation of your entire thesis. A good abstract  is precise, concise (usually not more than 250 words) and emphasizes the importance of the document. When writing an abstract, make sure you explicitly mention the crux of your thesis. Also, avoid reiterating what you have mentioned in the title of your document.

Body of a Thesis Structure

2. introduction/preface.

The introduction chapter of your thesis outlines its core arguments, hypotheses, and results. It is longer than the abstract and contains adequate background information on your topic of interest. Furthermore, it establishes the relevance of your thesis by highlighting its contribution to the knowledge base of its topic. Writing a gripping introduction helps the readers understand the context of your thesis. According to USNSW Sydney, the introduction of a thesis should have the following stages:

State the general topic and give some background

Provide a review of the literature related to the thesis subject

Define the terms and scope of the thesis topic

Outline the existing situation

Evaluate the current situation and identify the gap in the literature

Identify the importance of the proposed research

State the main research questions

State the purpose of the study and/or research objectives

State the study hypotheses

Outline the order of information in the thesis

Outline the methodology.

3. Literature review

The literature review chapter sets the premise of your thesis. It examines and evaluates the research works that’s been conducted so far on your thesis topic and passively highlights the contributions of your thesis.

A literature review is a survey of academic sources on a specific subject, providing an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to discuss relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. Writing a literature review contains finding relevant publications, critically analyzing the sources, and explaining your findings in the literature. A well-written literature review doesn’t only summarize sources, it also aims to analyze, synthesize, and critically evaluate to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the topic.

To write an impeccable literature review, consult a plethora of sources and mention the canon related to your thesis topic. Also, put forward your review in a logical, chronological, and structured manner to better outline the knowledge gaps in your field of study and how your thesis will fill them.

How structure a thesis

The following simple and straightforward tips can act as the exhaustive rubric and offer meaningful insight to prospective authors on how to formulate a flawless literature review:

Step 1. Probe similar works for a well-structured literature review

Step 2. Analyze, not just synthesize: Authors should provide a detailed critique of the subject

Step 3. Organize your literature review systematically

Step 4. Establish the purview: Authors should specify the scope of the literature review

Step 5. Abstain from plagiarism

Step 6 . Be mindful of the language

4. Methodology

As the name suggests, the methodology section of a thesis consists of all methods and procedures you have used in your thesis. A well-written methodology accentuates the plausibility of your research methods. In addition, it enables your readers to understand why you chose specific methods and how they are justified for your research.

To garner more credibility, you can include the pitfalls and difficulties associated with your choice of research methods. The methodology section is an unavoidable part of a thesis or a research paper. Considering errors in the methodology section enervates the entire thesis.

Follow the steps below to write a perfect methodology for a thesis: 

a. Give an outline of the research design

b. Don’t forget to define the philosophy behind the research

c. Mention the research approach

d. Introduce the research methods

e. Note the following points to highlight in the methodology. No matter what methodology you have chosen, you have to focus on the following points:

Explain sampling strategy.

Clearly state the procedure of the research paper.

Mention how you collect the data. (Data collection)

Explain how data are analyzed for your research. (Data analysis). Suppose you have written in qualitative strategy like thematic analysis, mention the researcher you have followed.

Mention the validity of the data and result.

Discuss all ethical aspects of your research paper.

f. Avail professional proofreading and editing services

g. Most important tips to compose an impactful methodology for a dissertation

Don’t drift from your objective and the purpose of your dissertation.

Explore scholarly research papers and their methodology sections to have a better idea.

Plan a proper writing structure.

Understand your audience and target group.

Don’t make mistakes in citing relevant sources. You may use  APA  and  MLA citation

Refer to all the hurdles you have experienced while writing your dissertation.

Make sure to rectify grammatical and punctuation errors.

Ensure that the section is readable and doesn’t consist of long and complex sentences. Long sentences can hamper the tone of the methodology.

This section comprises the outcomes of your research work. It includes all the observations you made and the answers to all your hypotheses in the thesis. When writing the “results” chapter, include only factual data and format it to be distinguishable. Use tables, graphs, subheadings, and generic comments for the results. The aim is to enable your readers to discern the result of your research.

6. Discussion

The discussion chapter of your thesis should begin with a brief summarization of the outcome of your research work. It should explain how your results address your hypotheses and highlight any repetitions in your observations. You can also add comments on how you want the readers to interpret your results and about your agreements and disagreements with the available research work in your field. 

Writing a flawless thesis requires much more than only subject matter expertise. It requires expertise, experience, and in-depth thinking, along with sharp intelligence. Though most students add a discussion chapter in their thesis or dissertation, many of them end up messing up the essay or missing out on the central issues.

A discussion chapter in a thesis is a place where you have the chance to delving into the analysis, importance, and relevance of your research. This section focuses on explaining and analyzing what you have researched, presenting how it is associated with the existing literature. It is also a place for argument supporting your entire discussion.

We often find that people seek thesis writing help from experienced editing and proofreading services to prepare a flawless discussion chapter. However, the following helpful tips can help you design a perfect master's or Ph.D.. thesis with an excellent discussion chapter: 

Understand the objective of your thesis

Determine a clear structure

Usage of grammar and tense

Refer to hypotheses and literature review

Evaluate your results and compare them with existing studies

Understand the limitation of your research

Don’t be afraid to be unique

Don’t forget to avail a professional thesis editing and proofreading service 

Click here to review the details of the aforementioned tips. 

The following 5 questions might be helpful to write a sound discussion section: 

How well do you understand the objective of your study? 

What message is conveyed by your results? 

How do your findings compare to findings in literature? 

Why should your findings matter? 

In what light should your findings be viewed?

7. Conclusion

The final section of your document consists of a precise answer to your hypothesis. In addition, the “conclusion” chapter of your thesis should stress the achievement of the aims of your thesis. You should also include certain limitations of your research to convey the fact that there is still scope for further research in your field. 

The end matter of a thesis structure

The components of this section include an acknowledgment, a bibliography, and (occasionally) an appendix. 

Parting words

The first step to writing a thesis is to chalk out its layout. Doing so not only helps you deal with the writing process one step at a time but also enables you to better attend to each component of a thesis structure.

Also, before you follow this thesis structure, make sure to check with your university for “how to structure a thesis” guidelines. If the guidelines offered by your institution deviate slightly from what’s mentioned in this guide, then make sure to prioritize the former.

If you need us to make your thesis shine, contact us unhesitatingly!

Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering papers with proper tone, content, and style of  academic writing,  and also provide an upscale  editing and proofreading service  for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.

How structure a thesis

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How structure a thesis

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how to make thesis body

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how to make thesis body

A methodology section explains the entire process of data collection and analysis based on logic and philosophy. This section is an unavoidable part of a dissertation or a research paper. Considering errors in the methodology section enervates the entire dissertation. Here, we bring you a general guide on the steps to compose a flawless methodology section for a dissertation.

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At the end of most undergraduate or postgraduate degrees, you are required to submit a thesis or a dissertation based on original research. The way of writing and the structure of a dissertation depends on your field of study and sometimes your program. However, it is largely divided into at least four or five chapters, including the introduction and conclusion. A dissertation is an extended usually written treatment of a subject, specifically one submitted for a doctorate. This article provides a step-by-step guide on writing and structuring a dissertation

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Writing the body for a thesis paper: a brief manual for students.

When writing a thesis paper there are three main sections that you will need to include, just as with most other academic papers. The sections are the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Whilst basic academic papers will simply include these three sections, a thesis is more likely to include several further subsections, each of which can be linked in some way to one of those three main sections.

The methodology

When writing a thesis or dissertation there is a good chance you will need to include a methodology section. The methodology section essentially outlines any research methods that you intend to use in order to gather relevant information. It may be that you wish to research various resources online, as well as any off-line sources, such as books, newspapers, magazines, journals and other publications.

As well as gathering information from various written sources, you may also wish to try and gather data using a range of other techniques, including questionnaires, surveys and interviews. Equally, if you’re studying for a scientific subject, then there is a good chance you will carry out a variety of different scientific experiments.

No matter which method you choose to use, these should all be listed in your methodology section. Furthermore, if you do include any quotes or paraphrased content from any of the online or off-line resources that you use, then you should ensure that you include any necessary citations and references.

The results

If you’re studying for a scientific subject then there is a good chance you will need to include a results section. Essentially, this will include any relevant data that you gathered as a result of any experiments that you carried out. Equally, the results section may include any relevant data that you gathered as a result of questionnaires or surveys, especially when studying any of the social sciences.

The analysis section

Have included the results that you gathered, you will then need to include a section in which you analyse the data that you have found. This is a particularly important section as it enables you to provide relevant evidence and data that can prove or disprove any question or hypothesis that you may have set in the first place, which will have been included in the introduction.

Including all evidence and arguments in the body section

One final thing to consider is that any evidence or arguments you make should be included in the body section. The conclusion, which comes after the body section, will then draw upon any evidence or arguments that you make, and should not include anything new.

Looking for help with your thesis? Order custom thesis from this thesis writing service - professional thesis writers, editors and proofreaders.

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HOW TO WRITE A THESIS: Steps by step guide

how to make thesis body


In the academic world, one of the hallmark rites signifying mastery of a course or academic area is the writing of a thesis . Essentially a thesis is a typewritten work, usually 50 to 350 pages in length depending on institutions, discipline, and educational level which is often aimed at addressing a particular problem in a given field.

While a thesis is inadequate to address all the problems in a given field, it is succinct enough to address a specialized aspect of the problem by taking a stance or making a claim on what the resolution of the problem should be. Writing a thesis can be a very daunting task because most times it is the first complex research undertaking for the student. The lack of research and writing skills to write a thesis coupled with fear and a limited time frame are factors that makes the writing of a thesis daunting. However, commitment to excellence on the part of the student combined with some of the techniques and methods that will be discussed below gives a fair chance that the student will be able to deliver an excellent thesis regardless of the subject area, the depth of the research specialization and the daunting amount of materials that must be comprehended(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

Contact us now if you need help with writing your thesis. Check out our services

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What is a thesis?

A thesis is a statement, theory, argument, proposal or proposition, which is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved. It explains the stand someone takes on an issue and how the person intends to justify the stand. It is always better to pick a topic that will be able to render professional help, a topic that you will be happy to talk about with anybody, a topic you have personal interest and passion for, because when writing a thesis gets frustrating personal interest, happiness and passion coupled with the professional help it will be easier to write a great thesis (see you through the thesis). One has to source for a lot of information concerning the topic one is writing a thesis on in order to know the important question, because for you to take a good stand on an issue you have to study the evidence first.

