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Ecofeminism: Where Gender and Climate Change Intersect

Ecofeminism: Where Gender and Climate Change Intersect

Elevating women ranks among the most substantive measures governments can take to mitigate the climate crisis. Educating and empowering women can have a quantifiable effect on reducing a country’s emissions, and actively involving women in discussions on climate policy can often lead to much more impactful outcomes. The e cofeminist movement has for decades been highlighting how gender inequality intersects with the environmental crisis. The lessons we can learn from ecofeminism may hold the key to recognising how elevating women can help reduce emissions and create more equitable societies.

E cofeminism first emerged in North American and European academic circles in the 1970s as an offshoot of the feminist movement, and specifically linked the subjugation of women to humanity’s oppressive relationship with nature. It was employed as a theoretical framework to better understand how hierarchical and dualist definitions of gender could explain humanity’s dominating role in its relationship with the environment.

Beginning in the 1980s, ecofeminism began to inform feminist and environmental activist and artistic movements. Heroes of the ecofeminist movement include several major intellectual and political figures. Françoise d’Eaubonne , a French author considered a leader in her country’s feminist movement, coined the name “ecofeminism” in 1974. Petra Kelly was a German politician who co-founded the German Green Party, the first political party with a predominately environmental platform to achieve national prominence. 

By the end of the 1990s, ecofeminism began to come under fire from critics, who dismissed the framework as essentialist , in that it could not fully address either feminist or environmentalist concerns. Ecofeminism’s exclusive focus on the relationship between gender and nature left no room for considerations of other crucial factors, such as race or class. Janet Biehl , an American social ecologist, notably criticised the ecofeminist framework as an oversimplification of complex hierarchical structures and forms of domination.

What Exactly is Ecofeminism?

Today, the relevance and use value of ecofeminism has largely faded from activist and intellectual circles. However, the concepts behind the framework can still be applied to understand why elevating women can intersect with achieving equitable sustainability targets, and have such a measurable effect on mitigating environmental impacts.

Ecofeminism seeks to reexamine both the feminist and environmentalist movements and augment each of their arguments. The framework examines how gender and nature intersect, specifically how binary definitions falsely categorise opposing groups, assigning disproportionate value to one grouping and encouraging hierarchical thinking.

Binary definitions are used to easily distinguish between what is dissimilar. Within the context of gender, binaries are used to distinguish between male and female. When examining humanity’s relationship with nature, a similar binary exists wherein man-made creations are considered entirely separate from nature.

Binary definitions give rise to oppositional dualism, where one side is not only described as different from the other, but as its complete opposite, such as opposite genders. Ecofeminism claims that a similar oppositional dualism exists in conventional definitions of humanity’s relationship with nature. When humans look to develop further, natural environments are seen either as obstacles to be overcome or resources to be exploited. Within this framework, human development is seen as opposite to the preservation of nature. Urbanisation, for instance, necessitates environmental loss. 

Oppositional dualism is complemented by the creation of hierarchical structures where cultures assign more value and power to one side of the binary. Ecofeminism sees hierarchies exhibited in gender relations through patriarchal social structures, and in relations with nature through an anthropocentric view that humanity is more valuable than nature and all other living beings. 

An ecofeminist framework cites hierarchical thinking and oppositional definitions as reasonings behind the subjugation of both women and nature. These constructs can often justify masculinised acts of violence and domination towards women, animals and the natural world. These acts are often expressed through masculine cultural norms, such as hunting, domesticity and exploitation. 

Ecofeminism was at a time quite popular in universities, but was never really able to break out of scholarly circles. The theory was also criticised for its shortcomings. By only considering the connection between women and nature, ecofeminism failed to account for the differences between individual women that can only be understood through more comprehensive frameworks analysing race or class.

In the 1990s, the environmental justice emerged as a framework employed by scholars and activists alike. Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment of all people, regardless of identity, in the development and implementation of environmental laws, and often addresses environmental concerns of direct relevance to society, such as pollution and food security. Environmental justice’s broad scope internalised what ecofeminism could not, and became the primary tool for a new generation of climate activists.

But in spite of environmental justice movement’s successes , its broad nature means that gender is rarely specifically addressed as a key to understanding the climate crisis and how to solve it.  Highlighting gender inequalities and improving women’s access to healthcare, education and support resources has a measurable impact on reducing emissions and minimising environmental degradation. Studies also show that elevating women in legislative fields yields better outcomes in environmental policymaking, as well as more coherent efforts in international environmental cooperation. Despite its limitations, ecofeminism may provide a framework that addresses not only gender inequality, but also indicates what social stigmas need to be removed for nations to pursue more robust and impactful environmental action.

Ecofeminism’s Role in Elevating Women

Intersections between the environment and social issues are ubiquitous, although often overlooked. Resolving issues in one area can have a cascading effect on improving conditions in the other. For instance, decades of racist housing policies in Richmond VA, USA, limited investments towards improving living standards in neighbourhoods that were primarily home to communities of colour. Today, these neighbourhoods can be up to 8°C warmer than predominantly white neighbourhoods during summer, severely affecting health standards, especially for children. Understanding the structural reasons behind inequities can shed light on how these issues can be resolved, in this case by creating more urban green spaces and tree cover in these neighbourhoods to improve both environmental and health quality standards. 

Failure to recognise the intersections between climate change and social issues damages the prospects of finding solutions to either. In the case of gender equality, elevating women through social initiatives, specifically improved access to healthcare and education, has a direct impact on reducing emissions by reducing a country’s total fertility rate. 

Currently, the world’s population is around 7.8 billion. By 2050 , the UN estimates that this will balloon to between 9.4 and 10.1 billion. Climate change solutions are tied to population; when a population increases, more food and energy need to be produced. Additionally, as populations in developing countries grow, so does their economic capacity, as more and more people are able to escape poverty and accumulate wealth. 

Population growth accompanying economic expansion in developing countries is neither unnatural nor undesirable, although it will inevitably lead to higher individual carbon footprints and rises in nations’ overall emissions. To mitigate the environmental impact of population growth, states can pursue social initiatives that promise equal access to healthcare and education opportunities regardless of gender.

Where women spend more years in school, total fertility rates tend to fall. Studies worldwide show that improving access to education grants women more varied career options, the choice to delay marriage and ultimately have fewer, healthier children.

