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The civil services examination is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by UPSC for the recruitment to various government posts. The examination is conducted in two phases--the preliminary examination consisting of two objective-type papers and the UPSC main examination , consisting of nine papers followed by a personality test. 

Union Public Service Commission has drastically changed the mains syllabus from 2013. 

In UPSC mains syllabus 2013 instead of two optional papers, now student will opt only one optional paper. Weightage of General Studies has been increased.

Here is the new pattern of UPSC General Studies syllabus in case of Civil Services mains examination.

::Paper-I::

Essay (250 marks).

To be written in the medium or language of the candidate's choice - Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

::Paper-II::

General studies-i : indian heritage and culture, history and geography of the world and society( 250 marks ).

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world's physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

::Paper-III::

General studies-ii : governance, constitution, polity, social justice and international relations(250 marks).

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies. 
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

::PAPER-IV::

General studies-iii : technology, economic development, bio-diversity, environment, security and disaster management (250 marks).

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

::Paper-V::

General studies-iv : ethics, integrity and aptitude(250 marks).

  • This paper will include questions to test the candidates' attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.
  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

::Paper‐VI & Paper VII::

Optional subject papers i & ii.

  • Candidate may choose any optional subject from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given in Para 2.

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Essay Syllabus

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In this article, we will discuss the UPSC essay syllabus and its importance in the preparation for the prestigious Civil Services Examination. The essay paper is a vital component of the UPSC mains exam, and it evaluates a candidate’s ability to express their thoughts in a concise and coherent manner. We will explore the structure and format of the essay paper, the types of topics that usually appear, and the approach that candidates should adopt while attempting the essay. By the end of this article, you will have a clear understanding of the IAS essay syllabus and how to prepare for it effectively.

Importance of Essay Paper

Aspiring candidates preparing for the UPSC IAS examination must pay close attention to the Essay Paper section. It holds significant weightage and plays a vital role in determining the candidate’s overall rank. You must dedicate time and effort to develop this skill, as the Essay Paper is a reflection of your critical analytical and comprehensive aptitude. This paper evaluates your presentation skills, creativity, and thought process. Moreover, it tests your ability to articulate your thoughts coherently and succinctly. So, start working on your writing skills from today to make the most of this crucial paper.

Syllabus Overview

The syllabus for the essay paper is not specifically defined . Aspiring civil servants preparing for the highly competitive UPSC IAS exam must focus their attention on the essay paper. This is where candidates can showcase their writing skills and analytical abilities.

The essay paper is divided into two sections, each consisting of four topics. Candidates are required to write two essays in a span of three hours. The essays carry a total of 250 marks and are a crucial part of the selection process. It covers a wide range of topics from socioeconomic issues, to political and philosophical musings.

However, it is important to note that candidates are not expected to be experts in any particular subject. Rather, the essay paper tests their ability to articulate their thoughts and opinions. It is crucial that candidates start preparing for the essay paper well in advance, paying careful attention to the type of essays and common mistakes to avoid.

Also Read, UPSC 2023

Types of Essays

When it comes to the UPSC Essay Syllabus , it’s crucial to understand the types of essays you’ll be asked to write. As such, you must know the different types of essays that are tested in the examination, such as Informative essays, Descriptive essays, Narrative essays, and Persuasive essays. Each type has its unique writing style, skill set, and format to adhere to.

Thus, mastering each essay type is important to score high marks in the exam. While an informative essay highlights the positive and negative points of the given topic, a descriptive essay must focus on describing the topic. The narrative essay must follow a story-style narration while the Persuasive essay must be written in a way to convince the reader about the given topic.

Therefore, a deep understanding of the types of essays is necessary to excel in the UPSC IAS Exam.

Topics for Essay Writing

The UPSC Essay paper is an important part of the Civil Services Examination. As a part of the UPSC essay syllabus , candidates need to write two essays for the examination. The essays are supposed to be on topics of national and international importance, relevant social, economic, and political issues, cultural, historical and geographical significance, and contemporary issues of interest.

The topics for essay writing can range from the economy, politics, education, health, women empowerment, environmental issues, human rights, current affairs, science, technology, and more. It is advisable to read newspapers and books to keep oneself updated with the latest developments and possible essay topics. Additionally, candidates can also refer to previous years’ question papers to understand the nature of the questions and topics that are frequently asked.

Candidates should choose a topic that they are familiar with and express their thoughts and opinions in a coherent and structured way. The essay should be well-researched, free from grammatical errors, and should have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. By choosing the right topic and writing an impressive essay, candidates can score well on the UPSC IAS Essay paper .

Essay Writing Tips

Here are some tips for candidates to excel in the essay writing section:

  • Understand the topic: It’s important to read and comprehend the essay topic thoroughly. Ensure that you understand the question’s intent, the tone of the essay, and the arguments that you need to present.
  • Prepare an outline: Creating an outline before writing helps the writer organise their thoughts and arguments logically. It ensures that the essay is structured and coherent.
  • Write in a simple and lucid language: UPSC exams are not meant to test your vocabulary. Therefore, try to write in simple and clear language.
  • Stick to the word limit: The UPSC sets a word limit for each essay question. Exceeding the limit can result in a deduction of marks. Therefore, it is crucial to practice writing essays within the stipulated word limit.
  • Provide examples and facts: To support your arguments, use real-life examples and factual data to reinforce your views.

By following these tips and practising regularly, aspiring candidates can improve their essay-writing skills, making it easier to crack the UPSC exam successfully.

How to Prepare for an Essay Paper

The essay paper is an integral part of the UPSC IAS exam, and it requires a different level of preparation compared to other papers. In order to ace the essay paper, it is important to have a clear strategy and methodical approach.

First and foremost, it is essential to understand the types of essays that might appear in the exam. This will help in creating a plan for essay writing and practicing accordingly.

Another important aspect is staying updated on current affairs and trending topics. Keeping oneself informed about world events and happenings helps in generating ideas and content for the essay.

It is also crucial to focus on improving language skills and creative thinking. Reading widely, practicing writing every day, and taking mock essay tests can help in enhancing these skills.

When it comes to time management, it is recommended to allocate a fixed amount of time for brainstorming, outlining, and writing the essay. This helps in maintaining a structured and organized approach.

Lastly, it is crucial to avoid common mistakes like using too many quotes, memorizing essays, or not staying relevant to the topic. These mistakes can be easily avoided by focusing on the guidelines and practicing regularly.

Overall, preparing for the essay paper requires focus, dedication, and a structured approach. By following these tips, one can improve their chances of acing the essay paper and moving closer to their dream of becoming an IAS officer.

Common Mistakes to Avoid in Essay Writing

UPSC essay writing is an important component of the civil services examination. However, many students make some common mistakes while writing their essays that can prove detrimental to their scores. Here are a few errors to avoid when writing your UPSC essays :

  • Lack of clarity: One of the most common mistakes that students make is writing unclear or ambiguous essays. Ensure that the language and ideas that you use are clear and concise.
  • Overuse of quotes: Many students use too many quotations in their essays, which makes them sound less original. Try to use quotes sparingly, and only when they add significant value to your essay.
  • Poor structure: A well-structured essay requires an introduction, several paragraphs supporting your arguments, and a conclusion. Ensure that your essay has a clear and logical structure.
  • Lack of relevance: Many students write essays that are not directly relevant to the question asked, which can result in a reduced score. Make sure you understand the question and write an essay that is directly relevant to it.
  • Poor time management: UPSC essay writing requires a student to demonstrate their ability to write coherently and without errors within a given period. Students must manage their time effectively, allowing ample time for each paragraph, revision, and proofreading.
  • Lack of examples: Candidates should use examples from real life, which strengthens their arguments and provides more depth to their essays.

Avoid these common mistakes during your UPSC essay writing , and you are one step closer to achieving a high score that will make you proud.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):-

Q1. Which type of essay comes in the IAS exam?

Ans: The four types of essays that come in the IAS exam are Informative essays, Descriptive essays, Narrative essays, and Persuasive essays.

Q2. How to write a UPSC-level essay?

Ans: Tips to write UPSC Essay are given in the article above.

Q3. What is a good score for a UPSC essay?

Ans: An average score falls within the range of 110-125. However, exceptional essays can receive marks as high as 150-160.

Q4. How long is the UPSC essay paper?

Ans: The candidate is to write two essays in a span of 3 hours with a word limit of 1000-1200 words per essay. There are two sections which contain 4 topics each and out of which the candidate has to pick a single topic from each section to write an essay on.

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Essay Paper UPSC 2021 (Mains): Question Paper and Analysis

Last updated on January 8, 2022 by Alex Andrews George

Essay Paper UPSC 2021 (Mains)

UPSC conducted the  Essay Paper , as part of the Civil Services Main Exam 2021 on 07-01-2022.

There were 8 Essay topics, out of which candidates were asked to write on two topics in 3 hours.

Candidates were supposed to answer about 1000 words for each essay (about 10-12 pages).

Table of Contents

Essay Paper UPSC 2021 Instructions

  • Total Marks: 250 marks, Time duration: 3 hours.
  • The essay must be written in the medium authorized in the admission certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this question-cum-answer (QCA) booklet in the space provided.
  • No marks will be given for answers written in the medium other than the authorized one.
  • Word limit, as specified, should be adhered to.
  • Any page or portion of the page left blank, must be struck off clearly.

Essay Question Paper – UPSC Civil Services Main Exam (Written) 2021

Write  two  essays, choosing  one  topic from each of the following Sections A and B, in about 1000-1200 words each:

1. The process of self-discovery has now been technologically outsourced.

2. Your perception of me is a reflection of you; my reaction to you is an awareness of me.

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3. Philosophy of wantlessness is Utopian, while materialism is a chimera.