Qualities of a good thesis

A good thesis has the following qualities

  • A good thesis must solve an existing problem in the society, organisation, government among others.
  • A good thesis should be contestable, it should propose a point that is arguable which people can agree with or disagree.
  • It is specific, clear and focused.
  •   A good thesis does not use general terms and abstractions.  
  • The claims of a good thesis should be definable and arguable.
  • It anticipates the counter-argument s
  • It does not use unclear language
  • It avoids the first person. (“In my opinion”)
  • A strong thesis should be able to take a stand and not just taking a stand but should be able to justify the stand that is taken, so that the reader will be tempted to ask questions like how or why.
  • The thesis should be arguable, contestable, focused, specific, and clear. Make your thesis clear, strong and easy to find.
  • The conclusion of a thesis should be based on evidence.

Steps in writing a Thesis

  • First, think about good topics and theories that you can write before writing the thesis, then pick a topic. The topic or thesis statement is derived from a review of existing literature in the area of study that the researcher wants to explore. This route is taken when the unknowns in an area of study are not yet defined. Some areas of study have existing problems yearning to be solved and the drafting of the thesis topic or statement revolves around a selection of one of these problems.
  • Once you have a good thesis, put it down and draw an outline . The outline is like a map of the whole thesis and it covers more commonly the introduction, literature review, discussion of methodology, discussion of results and the thesis’ conclusions and recommendations. The outline might differ from one institution to another but the one described in the preceding sentence is what is more commonly obtainable. It is imperative at this point to note that the outline drew still requires other mini- outlines for each of the sections mentioned. The outlines and mini- outlines provide a graphical over- view of the whole project and can also be used in allocating the word- count for each section and sub- section based on the overall word- count requirement of the thesis(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).
  • Literature search. Remember to draw a good outline you need to do literature search to familiarize yourself with the concepts and the works of others. Similarly, to achieve this, you need to read as much material that contains necessary information as you can. There will always be a counter argument for everything so anticipate it because it will help shape your thesis. Read everything you can–academic research, trade literature, and information in the popular press and on the Internet(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).
  • After getting all the information you need, the knowledge you gathered should help in suggesting the aim of your thesis.

Remember; a thesis is not supposed to be a question or a list, thesis should specific and as clear as possible. The claims of a thesis should be definable and also arguable.

  • Then collecting and analyzing data, after data analysis, the result of the analysis should be written and discussed, followed by summary, conclusion, recommendations, list of references and the appendices
  • The last step is editing of the thesis and proper spell checking.

Structure of a Thesis

A conventional thesis has five chapters – chapter 1-5 which will be discussed in detail below. However, it is important to state that a thesis is not limited to any chapter or section as the case may be. In fact, a thesis can be five, six, seven or even eight chapters.  What determines the number of chapters in a thesis includes institution rules/ guideline, researcher choice, supervisor choice, programme or educational level. In fact, most PhD thesis are usually more than 5 chapters(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

Preliminaries Pages: The preliminaries are the cover page, the title page, the table of contents page, and the abstract.

The introduction: The introduction is the first section and it provides as the name implies an introduction to the thesis. The introduction contains such aspects as the background to the study which provides information on the topic in the context of what is happening in the world as related to the topic. It also discusses the relevance of the topic to society, policies formulated success and failure. The introduction also contains the statement of the problem which is essentially a succinct description of the problem that the thesis want to solve and what the trend will be if the problem is not solved. The concluding part of the statement of problem ends with an outline of the research questions. These are the questions which when answered helps in achieving the aim of the thesis. The third section is the outline of research objectives. Conventionally research objectives re a conversion the research questions into an active statement form. Other parts of the introduction are a discussion of hypotheses (if any), the significance of the study, delimitations, proposed methodology and a discussion of the structure of the study(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The main body includes the following; the literature review, methodology, research results and discussion of the result, the summary, conclusion and recommendations, the list of references and the appendices.

The literature review : The literature review is often the most voluminous aspects of a thesis because it reviews past empirical and theoretical literature about the problem being studied. This section starts by discussing the concepts relevant to the problem as indicated in the topic, the relationship between the concepts and what discoveries have being made on topic based on the choice of methodologies. The validity of the studies reviewed are questioned and findings are compared in order to get a comprehensive picture of the problem. The literature review also discusses the theories and theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the problem, the gaps that are evident in literature and how the thesis being written helps in resolving some of the gaps.

The major importance of Literature review is that it specifies the gap in the existing knowledge (gap in literature). The source of the literature that is being reviewed should be specified. For instance; ‘It has been argued that if the rural youth are to be aware of their community development role they need to be educated’ Effiong, (1992). The author’s name can be at the beginning, end or in between the literature. The literature should be discussed and not just stated (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The methodology: The third section is a discussion of the research methodology adopted in the thesis and touches on aspects such as the research design, the area, population and sample that will be considered for the study as well as the sampling procedure. These aspects are discussed in terms of choice, method and rationale. This section also covers the sub- section of data collection, data analysis and measures of ensuring validity of study. It is the chapter 3. This chapter explains the method used in data collection and data analysis. It explains the methodology adopted and why it is the best method to be used, it also explains every step of data collection and analysis. The data used could be primary data or secondary data. While analysing the data, proper statistical tool should be used in order to fit the stated objectives of the thesis. The statistical tool could be; the spearman rank order correlation, chi square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) etc (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The findings and discussion of result : The next section is a discussion of findings based on the data collection instrumentation used and the objectives or hypotheses of study if any. It is the chapter 4. It is research results. This is the part that describes the research. It shows the result gotten from data that is collected and analysed. It discusses the result and how it relates to your profession.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation: This is normally the chapter 5. The last section discusses the summary of the study and the conclusions arrived at based on the findings discussed in the previous section. This section also presents any policy recommendations that the researcher wants to propose (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

References: It cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own. It is acceptable to put the initials of the individual authors behind their last names. The way single author is referenced is different from the way more than one author is referenced (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The appendices; it includes all data in the appendix. Reference data or materials that is not easily available. It includes tables and calculations, List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. If a large number of references are consulted but all are not cited, it may also be included in the appendix. The appendices also contain supportive or complementary information like the questionnaire, the interview schedule, tables and charts while the references section contain an ordered list of all literature, academic and contemporary cited in the thesis. Different schools have their own preferred referencing styles(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).   

Follow the following steps to achieve successful thesis writing

Start writing early. Do not delay writing until you have finished your project or research. Write complete and concise “Technical Reports” as and when you finish each nugget of work. This way, you will remember everything you did and document it accurately, when the work is still fresh in your mind. This is especially so if your work involves programming.

Spot errors early. A well-written “Technical Report” will force you to think about what you have done, before you move on to something else. If anything is amiss, you will detect it at once and can easily correct it, rather than have to re-visit the work later, when you may be pressured for time and have lost touch with it.

Write your thesis from the inside out. Begin with the chapters on your own experimental work. You will develop confidence in writing them because you know your own work better than anyone else. Once you have overcome the initial inertia, move on to the other chapters.

End with a bang, not a whimper. First things first, and save the best for last. First and last impressions persist. Arrange your chapters so that your first and last experimental chapters are sound and solid.

Write the Introduction after writing the Conclusions. The examiner will read the Introduction first, and then the Conclusions, to see if the promises made in the former are indeed fulfilled in the latter. Ensure that your introduction and Conclusions match.

“No man is an Island”. The critical review of the literature places your work in context. Usually, one third of the PhD thesis is about others’ work; two thirds, what you have done yourself. After a thorough and critical literature review, the PhD candidate must be able to identify the major researchers in the field and make a sound proposal for doctoral research. Estimate the time to write your thesis and then multiply it by three to get the correct estimate. Writing at one stretch is very demanding and it is all too easy to underestimate the time required for it; inflating your first estimate by a factor of three is more realistic.

Punctuating your thesis

Punctuation Good punctuation makes reading easy. The simplest way to find out where to punctuate is to read aloud what you have written. Each time you pause, you should add a punctuation symbol. There are four major pause symbols, arranged below in ascending order of “degree of pause”:

  • Comma. Use the comma to indicate a short pause or to separate items in a list. A pair of commas may delimit the beginning and end of a subordinate clause or phrase. Sometimes, this is also done with a pair of “em dashes” which are printed like this:
  • Semi-colon. The semi-colon signifies a longer pause than the comma. It separates segments of a sentence that are “further apart” in position, or meaning, but which are nevertheless related. If the ideas were “closer together”, a comma would have been used. It is also used to separate two clauses that may stand on their own but which are too closely related for a colon or full stop to intervene between them.
  • Colon. The colon is used before one or more examples of a concept, and whenever items are to be listed in a visually separate fashion. The sentence that introduced the itemized list you are now reading ended in a colon. It may also be used to separate two fairly—but not totally—independent clauses in a sentence.
  • Full stop or period. The full stop ends a sentence. If the sentence embodies a question or an exclamation, then, of course, it is ended with a question mark or exclamation mark, respectively. The full stop is also used to terminate abbreviations like etc., (for et cetera), e.g., (for exempli gratia), et al., (for et alia) etc., but not with abbreviations for SI units. The readability of your writing will improve greatly if you take the trouble to learn the basic rules of punctuation given above.

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 University of Missouri Graduate School

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Body format for thesis or dissertation, general formatting information.

  • Save as: “research.pdf”
  • Students are to follow the style manual recommended by their academic program.
  • Margins: Left Margin – 1.5 inches; Top, Bottom, and Right Margins – 1 inch
  • Line Spacing: All standard text should be double-spaced. References, bibliographic works, and endnotes should be consistent with the formatting standards of your selected style manual.
  • Headings: Chapter headings and subheads should be consistent throughout the research paper.
  • Page Numbers: The pages preceding the main body of the thesis/dissertation should use Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) for page numbers.  Standard Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) should be used to number the main body of the document. Page numbers should be placed consistently throughout your document.
  • Page numbers on landscape-oriented pages need to be placed and aligned consistently with page numbers on portrait-oriented pages. For example, if you were to print both a landscape-oriented page and a portrait-oriented page from your document, the page numbers would print in the same place and would be aligned correctly on both pages.
  • Fonts: The font used should be a commonly available font, such as Arial, Veranda, Times New Roman, etc.
  • Size: Use 10-point or 12-point fonts for regular text. Headings may be 14- or 16-point. Tables, figures, etc., may be smaller than 10-point.
  • Landscape figures and tables should be placed with the top of the figure or table to the left side of the page.