You might also like: How Some International Treaties Threaten Our Ability to Meet Climate Targets  


Fig. 1 : Relationship between female education and fertility rates in Ethiopia, Kenya and Ghana; World Bank; 2015.

Cultural, economic and health factors currently impede far too many women, particularly young girls, from attending school. The UN estimates that women make up more than two thirds of the world’s illiterate population, and that only 39% of girls in rural areas attend secondary education, compared to 45% of rural boys.

From a social perspective, improving literacy rates for women yields important benefits . Upward mobility and increased job opportunities can give women more agency to decide what to do in their lives, and are less likely to be forced into marriage or marry as children. Additionally, as literacy rates among women rise, income level, nutrition and child survival rates tend to rise as well. 

Policies that can achieve these outcomes include making schools more affordable, granting girls easier access to healthcare and contraceptives, reducing the time and effort for youth to get to school and making schools safer spaces for young girls overall. Social initiatives that allow young girls better access to healthcare and education can empower and elevate women to make their own career and life decisions. This can have cascading positive effects on the environment by reducing total fertility rates over time. It is important that any social initiative addressing fertility rates or the roles of women not act as a form of forceful population control, such as a one-child policy, which can entail unintended and severe social consequences.

In addition to curbing population growth, improving women’s access to education can have a strong impact on sustainable resource management in economies reliant on agriculture. In many countries, women are responsible for the management of natural resources , including water, fuel sources and food. A 2015 study of communities in the Western Himalayas showed that women tend to be responsible for the conservation and management of critical natural capital, including forests, wetlands, wildlife and agricultural fields to supply basic needs for their families.

Another important factor to consider is that cultural barriers in many parts of the world currently impede women from owning their own land and securing loans or insurance policies. Globally, only 13.8% of agricultural landholders are women , despite the fact that 38.7% of employed women work in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. 


Fig. 2 : Percentage of agricultural land controlled or owned by women by country; FAO Gender and Land Rights Database, sourced by BBC; 2017.

These obstacles, combined with women’s roles as land managers and lack of access to education, make the effects of climate change, resource loss and agricultural failure significantly more palpable and dangerous for women than for men. In situations of poverty and resource scarcity, women tend to bear greater burdens than their male counterparts. A 2020 study demonstrates how traditional gender roles intensify and gender-based violence increases when climate change depletes natural resources and ecological services.

These inequities create what is called the agricultural gender gap . Because of cultural restrictions and economic limitations, women tend to produce less from the same amount of land as men and are forced into a low productivity trap. This leads to unnecessary demand for further land development and deforestation. Worldwide, if women farmers had the same economic and legal rights as men, global crop yields could increase by up to 30% , making agricultural production more efficient and limiting further environmental loss. In addition, closing the agricultural gender gap could save up to 150 million people worldwide from hunger. 

The agricultural gender gap serves as an example of how social initiatives can yield positive environmental outcomes. Ensuring better access to quality education and healthcare, and therefore elevating women to become more active decision-makers in their communities, can be a uniquely effective force in economic growth and development. 

The Importance of Women in Environmental Policymaking

It is critical for legislators to understand how social issues are linked to environmental impacts. Climate change does not affect people equitably, and policymakers need to understand how to account for these inequities with climate legislation that spurs fair socio-economic growth while tackling the climate crisis.

As in many political and decision-making spheres, women are alarmingly underrepresented in global environmental policymaking. Women hold only 12% of top national ministerial positions in environmental sectors worldwide. Combined with a lack of decision-making responsibilities granted to women in local communities, the voice of environmental policymaking has always been disproportionately male.

Elevating and empowering women should not stop at ensuring access to education and healthcare. Women should have their voices heard at all levels, and actively participate in environmental policymaking. Permitting women to do so tends to lead to more effective environmental policy outcomes.

Women have often been found to be more invested in social issues , including education, healthcare and environmental impacts. Research also indicates that women who hold an elected office tend to prioritise resolving tangible issues that directly affect other women, families and children. Given that women and children are disproportionately affected by climate change, women in politics have shown themselves to be more aware of environmental impacts, and integrate relevant solutions into their policy agendas.

Women in decision-making roles have also shown a higher proclivity for protecting natural resources. A 2015 policy brief catalogued women’s participation in local and national environmental policymaking in El Salvador, Chile and Vietnam. The report found that women are often in better positions to apply local knowledge to climate responses, and tend to prioritise preserving natural resources. 

In addition to a predisposition towards strong domestic climate action, female decision-makers have also proven to be better negotiators and more likely to cooperate in international environmental pacts. A 2005 study found that, controlling for other factors, countries with a higher proportion of women in government were more likely to ratify international environmental treaties than other nations. The study also found that women in politics were significantly less likely to impose environmental and health risks on others.

There are a growing number of studies and reports worldwide that indicate how women tend to prioritise environmental protection and strong climate action. A 2014 Australian study found that women tend to consider environmentalism a stronger part of their personal identity than men. A study of US homeowners affirmed that women are often more conscious about the environmental footprint of the products they consume. A review of research done between 1988 and 1998 concluded that women have stronger environmental attitudes and behaviours than men, regardless of age or country of origin.

A 2021 study analysed the demographics of current environmental activists by surveying 367 respondents across 66 countries. The study concluded that the newest generation of climate activists skews female. Of the study’s respondents who were over 65, only one quarter were women. Of respondents under 25, two thirds were female. This trend reflects a demographic shift of climate activism. The newest generation of climate activists tends to be young, female and highly educated. Developed and developing countries alike need to harness these trends and elevate today’s female youth to become political leaders in the climate movement.


Fig.3 : Age and gender demographics of climate activists across 66 countries worldwide; Boucher et al; Energy Research and Social Science; 2021.

Revisiting Ecofeminism

The ecofeminist movement attempted to define how binary definitions and hierarchical structures define gender relations and humanity’s relationship with the environment. Perhaps the theory was too far ahead of its time, as the disproportionate impacts of climate change on women could not yet be visualised.

Women are 14 times more likely to die from a climate-related disaster than men, and suffer disproportionately from resource depletion and consequential poverty. These impacts are caused by traditional gender roles that limit opportunities for women, and lacking access to education and healthcare services only exacerbates the issue.