4. The real is rational and the rational is real.

5. Hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.

6. What is research, but a blind date with knowledge!

7. History repeats itself, first as a tragedy, second as a farce.

8. There are better practices to “best practices”.

Most of the essays topics this year were philosophical and open to the interpretation of the candidates. However, considering the philosophical base of the questions, most candidates found the questions tricky. It was not easy to write 1000 words on each topic within the time constraints.

UPSC has ensured that the essay topics were much different from the GS questions.

A philosophical theme is clearly evident in most of the essay topics in Section A as well as Section B. This was the case in 2020 as well. However, this year it became much more prominent. It is a clue about what UPSC expects from the essay paper.

Rather than asking candidates to write on topics most aspirants are familiar or trained with, UPSC is now evaluating the essay writing skills of aspirants by providing them with abstract or philosophical topics.

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The reason for such a shift in the pattern should be the change in the focus of the Commission.

All the 8 topics presented this year will test spontaneous thinking, comprehension, writing skills, and time-management of aspirants.

Repeated questions from previous years

The importance of the previous year UPSC questions cannot be stressed more.

Just like prelims, in mains too many questions came directly repeated from previous year question papers. Also, there were themes you often see in many essay books.

One such question was Hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.

Thinkers, Philosophers, and their Quotes

Let’s analyse the source of some of the question topics.

Your perception of me is a reflection of you; my reaction to you is an awareness of me.

This essay topic was a quote going rounds on the internet. The quote is attributed to “Coach Bobbi” [Bobbi Chegwyn] on Facebook.

Philosophy of wantlessness is Utopian, while materialism is a chimera.

This essay topic was connected with J.K. Mehta’s Theory of Wantlessness!

This has also connections with Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy.

The real is rational and the rational is real.

This is a quote by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel .

As per Hegel, something can be real, yet it may not exist. Also, something may not be real, it may still exist. For Hegel, reality does not mean existence.

Among philosophers, Hegel is one whose thought is extremely difficult to understand. Often to understand Hegel’s thoughts, we need to grasp his ideas, not in isolation but together with his dialogue with other philosophers, in particular, Aristotle and Kant.

The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.

“The Hand That Rocks the Cradle Is the Hand That Rules the World” is a poem by William Ross Wallace that praises motherhood as the preeminent force for change in the world. The poem was first published in 1865 under the title “ What Rules the World “.

What is research, but a blind date with knowledge!

This is a quote by Will Harvey . Will Harvey (born 1967) is an American software developer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur.

History repeats itself, first as a tragedy, second as a farce.

It was Karl Marx who said that history repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce.

First, it’s a tragedy because it shouldn’t have happened. Then it’s a farce (joke) because we didn’t learn from our mistakes the first time around. This is Marx’s version of dark humour.

What should aspirants preparing for next year do for an essay paper?

First of all, you should take the essay paper seriously.

Unless properly trained, it is not easy to write 10-12 pages on an abstract or philosophical topic.

You need to polish your comprehension and analytical skills.

Read different kinds of essays – particularly philosophical essays.

Give stress to the thoughts of philosophers like Immanuel Kant, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, Friedrich Niche, Karl Marx etc. Start writing essays on famous quotes.

Also, be prepared to write essays touching other areas like society, polity, economy, or technology. UPSC is known for surprises.

Remember that there is nothing like a constant trend with respect to UPSC questions.

What you get by analysing the previous year question papers are clues. And only those are what you need from UPSC questions!

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upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

About Alex Andrews George

Alex Andrews George is a mentor, author, and social entrepreneur. Alex is the founder of ClearIAS and one of the expert Civil Service Exam Trainers in India.

He is the author of many best-seller books like 'Important Judgments that transformed India' and 'Important Acts that transformed India'.

A trusted mentor and pioneer in online training , Alex's guidance, strategies, study-materials, and mock-exams have helped many aspirants to become IAS, IPS, and IFS officers.

Reader Interactions

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

January 8, 2022 at 11:36 am

Upsc has chosen right path to evaluate person.one person read, listen ,rember and write in exam.He qualify exam.He is just like computer.worthy less people selected by upsc every year.They are not thinker.so our country is intellectually insolvent.civil services requires thinker to. progess country and welfare of common man.These types of question evaluate intellectual for the welfare of human being.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

January 9, 2022 at 1:44 pm

You are putting the quality of a leader and a literate society in such a person who just has to follow his supremes.He/She must be a good analyst. That’s it!!!

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

June 13, 2022 at 12:41 pm

in the bureaucracy – there is no space for logical thinking.

once you clear the exams and get appointed – you have to follow the “protocol’ or “procedures” – its difficult to be analytical and innovative – bcos the system demands obedience and adherence to the protocol. If you follow the protocol – and even if lot of people are severely affected – you wont be taken to task. But if you are innovative – and even if ONE person gets affected – you will be punished.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

January 8, 2022 at 4:02 pm

Yeah!I’ve passed upsc .

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

January 25, 2022 at 2:21 pm

I have written Essay on three topics..how may I share?

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upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

UPSC Mains GS 1 Syllabus, Books & Preparation Tips

Table of content.

One of the four GS Papers is the UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus for the UPSC Mains. The Mains phase of the UPSC Examination consists of eight more papers in addition to UPSC Mains GS Paper 1. The questions from the GS 1 Syllabus for UPSC are often straightforward, unlike those from previous General Studies examinations. The applicant must link the static GS Paper 1 Syllabus with contemporary events. The GS 1 Syllabus is described on this page, along with specific subjects that must be addressed for the IAS Examination.

Table of Contents

  • General Studies Paper-I Syllabus for UPSC Mains

World History

Indian society, world geography, books for gs paper 1.

  • Tips to prepare UPSC GS Paper-I

General Studies 1 Paper Syllabus for UPSC Mains

The GS 1 Syllabus for UPSC Mains clarifies that the paper will include geography, art & culture, and history in general. To complete GS Paper 1 of the Mains test, one must thoroughly understand every topic taught in the course. This will allow students to interlink and aid them while writing their essays.

All these topics are covered in the GS 1 syllabus for Indian society. Therefore, read and understand every topic given below.

  • 19th Century Social Reforms Movements and Early Women’s Organisations – Agrarian Struggles and Revolt, Participation in Freedom Struggle
  • Basic Demography of India
  • Causes and Effects of Over Population
  • Causes of Communalism, Poverty and Regionalism
  • Challenges faced by Secularism in India, Women’s Organisations and Population Explosion
  • Challenges posed by Diversity
  • Changing Age Structure of the Indian Population
  • Communalism – Its Characteristics
  • Communalism in Contemporary India
  • Communalism in India in the Past
  • Concept of Development and Poverty, Region & Regionalism, Secularism and’ Sons of Soil’
  • Consequences of Communalism, Poverty and Regionalism
  • Contemporary Women’s Issues & Organisation Response
  • Demographic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India
  • Different Forms of Regionalism
  • Dimensions of Social Empowerment
  • Diversity – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture
  • Does Globalisation Cause Poverty?
  • Factors Driving Globalisation and Urbanisation
  • Family System
  • Federalism & Regionalism
  • Globalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. Glocalisation
  • Globalisation & India
  • Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment
  • Impact of Globalisation on India – Socio-cultural, economic, women, agricultural sector, etc.
  • Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas
  • Indian Model of Secularism
  • India’s Population Policy & Initiatives
  • Inequality and Exclusion
  • Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line
  • Measures to Contain Regionalism and Control & Eradicate Communalism
  • Steps to Make India Truly Secular
  • Nature & Practice of Secularism in India
  • Population Aging in India
  • Population Trends in India and their Implications
  • Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
  • Poverty as a Social Problem
  • Problems of Slums
  • Problems of Urban Areas
  • Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far
  • Regionalism in India
  • Regionalism in the International Sphere
  • Relation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus
  • Role of Regional Parties
  • Secularism as an Antidote to Communalism
  • Secularism in India
  • Social Consequences of Urbanisation
  • Socio-economic Spread of Poverty
  • State of Service Delivery and Challenges posed by Urbanisation
  • The policy shift from Trickle Down Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce Poverty
  • The problem of Rising Urban Poverty
  • The resurgence of Women’s Movement in the 70s: Emergence of New Organisations, Approaches, and Issues
  • Types of Poverty
  • Understanding Globalisation – Its Different Dimensions
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Unity in Diversity
  • Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
  • Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographic and Social Dimensions
  • Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?
  • Who is worst affected by Poverty?
  • Women’s Organisations – Empowerment through Action
  • Women’s Organisations and SHGs
  • Women’s Organisations Post 1947

Topics in World Geography include:

  • Salient features of the World’s Physical Geography
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent)
  • Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important geophysical phenomena such as Tsunami, Volcanic activity, earthquakes, cyclones etc., geographical features and their location changes in critical geographical features (including Water-bodies and Ice-caps) and flora and fauna and the effects of such changes

Here is a list of books suggested for reading for UPSC GS 1 Syllabus preparation. In addition, check out some notable books aspirants often use for their preparation, which is listed below.

  • Certificate Physical and Human Geography – Goh Cheng Leong. (Geography)
  • Geography of India – Majid Husain. (Geography)
  • History Of Modern India – Bipan Chandra. (History)
  • India After Gandhi – Ramchandra Guha (History – GS1)
  • India’s Ancient Past – R.S. Sharma. (Culture)
  • India’s Struggle For Independence – Bipan Chandra. (History)
  • Indian Art and Culture – Nitin Singhania. (Culture)
  • Norman Lowe OR History of Modern World – Jain and Mathur (World History – GS1)
  • Oxford School Atlas – Oxford. (Geography)
  • Social Problems In India – Ram Ahuja. (Indian Society – GS1)
  • The Wonder That Was India – A.L. Basham. (Culture)

Tips to Prepare UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus

The UPSC Mains GS 1 Syllabus is extensive; however, if the principles are understood, it may be highly beneficial. A clear and comprehensive UPSC preparation strategy for the General Studies Paper 1 syllabus might help applicants get above-average marks and land the desired position. The following tips would help you pass UPSC Mains GS Paper 1:

  • It is crucial to get acquainted with the UPSC examination pattern. So, one is aware of where to put their attention. There are three parts to the UPSC exam: the UPSC prelims, the UPSC mains, and the interview stage.
  • You must be familiar with the UPSC Syllabus as a UPSC candidate.
  • The booklist and other materials should be kept to a minimum and periodically revised when preparing for the UPSC. 
  • Study the UPSC prior year’s question papers a lot if you want to ace the UPSC examination.
  • Current Affairs, which are featured in newspapers and Current Events Videos, should be the focus of aspirants.
  • The General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus is more static than dynamic; however, the answer may be prepared by tying it to current events and credible research.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to prepare for gs 1 syllabus, how can one begin gs 1 syllabus ias preparation, how many papers are in the upsc mains, which essay writing technique works best for upsc, is picking a degree topic for the upsc necessary.