Page order and file name

In the file named “research.pdf,” the order of content must be:

  • Copyright page (optional)
  • Approval page
  • Dedication page (optional)
  • Acknowledgements page
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Illustrations, Figures, Tables, Nomenclature (if necessary)
  • Academic abstract (Required as a part of the preliminary section for both master’s and doctoral students)
  • Main research content
  • Vita page (optional for theses, required for dissertations)
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  • Staff Directory
  • Give to the Graduate School
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  • Academic Honesty & Professional Ethics
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How to structure your PhD thesis

Organising your PhD thesis in a logical order is one of the crucial stages of your writing process. Here is a list of the individual components to include

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The task of writing a PhD thesis is top of mind for many aspiring scholars. After all, completing one is no small task. And while these pieces of writing often share a standard format, this can differ slightly based on the requirements of your institution or subject. So what elements make up a PhD thesis?

A doctoral thesis usually contains:

  • A title page
  • Declarations from the candidate and supervisor
  • A certificate from the candidate and supervisor
  • A plagiarism report
  • Acknowledgements 
  • A table of contents
  • Abbreviations 
  • An abstract

Chapters typically cover:

  • A general introduction 
  • Literature review
  • Analysis of the gap in research with aims and objectives
  • Materials and methods
  • Summary and conclusion
  • References or bibliography. 

You should also include a list of papers you have published and any relevant achievements at the end. 

An explanation of each of the components of a PhD dissertation 

Title page: a PhD thesis starts with a title page that contains the complete title of the research work, the submitting university, names of the candidate and supervisor, affiliation and month and year of submission.

Abstract: this serves as a concise synopsis of the dissertation, covering the research context, purpose of the study or research questions, methodology, findings and conclusions. This section is usually one to two pages in length. 

Table of contents: this page lists the thesis content and respective page numbers.

General introduction and literature review: this component is usually 20 to 40 pages long. It presents the readers with the primary material and discusses relevant published data. It provides an overview of pertinent literature related to the thesis such as texts that critically assess the existing literature to identify the gap in research and explain the need behind the study. 

Aims and objectives: this section of the thesis is typically one to two pages long and describes the aims and objectives of the study. Structure them as three to four bullet points describing specific points that you will investigate. Approach this by thinking about what readers should understand by the end of the thesis. Ensure you:

  • Give a clear explanation of the purpose and goals of your study 
  • Outline each aim concisely
  • Explain how you will measure your objectives
  • Ensure there is a clear connection between each aim
  • Use verbs such as investigate, evaluate, explore, analyse and demonstrate.

Materials and methods: this section briefly explains how you have conducted the study and should include all the materials you used and procedures you implemented. For example, if your research involves working with chemicals, list the chemicals and instruments used, along with their catalogue numbers and manufacturers’ names. This section should also explicitly explain the methodology you used, step-by-step. Use the past tense while writing this section and do not describe any results or findings of the study yet.

Results: this section is sometimes called the “findings report” or “the experimental findings” (referring to data collection and analysis). Write the results concisely and in the past tense. Include text, figure and table infographics created with tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Adobe Illustrator and BioRender to visualise your data . 

Discussion: this is a chance to discuss the results and compare the findings of your study with the initial hypothesis and existing knowledge. Focus on discussing interpretations, implications, limitations and recommendations here.

  • Resources on academic writing for higher education staff 
  • Tips for writing a PhD dissertation: FAQs answered
  • How to tackle the PhD dissertation

Summary and conclusion: this section should be shorter than the discussion and summarise your key findings. The summary and conclusion should be brief and engaging, allowing the reader to easily understand the major findings of the research work. Provide clear answers to the research questions, generate new knowledge and clarify the need for the study. 

Future perspective: this section of the thesis (which is often combined with a summary or conclusion) talks about the study's limitations, if any, and indicates the directions for future studies based on your findings. 

References or bibliography: the last section should include the list of articles, websites and other resources cited in the thesis.

Always remember that, depending on the department, university or field of study, you might have to follow specific guidelines on how to organise your PhD thesis. Ensure you consult your supervisor or academic department if you have any doubts.

Shama Prasada Kabekkodu is a professor and head of cell and molecular biology at Manipal School of Life Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India.

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how to make thesis body

A thesis is a comprehensive research paper that presents a central argument or claim supported by evidence. Typically written by students pursuing advanced degrees, a thesis demonstrates a deep understanding of a subject. It includes a clear research question, literature review, methodology, analysis, and conclusions. The process enhances critical thinking, research skills , and subject expertise, culminating in a significant academic contribution.

Thesis paper . Many students tend to fear this word and there is a good reason as to why they do.  You may already have tried making a thesis before and at some point, you would also realize the trial and error stage of making one. 

What Is a Thesis?

A thesis a research paper writing that is made for a purpose. Thesis papers consists of a research statement , a kind of statement , a theory, a purpose. The thesis is made in order to prove your theory and make it into a fact. There are a lot of kinds of thesis, but the most common thesis kinds are analytical thesis, an argumentative thesis and an explanatory thesis.

Types of Thesis

Analytical thesis.

An analytical thesis breaks down an issue or idea into its component parts, evaluates the topic, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. It is often used in literature, history, and social sciences.

Expository Thesis

An expository thesis explains a topic to the audience. It provides a comprehensive overview of a subject, presenting facts and analysis without personal opinion. This type is common in science and technical writing.

Argumentative Thesis

An argumentative thesis makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The goal is to persuade the reader of a particular viewpoint. This type is prevalent in fields like philosophy, political science, and law.

Narrative Thesis

A narrative thesis tells a story or recounts an event. It includes personal experiences or detailed descriptions of events to support the main argument. This type is often used in creative writing and autobiographies.

Comparative Thesis

A comparative thesis compares and contrasts two or more subjects, evaluating their similarities and differences. It is commonly used in literature, history, and social sciences to draw meaningful conclusions.

Descriptive Thesis

A descriptive thesis provides a detailed description of a topic without arguing a specific point. It paints a vivid picture of the subject, often used in fields like anthropology and sociology to explore cultural phenomena.

Empirical Thesis

An empirical thesis is based on original research and data collection. It involves experiments, surveys, or observations to answer a specific research question. This type is typical in natural and social sciences.

Examples of Thesis

Thesis examples in literature, 1: analysis of a single work.

Title: “The Use of Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby,’ the use of symbolism, particularly through the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, and the Valley of Ashes, serves to illustrate the overarching themes of the American Dream, moral decay, and the quest for identity.

2: Comparative Analysis

Title: “The Role of Women in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen and ‘Jane Eyre’ by Charlotte Brontë”

Thesis Statement: While both Jane Austen’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Jane Eyre’ critique the limited roles and expectations of women in 19th-century British society, Austen’s Elizabeth Bennet and Brontë’s Jane Eyre embody different forms of rebellion against societal norms, highlighting the evolving perception of women’s independence and self-worth.

3: Thematic Analysis

Title: “Exploring the Theme of Isolation in ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley”

Thesis Statement: Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ explores the theme of isolation through the experiences of Victor Frankenstein and his creation, the monster, demonstrating how isolation leads to destructive consequences for both individuals and society.

4: Character Analysis

Title: “The Evolution of Hamlet’s Character in William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet'”

Thesis Statement: In William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet,’ the protagonist undergoes a significant transformation from a grief-stricken and indecisive prince to a determined and introspective avenger, reflecting the complexities of human nature and the impact of existential contemplation.

5: Genre Analysis

Title: “Gothic Elements in ‘Wuthering Heights’ by Emily Brontë”

Thesis Statement: Emily Brontë’s ‘Wuthering Heights’ employs key elements of Gothic literature, including a brooding atmosphere, supernatural occurrences, and the exploration of human psychology, to create a haunting and timeless tale of passion and revenge.

6: Symbolic Analysis

Title: “The Symbolism of the Green Light in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: The green light in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’ symbolizes Gatsby’s unattainable dreams and the elusive nature of the American Dream, reflecting the broader themes of hope, disillusionment, and the pursuit of an idealized future.

7: Historical Context

Title: “Historical Influences on George Orwell’s ‘1984’”

Thesis Statement: George Orwell’s ‘1984’ draws heavily on the political climate of the early 20th century, particularly the rise of totalitarian regimes and the impact of World War II, to present a dystopian vision of a future where government surveillance and propaganda control every aspect of life.

8: Feminist Critique

Title: “Feminist Perspectives in ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ by Margaret Atwood”

Thesis Statement: Margaret Atwood’s ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ critiques the patriarchal structures of contemporary society by depicting a dystopian world where women’s rights are stripped away, illustrating the extreme consequences of gender oppression and the resilience of female solidarity.

9: Psychoanalytic Criticism

Title: “Freudian Elements in ‘The Turn of the Screw’ by Henry James”

Thesis Statement: Henry James’s ‘The Turn of the Screw’ can be interpreted through a Freudian lens, where the governess’s experiences and the ambiguous nature of the ghosts reflect deep-seated psychological conflicts and repressed desires, highlighting the novella’s exploration of the human psyche.

10: Postcolonial Analysis

Title: “Postcolonial Themes in ‘Things Fall Apart’ by Chinua Achebe”

Thesis Statement: Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ addresses postcolonial themes by portraying the clash between traditional Igbo society and British colonial forces, illustrating the devastating effects of colonialism on indigenous cultures and the struggle for cultural identity and autonomy.

Thesis Examples for Essays

1: persuasive essay.

Topic: “The Importance of Renewable Energy”

Thesis Statement: Governments around the world should invest heavily in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, combat climate change, and create sustainable job opportunities.

2: Analytical Essay

Topic: “The Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In ‘The Great Gatsby,’ F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the symbols of the green light, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, and the Valley of Ashes to illustrate the moral and social decay of America during the Roaring Twenties.

3: Expository Essay

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Teenagers”

Thesis Statement: Social media has significantly impacted teenagers’ mental health, social skills, and academic performance, both positively and negatively, necessitating a balanced approach to its usage.

4: Compare and Contrast Essay

Topic: “Public vs. Private School Education”

Thesis Statement: While public schools offer a more diverse social environment and extracurricular opportunities, private schools provide smaller class sizes and specialized curriculums, making the choice dependent on individual student needs and family priorities.

5: Cause and Effect Essay

Topic: “The Causes and Effects of the Rise in Obesity Rates”

Thesis Statement: The rise in obesity rates can be attributed to poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyles, and genetic factors, leading to serious health issues such as diabetes, heart disease, and decreased life expectancy.

6: Narrative Essay

Topic: “A Life-Changing Experience”

Thesis Statement: My trip to volunteer at a rural school in Kenya was a life-changing experience that taught me the value of education, the importance of cultural exchange, and the power of empathy and compassion.

7: Argumentative Essay

Topic: “The Necessity of Free College Education”

Thesis Statement: Free college education is essential for ensuring equal opportunities for all, reducing student debt burdens, and fostering a more educated and productive workforce.

8: Descriptive Essay

Topic: “The Beauty of a Sunset”

Thesis Statement: A sunset, with its vibrant hues and serene ambiance, evokes a sense of peace and reflection, illustrating nature’s ability to inspire awe and tranquility in our daily lives.