While modern approaches such as environmental justice are able to broadly define how climate change affects different people in different ways, the relationship between the environment and gender can shed light on very substantive solutions to both issues, and should be addressed specifically by policymakers. Understanding the connection between the environment and gender is not only important because of the disproportionately gendered impact of climate change, but also because of the potential environmental solutions that can emerge by elevating women.

In addition to education, states must provide women with the resources needed to finance their own ambitions and pursuits. Microfinancing , a type of financial or crediting service that directly targets individuals and small firms that are otherwise unable to access conventional banking services, has proven particularly successful in elevating women in rural areas. Microfinancing can be provided by local communities, governments, NGOs or specialised microfinance institutions .

By empowering women and granting them equitable access to critical services, countries can improve their economies, improve the efficiency of their economic and material output and markedly reduce their emissions. Elevating women to actively participate in environmental policymaking at all levels also allows for a more determined and proportionate political voice.

A framework such as ecofeminism can help acknowledge how social issues and the environment are intertwined, and how solutions in one area can influence positive outcomes in the other. Where social inequalities and climate change intersect is often where the most impactful resolutions and policy measures can be found. Recognising where these intersections lie and how to meet them is critical to ensuring equitable sustainability and understanding humanity’s relationship with the environment.

Featured image by: Flickr  

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Environment, Islam, and women: a study of eco-feminist environmental activism in Pakistan

  • Original Paper
  • Published: 21 October 2020
  • Volume 23 , pages 275–291, ( 2020 )

Cite this article

research paper on ecofeminism

  • Zeenat Abdul Haq 1 ,
  • Muhammad Imran   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8754-2157 1 , 2 ,
  • Shabbir Ahmad 1 &
  • Umer Farooq 3  

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This study aimed to discuss a better understanding of existing levels of Islamic environmental behavior in the perspective of eco-feminist environmental activism in Pakistan with the analysis of existing literature, media reports, NGOs’ environmental movements, and the environmental activists’ campaigns. Women, in the world generally and Pakistan particularly, have the most appropriate pro-environmental behavior concerning the cultural eco-feminist dimensions. This study will address the radical reasons for climate change as demographic changes, deforestation, pollution, and population growth along with their solutions from the Islamic perspective. Women as the ecofeminism activists must be the part of policy matters and their implementation structure as the first-hand companions of nature and social culture.

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Since the last four decades, theology and environment have been focused comparatively where the environmentalists have leveraged different religious and spiritual values and traditions to provoke environmental activism and its awareness. Various studies and researches have discussed the theological foundations of Islamic environmental traditions and values (Marsi 1992 ; Ammar 2000 ; Haq 2001 ; Nasr 2001 ; Ammar 2017 ). This paper is an attempt to contribute to the environmental activism in Pakistan from an ecofeminist perspective, under the Islamic teachings and human behaviors towards them. Many scholars have discussed awareness and behaviors as Muslim behaviour towards environmental activism such as Ozdemir ( 1998 ), Khalid ( 1992 ), Aftab ( 2001 ), Al-Jayyousi ( 2012 ), Aftab 1994  and Foltz ( 2013 ) through various aspects of Islam and environmental activism. However, the present paper discusses Muslim behaviour towards environmental activism in Pakistan in particular and in Islamic theology generally.

In Pakistan, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAOUN), only 281 per Km 2 area are available for the 180 million people. The rapid changes in geographical features, climate change, deforestation, and pollution are affecting the country ( 2019 ) in the form of the social and economic crash, and ultimately human conditions. It forced over ten million people to migrate towards safe places (Climate Emergency Institute 2017 ; Climate Change, Mobility, and Women's Economic Empowerment in Pakistan 2018 ).

The environmental groups along with the middle-class, until the mid-twentieth century during the industrial and urban development were concerned about preservation, pollution, and wildlife protection of nature (Elliott 2020 ). This aptitude from the grass-root level proposed as a feasible solution. Joint ventures from the state, NGOs, educational complexes, social sector, and ecofeminist activists are the compatible approaches to address the emerging humanitarian catastrophe. Eco-feminism is the base to discuss the women’s environmentalists as environmental caretakers. In comparison, the paper will go through the environmental frames of Egypt and Turkey due to the similar demographics, religious background, and developmental challenges. Secondary literature as research papers, articles, media reports, and web blogs are the sources of information. The findings will help the Pakistani environmentalists, social activists, government, and common people to address the environmental issues for their solution.

The French feminist, Francois d’ Eaubonne coined the term ‘Eco-feminism’ in 1974 (Hosseinnezhad 2017 ). Women who were against the exploitation of nature initiated this movement to protect their mother nature. Ecofeminism continued to develop, in the 1980s radical eco-feminists linked to nature and women with adjustable power; and encourages their exploitation for economical labor and resources, respectively (Imran and Chen 2020 ; Miles 2018 ). The cultural ecofeminist, the second school of thought, encourages the affable relationship between women and nature as nurturer and provider of food that society must value. It was extracted from nature-based religions and social hierarchies (Elliott 2020 ).

The religion Islam emphasized to maintain the balance and justice in every respect of life, especially human dealings with nature, as in the Holy Quran, He (Allah) advised:

Besides, establish weight in justice and do not make deficient the balance. (Qur’an 55: 9)

Justice and balance are fundamental conditions for a smooth system and future survival of the universe. Humans must implement them in all aspects of their life; including the environment (Alpay et al. 2013 ).

Women, being the house managers, maintain this balance, as for the environment is the place to live, work, and re-establish the social and religious beliefs of life (Vasi 2008 ). Failing to maintain the ecological balance, human actions caused serious environmental catastrophes like global warming, floods, earthquakes, landslides, water drought, pollution, disturbance in eco-system, fewer shelter facilities, and pandemics in this century (Miles 2018 ).

As Quran enlightened, “And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives” (Qur’an 53:39). Therefore, humans, as the guardian and trustees of nature, need to maintain the ecosystems with great efforts and personal changes. Waste can be easily reduced by recycling. Water conservation and plantation can secure other natural resources and soil drought (Rahman 2015 ).