Answer: One source should be kept and read again. Note key points on the subtopics and continue to update and revise them. Keep up with current events to sharpen your analytical abilities.

Answer: Beginners should read all of the NCERT textbooks for grades VI through XII in Geography, History, Economics, and Polity, in addition to the NCERTs for classes XI and XII, to prepare for the General Studies exam.

Answer: Nine papers comprise the UPSC Mains Exam, four General Studies, two optional papers, two qualifying language papers, and one essay question.

Answer: The entire UPSC Mains score might be made or broken by how well your essays are written. Therefore, obtain the topper’s UPSC Essay writing advice and use it to study for this test.

Answer: One of the most difficult exams in the nation is the UPSC civil services examination. And as a result, many individuals advise studying for roughly 15 hours every day when preparing for the IAS exam.

Answer: No, you are allowed to select any optional topic from the list provided by the UPSC announcement.

Related links

  • UPSC PDF Notes
  • UPSC Printed Notes
  • UPSC Exam Pattern
  • UPSC Eligibility Criteria
  • UPSC Cut Off Analysis
  • UPSC Mains Exam
  • UPSC Prelims Exam
  • UPSC Marking Scheme
  • UPSC Toppers
  • UPSC Question Paper

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

Latest UPSC Notifications

  • UPSC Mains Paper Analysis
  • UPSC Mains Result 2022
  • UPSC Study Material

UPSC mains syllabus

UPSC mains syllabus: Ultimate Guide

The UPSC main syllabus consists of 7 papers or examination on which you will be scored. Your total score will determine whether you are invited for the interview round or not.

Your score in UPSC Mains exam, in addition to the score obtained in the Interview round will determine your final rank in the IAS exam.

This article contains everything you need to know about the UPSC mains syllabus- from it’s contents to using it as a tool to clear the IAS exam.

UPSC Mains syllabus for paper 1-7

UPSC mains syllabus consists of Ethics, General Studies, Essay and Optional papers spanning over 7 exams.

Paper 1 of the syllabus of UPSC

The ESSAY PAPER in the UPSC examination is General Studies Paper 1 accounts for 250 marks in the Mains examination.

Lucky for you, the UPSC syllabus and notification tells you precisely what it is looking for in the Essay exam.

upsc mains syllabus

  • The good news is that the essay paper is the smoothest paper in the civil services Exam to score very high marks in.
  • You don’t need to be a gifted writer to write good essays.
  • You hardly need any specialized knowledge about the essay topics.
  • You don’t need to use flowery language in your essays. In fact, you should avoid it.
  • You don’t need to memorize facts and data to write great essays.

syllabus of essay paper

You can learn how to score extremely high in the Essay paper here.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

Paper 2, 3 & 4 of syllabus of UPSC

General studies.

General Studies encompasses 3 separate papers. The syllabus for General Studies paper 2, 3 and 4 has been compressed into one page for ease of use.

upsc mains syllabus download pdf

I recommend keeping this picture in front of your desk all throughout your UPSC preparation journey.

If I were you I would set it up as the background Wallpaper of my Computer or Phone to serve as a constant reminder.

I analysed the UPSC mains syllabus for General Studies in detail and realized that it holds a lot of useful clues for the aspirants.

You can read about the hidden messages in the UPSC mains syllabus here.

6 SECRET MESSAGES HIDDEN IN THE UPSC SYLLABUS

One of the most important take-away message in the UPSC mains syllabus about General Studies syllabus is-

The syllabus of UPSC for General studies forced you to know your future employer

If you wanted to work for Google, you would need to know what they look for in an employee, right ?

You would go to their website and understand the problems which the company is facing and consider how you can help solve them.

Why not do the same with your future employer- the Government of India?

The broad goals of the Government of India (regardless of political party) are formally enshrined in the Constitution of India. They are most explicitly mentioned under the ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’.

But how are these directives to be full-filled? Through the Executive Branch of the Government which is structured into separate ministries.

Notice how closely almost each one of the  Directive Principles of state policy  corresponds to a different ministry of the Government.

These goals are, in a way, the syllabus FOR any Indian Government – your future employer. And that is why these goals are in the UPSC syllabus too.

General Studies Paper 3 and General Studies Paper 4 is mostly about these goals and the progress made on these goals.

Try going directly to the official websites of seperate ministries and read the articles and reports they publish.

You will learn more General Studies this way than by reading endless notes and books.

You can also learn how to use the UPSC mains syllabus to kick-start your UPSC preparation into high gear here.

Paper 5 of syllabus of UPSC

The Ethics paper is a new addition to the UPSC mains syllabus.

It is designed to test for values like integrity, empathy, tolerance etc.

upsc mains syllabus download

The Ethics paper of the UPSC mains syllabus tells you the kind of qualities you should inculcate within yourself to be a good fit for the job.

If you approach this job with  compassion , you will probably draw a lot of meaning and happiness from your job. This is not some stereotypical touchy-feely piece of wisdom. The beneficial effects of Compassion have been thoroughly researched and are well-documented research.

A career in the civil services is uniquely suited to give you this kind of happiness in abundance, but it comes with some caveats.

Compassion will have to directed and intelligent compassion. You will have to discern  how to  practice compassion and  whom to  apply it on. This sounds simple now, but, in real life situations, it can be quite messy and unclear.

No wonder then that  General Studies Paper 4  contains a section on  Ethical Case studies to judge these qualities in you. 

Paper 6&7 of syllabus of UPSC

Optional subject.

Optional subject can be chosen according to preference.

There is no rule mandating that you should choose the subject of your graduation. The only important thing to consider is that the difficulty level of the questions will be that of Honors or College level degree.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

The questions are essay-type of different word lengths.

You can read about how to write excellent answer-Essays here.

In a nutshell, the mains exam is all about the quality of your understanding of the subject. The maturity and depth of your answer determines the score you get.

UPSC mains syllabus Super -simplified

The UPSC mains syllabus seems never-ending at first glance.

upsc mains syllabus

As you read it for the first time, it feels as if everything under the sun is included. But the UPSC mains syllabus is not as impossibly difficult to cover as it may appear.

It CANNOT be aproached the wau you aproach syllabus for exams in School or College. The IAS exam is a different ball game. That is to say that school and college exams are actually different games with different rules. The UPSC exma preparation has no fixed rules.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

The emphasis of the UPSC on curiosity and Interest is evident from the first sight.

upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

The UPSC is EXPLICITLY and DIRECTLY tells you how to approach this examination.

upsc

The word  ‘Interest’  is mentioned THRICE in a single paragraph in the UPSC notification!

But what if you are not a very curious person? Not everyone is so curious about the World, you might say.And I would agree with you. You can read more about curiosity here.

Hardly anyone is.

But the good news is that You can develop genuine Interest in virtually ANYTHING.

Being curious can be learned, AND it makes life extremely interesting!

I never had any interest in academics in my life before I began preparing for the UPSC. The only thing I was curious about was Bodybuilding and Weightlifting.

I learned to love reading and learning during the UPSC preparation so much so that I am addicted to learning to this day. I don’t think I will ever overcome this addiction. Nor do I wish to.

UPSC mains syllabus explained

You will invariably be faced with conflicting demands and goals which the syllabus of UPSC is testing for.

As a civil servant, you will sometimes be making decisions that impact a large number of people.

In real life, as in the civil services, there are always tricky choices to be made.

These decisions can have far-reaching consequences for others, and it is crucial to think about what those consequences might be and who all might be affected.

upsc syllabus analyzed

In your career as an IAS officer or elsewhere in the Government, you may sometimes be making decisions that impact a large number of people. These traits are tested extensively all throughout the IAS exam.

But It is most obviously tested in the Essay and Ethics paper.

By adding case studies in Ethics, the UPSC wishes to actually place you in a simulated situation and judge your response.

You will score more marks if your answers are well-formed, include more groups of people, and are appreciative of the complexity of real life.

ANd it’s all for the better because you will have to think differently to cover the entire UPSC mains syllabus in record time.

UPSC mains syllabus: How to start UPSC preparation

If you have decided to take the plunge and want to start UPSC preparation, the first step is to figure out exactly WHAT all you need to know to clear the IAS exam.

For starters, it can be quite overwhelming. How to naviagte acorss the vast ocean of topics mentioned inthe UPSC syllabus? Where to start from? Which books to read? Which topics to cover first?

syllabus of upsc

The good news is that the starting steps for covering the syllabus of the USPC have been super-simplified in the UPSC syllabus challenge.

Round 1 of the UPSC syllabus challenge is explained below-

The UPSC Syllabus Challenge

The UPSC syllabus Challenge consists of 2 ROUNDS.

These rounds are a lot like charting the territory of a vast area from a height.

Think about the UPSC syllabus challenge as taking a helicopter ride over the big ocean of the syllabus which you have to swim across.

Your helicopter is the GOOGLE search bar.

The only things you will need are an internet connecetion and a stopwatch.

ROUND 1: ‘The Blitz’

RULE 1: Google search EVERY KEYWORD mentioned in the UPSC syllabus, one by one.

RULE 2: You have only 6 MINUTES for every search.