9: Definition Essay

Topic: “What is Happiness?”

Thesis Statement: Happiness is a complex and multifaceted emotion characterized by feelings of contentment, fulfillment, and joy, influenced by both internal factors like mindset and external factors such as relationships and achievements.

10: Process Essay

Topic: “How to Bake the Perfect Chocolate Cake”

Thesis Statement: Baking the perfect chocolate cake involves selecting high-quality ingredients, precisely following the recipe, and understanding the nuances of baking techniques, from mixing to temperature control.

Thesis Examples for Argumentative Essay

1: gun control.

Topic: “Stricter Gun Control Laws”

Thesis Statement: Stricter gun control laws are necessary to reduce gun violence in the United States, as evidenced by lower rates of gun-related deaths in countries with stringent regulations.

2: Climate Change

Topic: “Addressing Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: To effectively combat climate change, governments worldwide must implement aggressive policies to reduce carbon emissions, invest in renewable energy, and promote sustainable practices.

3: Animal Testing

Topic: “Ban on Animal Testing”

Thesis Statement: Animal testing for cosmetics should be banned globally due to its ethical implications, the availability of alternative testing methods, and the questionable reliability of animal-based results for human safety.

4: Education Reform

Topic: “Standardized Testing in Schools”

Thesis Statement: Standardized testing should be eliminated in schools as it narrows the curriculum, causes undue stress to students, and fails to accurately measure a student’s potential and abilities.

5: Universal Basic Income

Topic: “Implementing Universal Basic Income”

Thesis Statement: Implementing a universal basic income would help alleviate poverty, reduce income inequality, and provide financial stability in an increasingly automated and unpredictable job market.

6: Health Care

Topic: “Universal Health Care”

Thesis Statement: Universal health care should be adopted in the United States to ensure that all citizens have access to essential medical services, reduce overall healthcare costs, and improve public health outcomes.

7: Immigration Policy

Topic: “Reforming Immigration Policies”

Thesis Statement: Comprehensive immigration reform is essential to address undocumented immigration, protect human rights, and contribute to economic growth by recognizing the contributions of immigrants to society.

8: Death Penalty

Topic: “Abolishing the Death Penalty”

Thesis Statement: The death penalty should be abolished as it is an inhumane practice, prone to judicial errors, and has not been proven to deter crime more effectively than life imprisonment.

9: Social Media Regulation

Topic: “Regulating Social Media Platforms”

Thesis Statement: Social media platforms should be regulated to prevent the spread of misinformation, protect user privacy, and reduce the negative impact on mental health, particularly among adolescents.

10: College Tuition

Topic: “Free College Tuition”

Thesis Statement: Providing free college tuition at public universities would increase access to higher education, reduce student debt, and help create a more educated and skilled workforce to meet future economic demands.

Thesis Examples for Research Papers

1: environmental science.

Topic: “Impact of Plastic Pollution on Marine Life”

Thesis Statement: Plastic pollution in the oceans is causing significant harm to marine life, leading to ingestion and entanglement of plastic debris, disruption of ecosystems, and bioaccumulation of toxic substances in the food chain.

2: Psychology

Topic: “Effects of Social Media on Adolescent Mental Health”

Thesis Statement: Excessive use of social media negatively impacts adolescent mental health by increasing the risk of anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality, while also contributing to body image issues and cyberbullying.

3: Education

Topic: “Benefits of Bilingual Education Programs”

Thesis Statement: Bilingual education programs enhance cognitive abilities, improve academic performance, and promote cultural awareness, making them a valuable approach in the increasingly globalized and multicultural society.

4: Public Health

Topic: “Addressing the Obesity Epidemic”

Thesis Statement: Addressing the obesity epidemic requires a multifaceted approach that includes implementing public health campaigns, promoting healthy eating habits, increasing physical activity, and regulating food advertising targeted at children.

5: Economics

Topic: “Universal Basic Income and Economic Stability”

Thesis Statement: Implementing a universal basic income can provide economic stability by reducing poverty, ensuring a safety net during economic downturns, and stimulating consumer spending, thereby supporting overall economic growth.

6: Political Science

Topic: “Impact of Voter ID Laws on Voter Turnout”

Thesis Statement: Voter ID laws disproportionately reduce voter turnout among minority and low-income populations, undermining the democratic process and exacerbating existing inequalities in political participation.

7: Sociology

Topic: “Gender Stereotypes in Media Representation”

Thesis Statement: Media representation perpetuates gender stereotypes by consistently portraying men and women in traditional roles, which reinforces societal norms and limits the opportunities for gender equality.

8: Technology

Topic: “Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare”

Thesis Statement: The integration of artificial intelligence in healthcare can improve patient outcomes, enhance diagnostic accuracy, and streamline administrative processes, but it also raises ethical concerns regarding data privacy and the potential for job displacement.

Topic: “Causes and Consequences of the American Civil War”

Thesis Statement: The American Civil War was primarily caused by deep-seated economic, social, and political differences between the North and South, particularly over the issue of slavery, and it resulted in significant social and political changes, including the abolition of slavery and the reconstruction of the South.

10: Environmental Policy

Topic: “Renewable Energy Policies and Their Effectiveness”

Thesis Statement: Renewable energy policies, such as subsidies for solar and wind power and carbon pricing, are effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable energy sources, but their success depends on comprehensive implementation and international cooperation.

Thesis Examples for Informative Essay

Topic: “The Water Cycle”

Thesis Statement: The water cycle, which includes processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and infiltration, is essential for distributing water across the Earth’s surface and maintaining ecological balance.

2: Health and Wellness

Topic: “The Benefits of Regular Exercise”

Thesis Statement: Regular exercise is crucial for maintaining physical health, improving mental well-being, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions.

3: Technology

Topic: “The Development of Artificial Intelligence”

Thesis Statement: The development of artificial intelligence has progressed from simple machine learning algorithms to complex neural networks capable of performing tasks such as natural language processing, image recognition, and autonomous driving.

Topic: “The Causes and Effects of the American Civil Rights Movement”

Thesis Statement: The American Civil Rights Movement was driven by factors such as racial segregation, economic disparity, and political disenfranchisement, leading to significant legislative and social changes that improved the rights and freedoms of African Americans.

5: Education

Topic: “The Montessori Method of Education”

Thesis Statement: The Montessori method of education, developed by Dr. Maria Montessori, emphasizes self-directed learning, hands-on activities, and collaborative play, fostering independence and critical thinking skills in young children.

6: Sociology

Topic: “The Impact of Urbanization on Community Life”

Thesis Statement: Urbanization significantly impacts community life by altering social structures, increasing economic opportunities, and presenting challenges such as overcrowding, pollution, and loss of green spaces.

7: Environmental Policy

Topic: “The Role of Renewable Energy in Combating Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, play a critical role in combating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and providing sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels.

8: Business

Topic: “The Rise of Gig Economy”

Thesis Statement: The rise of the gig economy has transformed the labor market by offering flexible work opportunities, fostering entrepreneurship, and posing challenges such as job insecurity and lack of benefits for workers.

9: Psychology

Topic: “The Importance of Sleep for Cognitive Function”

Thesis Statement: Adequate sleep is essential for cognitive function, memory consolidation, and emotional regulation, with chronic sleep deprivation leading to impaired mental performance and increased risk of mental health disorders.

10: Cultural Studies

Topic: “The Influence of Japanese Anime on Global Pop Culture”

Thesis Statement: Japanese anime has significantly influenced global pop culture by shaping trends in fashion, art, and storytelling, and fostering a dedicated international fanbase that celebrates its unique aesthetic and thematic elements.

Thesis Examples for Synthesis Essay

1: climate change.

Topic: “Combating Climate Change through Policy and Innovation”

Thesis Statement: Combating climate change requires a multifaceted approach that includes stringent environmental policies, investment in renewable energy technologies, and community-based initiatives to reduce carbon footprints, integrating efforts from government, industry, and society.

2: Education

Topic: “Balancing Technology and Traditional Teaching Methods in Education”

Thesis Statement: A balanced approach to education that combines the benefits of technology, such as interactive learning tools and online resources, with traditional teaching methods, like face-to-face instruction and hands-on activities, can enhance student engagement and academic achievement.

Topic: “Addressing the Opioid Crisis through Comprehensive Strategies”

Thesis Statement: Addressing the opioid crisis requires comprehensive strategies that include better access to addiction treatment programs, stricter regulations on prescription opioids, and increased public awareness campaigns to educate communities about the risks of opioid misuse.

4: Technology

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Political Mobilization”

Thesis Statement: Social media has revolutionized political mobilization by providing platforms for grassroots campaigns, enabling real-time communication, and fostering civic engagement, but it also poses challenges such as the spread of misinformation and echo chambers.

5: Business

Topic: “Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Brand Loyalty”

Thesis Statement: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, when genuinely implemented, can significantly enhance brand loyalty by aligning company values with consumer expectations, fostering trust, and contributing positively to societal well-being.

Topic: “The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Media Representation”

Thesis Statement: Media representation perpetuates gender stereotypes by consistently depicting men and women in traditional roles, which influences societal perceptions and expectations, but progressive portrayals are gradually challenging these norms and promoting gender equality.

Topic: “Sustainable Urban Development and Green Infrastructure”

Thesis Statement: Sustainable urban development that incorporates green infrastructure, such as green roofs, urban gardens, and eco-friendly public transportation, is essential for mitigating environmental impacts, improving public health, and enhancing the quality of urban life.

8: Psychology

Topic: “The Effects of Mindfulness Practices on Mental Health”

Thesis Statement: Mindfulness practices, including meditation, yoga, and mindful breathing, have been shown to significantly improve mental health by reducing stress, enhancing emotional regulation, and promoting overall well-being, supported by a growing body of scientific research.

9: Economics

Topic: “Universal Basic Income as a Solution to Economic Inequality”

Thesis Statement: Universal Basic Income (UBI) presents a viable solution to economic inequality by providing financial security, reducing poverty, and supporting economic stability, though it requires careful consideration of funding mechanisms and potential societal impacts.

10: Public Health

Topic: “The Importance of Vaccination Programs in Preventing Epidemics”

Thesis Statement: Vaccination programs are crucial for preventing epidemics, protecting public health, and achieving herd immunity, as evidenced by the successful eradication of diseases like smallpox and the control of outbreaks such as measles and influenza.

Thesis Examples for Persuasive Essays

Thesis Statement: Stricter gun control laws are essential to reduce gun violence in the United States, as they will help prevent firearms from falling into the wrong hands, decrease the number of mass shootings, and enhance public safety.

Topic: “Urgent Action on Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: Immediate and robust action is needed to combat climate change, including reducing carbon emissions, transitioning to renewable energy sources, and implementing sustainable practices to mitigate the devastating effects on our planet.