Role of women in environmental activism in Pakistan

Women are engaged in the environmental activism movement throughout the world, out of which ecofeminism is the one social derivation. As a social movement, it is rooted in environmental and feminist ethics (Hosseinnezhad 2017 ). In the rush of multiple disciplinary kinds of research as geography, political ecosystem, and post-structuralism, it established an alternative eco-gender solution, opposite to the perspective of male domination against the environment and women (Imran et al. 2020 ; Hosseinnezhad 2017 ).

One group of feminists worried about the gender classification of cultural ecofeminism that may promote exploitation while the other group emphasized the nature-based religion. Some of them were against the idealization of nature from the perspective of organic farming. This bifurcation of the movement provided numerous explanations of ecofeminism (Miles 2018 ; Eckstein et al. 2018 ). They addressed the issue of different cultures and religions for a rational arrangement. Women, on the other hand, concentrated on local cultures and religious studies according to their natural and social roles, as mothers and custodians (Miles 2018 ). She naturally protects her environment and participates in economic growth like cattle farming, fishing, producing, and marketing of natural food and herbs. She executes her domestic responsibilities like cooking, gathering fuel, transporting pure water, nurturing children, and elders.

This article is based on cultural ecofeminism. According to the sixth Population and Housing survey, men ratio crossed the women 51% by 49% in Pakistan (2017). In modern days, leading women ecofeminist environmental activists are more concerned about environmental issues especially when it comes to their children’s health and protection. For example, Rahman is of the view that women’s environmental knowledge, regarding environmental regeneration, is disregarded due to the patriarchal ideologies about Islam. Their environmental knowledge can execute climate change issues, more effectively. In the case of ecological degradation, they are primarily affected, as land is a means of livelihood for them. For her, this global crisis can be negotiated by togetherness, as the earth is a shared space for all the organisms (Hussain 2020 ).

She is the advocate of outdoor activity to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Age, education, class, race, gender, and religion must not barricade when it comes to environmental issues. Vasi favored the view that “kids must join in elders regardless of gender” ( 2008 , p. 90).

An independent policy think tank ‘Leadership for Environment and Development’ (LEAD) Pakistan, on the other hand, founds that the recovery strategies of climate change are “gender-blind” as they only consult local male leaders focused on the socioeconomic factors that affect women’s environmental performance. They must focus on the environmental conditions that are causing the poverty and women’s disempowerment due to air pollution, overcrowded slums, and poor waste dumping services in Pakistan (Lotia et al. 2018 ). Islam seconds the cultural ecofeminist view by honoring women about their comfort. According to her biological functions (to be a mother), she needs proper nutrition even before her birth. Allah honored men, as they “shall take full care of women…” (Qur’an 4: 34). Accordingly, work is a privilege for women that they can take on it according to circumstances (Khayat 2003 ; Liobikienė and Mykolas 2019 ).

Along with deforestation, plastic garbage is another reason of pollution, especially of seawater in Pakistan. It is like death pills for marine animals and causing the hindrance in the sanitation system. In the case of burning, it harmed the air quality index along with the smoke from factories and automobile engines.

Air pollution is another cause of climate change. Smoke is causing 1.3 million deaths due to lung cancer and heart disease. The conditions get worse in Asian countries during the winter season due to smog (the mixture of fog and smoke). Also in this twenty-first century, about 70% of Asia people are facing sanitation problems (Alpay et al. 2013 ). Rehman highlighted the existing environmental issues due to the meager dealings, those are causing pandemics; Dengue fever, Congo fever, Dyria, Hepatitis (2015), and now Coronavirus, etc.

As the twenty-first-century environmental movements are negotiating with the diverse economic applications as tourism, trade, and financial investment (Elliott 2020 ). In Khat Lashkar village, Dadu district, women were participating in the agriculture economy but changing in weather patterns, due to deforestation and pollution, affected their economic freedom, as well (Abubakar 2016 ). The Brahui women in Baluchistan, recognize 35 medicinal plants that help them to earn some amount as well (Qureshi et al. 2007 ). Being a part of environmental activism in Pakistan, Mr. Fahad Rizwan has actively participated in planting in urban areas and also promoted environmental awareness among people. In the following Fig. 1 , he has been seen eagerly involved in the comping ‘Green Pakistan’.

figure 1

Environmental activist Fahad Rizwan plants a sapling (Source: Ebad Ahmed/Geo TV/2019)

Pakistan is experiencing water cataloging, land erosion, and desertification due to deforestation and pollution. Green Squad, a group of volunteers tried to promote environmental conservation through the plantation, recycling plastic, and the botanical gardening, especially in Islamabad and Rawalpindi regions. The biggest challenge is the saplings’ ownership in case of people’s response after the plantation season. Even then, they planted about 20,000 saplings in the country by providing awareness to the common people to preserve the remaining forests (Ahmed 2019 ). The mangrove in Baba and Bhit islands shriveled due to a lack of fresh water (Rahman 2015 ).

Recently, Karachi has gone through the worst scenario after heavy rainfall on Eid-ul-Azha, 2019. Footnote 1 The international media highlighted the busted roads, poor sanitation, water pollution, energy crisis, garbage, and overpopulation. These were injuring the environment and making life difficult, especially of women as part of the economy, especially the fishing industry. Shaniera shared the pictures of the hospital’s trash on the seaside with the subtitle, ‘Now flies and mosquito army attacked the city’. Footnote 2 Dr. Jamali explained in the New York Times, “it is not just affecting the life of common man...they are hounding people” (2019). Footnote 3 Quran clarified it as:

Evil has become rife on the land and at sea because of men's deeds; this so that He may cause them to have a taste of some of their deeds; perhaps they will turn back (from evil)’ (Qur’an 55:41).

Humankind’s misdeed upset the world’s ecological balance and now they are facing natural disasters and pandemics (Alpay et al. 2013 ).