RULE 3 : You CANNOT CLICK ON ANY LINK on the search page.

It doesn’t matter what you Learned from that search, you have to quit the search after 6 minutes and begin a new search.

If you follow the same procedure, I promise that you will have never look at the UPSC syllabus in quite the same way again

  • STEP 1: Set your alarm clock or stopwatch to ring EVERY 6 minutes.
  • STEP 2: Google search the keyword in the google search engine for example- ‘INDIAN CULTURE’

Just LOOK at what there is in front of you for a few minutes. But remember Rule 3 and DO NOT CLICK ON ANY LINK.

IAS exam google search Indian culture

  • STEP 3: Click on google images

Take a visual tour of Indian culture before you dive in to learn. SEE what the Searched topic is about.

IAS exam indian culture

The Google images page shows a beautiful collage of Indian culture. There are dances, designs, architecture and festivals.

  • STEP 4: Click on Google NEWS

Take a quick look at what’s happening around this keyword. You see some interesting things related to Indian culture which have made it to the news. Get an idea about why that search word was in the news.

Let your curiosity grow WITHOUT CLICKING on any of the links otherwise you will get lost in the ocean of websites and lose the challenge.

IAS exam news results

At the very least, you will get to know what kind of debates and questions are occurring around that topic.

  • STEP 5: STRIKE OFF the Keyword or topic you have finished and move on to the next one which could be ‘Indian History’ or ‘Environment’ or whatever.

In these 6 minutes, Indian culture struck me as a vibrant, colorful, beautiful and full of variety. Also as one of the the reason I find India to be a very interesting place to live in.

in 6 minutes you can get a very general ‘feel’ of the topic. This is what we want to do for the whole syllabus.

Let the big picture sink in.

Repeat this process for EVERY KEYWORD in the UPSC syllabus.

If you stay disciplined and follow these steps you will complete ROUND 1 in a few hours.

You can read about Round 2 of the UPSC syllabus challenge in detail here.

How to write answers and essays for UPSC mains syllabus

While the questions are essay-type of different word lengths , what ALL questions in mains syllabus have in common is that they are looking for some specific qualities in your answer.

The UPSC judges your answer on some fixed criterion such as-

  • What was the depth of your understanding of the topic?
  • Did you identify the Core of the issue?
  • How many different perspectives did you appreciate?
  • Did you consider all the stakeholders in your answer?
  • How well informed were your opinions about the topic?
  • How balanced and well-reasoned were the reasons for your opinions?

In a nutshell, the Quality and depth of your answer determines the score you get.

You can read about writing superb answer-essays here.

Hidden Costs of the IAS exam

Attempting the UPSC exam as a serious contender comes at considerable costs and you should know what they are.

Before you apply for the IAS exam, consider these questions-

  • What are the costs involved?
  • Why do  you really want to do this?
  • What your real interests are?
  • What the job really is like?
  • Are you a good fit for the job? Will you be happy once you get it?

upsc mains syllabus

For a typical candidate, the total FINANCIAL COST for 2 attempts is roughly Rs 10,00,000 or Rs. 10 Lakh.

A detailed analysis of financial costs, emotional costs and time-costs of attempting the UPSC exam can be found here

5 things to consider before you apply for IAS exam

The UPSC notification is not just a formal document that inertly dispenses information about the examination.

The UPSC syllabus also tells you what you need to DO and BE LIKE to clear the IAS exam and become an IAS officer.

If you wish to take the plunge and try to attempt the exam, you will spend a lot of time in the preparation process.

You might as well have as much fun with it as possible. And it can be made enjoyable!

After all, life is too short to be miserable.

So, Is applying for the IAS exam worth it for you?

The only person who should ask this question is you. The only person who can answer this is also you.

Knowing the costs involved is the first step in that direction.

You can choose your own path during the UPSC preparation journey. You will probably make many mistakes but will ultimately get to your goal.

Or you can learn from my mistakes and use the methods listed in this article which have been tried, tested, curated and analysed.

syllabus of upsc

They are designed to be better, less expensive, more effective and faster.

How to prepare for UPSC: CHEAT-SHEET 1

You can Clear the IAS exam WITHOUT coaching institutes AND while continuing your job.

It is not easy, but it is entirely doable.

And you can do it. The only question is- Are you going to?

I hope this article has answered some of your doubts and that you found it useful.

9 thoughts on “UPSC mains syllabus: Ultimate Guide”

GS SCORE- Preparing for the Civil Services Exam can be overwhelming for new aspirants, leaving them feeling lost and confused about where to start. The key lies in understanding the syllabus, studying NCERT books alongside supplementary resources, solving previous year’s question papers, staying updated with current affairs, and refining answer writing skills. To address these needs effectively, the NCERT Classes For UPSC at GS SCORE emerges as a complete solution. Check-out our website to know more!!

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UPSC Syllabus - IAS Syllabus PDF for Prelims, Mains and Optional

By vajiram & ravi.

The UPSC syllabus is designed to assess candidates' knowledge, aptitude, and analytical abilities, and it comprises two stages: the Preliminary Examination (Prelims) and the Main Examination (Mains), followed by an interview/personality test. The UPSC Syllabus for Prelims includes two compulsory papers: General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (also known as the CSAT or Civil Services Aptitude Test). These papers cover a wide range of subjects, including history, geography, economics, polity, environment, science, and current affairs.

The syllabus for UPSC Mains examination is more specialized and consists of nine papers, including one essay paper, four General Studies papers, two optional subject papers, and two language papers (both qualifying in nature).

UPSC Syllabus PDF

The UPSC syllabus PDF serves as a roadmap for candidates, providing them with a clear understanding of what is expected in each stage of the examination, which includes the Preliminary Examination, the Main Examination, and the Personality Test (Interview). Candidates can download the UPSC Syllabus PDF for Prelims and Mains from the following links:

  • UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF
  • UPSC Mains Syllabus PDF

UPSC IAS Preliminary Exam Pattern & Syllabus

The first stage of the exam, i.e., the Civil Services Preliminary Exam is only a screening test and is conducted to shortlist candidates for the Main Examination. Marks secured in the Preliminary Exam are not taken into account while preparing the final merit.

Preliminary Exam consists of two papers of objective type carrying a maximum of 400 marks.

1. General Studies Paper-I Syllabus

It has 100 questions broadly covering the following topics, carrying a maximum of 200 marks to be solved in 2 hours.

  • Current events of National & International importance.
  • History of India & Indian National Movement.
  • Indian & World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India & the World.
  • Indian Polity & Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic & Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity & climate change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.

2. General Studies Paper-II Syllabus

It comprises of 80 questions from the following topics carrying a maximum of 200 marks to be solved in 2 hours.

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning & analytical ability.
  • Decision making & problem solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (numbers & their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

General Studies Paper-II of IAS Exam is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

It is mandatory for a candidate to appear in both the Papers of IAS Prelim Exam for the purpose of evaluation.

Request A Counselling Call

Upsc ias main exam pattern & syllabus.

Civil Services Main Examination consists of written examination and interview (personality test).

Civil Services Main Examination consists of following papers divided into 2 categories – qualifying & papers to be counted for merit.

Important Points:

  • The papers on Indian languages and English (Paper A and paper B) will be of qualifying nature and the marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.
  • The papers on Indian languages and English (Paper A and paper B) will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard.
  • The papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subject of only such candidates will be taken cognizance who attain 25% marks in ‘Indian Language’ and 25% in ‘English’ as minimum qualifying standards in these qualifying papers.
  • Marks obtained by the candidates for the Paper I-VII only will be counted for merit ranking.
  • The question papers for the main examination will be of conventional (essay) type and each paper will be of 3 hour duration.
  • Candidates will have the option to answer all the question papers, except the Qualifying Language Papers, Paper-A and Paper-B, in any one of the languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India or in English.
  • The question papers (other than the literature of language papers) will be set in Hindi and English only.
  • Compensatory time of twenty minutes per hour shall be permitted for the Blind candidates and the candidates with locomotor disability and cerebral palsy where dominant (writing) extremity is affected to the extent of slowing the performance of function (minimum of 40% impairment) in both the Civil Services (Preliminary) as well as in the Civil Services (Main) Examination.

Syllabus of UPSC Main Examination Papers

I. qualifying papers on indian languages and english.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:

English Language:

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Precise Writing.
  • Usage and Vocabulary.
  • Short Essays.

Indian Languages:

  • Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.

II. Paper-I: Essay

Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics.

They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

III. Paper-II: General Studies-I

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

IV. Paper-III: General Studies-II

Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.

  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora - their structure, mandate.

V. Paper-IV: General Studies-III

Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, - different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System-objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas - linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

VI. Paper-V: General Studies-IV

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society.

Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects.

The following broad areas will be covered:

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics - in private and public relationships. Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  •  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

VII. Paper – VI & VII

Optional Subject Papers I & II:

A candidate may opt for any one Optional Subject from the following:

  • UPSC Agriculture Syllabus
  • Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  • Anthropology Syllabus for UPSC
  • Civil Engineering
  • UPSC Commerce and Accountancy Syllabus
  • UPSC Economics Syllabus
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Geography Syllabus for UPSC
  • UPSC Geology Syllabus
  • UPSC History Syllabus
  • UPSC Law Optional Syllabus
  • UPSC Maths Optional Syllabus
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • UPSC Medical Science Syllabus
  • UPSC Philosophy Syllabus
  • UPSC Physics Optional Syllabus
  • PSIR Optional Syllabus
  • UPSC Psychology Syllabus
  • Public Administration
  • Sociology Optional Syllabus
  • Literature of any one of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English.

Each Optional Subject has 2 compulsory papers.

Prelims CAMP and CSAT

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upsc paper 1 essay syllabus

UPSC Essay Topic wise Question Papers of last 31 years (1993-2023) for Civil Services IAS/IPS Exam Free Download

In the UPSC mains examination, essay paper is worth 250 marks and three hours. Here is the topic wise questions from the earlier years for the benefit of civil service IAS IPS aspirants.