3: Animal Rights

Topic: “Ban on Animal Testing for Cosmetics”

Thesis Statement: Animal testing for cosmetics should be banned worldwide due to its ethical implications, the availability of alternative testing methods, and the questionable reliability of animal-based results for human safety.

Topic: “Abolishing Standardized Testing in Schools”

Thesis Statement: Standardized testing should be abolished in schools as it narrows the curriculum, places undue stress on students, and fails to accurately measure a student’s potential and abilities, thereby hindering educational growth.

5: Universal Health Care

Topic: “Adopting Universal Health Care in the United States”

Thesis Statement: The United States should adopt a universal health care system to ensure that all citizens have access to essential medical services, reduce overall healthcare costs, and improve public health outcomes.

6: Immigration Policy

Thesis Statement: Comprehensive immigration reform is essential to address undocumented immigration, protect human rights, and contribute to economic growth by recognizing the contributions of immigrants to society and ensuring a fair, efficient legal process.

7: Death Penalty

Thesis Statement: The death penalty should be abolished as it is an inhumane practice, prone to judicial errors, and has not been proven to deter crime more effectively than life imprisonment, while also being more costly to taxpayers.

8: Social Media Regulation

Thesis Statement: Social media platforms should be regulated to prevent the spread of misinformation, protect user privacy, and reduce the negative impact on mental health, particularly among adolescents, to create a safer online environment.

9: College Tuition

Topic: “Providing Free College Tuition”

10: Renewable Energy

Topic: “Investing in Renewable Energy Sources”

Thesis Statement: Governments should invest heavily in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, combat climate change, and create sustainable job opportunities, ensuring a cleaner and healthier future.

Thesis Examples for Analysis Essays

1: literary analysis.

Topic: “Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In ‘The Great Gatsby,’ F. Scott Fitzgerald uses symbols such as the green light, the Valley of Ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg to critique the American Dream and explore themes of ambition, disillusionment, and moral decay.

2: Film Analysis

Topic: “Themes of Redemption in ‘The Shawshank Redemption'”

Thesis Statement: ‘The Shawshank Redemption’ explores themes of hope, friendship, and the human spirit’s resilience, using the character arcs of Andy Dufresne and Red to highlight the transformative power of hope and redemption within the confines of a corrupt prison system.

3: Rhetorical Analysis

Topic: “Martin Luther King Jr.’s ‘I Have a Dream’ Speech”

Thesis Statement: In his ‘I Have a Dream’ speech, Martin Luther King Jr. employs rhetorical strategies such as repetition, parallelism, and powerful imagery to effectively convey his vision of racial equality and galvanize the civil rights movement.

4: Historical Analysis

Topic: “Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire”

Thesis Statement: The fall of the Roman Empire was the result of a complex interplay of factors, including political corruption, economic instability, military defeats, and the gradual erosion of civic virtue, which collectively undermined the empire’s ability to sustain itself.

5: Character Analysis

Topic: “The Complexity of Hamlet in William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet'”

Thesis Statement: In William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet,’ the titular character’s complexity is revealed through his introspective nature, moral ambiguity, and fluctuating resolve, which collectively illustrate the play’s exploration of existential themes and the human condition.

6: Social Analysis

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Modern Communication”

Thesis Statement: Social media has significantly altered modern communication by enabling instantaneous sharing of information and fostering global connectivity, while also contributing to issues such as reduced face-to-face interactions, cyberbullying, and the spread of misinformation.

7: Cultural Analysis

Topic: “Cultural Significance of Traditional Festivals”

Thesis Statement: Traditional festivals play a crucial role in preserving cultural heritage, fostering community identity, and promoting social cohesion, as they provide a platform for the transmission of customs, values, and shared history across generations.

8: Economic Analysis

Topic: “The Effects of Globalization on Local Economies”

Thesis Statement: Globalization has profoundly impacted local economies by enhancing market access, fostering economic growth, and encouraging cultural exchange, but it has also led to job displacement, wage suppression, and the erosion of local industries in some regions.

9: Psychological Analysis

Topic: “Freudian Themes in ‘The Turn of the Screw’ by Henry James”

Thesis Statement: Henry James’s ‘The Turn of the Screw’ can be analyzed through a Freudian lens, where the governess’s experiences and the ambiguous nature of the ghosts reflect deep-seated psychological conflicts, repressed desires, and the complexities of the human psyche.

10: Political Analysis

Topic: “The Effectiveness of the New Deal Programs”

Thesis Statement: The New Deal programs implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt were effective in providing immediate relief during the Great Depression, spurring economic recovery, and implementing long-term reforms that reshaped the American social and economic landscape.

Thesis Examples for Compare and Contrast Essay

1: literature.

Topic: “Comparing ‘1984’ by George Orwell and ‘Brave New World’ by Aldous Huxley”

Thesis Statement: While George Orwell’s ‘1984’ presents a dystopian future of totalitarian control through fear and oppression, Aldous Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ explores a similar theme through a society controlled by pleasure and conditioning, highlighting different methods of societal control and their implications.

Topic: “Public School vs. Private School Education”

Thesis Statement: Public schools offer a diverse social environment and a broad curriculum, whereas private schools provide smaller class sizes and specialized programs, making the choice between the two dependent on individual educational goals and personal preferences.

Topic: “E-books vs. Printed Books”

Thesis Statement: While e-books offer convenience, portability, and interactive features, printed books provide a tactile experience, lack of screen strain, and a sense of nostalgia, demonstrating how each format caters to different reader preferences and needs.

Topic: “Traditional Medicine vs. Modern Medicine”

Thesis Statement: Traditional medicine emphasizes holistic and natural treatments based on centuries-old practices, while modern medicine focuses on scientific research and technological advancements, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each approach in addressing health issues.

5: Social Media

Topic: “Facebook vs. Instagram”

Thesis Statement: Facebook facilitates in-depth social interaction and a wide range of features for communication and information sharing, whereas Instagram focuses on visual content and a streamlined user experience, catering to different user preferences and social engagement styles.

Topic: “Traveling by Plane vs. Traveling by Train”

Thesis Statement: Traveling by plane offers speed and efficiency for long distances, while traveling by train provides scenic views and a more relaxed experience, highlighting the trade-offs between convenience and leisure in different modes of transportation.

7: Economics

Topic: “Capitalism vs. Socialism”

Thesis Statement: Capitalism promotes economic growth and individual entrepreneurship through market competition, whereas socialism emphasizes social welfare and equitable distribution of resources, reflecting contrasting ideologies on economic management and social equity.

8: Literature

Topic: “Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ vs. Sophocles’ ‘Oedipus Rex'”

Thesis Statement: While Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ delves into themes of indecision, revenge, and existential angst, Sophocles’ ‘Oedipus Rex’ explores fate, self-discovery, and the inevitability of destiny, illustrating different approaches to tragedy in Western literature.

9: Lifestyle

Topic: “Urban Living vs. Rural Living”

Thesis Statement: Urban living offers convenience, diverse cultural experiences, and numerous job opportunities, while rural living provides a peaceful environment, close-knit communities, and a connection to nature, demonstrating the contrasting lifestyles and priorities of each setting.

10: History

Topic: “The American Revolution vs. The French Revolution”

Thesis Statement: The American Revolution focused on independence from colonial rule and the establishment of a democratic republic, whereas the French Revolution aimed to overthrow the monarchy and address social inequalities, highlighting different motivations, outcomes, and impacts on world history.

More Thesis Samples & Examples:

1. thesis statements.

Thesis Statements

2. University Thesis Research

University Thesis Research

3. Working Thesis

Working Thesis

4. Master Thesis

Master Thesis

5. Basics About Thesis Statements

Basics About Thesis Statements

6. Thesis Sample


7. Thesis Format

Thesis Format

8. Thesis PDF

Thesis PDF

9. Graduate Students Thesis

Graduate Students Thesis

10. Thesis Example

Thesis Example

Tips for Writing Your Thesis

Tips for Writing Your Thesis

Start Early

  • Begin your thesis process early to allow ample time for research , writing , and revisions.

Choose a Relevant Topic

  • Select a topic that interests you and has sufficient research material available. Ensure it is specific enough to be manageable but broad enough to find sources.

Develop a Strong Thesis Statement

  • Craft a clear, concise thesis statement that outlines the main argument or focus of your paper. This will guide your research and writing.

Create an Outline

  • Plan your thesis structure with a detailed outline. Include sections for the introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

Conduct Thorough Research

  • Use a variety of sources, such as books, journal articles, and credible websites. Take detailed notes and organize your research to support your thesis statement.

Write in Stages

  • Break down the writing process into manageable stages. Start with the introduction, move to the literature review, then the methodology, and so on.

Maintain Consistent Formatting

  • Follow the required formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) consistently throughout your thesis. Pay attention to citation rules and references.

Seek Feedback

  • Regularly consult with your advisor and seek feedback from peers. Incorporate their suggestions to improve your work.

Edit and Revise

  • Set aside time for multiple rounds of editing and revising. Check for clarity, coherence, grammar, and spelling errors.

Stay Organized

  • Keep all your research materials, notes, and drafts well-organized. Use tools like folders, labels, and reference management software.

Stay Motivated

  • Set small, achievable goals and reward yourself for meeting them. Stay positive and remember that writing a thesis is a marathon, not a sprint.

Proofread Thoroughly

  • Conduct a final proofread to catch any remaining errors. Consider using grammar checking tools or hiring a professional proofreader.

What to include in a Thesis

Writing a thesis involves several critical sections that contribute to the overall structure and argumentation of the research. Here’s a guide on what to include in a thesis:

1. Title Page

  • Title: Clear, concise, and descriptive.
  • Author’s Name
  • Institutional Affiliation
  • Date of Submission
  • Advisor’s Name

2. Abstract

  • Summary: Brief overview of the research.
  • Key Points: Main objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Word Limit: Typically 150-300 words.

3. Table of Contents

  • Sections and Subsections: With corresponding page numbers.

4. List of Figures and Tables

  • Figures/Tables: Numbered and titled with page numbers.

5. Introduction

  • Background: Context of the study.
  • Problem Statement: The issue being addressed.
  • Objectives: What the research aims to achieve.
  • Research Questions/Hypotheses: Specific questions or hypotheses the study will test.
  • Significance: Importance of the study.

6. Literature Review

  • Overview of Existing Research: Summarize previous studies.
  • Theoretical Framework: The theories guiding the research.
  • Gaps in Literature: Identify what has not been addressed.