Therefore, common people must understand their responsibility as the government fixed the large-sized animal-shaped dustbins at the seaside. A solid waste management system must be developed and implemented on an emergency basis to save the economic hub of Pakistan. People must be encouraged to recycle waste, cure the environment, and join environmental groups along with their children. Islam rejected the concept of desolation. Therefore, human beings as social animals are ordered to participate actively for the betterment of society. The following Fig.  2 highlights the human behavior towards environmental protection. The business mafias have been actively engaged in deforestation as shown in Fig.  2 . Miss Khan, an award-winning environmental activist, highlighted this case through media and involved the concerned authorities to save forest in Chilas.

figure 2

Deforested wood in Chilas (Source: Rina Saeed Khan/DAWN 2013 )

Miss Khan raised her voice against deforestation in Chilas in her column ‘Murders in Paradise’. According to Miss Khan, due to political involvement, the omission of heavy fines encouraged the timber gangs to move towards the Meadows. To get success, she engaged environmental NGOs: WWF-Pakistan, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Akhter Hameed Khan Resource Center, and the Bio-resource Research Center, IG Forests’ and media houses (Khan  2013 ).

In rural Sindh, over 133,000 pregnant women have suffered in 2010 floods (April 2017). Kayani, another ecofeminist activist, observed women’s tendency to handle the abruptly changing weather patterns. She is assisting them to face the challenges bravely, in the area of domestic animals, dairy development, forestry, poultry, fishing; and their health issues.

Educational institutions are also participating in the ecofeminist environmental activism. They want government attention towards climate change and its effects on Pakistan. Students of Iqra University Islamabad, raised the slogan “Stop Denying, The Earth Is Dying” and “Don’t Burn Our Future” (2019). They are using different mediums to increase climate literacy in Pakistan by joining school kids from 15 educational institutions. A Swedish student, Greta Thunberg initiated the movement for environmental protection; and now 1.4 million children, in 100 countries joined it (LEAD 2019 ). The ecofeminist inspired the children and youth towards leadership and values through their work and TV programs.

Ms. Beg, Pakistan’s first hot-air balloonist, and the member of many international environmental groups placed a stage to raise social environmental issues to deal with the global confront. The Indus Consortium and Oxfam Pakistan organized an event for the awareness of the safe environment from the plastic garbage (DAWN 2014 ). Besides, the Pakistan Press Foundation with the collaboration of an NGO distributed more than 500 environmental friendly shopping bags to spread awareness among people on World Environment Day in 2014 (see Fig.  3 ).

figure 3

A volunteer hands an environment-friendly bag to a citizen at Blue Area in Islamabad (Source: Pakistan press foundation, / https://www.pakistanpressfoundation.org/need-protect-environment-stressed/ )

The ‘Global Youth Climate Strike movement’ organized a walk with the participation of students, mostly female, against the pace of global warming. After these campaigns, the KPK government banned plastic bags. The movement is also under consideration in Punjab and Sindh, as well. The Federal government also banned them in big shopping malls of Islamabad (DAWN 2014 ). For climate change awareness, Pakistani female university students also have become an active part of the Global Youth Climate Strike Movement and raised voice for healthy environment change. In Fig.  4 , a group of university students holding play cards with different slogans on them became the part of Global Youth Climate Strike Movement in Pakistan.

figure 4

Pakistani University Students joined global Youth Climate Strike movement (Source: LEAD Pakistan/ 2019 )

The Pakistan Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), in 1997, was authorized to activate research projects for the protection of the environment from climate change. The institute was lacking financial and human resources. For instance, the government of Pakistan is now promoting tourism so it must take interest to initiate the research projects on emergency bases. ‘Egyptian Green Party’ motive can be an inspiration for Pakistani political parties as they are educating people on their environmental rights. They established a new environmental value system and condemned nuclear proliferation. According to cultural ecofeminism, 10% of female members of the party are playing their natural role in the betterment of the environment, so it begins at home. They engaged their teachers to embrace environmental training at the school level (Vasi 2008 , p.74).

Islam and Muslim environmentalism

Islam as the source of knowledge promotes equality and balance in the social structure. Creator has defined moral responsibilities in the form of Islamic philosophy, presented in the Quran and Sunnah (the actions and sayings of the Prophet, Peace Be upon Him). Nature as His symbol guides humankind and set some limitations for their behavior, as a control, against the surfeit in life (Vasi 2008 ). Quran described:

He created man and taught eloquence. The sun and moon both run with precision. The stars and the trees all bow down in prostration. He erected heaven and established the balance ... (Qur’an 55: 3–7).

The environmental ecosystem works within its limits. If the sun, the moon, the stars did not follow the designed pattern, the life function on earth would be unattainable. It is the ethic of balance in nature that man should oblige rather challenge it (Khalid 2010 , p. 2). Humans are held responsible for their actions, “Will the reward for doing good be anything but good?” (Qur’an 55: 59; Khalid 2010 , p. 7).

Therefore, they must facilitate and make sure the equal distribution of natural resources among all living organisms (Haq 2001 ). As in the case of animals, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) instructed, “... if you kill, kill well, and if you slaughter, slaughter well.” (Vasi 2008 , p.56) This act of slaughtering (Zabeeha) is symbolizing animal rights. Islamic environmental ethics are based on social justice and moderation, as He states, “It is He who produces gardens, both cultivated and wild, and palm trees and crops of diverse kinds...pay their dues on the day of their harvest, and do not be profligate. He does not like those who commit excess” (Qur’an 6: 141; Khalid 2010 , p. 3).

Islamic cultural and social norms defined gender roles, as well, where no one could meet the stature of a woman being a mother (Vasi 2008 ). They are supervising the natural environmental assets (Qureshi et al. 2007 ); as the ecofeminist environmental custodian, home manager, and sometimes-paid employee (Rahman 2015 ). In famine and inconsistent rainy seasons, they secure water resources, especially in rural areas. They maintain the household territory including food procurement, livestock trellis, sanitary issues, the physical and mental health of the family (Kayani 2017 ).

Women along with children squander 300 days for firewood in the Himalayas region (Qureshi et al. 2007 ) and walk up to 10 miles for water in Sindh (Rahman 2015 ). It gets difficult to save natural herbs, wood, medicines’ fruits, and foodstuff due to deforestation or fires. As recently, CNN reported according to Christian Poirier regarding the Amazon fires, “The vast majority of these fires are human-lit” (Yeung 2019 ). According to German Watch Global Climate Risk Index, Pakistan lost $3826.03 million, 0.567% of GDP, due to its environmental vulnerability in the last two decades (2017).