1.1 India Since Independence

1.2 federalism, decentralization, 1.3 administration, 1.4 judiciary, 1.5 poverty, social justice, 1.6 indian society, culture and values, 1.7 media, tv & cinema, literature, 2.1 growth vs development, 2.2 environment vs development, 2.4 sectors of economy, 3.1 values in education, 3.2 scheme implementation, 3.3 higher education, 4.1 character, honesty, ethics, 4.2 knowledge, 4.3 compassion, 4.4 truth and reality, 4.5 youth, discipline, 4.6 towards excellence, 5.1 @national politics, 5.2 @world / quote type, 5.3 empowerment overall, 5.4 compared to men, 6.1 globalization, 6.2 international org./ bilateral, 6.3 security, 6.4 history, 7.1 science and religion, 7.2 science and education, 7.3 computer and internet, 7.4 sci-tech: others, appendix: linear paper of upsc essay 2023, appendix: linear paper of upsc essay 2022, appendix: model answer pe free lecture & powerpoint, appendix: syllabus of essay paper in upsc, 1 india: democracy, administration, society, culture.

  • Is the Colonial mentality hindering India’s Success? -2013
  • In the context of Gandhiji’s views on the matter, explore, on an evolutionary scale, the terms ‘Swadhinata’, ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Dharmarajya’. Critically comment on their contemporary relevance to Indian democracy -2012
  • Dreams which should not let India sleep. -2015
  • Why should we be proud of being Indians? -2000
  • Whither Indian democracy? -1995
  • How far has democracy in India delivered the goods? -2003
  • What we have not learnt during fifty years of independence. -1997
  • What have we gained from our democratic set-up? -2001
  • My vision of India in 2001 a.d. -1993
  • Impact of the new economic measures on fiscal ties between the union and states in India. -2017
  • Water disputes between States in federal India. -2016
  • Cooperative federalism : Myth or reality. -2016
  • Creation of smaller states and the consequent administrative, economic and developmental implication -2011
  • Evaluation of panchayati raj system in India from the point of view of eradication of power to people. -2007
  • Water resources should be under the control of the central government. -2004
  • The language problem in India: its past, present and prospects. -1998
  • There are better practices to “best practices”. -2021
  • How should a civil servant conduct himself? -2003
  • Politics without ethics is a disaster. -1995
  • The VIP cult is a bane of Indian democracy -1996
  • Need for transparency in public administration -1996
  • The country’s need for a better disaster management system. -2000
  • Politics, bureaucracy and business – fatal triangle. -1994
  • We may brave human laws but cannot resist natural laws. -2017
  • Justice must reach the poor -2005
  • Judicial activism and Indian democracy. -2004
  • Judicial activism. -1997
  • A society that has more justice is a society that needs less charity. (- जिस समाज में अधिक न्याय होता है उस समाज को दान की कम आवश्यकता होती है।) – 2023
  • There can be no social justice without economic prosperity but economic prosperity without social justice is meaningless (बिना आर्थिक समृद्धि के सामाजिक न्याय नहीं हो सकता, किन्तु बिना सामाजिक न्याय के आर्थिक समृद्धि निरर्थक है ) -2020
  • Neglect of primary health care and education in India are reasons for its backwardness. -2019
  • The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society. -2009
  • Food security for sustainable national development -2005
  • Reservation, politics and empowerment. -1999
  • Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have (जो हम है, वह संस्कार; जो हमारे पास है, वह सभ्यता ) -2020
  • Indian culture today: a myth or a reality? -2000
  • Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values. -2000
  • The composite culture of India. -1998
  • The Indian society at the crossroads. -1994
  • From traditional Indian philanthropy to the gates-buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift? -2010
  • New cults and godmen: a threat to traditional religion -1996
  • Biased media is a real threat to Indian democracy. -2019
  • Responsibility of media in a democracy. -2002
  • Role of media in good governance -2008
  • Does Indian cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it? -2011
  • How has satellite television brought about cultural change in Indian mindsets? -2007
  • Is sting operation an invasion on privacy? -2014
  • Mass media and cultural invasion. -1999
  • The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India. -1998
  • Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world (कवि संसार के अनधिकृत रूप से विधायक होते हैं) – 2022

2 Economy, Development

  • Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere. -2018
  • Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality. -2016
  • Innovation is the key determinant of economic growth and social welfare. -2016
  • Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms. -2016
  • Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. -2015
  • Was it the policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of our country? -2014
  • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the right indices for judging the wellbeing of a country-2013
  • Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? -2015
  • Resource management in the Indian context. -1999
  • Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993
  • Forests are the best case studies for economic excellence (आर्थिक समृद्धि हासिल करने के मामले में वन सर्वोत्तम प्रतिमान होते हैं।) – 2022
  • Alternative technologies for a climate change resilient India. -2018
  • Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country? -2010
  • Urbanisation and its hazards -2008
  • Protection of ecology and environment is essential for sustained economic development. -2006
  • Urbanization is a blessing in disguise. -1997
  • Ecological considerations need not hamper development. -1993
  • Globalization would finish small-scale industries in India. -2006
  • Multinational corporations – saviours or saboteurs -1994
  • Special economic zone: boon or bane -2008
  • Is the criticism that the ‘Public-Private-Partnership’ (PPP) model for development is more of a bane than a boon in the Indian context, justified ?-2012
  • Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India. -2017
  • BPO boom in India. -2007
  • Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India? -2014
  • Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? -2009

3 Education

  • Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in – school. (- शिक्षा वह है जो विद्यालय में विधालय में सीखी गई बातों को भूल जाने के बाद भी शेष रह जाती है।)
  • Destiny of a nation is shaped in its classrooms. -2017
  • Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil-2015
  • Independent thinking should be encouraged right form the childhood. -2007
  • Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress? -2014
  • Irrelevance of the classroom. -2001
  • Is the growing level of competition good for the youth? -2014
  • Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in education. -1996
  • Is an egalitarian society possible by educating the masses ? -2008
  • What is real education? -2005
  • “Education for all” campaign in India: myth or reality. -2006
  • Restructuring of Indian education system. -1995
  • Privatization of higher education in India. -2002
  • Credit – based higher education system – status, opportunities and challenges -2011

4 Quote based, Philosophy, Ethics

  • A smile is the chosen vehicle for all ambiguities (हर असमंजस के लिए मुस्कराहट ही चुनिन्दा साधन है) – 2022
  • Philosophy of wantlessness is a Utopian, while materialism is a chimera. -2021
  • Your perception of me is a reflection of you; my reaction to you is an awareness of me. -2021
  • Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication (सरलता चरम परिष्करण है ) -2020
  • Ships don’t sink because of water around them ships sink because of water that gets into them (जहाज अपने चारों तरफ के पानी के वजह से नहीं डूबा करते, जहाज पानी के अंदर समां जाने की वजह से डूबता हैं ) -2020
  • Life is a long journey between being human and being humane.  (मनुष्य होने और मानव बनने के बीच का लम्बा सफर ही जीवन है)-2020
  • Values are not what humanity is, but what humanity ought to be -2019
  • Best for an individual is not necessarily best for the society -2019
  • Courage to accept and dedication to improve are two keys to success -2019
  • Wisdom finds truth -2019
  • A people that values its privileges above its principles loses both. -2018
  • Customary morality cannot be a guide to modem file. -2018
  • Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed. -2016
  • Character of an institution is reflected in its leader. -2015
  • With greater power comes greater responsibility. -2014
  • Words are sharper than the two-edged sword. -2014
  • Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man. -2007
  • He would reigns within himself and folds his passions and desires and fears is more than a king. -1993
  • Thinking is like a game, it does not begin unless there is an opposite team. (- सोच एक खेल की तरह है, यह तब तक शुरू नहीं होता है जब तक कि एक विपरीत टीम/पक्ष न हो।) – 2023
  • Mathematics is the music of reason. (- गणित ज्ञान का संगीत है।) – 2023
  • The real is rational and the rational is real. -2021
  • Mindful manifesto is the catalyst to a tranquil self (विचारपरक संकल्प स्वयं के शांतचित्त रहने का उत्प्रेरक है )-2020
  • ‘The past’ is a permanent dimension of human consciousness and values. -2018
  • A good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge. -2018
  • There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. -2003
  • Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the lifeblood of civilisation. -1995
  • Joy is the simplest form of gratitude. -2017
  • Compassion is the basic of all morality of the world -1993
  • Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole. -2015
  • Be the change you want to see in others (Gandhi)-2013
  • Just because you have a choice, it does not mean that any of them has to be right (केवल इसलिए कि आपके पास विकल्प हैं, इसका यह अर्थ कदापि नहीं है कि उनमें से किसी को भी ठीक होना ही होगा) – 2022
  • Reality does not conform to the ideal, but confirms it. -2018
  • Truth is lived, not taught -1996
  • When money speaks, the truth is silent. -1995
  • Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem. -2002
  • The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining (छप्पर मरम्मत करने का समय तभी होता है, जब धूप खिली हुई हो) – 2022
  • You cannot step twice in the same river (आप उसी नदी में दोबारा नहीं उतर सकते) – 2022
  • Discipline means success, anarchy means ruin -2008
  • Youth is a blunder, manhood a struggle, old age a regret -1994
  • If youth knew, if age could. -2002
  • Youth culture today. -1999
  • Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India? -2014
  • Visionary decision-making happens at the intersection of intuition and logic. (- दूरदर्शी निर्णय तभी लिए जाते है अंतर्ज्ञान और तर्क का परस्पर मेल होता है।) – 2023
  • Not all who wander are lost. (- भटकने वाले सभी गुम नहीं हो जाते।) – 2023
  • Inspiration for creativity springs from the effort to look for the magical in the mundane (- रचनात्मकता की प्रेरणा अलौकिक ता में चमत्कार ढूंढने के प्रयास से उपजति है) – 2023
  • A ship in harbour is safe, but that is not what ship is for (जहाज बन्दरगाह के भीतर सुरक्षित होता है, परन्तु इसके लिए तो वह होता नहीं है) – 2022
  • Quick but steady wins the race. -2015
  • Useless life is an early death. -1994
  • Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds. -1995
  • The paths of glory lead but to the grave. -2002
  • The pursuit of excellence. -2001