7. Methodology

  • Research Design: Type of study (e.g., qualitative, quantitative).
  • Participants: Who was involved in the study.
  • Data Collection: How data was gathered (e.g., surveys, experiments).
  • Data Analysis: Methods used to analyze the data.
  • Ethical Considerations: How ethical issues were handled.
  • Findings: Present data and key results.
  • Visuals: Use tables, graphs, and charts for clarity.
  • Statistical Analysis: Include relevant statistical tests.

9. Discussion

  • Interpretation of Results: What the findings mean.
  • Comparison with Existing Literature: How results align or contrast with previous research.
  • Implications: Practical or theoretical implications.
  • Limitations: Discuss limitations of the study.
  • Future Research: Suggestions for future studies.

10. Conclusion

  • Summary of Findings: Recap main findings.
  • Restate Importance: Reiterate the study’s significance.
  • Final Thoughts: Concluding remarks.

11. References

  • Citations: Complete list of all sources cited in the thesis.
  • Formatting: Follow a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA).

12. Appendices

  • Supplementary Material: Additional data, questionnaires, or detailed descriptions.

Thesis vs. Dissertation

Demonstrates mastery of a subjectContributes new knowledge to the field
Typically for Master’s degreeTypically for Doctoral (PhD) degree
Generally shorter (50-100 pages)Generally longer (100-300+ pages)
Focuses on existing research and literatureInvolves original research and data
May involve original research or analysisPrimarily involves original research
Structured around existing knowledgeStructured around original findings
Show understanding and ability to analyzeShow ability to conduct independent research
Typically 1-2 yearsTypically 2-5 years
Usually reviewed by a smaller committeeReviewed by a larger committee and public defense
Demonstrates competency in the fieldAdvances knowledge in the field

How do I know if my Thesis is strong?

Clear and specific thesis statement.

  • Precision : Your thesis statement should be clear, specific, and concise. It should articulate the main argument or focus of your thesis.
  • Focus : Ensure it directly addresses the research question without being too broad or vague.

Well-Defined Research Question

  • Relevance : The research question should be significant to your field of study.
  • Feasibility : Make sure it is practical and manageable within the scope of your resources and time frame.

Comprehensive Literature Review

  • Depth : Your literature review should cover relevant research and show an understanding of key theories and findings.
  • Gaps Identification : Highlight gaps in the existing literature that your thesis aims to fill.

Solid Methodology

  • Appropriateness : The chosen methodology should be suitable for answering your research question.
  • Detail : Clearly describe your research design, data collection methods, and data analysis procedures.
  • Justification : Explain why these methods are the best fit for your study.

Strong Evidence and Analysis

  • Support : Provide ample evidence to support your thesis statement and arguments.
  • Critical Analysis : Critically analyze the data, showing how it supports or contradicts your hypothesis.
  • Consistency : Ensure that all evidence is consistently interpreted and integrated into your argument.

Coherent Structure

  • Organization : The thesis should be well-organized with a logical flow of ideas.
  • Clarity : Each section should clearly contribute to the overall argument.
  • Transitions : Use smooth transitions between sections to maintain coherence.

Original Contribution

  • Innovation : Your thesis should offer new insights or findings in your field.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance and impact of your research.

Proper Formatting and Style

  • Formatting : Follow the required formatting guidelines (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) consistently.
  • Grammar and Spelling : Proofread your work to ensure it is free from grammatical and spelling errors.
  • Citations : Properly cite all sources and provide a comprehensive reference list.

Feedback and Revision

  • Advisor Feedback : Regularly seek feedback from your advisor and incorporate their suggestions.
  • Peer Review : Get input from peers to identify areas for improvement.
  • Multiple Revisions : Be prepared to revise your thesis multiple times to enhance its quality.


  • Alignment : Ensure that all parts of the thesis align with the thesis statement.
  • Completeness : Check that all required sections are included and thoroughly addressed.
  • Confidence : Be confident in your arguments and the quality of your research.

How to Make a Thesis

Where do you often begin when you want to make a thesis? Many may say to begin by drafting, to begin by making an outline or to start at the introduction. A lot of these answers may even confuse you and may make you think that making a thesis is difficult or confusing. Stop right there, there are answers to every question, and to show you the  thesis statement writing tips .

Step 1: Make an Outline for the Thesis

Start out by making a  thesis outline . The outline will help you as it acts as the backbone of your entire thesis. Making outlines also help you by giving you a good view of what comes first, what should be added here and what should not be added. Outlining your thesis is often the best way to begin.

Step 2: Start with a Thesis Proposal for Your Thesis Paper

Once you have a blank outline for your thesis, which you will be filling out in order to know what goes first, the next thing to do is to pick a topic or pick a thesis proposal . This is an important part of making your thesis paper. Start with thinking about what kind of thesis proposal you want to talk about.

Step 3: Write Down the Introduction of Your Thesis

Thesis introduction has an important role to play. Its role in your thesis is to give a short summary of what can be expected in your thesis. The introduction of your thesis is all about the topic or the proposal of your thesis. When you write your thesis, make sure that the introduction should be clear and concise. After the introduction, the heart of your thesis will follow.

Step 4: Finalize Your Thesis Paper

Finalizing your thesis paper may take a lot of time and effort. But not to worry. It is always necessary and understandable that finalizing your thesis paper is important. As long as you are making sure that everything that is necessary, the introduction, the proposal, the thesis problem, solution and conclusion are present.

How do I choose a thesis topic?

Choose a topic that interests you, has ample research material, is specific enough to be manageable, and aligns with your academic goals.

How long should my thesis be?

Thesis length varies by discipline and degree level; Master’s theses are usually 50-100 pages, while PhD dissertations can be 100-300+ pages.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is a concise summary of the main point or claim of your thesis, guiding your research and writing.

How do I structure my thesis?

A typical thesis structure includes a title page, abstract, table of contents, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, conclusion, and references.

How important is the literature review?

The literature review is crucial as it contextualizes your research, highlights gaps, and demonstrates your understanding of existing scholarship.

What is the difference between a thesis and a dissertation?

A thesis is usually for a Master’s degree and demonstrates mastery of a topic, while a dissertation for a PhD contributes new knowledge to the field.

How do I manage my time effectively while writing my thesis?

Create a detailed timeline, break the process into manageable tasks, set deadlines, and regularly consult with your advisor.

How do I ensure my thesis is original?

Conduct thorough research, properly cite sources, use plagiarism detection tools, and contribute unique insights or findings to your field.

What should I do if I encounter writer’s block?

Take breaks, set small writing goals, change your environment, seek feedback, and stay connected with your advisor for guidance and support.


Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

10 Examples of Public speaking

20 Examples of Gas lighting

These small daily actions may affect how your body manages heat

In the face of intense heat, experts say small daily actions — from the food, drinks or medications we ingest to how we attempt to cool down — could affect how our bodies dissipate heat.

As the summer sun beats down, many people may grab a frozen margarita or blast the fan. But, in some cases, those attempts at relief may not help.

Some activities that you think provide relief may end up making you feel hotter. Overheated individuals can experience issues as relatively minor as heat cramps to more severe situations like heat stroke, which can be fatal. Although often preventable, extreme heat is the No. 1 weather-related killer in the United States.

The first major heat wave of the summer is strengthening over the eastern U.S. this week , putting tens of millions of people under heat alerts. Parts of the Northeast are expected to reach temperatures in the triple digits, and some cities may see their hottest days in decades.

In the face of intense heat, experts say small daily actions — from the food, drinks or medications we ingest to how we attempt to cool down — could affect how our bodies dissipate heat. Here are some risks to be aware of, and tips that may help you stay cool during an extreme heat wave.

Drinking alcohol can be risky in the heat

The hiss-crack-pop of an ice-cold seltzer accompanied by the glass clinks of chilled beers may sound like the perfect solution to a sweltering evening with friends, but the punishing effects from summer’s heat could be amplified by your favorite alcoholic beverage, experts say.

Alcohol opens the blood vessels in your skin, allowing the blood to be more susceptible to external temperatures. As the blood rushes to the surface, it is pulled away from your core, where it is warmed by the outside temperatures. The warmed blood is then brought back to your core where it increases your overall body temperature, said Chris Ziebell, medical director of Houston Methodist’s emergency department. In extreme heat, this can increase the risk of heat illness — heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and in severe cases, heat stroke.

“It opens up the arteries in the skin, which allows more direct contact of the blood with whatever the outside temperature is ... both in terms of heat and in terms of cold,” Ziebell said.

Alcohol is also a diuretic, which leads to increased urination and potentially dehydration.

Ziebell explained that alcohol exacerbates fluid loss, which makes it harder to sweat. The inability to sweat can be the difference between milder heat exhaustion and a more fatal heat stroke.

“You sweat until you run out of sweat. Then you’ve lost your last bit of capacity to cool down,” Ziebell said. “And that’s what makes the temperatures go way, way up.”

It helps to turn to hydrating foods

As the heat is beating down, it’s important to watch what and how much we eat. Our eating habits can make us feel hotter.

Experts suggest avoiding big meals or fatty foods and fried foods because they can be harder to digest. Digesting such food can be difficult for the body to break down and can create heat, which is the last thing our bodies to experience during a heat wave.

Instead, experts say to eat lighter meals and more frequently. They also recommend eating hydrating foods that are easy to digest such as fruits and vegetables.

The vast majority of our hydration comes from our food, said Leigh Frame, director of integrative medicine at George Washington University. In the summer, our bodies are naturally drawn to foods high in water content — like watermelon and cucumbers.

Another tip: Think about whether you’ve hydrated enough.

“ Because most of our hydration comes from our food. Our body actually sends a hunger signal if we are dehydrated. So if you’re feeling hungry, you may actually be dehydrated,” Frame said.

But experts say be wary of changing your diet drastically all at once. If you start eating fruits or vegetables your body isn’t used to, your body could react poorly and could cause gastrointestinal issues.

Make sure your fan is working for you

In any intense heat wave, a preferred solution is to stay in a cool or air-conditioned place. But if you’re outside or away from your air conditioner, fans are an excellent choice for cooling down — but only if it’s not too hot and humid.

Electric fans can play an important role in reducing our body temperature. When people are feeling hot, our bodies primarily cool themselves by sweating. As water evaporates from our skin, the surface of our skin cools. Electric fans promote sweating by moving cooler air over our skin, aiding evaporation.

But fans start to become inefficient when the air is very humid (above 50 percent, for instance) and the temperature is in the triple digits.

“If someone is outside and it’s incredibly hot and humid, sitting in the shade running an electric fan might not help,” said Luke Parsons, a climate scientist at the Nature Conservancy, who has published researcher on safe use of fans. “If it’s too hot and humid, sitting in front of a fan outside could in fact make you hotter.”