Environmental ethics and Islam

The holy Quran endows humans with the roots of an environmental ethic in the form of Islamic values and laws that reflects humans’ social, political, punitive, and environmental operations. Nature and environmental ethics are discussed in approximately 500 verses. The Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) actions guide humanity for an inclusive social order (Vasi 2008 ). Islamic scholars and Sufis also spotlighted the importance of environmental ethics. Masri advocates animal rights in the light of Quranic verses (Vasi 2008 ). Nasr, an Iranian environmentalist, was of the view that humans must practice their power within set patterns. Nature is the means of communication between Allah and humans (Haq 2001 ).

Islam’s primary concern is to treat every organism equally to maintain the cycle of the environmental ecosystem. It will automatically multiply positive aspects as tranquility, synchronization, justice, and reverence in the universe. The Islamic beliefs offer a value system that molds the human character and attitudes towards nature. According to Alpay et al. 2013 who citied Hans Jonas, the “ethical vacuum at the core of the contemporary modern culture” (p. 7). According to the moral ecological ethics of religion, environmental action and spiritual revival within humankind are interdependent (Alpay et al. 2013 ).

Analysis and recommendations

The global phenomenon of climate change has made the population vulnerable to floods, cyclones, glacial lakes, cloudbursts, famine, sea intrusion, and water scarcity, has gender-differentiated impacts, especially in Pakistan.

For a healthy and balanced environment, forests must cover 25% of the land. The National Environment Information System (NEIMS) reported that forest ratio shrinks to 4.72 ha in Pakistan since 2000 (2019). As Quran put in plain words, “verily We have created all things in proportion and measure” (Qur’an 54: 49). Islam not only permits the consumption of natural resources but also forbade from reckless spending:

O children of Adam! ...eat and drink, but waste not by excess, for God loves not the wasters (Qur’an 7: 31).

The eating and drinking are the acts of the continuation of our life cycle; even they must not be uncontrolled. The support life components should be utilized in balance, for future survival according to the universal ecology (Alpay et al. 2013 ).

In Pakistan, climate change is directly affecting the agriculture sector. Only 27% area is plowable, out of which only 1% is permanently cultivated and 6% area covered animal meadows (2019). According to the ‘Global clean campaign’ during the last 2 years, 0.2-degree temperature is increased in Pakistan.

Therefore, forestation must be initiated in such a critical situation on the emergency note, in which women can play a vital role, as of kitchen gardening and pot plantation. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recognized around 157 protected areas in Pakistan (2018), as well (Table 1 ).

Nature sets the rain patterns according to human needs but deforestation and pollution changed it that leads the depletion in water resources. The Qur’an makes it clear:

And Allah has sent down water from the sky. and given life to the dead earth. Indeed in that. is a sign for people who listen (Qur’an 16: 65).

If every individual will follow the other to cut a tree, hunt an animal, clean the floors with drinking water, or throw away the foodstuffs. It could not be claimed back, the greater part of the polluted and annihilated resources (Alpay et al. 2013 ). Prophet (PBUH) considered excessive water usage during ablution as a wrong ( makruh ) ethic. He (PBUH) clearly explained the Islamic spirit of balance as “...even if you take them on the bank of a rushing river” Footnote 4 (Alpay et al. 2013 , p. 13). Water is declared as the source of life and ecosystem, “And God has created every animal from water: of them, there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent (Qur’an 24: 45).

Women’s pro-environmental behaviors influence the entire family, being mothers or teachers their first followers are the young children beyond the debate of Urban/rural or modern/traditional. Through the above discussion, it is very clear that females are more involved in energy preservation, organic food production, environmental and health-friendly cleaners handling, and recycling of used items. Therefore, there is a positive correlation between women and the environment as the ecofeminist culture viewed it. They use everything (water, electricity, or gas) with greater care within their budget. They teach their children to love animals and be careful to use natural resources (Hosseinnezhad 2017 ).

In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) highlight the effects of climate change on communities, especially women and children. They addressed the issue of CO 2 that is the major cause of environmental pollution and breathing disease, asthma. The women’s presence as part of NGOs was reported all over the world (Buckingham 2004 ). (Table 2 ).

Islamic environmental ethics seek social justice in the sustainability of natural resources. The same movement started as ‘environmental social justice of natural resources preservation; at the beginning of the twentieth century in West. The youth separation from religion is welcoming serious health and social issues. Nasr ( 2001 ) proposed Islamic ethics as a bridge in this case. All types of media and environmental literature are helpful platforms for enduring the environmental consciousness in common people. The walks, seminars, and outdoor recreational activities along with the students and civil society, present a broader perspective. These activities refresh the human mind, provide awareness, and demolish the superficial taboos regarding the women’s preambles to environmental changes. They must get involved in the policymaking management team. Conferences and their media coverage, on large-scale, can bring together different intellectual, students, civil society, scholars (religious), researchers, journalists, business persons, and environmental communities. The international environmental activists can be called to share their experiences.

From the above discussion, the role of ecofeminist activists’ especially Pakistani women is very clear and significant in future development. They are participating in awareness campaigns that woman is the first-hand managers against the climate changes. They can transform their role as competent environmental supervisors to strengthen the economy. As the women in the countryside recognize herbs, soil, and mangroves’ importance, in the natural environment. Footnote 5

In the nutrition field, their role is important. They feed the family, so its production, selection, and preparation can provide a healthy nation, as Khayat viewed, “it is women who develop healthy nutritional habits in children” ( 2003 , p. 25). The environmental activists are considering them as the solution suppliers for environmental issues. The mother trained her family in case of personal hygiene and solid waste disposal (Khayat 2003 ).

They are the best recyclers of used domestic items. They can start kitchen gardening, plant saplings with children’s involvement. Being mothers, they can teach all the environmental ethics to their children as do not waste the water during brushing, or bathing by presenting it while they are washing clothes or plates. When she will dump the garbage into the dustbin, children will never throw the wrappers on the floor. They will learn to perform Wazzu (ablution) for Salaat (prayer), which will keep them healthy and fresh. This healthy, clean, and friendly environment will produce responsible citizens. The following Fig.  5 highlights how one can become a reason for an unhealthy environment by keeping an unserious attitude towards environmental ethics.

figure 5

Source: Google image/ Pinterest /Aug. 2019, ( https://images.app.goo.gl/nf6yUQ8n4Gy57vud8 )

United Nations Development Program uncovers the fact that 64% of women in developing regions are depending on natural resources for their earning (1998). While Asian women are producing 60% of food in the agricultural sector. In Pakistan, Brahui woman works for 17 h in the production season (Qureshi et al. 2007 ). The water quality and quantity are diminishing in desert areas of Pakistan, as Thar and Cholistan. Water pollution is an increasing problem also in urban areas of Pakistan as Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Chaman, Sukhar, etc., (Rahman 2015 ). Unsatisfactory disposal systems of human and industrial wastes and deforestation along with the excessive use of fertilizer chemicals are the main causes of this pollution (Rahman 2015 ).