5 Women empowerment

  • Greater political power alone will not improve women’s plight. -1997
  • Women’s reservation bill would usher in empowerment for women in India. -2006
  • The new emerging women power: the ground realities. -1995
  • Hand that rocks the cradle rules the world. -2021
  • If women ruled the world -2005
  • The hand that rocks the cradle -2005
  • Patriarchy is the least noticed yet the most significant structure of social inequality (पितृ-सत्ता की व्यवस्था नजर मैं बहुत काम आने के बावजूद सामाजिक विषमता की सबसे प्रभावी संरचना है) -2020
  • Fulfilment of ‘new woman’ in India is a myth. -2017
  • If development is not engendered, it is endangered. -2016
  • Whither women’s emancipation? -2004
  • Empowerment alone cannot help our women. -2001
  • Women empowerment: challenges and prospects. -1999
  • Woman is god’s best creation. -1998
  • Men have failed: let women take over. -1993
  • Managing work and home – is the Indian working woman getting a fair deal ?-2012

6 International issues, Internal Security, History

  • South Asian societies are woven not around the state, but around their plural cultures and plural identities. -2019
  • Modernisation and westernisation are not identical concepts. -1994
  • ‘globalization’ vs. ‘nationalism’ -2009
  • National identity and patriotism -2008
  • Globalizations and its impact on Indian culture. -2004
  • The masks of new imperialism. -2003
  • As civilization advances culture declines. -2003
  • The implications of globalization for India. -2000
  • My vision of an ideal world order. -2001
  • India’s contribution to world wisdom. -1998
  • The world of the twenty-first century. -1998
  • Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role. -2010
  • Technology as the silent factor in international relations (अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंधों मैं मौन करक के रूप मैं प्रौद्योगिकी) -2020
  • Has the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) lost its relevance in a multipolar world ? -2017
  • Restructuring of UNO reflect present realities -1996
  • The global order: political and economic -1993
  • India’s role in promoting ASEAN co-operation. -2004
  • Importance of Indo-US nuclear agreement -2006
  • Management of Indian border dispute is a complex task. -2018
  • In the Indian context , both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism -2011
  • Are we a ‘soft’ state ? -2009
  • Good fences make good neighbours -2009
  • Is autonomy the best answer to combat balkanization? -2007
  • Terrorism and world peace -2005
  • True religion cannot be misused. -1997
  • History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce. -2021
  • Geography may remain the same ; history need not. -2010

7 Science-Technology

  • Spirituality and scientific temper. -2003
  • Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?-2012
  • What is research, but a blind date with knowledge! -2021
  • Modern technological education and human values. -2002
  • Value-based science and education. -1999
  • The march of science and the erosion of human values. -2001
  • The process of self-discovery has now been technologically outsourced. -2021
  • Rise of Artificial Intelligence: the threat of jobless future or better job opportunities through reskilling and upskilling. -2019
  • ‘Social media’ is inherently a selfish medium. -2017
  • Cyberspace and Internet : Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run -2016
  • Increasing computerization would lead to the creation of a dehumanized society. -2006
  • The cyberworld: its charms and challenges. -2000
  • Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution. -1993
  • Technology cannot replace manpower. -2015
  • Science and technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation-2013
  • The modern doctor and his patients. -1997
  • The lure of space. -2004

Section-A (write any one)

  • Thinking is like a game, it does not begin unless there is an opposite team. (- सोच एक खेल की तरह है, यह तब तक शुरू नहीं होता है जब तक कि एक विपरीत टीम/पक्ष न हो।)
  • Visionary decision-making happens at the intersection of intuition and logic. (- दूरदर्शी निर्णय तभी लिए जाते है अंतर्ज्ञान और तर्क का परस्पर मेल होता है।)
  • Not all who wander are lost. (- भटकने वाले सभी गुम नहीं हो जाते।)
  • Inspiration for creativity springs from the effort to look for the magical in the mundane (- रचनात्मकता की प्रेरणा अलौकिक ता में चमत्कार ढूंढने के प्रयास से उपजति है)

Section-B (write any one)

  • Girls are weighed down by restrictions, boys with demands – two equally harmful disciplines. (-लड़कियां बंदिशों के तथा लड़के अपेक्षा के बोझ तले दबे हुए होते हैं दोनों ही समान रूप से हानिकारक व्यवस्थाएं हैं।)
  • Mathematics is the music of reason. (- गणित ज्ञान का संगीत है।)
  • A society that has more justice is a society that needs less charity. (- जिस समाज में अधिक न्याय होता है उस समाज को दान की कम आवश्यकता होती है।)

Answer one-one essay from each section in 1000-1200 words

  • History is a series of victories won by the scientific man over the romantic man (इतिहास वैज्ञानिक मनुष्य के रूमानी मनुष्य पर विजय हासिल करने का एक सिलसिला है।) – 2022
  • A ship in harbour is safe, but that is not what ship is for (जहाज बन्दरगाह के भीतर सुरक्षित होता है, परन्तु इसके लिए तो वह होता नहीं है) & 2022
  • Just because you have a choice, it does not mean that any of them has to be right (केवल इसलिए कि आपके पास विकल्प हैं, इसका यह अर्थ कदापि नहीं है कि उनमें से किसी को भी ठीक होना ही होगा) – 2022

Essay: Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

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UPPSC Syllabus 2024: Download PCS Prelims & Mains PDF, Check Exam Pattern

Uppsc pcs syllabus 2024: the uppsc pcs prelims syllabus is divided into two papers , i.e., general studies i and general studies ii which consists of subjects like history, geography, polity, aptitude, etc. uppsc pcs syllabus pdf download and exam pattern here.

Mohd Salman

UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024: The Uttar Pradesh Public Service Commission (UPPSC) releases the UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus 2024 on the official website. All interested and eligible aspirants should adhere to the latest syllabus and exam pattern 2024 and reshape their approach accordingly. The UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus comprises two papers, i.e., General Studies I and General Studies II.

Along with the UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus, candidates should check the UPPSC PCS exam pattern to get insights into the question structure, maximum marks, and the marking scheme defined by the commission. So, candidates should incorporate the latest UPPSC PCS syllabus in their preparation to focus only on exam-relevant topics.

UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024 Overview

Uppsc pcs syllabus 2024 pdf, uppsc pcs syllabus 2024 for prelims, uppsc pcs prelims syllabus 2024 for gs paper i.

  • Current events of National and International importance
  • Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern History: In history, the focus should be on knowledge of the social, economic, and political aspects of Indian history. In the Indian National Movement, the topics include the synoptic view of the nature and character of the freedom movement, the growth of nationalism, and the achievement of Independence
  • Indian and World Geography: Physical, Social, and Economic Geography of India and the World
  • Indian Governance and Polity: Indian Polity, Economics, and Culture, Panchayati Raj and Community Development, Economic Policy in India and Indian Culture  Political System, Constitution, Public Policy, Panchayati Raj, Rights issues, etc.
  • Social and Economic Development: Sustainable Development Poverty Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General Issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity, and Climate Change- that do not need subject specialisation. The topics will be based on problems and the relationship between population, environment, and urbanisation.

UPPSC PCS Prelims Syllabus 2024 for GS Paper II

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills (including communication skills)
  • General Mental Ability
  • Elementary Mathematics (class X level-Algebra, Statistics, Geometry and Arithmetic)
  • Analytical Ability and Logical Reasoning
  • Problem Solving and Decision Making
  • General English (Class X level)
  • General Hindi (Class X level)

Weightage of UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024

How to cover uppsc pcs syllabus 2024.

  • Analyse the UPPSC PCS syllabus 2024 to focus only on important topics that can be asked in the preliminary exam. 
  • Choose the highly recommended books and online resources to prepare the fundamentals and advanced chapters.
  • Attempt mock tests and UPPSC PCS previous year's question papers to analyse their strong and weak areas and focus on improving the same.
  • Revise all the topics, formulas, and short-cut tricks regularly to remember concepts for a longer period of time.

Best Books for UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024

  • NCERTs for History, Geography, Polity, Economy, and General Science
  • India’s Ancient Past by R.S. Sharma
  • History of Mediaeval India by Satish Chandra
  • History of Modern India by Bipin Chandra
  • Geography of India by Majid Hussain
  • World and Physical Geography by D.R. Khulhar
  • Indian Polity by M.Laxmikanth
  • Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh
  • Science and Technology in India by Ravi.P.Agrahari

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  • What is the UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024? + The UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus comprises two papers, i.e., General Studies I and General Studies II.
  • What is the UPPSC PCS Exam Pattern? + As per the UPPSC PCS exam pattern, the prelims exam comprises objective-type questions for 250 marks. The exam duration will be 2 hours for each paper.
  • How to prepare for the UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024? + To crack the UPPSC PCS prelims exam, one should follow the updated UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus, gain conceptual clarity, and practice unlimited mock tests to obtain high marks in the exam.
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UPSC Combined Defence Services Examination(I) 2024 Mathematics Syllabus: Check Duration, Maximum Marks, Important Topics

UPSC CDS(I) Exam 2024: The Union Public Service Commission(UPSC) will conduct the Combined Defence Services Examination (I), 2024 on April 21, 2024. The Competitive examination comprises (a) a Written examination (b) an Interview for intelligence and personality test of such candidates as may be called for an interview at one of the Services Selection Centres. The subjects of the written examination, the time allowed and the maximum marks allotted to each subject will be as follows: (a) For Admission to Indian Military Academy, Indian Naval Academy and Air Force Academy

  • Elementary Mathematics will be held for 2 hours.
  • Elementary Mathematics will be conducted for 100 marks.
  • The question papers (Test Booklets) of General Knowledge and Elementary Mathematics will be set bilingually in Hindi as well as English.