The World Health Organization and researchers said electric fans should only be used when temperatures are below 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) for young, healthy adults. At this temperature, the fan would be pushing around air that is much hotter than our core body temperatures and heating us. (Older adults, especially those on sweat-inhibiting medications, may find fans are less effective for them a few degrees lower.)

Parsons said to use other cooling options to maintain a stable core body temperature, like moving inside to air conditioning, sitting in a cool water bath or visiting a cooling center. An energy-efficiency tip: If you move inside, keep in mind your fan can also be combined with your indoor air conditioner at a higher temperature to reduce your energy use as well.

When excess caffeine can make you feel worse

You might want to rethink that second energy drink or iced coffee in extreme heat, too.

Drinks with high levels of caffeine stimulate movement which warms up the body and can dehydrate the body through increased urination. According to Geoffrey Comp, an emergency medicine physician at Valleywise Health medical center in Phoenix, the jittery feeling some get from drinking high levels of caffeine, and the increased movement as a result, generates more heat.

“Too much caffeine without having enough water or electrolyte replacement plus exertion outside, can increase the amount of heat generation,” Comp said.

Be mindful of how medications affect your response to heat

Of course, medical professionals urge patients to continue taking their daily prescribed medications. But as temperatures soar, the side effect of different medications can affect your body heat.

Different medicines ranging from over-the-counter medicines to prescription medications can impact your body heat by either “preventing your body from getting rid of heat [or] producing heat, both of these side effects can result in a higher body temperature,” Comp said.

Antihistamines, like Benadryl and other allergy-relief medicines, cause some tightening of the blood vessels near our skin which can limit the way the body dissipates heat. Over-the-counter weight loss supplements increase heat production in the body. Laxatives increase the amount of water leaving your body through waste, leaving less water reserves for sweating and cooling, Comp said.

Beta blockers, used by people with heart conditions, decrease the heart rate which blocks the ability for heat exchange at the skin’s surface, keeping core temperatures warm. Some prescription amphetamines, like Ritalin and Adderall, increase heat production as it stimulates the body.

“Yes, some of these medications can change how our body manages heat. But in the long term it’s still much more important to be taking your medications on a daily basis as prescribed than to maybe hold off because you’re concerned that it’s a hot day today,” Comp said.

Diuretic medicines, used for high blood pressure or other heart conditions, work by helping people get rid of excess fluid. The medicines are basically water pills, said Ziebell. But increased urination and loss of fluid during extreme heat can more rapidly lead to dehydration.

“If you’re peeing out excess fluid, and then you’re also sweating out excess fluid, eventually you run out of excess fluid,” Ziebell said.

Some people can become hypothermic due to side effects of a medicine, Ziebell said. Some psychiatric medicines make the muscles quiver, causing the muscles to generate heat.

“These people come in [with] really dangerously high body temperatures, and we have to cool them off aggressively,” Ziebell said.

Allyson Chiu contributed to this report.

More on climate change

Understanding our climate: Global warming is a real phenomenon , and weather disasters are undeniably linked to it . As temperatures rise, heat waves are more often sweeping the globe — and parts of the world are becoming too hot to survive .

What can be done? The Post is tracking a variety of climate solutions , as well as the Biden administration’s actions on environmental issues . It can feel overwhelming facing the impacts of climate change, but there are ways to cope with climate anxiety .

Inventive solutions: Some people have built off-the-grid homes from trash to stand up to a changing climate. As seas rise, others are exploring how to harness marine energy .

What about your role in climate change? Our climate coach Michael J. Coren is answering questions about environmental choices in our everyday lives. Submit yours here. You can also sign up for our Climate Coach newsletter .

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These Common Medications Can Make Heat Waves More Dangerous

Certain antidepressants, blood pressure pills and other drugs make you more susceptible to heat-related illness. Here’s what to know.

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A hospital staff member pours water on the face of a patient suffering from heat stroke at a hospital.

By Katie Mogg

A major heat wave is expected to hit much of the eastern United States this week. And millions of people across the country are taking medications that may make them more susceptible to heat-related illnesses.

Taking certain drugs — including some used to treat mental health conditions, high blood pressure and allergies — can make it even more difficult to stay hydrated or efficiently cool your body when it’s hot outside. Here’s what to know, and how to stay safe during scorching temperatures.

Medications that may raise risk

Diuretics, which doctors prescribe to manage heart failure, kidney disease or high blood pressure, help your body reduce fluid through frequent urination . But they can also cause dehydration or lead to an imbalance of electrolytes such as potassium or salt, which make it harder for the body to regulate its temperature, said Allison Hill, the director of practice implementation and professional affairs at the American Pharmacists Association.

This can be especially dangerous in extreme heat, which also leads to dehydration. Experts said that makes it even more crucial for people on diuretics, also called water pills, to replenish with water and electrolytes and to pay attention to signs of dehydration and overheating.

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, which are commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure, can increase the risk of fainting and falling, particularly in extreme heat, said Dr. Michael Redlener, the medical director of the emergency department at Mount Sinai West. They also suppress the feeling of thirst , making it harder to tell when you need to drink more water.

Beta blockers, another type of blood pressure medication, can also increase the risk of fainting and falls and make it harder to sweat, which makes it more difficult for your body to keep cool.

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  • How to write an argumentative essay | Examples & tips

How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

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Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  • Don’t just list all the effects you can think of.
  • Do develop a focused argument about the overall effect and why it matters, backed up by evidence from sources.
  • Don’t just provide a selection of data on the measures’ effectiveness.
  • Do build up your own argument about which kinds of measures have been most or least effective, and why.
  • Don’t just analyze a random selection of doppelgänger characters.
  • Do form an argument about specific texts, comparing and contrasting how they express their thematic concerns through doppelgänger characters.

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An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

  • Make a claim
  • Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim
  • Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim)
  • Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

  • Claim that unconscious bias training does not have the desired results, and resources would be better spent on other approaches
  • Cite data to support your claim
  • Explain how the data indicates that the method is ineffective
  • Anticipate objections to your claim based on other data, indicating whether these objections are valid, and if not, why not.

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

  • Discuss what the opposing position gets right and why people might hold this position
  • Highlight the problems with this position
  • Present your own position , showing how it addresses these problems
  • Suggest a possible compromise —what elements of your position would proponents of the opposing position benefit from adopting?

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

  • Acknowledge that students rely too much on websites like Wikipedia
  • Argue that teachers view Wikipedia as more unreliable than it really is
  • Suggest that Wikipedia’s system of citations can actually teach students about referencing
  • Suggest critical engagement with Wikipedia as a possible assignment for teachers who are skeptical of its usefulness.

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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How to Make a “Good” Presentation “Great”

  • Guy Kawasaki

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Remember: Less is more.

A strong presentation is so much more than information pasted onto a series of slides with fancy backgrounds. Whether you’re pitching an idea, reporting market research, or sharing something else, a great presentation can give you a competitive advantage, and be a powerful tool when aiming to persuade, educate, or inspire others. Here are some unique elements that make a presentation stand out.

  • Fonts: Sans Serif fonts such as Helvetica or Arial are preferred for their clean lines, which make them easy to digest at various sizes and distances. Limit the number of font styles to two: one for headings and another for body text, to avoid visual confusion or distractions.
  • Colors: Colors can evoke emotions and highlight critical points, but their overuse can lead to a cluttered and confusing presentation. A limited palette of two to three main colors, complemented by a simple background, can help you draw attention to key elements without overwhelming the audience.
  • Pictures: Pictures can communicate complex ideas quickly and memorably but choosing the right images is key. Images or pictures should be big (perhaps 20-25% of the page), bold, and have a clear purpose that complements the slide’s text.
  • Layout: Don’t overcrowd your slides with too much information. When in doubt, adhere to the principle of simplicity, and aim for a clean and uncluttered layout with plenty of white space around text and images. Think phrases and bullets, not sentences.

As an intern or early career professional, chances are that you’ll be tasked with making or giving a presentation in the near future. Whether you’re pitching an idea, reporting market research, or sharing something else, a great presentation can give you a competitive advantage, and be a powerful tool when aiming to persuade, educate, or inspire others.

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  • Guy Kawasaki is the chief evangelist at Canva and was the former chief evangelist at Apple. Guy is the author of 16 books including Think Remarkable : 9 Paths to Transform Your Life and Make a Difference.

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I thought I’d be happy to finish motherhood’s many chores. Then I choked up over laundry

Illustration of a mother and daughter taking care of routine chores at home.

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This column is the latest in a series on parenting children in the final years of high school, “Emptying the Nest.” Read the previous installment, a defense of helicopter parents, here .

As I did what felt like my 18th load of laundry last weekend, most of it belonging to my 17-year-old daughter, I felt a strange catch in my throat.

In a little over a year, my three-decade indenture as a full-time laundress will come to an end. With my youngest child away at college, the only clothes I will be regularly loading in and out of the washer and dryer will be my own. (And my husband’s — but at this point he only wears, and re-wears, soccer pants and sweatshirts so the addition is negligible.)

For a moment I honestly thought I would cry. Over the freaking laundry. Where once I would grumble and complain — why am I doing this kid’s laundry when she could do it herself? — I take bittersweet comfort from the task.

But that’s the way it’s been as my third and final child draws ever nearer to deserting the nest, as the role of “mother” becomes less CEO and more consultant emeritus.

You’d think I’d be relieved, excited even. A career in motherhood involves many repetitive and relentless tasks — changing diapers, assembling lunches, keeping track of doctor and dentist appointments, filling out school forms for each child Every Single Year.

But none are as omnipresent and unavoidable as the laundry. Picking up all the clothes, washing and drying all the clothes, folding and putting away all the clothes. Yes, I have learned to remove pretty much every stain the natural world can produce, but the years of my life that I have lost to matching socks alone do not bear calculating.

And soon even that tie to the myriad children with whom I’ve shared my life — the milky-skinned infants, the bright-eyed toddlers, the scrappy elementary school explorers, the sullen but still suddenly cuddly tweens, the amazingly capable and occasionally helpful teens — will be broken.

My youngest may still panic if her basketball uniform is not dry yet, but it’s been years since anyone burst into our bedroom at 11:30 p.m. to demand that I start a load of wash right now because “tomorrow is pajama day and my cute ones are dirty.” Even longer since I was informed, mere minutes before the school-start bell, that one of them did not have any clean underwear because all of the used pairs “somehow” wound up under their bed. (For years, I stashed packages of children’s underwear all around the house. Don’t judge me.)

My youngest child still manages to fill a just-moments-ago empty laundry basket to the brim by dint of “cleaning” her room, but as I realized fighting tears over this weekend’s laundry, at some point this too will stop.

Illustration of a mother and teen daughter walking in a high school hallway shown from a low angle.

Entertainment & Arts

For high schoolers and parents, junior year is the worst. All you can do is survive it

The pressure cooker of junior year hurts students and parents alike, columnist Mary McNamara writes in the first installment in a new series, ‘Emptying the Nest.’