In Sindh, even female schools are lacking drinking water, toilets, and boundary walls. Rehman added that now Sindh educational ministry must invest in this sector (2015). A woman is chairing ‘The Sindh Environment Protection Agency’ whereas in the Balochistan the council has one female member. Most of the NGOs and private sector organizations are following the same trend. They are taking part in environmental issues and policymaking. Education regarding the environment can be started from schools as the ‘Green and clean’ Pakistan campaign. Footnote 6 According to the ‘The National Education Policy 1998’, the government emphasized to frame the environmental-related curriculum. Northern areas of Pakistan hooked their education policy towards environmental teacher training prospectuses. Balochistan Education Department deposited an Environment Unit (Rahman 2015 ).

A parallel learning system to normal education is ‘Deeni Madrassas’ in Pakistan. About 2.5 million children are enrolled in 30,000 madrassas across Pakistan (Rasool 2019 ). The government and supportive institutions under the madrassas reforms decided to implement the same curriculum. They will learn contemporary subjects along with Islamic education. It is a good move towards the environmental sector as they get the chance to mingle with society to compete with the rest of the world. They will have more awareness concerning Islamic environmental ethics, their implications, and the role of women in social life.

Eco-feminism is of the view that women naturally have a pro-environmental attitude (Imran and Hart 2019 ). Therefore, the discussion shows that they own every relation faithfully by nature so is the case with plantation. As Rizwan’s ‘Green Squad’ suggested that without care it is a useless activity. Therefore, a compassionate attitude for children and family let them think about the future. It also enables them to take part in political and environmental activism to secure their environment. As a climate-friendly initiative, the government should target women for climate training based on practical data, for the effective policies (Abubakar 2016 ). The research projects, according to international environmental standards, can be helpful for correct data.

They must be trained to protect themselves from heatwaves. Rainwater harvesting can address water insufficiency issues. As agents of change they can combat climate exposures, more effectively (Abubakar 2016 ). Ecofeminist environmental activists can actively play a vital role in environmental awareness, along with the government. Many women are working as freelance journalists, NGO workers, organizational coordinators, students, anchors, teachers, housewives, and laborers in society.

Different NGOs, environmental groups, and activists, already have taken up many initiatives, where the government also promised to support them but practically it requires more effort. Minister of State for Climate Change, Zartaj Gul, commented on the Green Squad initiatives that the government would support such young environmental groups through funding. On this note, Rizwan just smiled as there is still no support for them (Ahmed 2019 ). These types of promises and attitudes discouraged the youth and ecofeminist environmentalists, activists. Therefore, the government must end up the promised tasks, and reforms must be implemented, which result depends on its continuity.

To meet the global environmental challenges, Pakistan included legislation, the Climate Change Act 2017, in the constitution. This act enables it to accept and address climate change as a serious issue. According to a United Nations report, in the next 40–50 years, it will cost Pakistan $10.7 billion (Buhne 2017 ). The only implementation of the law can mitigate the effects of climate change in Pakistan until 2042 (Buhne 2017 ).

All the initiatives sound good but they must be practiced properly. The federal government must engage provinces to integrate environmental ethics in the teaching curriculum like Balochistan and Northern areas of Pakistan. An optional subject at the secondary level can be helpful for students’ understanding. The curriculum of general science from the primary level and geography from the intermediate level can be upgraded with environmental concepts. Social and electronic media, especially the entertainment sector must produce environmental-related content for the common people, regardless of gender and age factors. Sharif and Medvecky observed that Pakistani media must not confine the climate-related issues to incident-oriented coverage like floods, famine, weather forecasts, press briefings, or walks ( 2018 ). The social sector and government join hands, in this context can bring change to understand climate change.

All the natural balanced patterns of production and consumption must be followed in ecosystems. Excessive consumption, amenity, and spendthrift are not authorized by Allah. According to Alpay et al. ( 2013 ), the Quran teaches justice, 1437 years ago, and in present global environmental crises, “it can also provide a knowledgeable and practical slant” (p. 19).

This article concludes that women’s ecofeminist approach is sociable and highly demanding in environmental activism in Pakistan. All humans, according to Islamic teachings, should consider the socio-demographic measures to protect the environment such as save water, control air pollution, plantation, donate money and time for environment-friendly projects.

In the Muslims’ view, Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) life is the real picture of the Quranic view, and He was too generous towards nature and humanity, as well. He advised for plantation as, “If a Muslim plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, it is regarded as a charity (sadaqah) for him” (Al-Bukhari). Alpay et al. are of the view that all the ethics must be relocated and embraced to find out the solutions to environmental issues ( 2013 ).

Deforestation and cultivated land transformation are increasing for cattle farms, industry, and housing societies; due to urbanization and the amounted population. Human structures are adding up in the deconstruction of the environment and its resources. On the other hand, women as the first-hand managers of climate change must be educated regarding ecofeminist environmental issues. As the key supervisors of the family unit, they control excessiveness in every aspect of life to maintain balance and justice in the environment. They educate their children about the environment through their actions, so environmental resolution starts at home.

Recycling of domestic waste can be shaped as the art industry, which will be good for the economy as well. Therefore, waste separation and recycling inclined excessive use of natural resources. According to the natural cycle, every action returns from the same direction that was taken in life. If we are to reverse the deterioration of our environment, then we have to make some hard choices and change our practices. In other words, ecological change is the reflection of personal change. This paper can impart in promoting Islamic environmental ethics as Islam propagates justice and respect for all environmental organisms. Wordsworth, known as the poet of nature said, “Knowing that Nature never did betray the heart that loved her; it is her privilege…” Footnote 7 For environmental education and awareness, media campaigns, outdoor community-related events (conferences, walks, plantation days, etc.), and conventional politicization can be opted. Practical and solid strategies, regardless of gender and age, are crucial to address climate change and public awareness. The ecofeminist approach enables Pakistani women to play a key role in promoting environmental activities to mitigate the harmful effects.