UPSC Combined Defence Services Examination(I) 2024 Mathematics Syllabus: Standard And Syllabus of the examination

Standard And Syllabus of the examination: The standard of the papers in Elementary Mathematics will be of Matriculation level. The standard of papers in other subjects will approximately be such as may be expected of a graduate of an Indian University.

Syllabus of the examination - ARITHMETIC

  • Number System Natural numbers, Integers, Rational and Real numbers. Fundamental operations, addition, substraction, multiplication, division, Square roots, Decimal fractions. Unitary method, time and distance, time and work, percentages, applications to simple and compound interest, profit and loss, ratio and proportion, variation.
  • Elementary Number Theory Division algorithm. Prime and composite numbers. Tests of divisibility by 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 and 11. Multiples and factors. Factorisation Theorem. H.C.F. and L.C.M. Euclidean algorithm. Logarithms to base 10, laws of logarithms, use of logarithmic tables.
  • ALGEBRA Basic Operations, simple factors, Remainder Theorem, H.C.F., L.C.M., Theory of polynomials, solutions of quadratic equations, relation between its roots and coefficients (Only real roots to be considered). Simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns analytical and graphical solutions. Simultaneous linear inequations in two variables and their solutions. Practical problems leading to two simultaneous linear equations or inequations in two variables or quadratic equations in one variable & their solutions. Set language and set notation, Rational expressions and conditional identities, Laws of indices.
  • TRIGONOMETRY Sine , cosine , Tangent when 0 < < 90 Values of sin , cos and tan , for =0 , 30 , 45 , 60 and 90 Simple trigonometric identities. Use of trigonometric tables. Simple cases of heights and distances.
  • GEOMETRY Lines and angles, Plane and plane figures, Theorems on (i) Properties of angles at apoint, (ii) Parallel lines, (iii) Sides and angles of a triangle, (iv) Congruency of triangles, (v) Similar triangles, (vi) Concurrence of medians and altitudes, (vii) Properties of angles, sides and diagonals of a parallelogram, rectangle and square, (viii) Circles and its properties including tangents and normals, (ix) Loci.
  • MENSURATION Areas of squares, rectangles, parallelograms, triangle and circle. Areas of figures which can be split up into these figures (Field Book), Surface area and volume of cuboids, lateral surface and volume of right circular cones and cylinders, surface area and volume of spheres.
  • STATISTICS Collection and tabulation of statistical data, Graphical representation frequency polygons, histograms, bar charts, pie charts etc. Measures of central tendency.

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[MISSION 2024] Insights SECURE : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 January 2024

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to self-evaluate your answer , mission – 2023: yearlong timetable, join ipm 4.0 to get an assured review of 2 secure answers everyday, general studies – 1.

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Delhi Sultanate played a pivotal role in introducing Islamic architectural styles to India. The subsequent fusion with indigenous Indian architectural elements led to the evolution of a distinctive Indo-Islamic style. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable. Key Demand of the question: To write about the nature of architecture under Sultans of Delhi, its evolution and influence of earlier India architecture on them. Directive word:  Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by mentioning the with arrival of Turks, new form of architecture got introduced in India. Body: First, mention the major religious and secular structures constructed under the various dynasties of the Sultanate with a special reference to Tughlaq dynasty. Next, write about significant and new changes in construction technologies introduced by the Sultans. Give examples of few monuments. Next, mention the influences of earlier Indian architecture which was adopted by Sultans of Delhi. Cite examples by substantiating. Conclusion: Conclude by summarising.

2. Trace the evolution of Mughal architecture under various Mughal emperors with a special emphasis on architectural development under Shahjahan. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable. Key Demand of the question: To write about the gradual evolution of Mughal architecture under various Mughal rulers by identifying major elements of change. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  In brief, write about the grandeur of Mughal architecture and emergence of a distinct style of their own. Body: In the body, trace the development of various styles of architecture, aesthetic awareness with example. Babur and Humayun – Not much progress but cite a few examples of the constructed. Akbar – A very distinct style emerged. The initial use of styles of Bengal and Gujarat in monuments at Agra. Then a distinctive style at monuments at Fathepur Sikri and Delhi. Jahangir – mention the new features added and changes witnessed with examples. Shahjahan – write about how Mughal architecture reached its Zenith under him. Distinct features with examples. Aurangzeb – How his reign is marked with less patronage for arts but nevertheless a few buildings were constructed. Conclusion: Summarize the contributions of the Mughal rulers to Indian art and architecture.

General Studies – 2

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. The UAE-India relationship is built upon consistent and constructive dialogue, visionary leadership, and mutual respect, which can lead to a robust and dynamic partnership. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint ,  Insights on India

Why the question: India’s unflinching support throughout the United Arab Emirates’ presidency of CoP-28, and that of the UAE of India’s G20 presidency, are indicative of the importance that both our countries place upon this partnership. Key Demand of the question: To write about the growing India-UAE relations in aspects of trade, energy, diaspora as well as security. Directive word:  Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by giving context of growing India-UAE relations in the past. Body: In the first part, in brief, giving an account of tries between India-U.A.E till recent times. (You can make use of a flow chart for better presentation). Next, describe the trade relations – in terms of trade, investments, technology, infrastructure, diaspora and cultural contacts etc. Write about the relations in relation with energy and diaspora. Next, write about the major pillars of friendship between the both nations. Conclusion: Conclude with a way forward for realisation of a long and stable partnership.
Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. The implementation of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016 has faced operational challenges, including delays in the resolution process. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu ,  Insights on India

Why the question: During the resolution plan approval, only about 15% is paid by the purchaser and the repayment takes years without any further interest collected by the banks, according to the financial stability report released by banking regulator Reserve Bank of India on December 28, 2023. Key Demand of the question: To write about the various issues in IBC and steps needed to resolve it. Directive word:  Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by writing about Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) its aims and objectives. Body: First, list down the various features and achievements of IBC since its introduction. Next, write about the various limitations in the performance of IBC. Next, write about the reform that is needed to ensure that IBC performance leads to strengthening of its supporting role in capital formation and economic growth of the country. Conclusion: Conclude with a way forward.

General Studies – 3

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5.  The European Union (EU)’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) can play a crucial role in addressing climate change. However, it must be designed and implemented with careful consideration of fairness, effectiveness, and broad acceptance. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:  A concerning development for India is the European Union (EU)’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). The policy, which intends to tax carbon-intensive products coming into the EU from 2026, is divided into two phases, with the first phase (transitional phase) kicking in from October 1, 2023. Key Demand of the question: To write European Union (EU)’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) and its impact on India. Directive word: Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by giving context of European Union’s carbon tax. Body: First, write about concept of the carbon tax and rationale behind it – a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels, generally in the transport and energy sector. Carbon taxes are a form of carbon pricing. The term carbon tax is also used to refer to a carbon dioxide equivalent tax, the latter of which is quite similar but can be placed on any type of greenhouse gas or combination of greenhouse gases, emitted by any economic sector. Next, write about the limitations of the above and how it impacts developing countries like India. Conclusion: Conclude with a way forward.

General Studies – 4

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;

6. Combating corruption requires comprehensive efforts, including robust legal frameworks, effective enforcement mechanisms, and a commitment to promoting transparency, accountability, and ethical conduct at all levels of society. Analyse. (150 words)

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4. Key Demand of the question: To write about the impact of corruption and measures needed to prevent it. Directive word:  Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by defining corruption. Body: First, write about the factors that aid corruption – opportunity costs, quid pro quo, acceptance of corruption etc. Write about its impact on various dimensions. Substantiate with examples, Next, suggest various measures to break the cycle of collusive corruption. Conclusion: Conclude by Summarising.
Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. Effective civil servants should possess strong ethical and professional competence, avoiding certain traits or vices that can hinder their performance. Discuss.

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4. Directive word:  Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments. Structure of the answer: Introduction:  Begin by mentioning how negative traits and vices can hamper ethical and professional competence. Body: First, write which five negative traits and vices should not be present in a civil servant and how they hamper ethical and professional competence of civil servants. Next, write about the ways to avoid or eliminate them. Conclusion: Summarise by highlighting the importance of having positive values.

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UPSC Mains 2022 Essay Question Paper - Download PDF

The UPSC Mains Essay paper was conducted on Friday, 16th September 2022, in the forenoon session (9 AM to 12 PM). The UPSC Mains 2022 is set to take place on 16, 17, 18, 24 and 25th September 2022.

For other papers in the Mains segment of UPSC, candidates can further check the UPSC Mains 2022 Question Papers page at their own behest.

UPSC Mains Essay Questions 2022 – Download PDF Here

UPSC Mains 2022 Essay Questions

The UPSC Essay paper segment consists of two sections. They are Section A and Section B. Both sections have about four questions each. The candidates have to choose one topic from each section, thus having to answer 2 essay questions in total.

The word limit for each question is to be within the range of 1000-1200 words. The mark for each question is 125, thus, the total allotted marks are about 250.

The paper will be included in the merit ranking.

The Essay Topics asked in the UPSC Mains 2022 are given below:

  • Forests are the best case studies for economic excellence.
  • Pets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world.
  • History is a series of victories won by the scientific man over the romantic man.
  • A ship in harbour is safe, but that is not what ship is for.

Section – B

1. The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining.

2. You cannot step twice in the same river.

3. A smile is the chosen vehicle for all ambiguities.

4. Just because you have a choice, it does not mean that any of them has to be right.

Candidates can also refer to the UPSC Mains 2021 Essay Questions , in the given link.

Some of the useful links for the candidates to prepare for an essay paper are as follows:

The candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. While answering the essay questions, the aspirants are expected to keep close to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in an orderly manner and to write concisely. It is important to remember that credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

To download the question paper PDFs of General Studies papers, the aspirants can check the links below:

The candidates can also download the question paper PDFs of UPSC Mains 2022 Optional Paper from the linked article.