Dec. 13, 2023

Let me be clear: I will not miss doing piles of laundry, per se, any more than I miss having to cut grapes in half or comb out everyone’s hair looking for lice or figure out how to make dinner for five people on very different schedules, when the youngest will only eat chicken nuggets or grilled cheese, the eldest wants beef with every meal and the middle child is now a vegetarian.

What I will miss is what the absence of those tasks implies . We mark so many of our children’s firsts, but aside from various graduation ceremonies, we rarely even notice the lasts.

The last time we gave them a bath, heaved them onto our shoulders, picked them up at all. The last night we tucked them in, read a story, played the Tooth Fairy. The final night/early morning in which our sleep was shattered by the appearance of a young person announcing they had wet the bed, had a nightmare or needed $5 for a field trip.

I remember quite vividly the daily grind of getting three children out of bed, dressed, fed, combed and in possession of backpacks and lunches while I gulped down coffee and wondered just how long I could keep this up.

How long did I keep it up? I honestly don’t know. These days, as I hear my 17-year-old respond to her own alarm, make her own lunch and head out the door with only a quick word or hug from her mother, I can’t remember the day, or even the year, that early-morning madness stopped.

No doubt it was a gradual change — my eldest children are just two years apart, but there’s a six-year age gap between the middle and third child. There was certainly a final day of assembling three lunches and dropping three children off at school.

Except I did not know that then, any more than I was able to mark the last time each of my children climbed into my lap, the last time I told them to brush their teeth, the last argument over homework or sleepovers, the last look at a family room covered with discarded shoes, hoodies, school papers, books and crumpled snack wrappers and the last yell, “Everyone get in here and pick up your stuff!”

OK, a version of that might have actually happened over Christmas, but you get what I’m saying.

So much of what we do as parents is exhausting, irritating and occasionally terrifying and/or infuriating. When we are in the midst of it, surrounded by people who are, in fact, utterly dependent on us, it seems endless. I remember thinking that I would never have the time to read a book or take a shower without interruption, never be able to sit down for more than two minutes, or lie down at all, without at least two small bodies appearing out of nowhere to hurl themselves upon me.

For more than 20 years, nothing that I had previously considered mine belonged only to me. When I wasn’t at work (and sometimes when I was), my time, my thoughts, my possessions, my body became communal property.

It was wonderful, and incredibly difficult, and then it was over.

illustration of a home at night in the rain. A woman can be seen in the brightly lit window reading.

To make peace with becoming an empty-nester, I had to be at peace with myself

For the first time in 25 years, I spent a weekend alone at home without kids, husband or work. In the process, I was reminded that I am not just the sum of my responsibilities.

March 4, 2024

Oh sure, my clothes still go missing occasionally and my now-adult children do, on occasion, hurl themselves upon me as I lie reading on the couch. When two or more are gathered, the refrain of “mom, mom, MOM” can still ring skyward.

But the cacophony of three kids home from school or wondering what we are going to do this weekend is long gone. No one tugs at my shirt demanding to be picked up or to let me know their sibling has done something terrible or to drag me into the backyard to see a very cool bug.

My youngest still occasionally looms over me, offering me tales from school, demands and requests, her need for advice or a hug. She still has things she wants to show me — her latest thrifting haul, a funny video she made, a prize she won.

But soon even that will come to an end, at least on a daily basis. Soon much of my motherhood will occur over texts, or phone calls if I’m lucky.

My older kids, like older kids everywhere, think their youngest sibling is spoiled. Comedian Nate Bargatze has a bit about this that begins: “I have a sister and she is 10 years younger than me and apparently she was raised by her best friends.”

There are arguments to be made against this; younger children often complain about the dearth of photos of them as babies, or that their early memories are built not around the playground and Mommy and Me classes but being dragged to their older siblings’ soccer games and dance recitals and generally fighting to be heard.

Certainly the last child does benefit from a relaxation of rigor, which is, in part, the result of experience — the first child is, essentially, a test subject — and exhaustion.

But the youngest child also spends time in a nest that is almost empty, with parents who are suddenly aware of all the “last times” they’ve missed. With mothers like me, who actually gets a little choked up when she realizes she has read half a book without being interrupted once, or fights tears when she realizes that her laundry burden will soon be halved.

Which is precisely why I don’t make that girl do her own laundry. Pretty soon it won’t be there for me to do.

More to Read

LOS ANGELES-CA-JUNE 14, 2021: Audubon Middle School principal Deanna Hardemion gives a tour of the school in Los Angeles where Dr. Dre and Jimmy Iovine, both music moguls from humble roots, plan to open a public high school on the campus in Fall 2022, on Monday, June 14, 2021. (Christina House / Los Angeles Times)

Column: How L.A. turned junior high into middle school — and why I can’t wait to be done with it

June 9, 2024

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June 4, 2024

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May 12, 2024

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Mary McNamara is a culture columnist and critic for the Los Angeles Times. Previously she was assistant managing editor for arts and entertainment following a 12-year stint as television critic and senior culture editor. A Pulitzer Prize winner in 2015 and finalist for criticism in 2013 and 2014, she has won various awards for criticism and feature writing. She is the author of the Hollywood mysteries “Oscar Season” and “The Starlet.” She lives in La Crescenta with her husband, three children and two dogs.

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The ‘3 body problem’ creators reveal their 3 favorite scenes from first season.

David Benioff, Dan Weiss and Alexander Woo break down their three (very different) top moments from season one of the Netflix sci-fi drama.

By James Hibberd

James Hibberd


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Jess Hong as Jin Cheng in 3 Body Problem.

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Reading over the responses to this season, it’s clear that even a lot of die-hard book fans were impressed by many of the choices you made for your adaptation. Which deviation from the source material did you struggle with the most? 

ALEXANDER WOO There are so many. Something that was certainly very time-consuming was adapting the more abstruse scientific concepts to a screen format where you don’t get to slow down or rewind — hopefully you won’t rewind. 

DAN WEISS It’s like the Mark Twain line: “Sorry for the long letter, I didn’t have time to write a shorter one.” We started with this very long letter, and turned it into a much shorter one — which, hopefully, people can read without stopping their televisions. 

There’s a tonal split in the season where the first five episodes — which jump between the Chinese Cultural Revolution, a modern-day conspiracy and an immersive VR game, and feature a lot of spectacle — feel different from the last three, more reflective, episodes. How concerned were you about keeping the audience? 

WEISS We also thought about the landscape of television in general. There’s a structural sameness to the way a season tends to unfold. That pattern can get monotonous. There’s something to be said for following a story where it wants to go and not thinking about hitting the same slalom gates that you’re used to seeing in every show. 

What scene in the first season were you the most proud of?

WOO The first scene of the show [showing a brutal Chinese Revolution struggle session]. The heavy lifting was done in large part by [director] Derek Tsang. It was an act of extraordinary courage on his part as someone who is in Hong Kong — so this affects him very directly. He’s showing something a lot of people don’t want to see. But it’s a moment in history that for millions and millions of people — my own family included — is something that changed the course of our lives. It’s a powerful experience that I’m really proud we brought to the screen. 

I like the shot of the paper dolls being sliced in half along the wall. 

BENIOFF That’s my favorite shot. 

And Dan? 

WEISS I really love the scene where Jonathan Pryce is having a conversation with a disembodied voice coming out of a 1960s Dictaphone trying to explain the fairy tale “Little Red Riding Hood” to an alien intelligence and tripping on a major land mine in the process. One of the things I loved about the books is they provided the opportunities for vast, giant sequences — that only get more vast and more giant as the show goes on — but also tense, engaging, personal chamber piece scenes that are just people’s reactions to very strange and surreal circumstances and working through the implications of them.

Alex, you mentioned the opening. I found it interesting how the scene ended up being used by all sides for different political purposes. It became an outrage Rorschach test. 

You’re now working on Netflix’s order for a final two seasons. Is that going to be enough to adapt the remaining two books? 

WEISS We knew going into this how many hours we need to tell the rest of the story, because we’ve got a road map through to the end. And we have what we need to get to the end as intended when we started.

BENIOFF By the time we finish with the show, it will be seven years that we’ve devoted to it. We’re now at a place where we get to tell the rest of the story, and, yes, we have enough time to tell the rest of the story the way we want to. And that’s immensely gratifying. 

This story first appeared in the June 12 issue of The Hollywood Reporter magazine. Click here to subscribe .

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Demi Moore on Full Frontal Nudity With Margaret Qualley in ‘The Substance’: ‘A Very Vulnerable Experience’ but I Had a ‘Great Partner Who I Felt Very Safe With’

CANNES, FRANCE - MAY 19: Demi Moore and her dog Pilaf attend a photocall at the 77th annual Cannes Film Festival at the Carlton Cannes Hotel on May 19, 2024 in Cannes, France. (Photo by Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images)

Demi Moore ‘s new film, the feminist body horror “ The Substance ,” sees her bare it all, with several scenes featuring full nudity. At the Cannes Film Festival press conference for the film on Monday, the 61-year-old actor discussed the “vulnerable experience.”

“Going into it, it was really spelled out — the level of vulnerability and rawness that was really required to tell the story,” Moore said. “And it was a very vulnerable experience and just required a lot of sensitivity and a lot of conversation about what we were trying to accomplish.”

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“I had someone who was a great partner who I felt very safe with. We obviously were quite close  — naked — and we also got a lot of levity in those moments at how absurd those certain situations were,” she said. “But ultimately. it’s just about really directing your communication and mutual trust.”

As the film progresses, Moore becomes horribly disfigured thanks to the abuse her other half Qualley is inflicting on her. By the film’s last act, she quite resembles Anjelica Huston from the 1990 film “The Witches,” after she transforms into a humpback abomination.

Dennis Quaid also stars in the film as an “asshole,” as he described his character during the presser. The late Ray Liotta was meant to have the role before his passing in May 2022, and Quaid dedicated his performance to him.

“In my heart, I dedicated this role to Ray Liotta, who was set to play it,” Quaid said. “It was this week, two years ago that he passed, so I’d like to remember him. He was such an incredible actor.”

Cannes went wild for “The Substance” at its premiere on Sunday night, giving the film an 11-minute standing ovation , the longest of the fest so far.

In an interview with Variety , the French director discussed the film’s feminist themes, saying that body horror is “the perfect vehicle to express the violence all these women’s issues are about.”

With an undercurrent of #MeToo at this year’s festival as the movement grows in France, Fargeat hopes the film will shine even more light on the issue. “It’s a little stone in the huge wall we still have to build regarding this issue, and to be honest, I hope my film will also be one of the stones of that wall. That’s really what I intended to do with it.”

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