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  6. BPSC Mains GS paper 1 ( 1क्लास) or UPSC,UPPSC paper 1... मौर्यकला

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  1. Essay Syllabus

    UPSC Civil Service Mains Paper 1 (popularly known as essay paper) is now of 250 marks. Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

  2. Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2022

    Common mistakes committed by the candidates in Conventional Papers; Revised Syllabus and Scheme; Representation on Question Papers; Demo Files; Recruitment . ... Question Paper : General Studies - I, General Studies - II, General Studies - III, General Studies - IV Essay Agriculture Paper - I, Agriculture Paper ...

  3. UPSC Mains GS I: GS 1 Syllabus, Strategy & Structure to Crack IAS

    UPSC Mains General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus, Strategy & Structure. GS Paper 1 of UPSC Mains is one of the four general studies papers. It is a subjective type of paper consisting of subjects like History, Geography, Art and Culture, and Indian Society. Along with GS Paper 1, there are eight other papers in the Mains stage of the IAS Exam.

  4. General Studies-I

    Arrival of Indo-Greeks, Shakas, Parthians & Kushana. Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties. Schools of Art: Gandhara; Mathura; Amravati. Imperial Guptas. Political history of Guptas. Gupta Administration. Development of Art & Culture. Age of Golden age. Economic Conditions.

  5. UPSC Syllabus

    1. Paper‐I: (Essay) - 250 Marks. In Essay Paper, candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep close to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in an orderly fashion and to write concisely. ... General Studies 4 Paper Syllabus for UPSC Civil Services Mains. Ethics and Human Interface ...

  6. UPSC Mains Syllabus

    The UPSC mains syllabus does not have any prescribed syllabus for the essay paper as such. ... UPSC Mains General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus, Strategy & Structure: Topic-Wise GS 1 Questions in UPSC Mains: UPSC Mains GS 1 Questions Answer Writing: GS Paper II. Indian Constitution.

  7. Essay Writing for Civil Services Examination

    Essay writing for CSE. For the CSE essay paper, two essays have to be written under 3 hours in the 1000-1200 word limit. Each essay carries 125 marks for a total of 250. The essay paper is divided into two sections - A and B, each carrying a choice of 4 essays each, and the aspirant has to choose only one essay from each section.

  8. UPSC Civil Services Exam Syllabus

    1-10-209/1 Kamala towers , 1st floor above Punjab National Bank , Ashoknagar X roads, Ashoknagar Hyderabad 500020. About Us InsightsIAS has redefined, revolutionised and simplified the way aspirants prepare for UPSC Civil Services Exam.

  9. UPSC Syllabus

    Aspirants of Civil Services Examination are at the right place to get the details of the UPSC Syllabus. Here, at BYJU'S, you will find the complete IAS Syllabus for all the stages of the examination: Preliminary Stage - General Studies & CSAT. Mains Stage - 9 Theory Papers (GS I-IV, Language Papers, Essay & Optional)

  10. UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper 1,2,3,4 Syllabus

    In UPSC mains syllabus 2013 instead of two optional papers, now student will opt only one optional paper. Weightage of General Studies has been increased. Here is the new pattern of UPSC General Studies syllabus in case of Civil Services mains examination.::Paper-I:: Essay (250 Marks)

  11. How to Write Essay in UPSC Exam

    In this paper, you will have to write two essays, each with a word count of 1000-1200. One topic can be selected from a choice of four topics. The Essay Paper is for a total of 250 marks, with one essay for 125 marks. Download UPSC Mains 2021 Essay Paper from the linked article. Download UPSC Mains 2020 Essay Paper from the linked article.

  12. Essay Syllabus

    The syllabus for the essay paper is not specifically defined. Aspiring civil servants preparing for the highly competitive UPSC IAS exam must focus their attention on the essay paper. This is where candidates can showcase their writing skills and analytical abilities. The essay paper is divided into two sections, each consisting of four topics.

  13. Essay Paper UPSC 2021 (Mains): Question Paper and Analysis

    UPSC conducted the Essay Paper, as part of the Civil Services Main Exam 2021 on 07-01-2022. There were 8 Essay topics, out of which candidates were asked to write on two topics in 3 hours. Candidates were supposed to answer about 1000 words for each essay (about 10-12 pages).

  14. UPSC Mains GS 1 Syllabus, Books & Preparation Tips

    The GS 1 Syllabus for UPSC Mains clarifies that the paper will include geography, art & culture, and history in general. To complete GS Paper 1 of the Mains test, one must thoroughly understand every topic taught in the course. This will allow students to interlink and aid them while writing their essays.

  15. UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus For IAS Mains 2024, Download Free PDF

    The UPSC GS 1 Syllabus is the part of UPSC Mains Syllabus and is one of the four GS papers in the UPSC Mains exam stage. As a result, having a full understanding of the UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus is critical for all the eligible candidates. The UPSC General Studies (GS) Paper 1 syllabus covers a vast array of subjects, each contributing to a holistic understanding of our world.

  16. UPSC Mains Syllabus; UPSC Mains General Studies Syllabus 2023

    UPSC Mains 2022 General Studies Paper Syllabus (I, II, III, and IV ) UPSC Mains Syllabus 2022:-Download PDF Here. The Civil Services Main examination is designed to check the scholastic skills of the aspirants and also his/her ability to present his/her knowledge in a comprehensible, consistent and descriptive manner.

  17. UPSC mains syllabus: Ultimate Guide » Becoming IAS

    UPSC Mains syllabus for paper 1-7. UPSC mains syllabus consists of Ethics, General Studies, Essay and Optional papers spanning over 7 exams. Paper 1 of the syllabus of UPSC Essay. The ESSAY PAPER in the UPSC examination is General Studies Paper 1 accounts for 250 marks in the Mains examination.

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    Common mistakes committed by the candidates in Conventional Papers; Revised Syllabus and Scheme; Representation on Question Papers; ... Paper - III Noting and Drafting, Precis Writing (For Year - 2019 - 2020) ... General Ability and Intelligence and Professional Skill; Essay, Precis Writing and Comprehension; Civil Services (Main) Examination ...

  19. UPSC Syllabus 2024

    The UPSC syllabus is designed to assess candidates' knowledge, aptitude, and analytical abilities, and it comprises two stages: the Preliminary Examination (Prelims) and the Main Examination (Mains), followed by an interview/personality test. The UPSC Syllabus for Prelims includes two compulsory papers: General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (also known as the CSAT or Civil ...

  20. UPSC Essay Topic wise Question Papers of last 30 years (1993-2022)

    In the UPSC mains examination, essay paper is worth 250 marks and three hours. Here is the topic wise questions from the earlier years for the benefit of civil service IAS IPS aspirants. 1 India: Democracy, administration, Society, culture. 1.1 India Since Independence. 1.2 Federalism, Decentralization.

  21. Compulsory Language Paper Tips

    The compulsory language papers in the civil service mains exam comprise of 2 papers: 1) English Language (300 marks) 2) Any Indian Language (300 marks) Qualifying Marks for UPSC Language Paper. As per the UPSC 2020 notification, the minimum qualifying marks for both papers is 25% i.e. 75 marks in each paper. Scoring this minimum cut off is not ...

  22. UPSC Essay 2023 Question Paper, Get Yearwise Essay Papers

    UPSC Essay 2023 Question Paper Available Here - 15th September '23. UPSC Essay Previous Year Question Papers are added here to help the candidates. UPSC Mains has an individual Paper of Essay, in which candidates will have to write an Essay Paper which will be a subjective type. The marks of this paper will be taken into account for merit.

  23. UPPSC Syllabus 2024: Download PCS Prelims & Mains PDF, Check Exam Pattern

    UPPSC PCS Syllabus 2024 for Prelims. The UPPSC PCS prelims syllabus comprises two papers, i.e., General Studies I and General Studies II. This paper is qualifying in nature and will not be counted ...

  24. MPPSC Syllabus 2023

    Candidates can go through the MPPSC syllabus for the Prelims Papers 1, 2. Download the MPPSC Syllabus PDF with subject-wise important topics and best books here. ... MPPSC Syllabus for Hindi Essay - Paper 6. Paper 6 (Hindi Essay), the last exam on the MPPSC Syllabus, is the exam. ... contains topics specific to Madhya Pradesh state, the UPSC ...

  25. UPSC Combined Defence Services Examination(I) 2024 Mathematics Syllabus

    UPSC CDS(I) Exam 2024: The Union Public Service Commission(UPSC) will conduct the Combined Defence Services Examination (I), 2024 on April 21, 2024. ... The question papers (Test Booklets) of ...

  26. The Unique Academy Camp Branch on Instagram: " MPSC State Service 2025

    1 likes, 0 comments - theuniqueacademy_upsc_mpsc on June 19, 2023: " MPSC State Service 2025 - English Medium Integrated (Mains Cum Pre) Batch (Offline+Online) ..." The Unique Academy Camp Branch on Instagram: "🎯 MPSC State Service 2025 - English Medium Integrated (Mains Cum Pre) Batch (Offline+Online) 🆕 As Per MPSC Descriptive Pattern.

  27. [MISSION 2024] Insights SECURE : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing

    The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper - 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable. Key Demand of the question: To write about the gradual evolution of Mughal architecture under various Mughal rulers by identifying major elements of change.

  28. UPSC Mains 2022 Essay Question Paper

    The UPSC Mains Essay paper was conducted on Friday, 16th September 2022, in the forenoon session (9 AM to 12 PM). The UPSC Mains 2022 is set to take place on 16, 17, 18, 24 and 25th September 2022.. For other papers in the Mains segment of UPSC, candidates can further check the UPSC Mains 2022 Question Papers page at their own behest.. UPSC Mains Essay Questions 2022 - Download PDF Here