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Haq, Z.A., Imran, M., Ahmad, S. et al. Environment, Islam, and women: a study of eco-feminist environmental activism in Pakistan. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education 23 , 275–291 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42322-020-00065-4

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Ecofeminism and education.

  • Jennifer Hatten-Flisher Jennifer Hatten-Flisher Eastern Michigan University
  •  and  Rebecca A. Martusewicz Rebecca A. Martusewicz Eastern Michigan University
  • https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.136
  • Published online: 24 January 2018

Ecofeminism is a theoretical, political, and educational movement that draws specific parallels between the domination of women and other marginalized groups, and the degradation of nature. While much of ecofeminist thought is focused on examining the interconnectivity between social and environmental injustices, ecofeminism is as vast and varied as its feminist and ecological roots. Yet, ecofeminism is not without its critics. After being widely accused of essentializing women’s relationship with nature, the term fell out of favor with a lot of scholars in the 1990s. Those who have remained loyal to the term have argued that this was an unfair mischaracterization of the larger foundational ideas within ecofeminist work.

Given the global environmental and social crises currently sweeping the planet, ecofeminism offers important, albeit diverse, theoretical, practical, and pedagogical perspectives for developing effective responses to such interrelated crises. As such, scholars across a variety of disciplines are revisiting (and reclaiming) ecofeminist thought. In the field of education, ecofeminism is influencing the ways that we approach questions of justice by offering an intersectional framework that insists on recognizing the interconnected roots of racism, sexism, poverty, ablism, and other social problems with ecological degradation. An ethics of care is woven throughout to form the basis of a pedagogy of responsibility whereby students learn to both critique these cultural foundations of violence and identify practices and relationships that help to create healthy sustainable communities.

  • ecofeminism
  • logic of domination
  • value hierarchized thinking
  • ethics of care
  • environmental education
  • ecojustice education

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  1. (PDF) General Overview of Ecofeminism

    Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism that sees environmentalism, and the relationship. between women and the earth, as foundational to its analysis and practice. Ecofeminist. thinkers draw on the ...

  2. Ecofeminism revisited: critical insights on contemporary environmental

    SUBMIT PAPER. Close Add email alerts. You are adding the following journal to your email alerts. New content ... in order to re-evaluate, in my case, ecofeminism. As an introduction, I reflect on my own perhaps unfair rejection of ecofeminism as a doctoral researcher and early career academic who, in critiquing 1990s international environmental ...

  3. 1910 PDFs

    Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on ECOFEMINISM. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on ECOFEMINISM

  4. Understanding the Relationship Between Sustainability and Ecofeminism

    In a review of background papers (Adams, 2009, p. 110 ... Awareness of the importance of gender in the relationship between people and non-human nature grew with the ideas of "ecofeminism", or ... even a cursory examination of the vast amount of research that has been done on the links between social and environmental phenomena suggests ...

  5. Full article: Ecofeminisms and education: repositioning gender and

    environment. education. This issue of Gender and Education explores aspects of the relationship of ecofeminisms and the environment to gender and education in the broadest sense. It provides an opportunity to re-think how ecofeminisms have, or could, inform educational theory and practice. In our call for papers we suggested the following ...

  6. An Overview of Ecofeminism: Women, Nature and Hierarchies

    Ecofeminism is an interdisciplinary critical theory which claims that environmental. and women's issues are interconnected because of the objectification of women and. nature in a male-dominant ...

  7. Reconstructing ecofeminism: A study of Kamala Markandaya's

    1. Introduction. The aim of this paper is to understand ecofeminism in an Indian context through a close reading of Kamala Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve (1954). It is an effort to trace elements of ecofeminism in the Indian English novel; at the same time, the article intends to explore how a particular Indian English novel adds a new dimension to ecofeminist discourse.

  8. Critical Ecofeminism: A Feminist Environmental Research ...

    For instance, the ecofeminism we flesh out in this paper challenges rigid dualisms or essentialisms while centering creative forms of resistance and articulations of radical alternatives. We contend that this intersectional, feminist mode of critique necessitates relational awareness of more-than-human environments and co-creation of pathways ...

  9. Ecofeminism: Where Gender and Climate Change Intersect

    Fig.3: Age and gender demographics of climate activists across 66 countries worldwide; Boucher et al; Energy Research and Social Science; 2021. Revisiting Ecofeminism. The ecofeminist movement attempted to define how binary definitions and hierarchical structures define gender relations and humanity's relationship with the environment.

  10. Ecofeminism and Global Environmental Politics

    The essay's final section considers the shift in authority concerning sustainable practices from north to global south that characterizes ecofeminism in the twenty-first century. Contemporary international and transnational institutions concerned with environment and development increasingly regard the daily practices of Third World women ...

  11. The Ethics and Aesthetics of Eco-caring: Contemporary Debates on

    The ecofeminists' agenda: From theory to strategia. Ecofeminism, in broad terms, has been conceived as both a theory and a movement that associates women and the environment; that describes the connections that throughout history have been established between women and nature from cultural, historical, psychological, spiritual, or political perspectives; that denounces the comparable ...

  12. Humanities

    This Special Issue of Humanities is devoted to examining that proposition through research papers, reflections, and review articles that consider or address topics and questions such as (but not limited to) the following: How might ecofeminism be defined for the 21st century, in order to capture the urgency of its mission and to respect both ...

  13. Ecofeminism

    Ecofeminism. Susan Buckingham, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 2015. Introduction. Ecofeminism, like the social movements it has emerged from, is both political activism and intellectual critique.Bringing together feminism and environmentalism, ecofeminism argues that the domination of women and the degradation of the environment are ...

  14. Ecofeminism

    Ecofeminism is the theory and practice of examining and challenging the political, social, historical, epistemological, and conceptual links between the domination of women and the exploitation of nature. It has evolved into a movement that connects all the "-isms" of domination, e.g., racism, sexism, and classism, with the exploitation ...

  15. Environment, Islam, and women: a study of eco-feminist ...

    Women are engaged in the environmental activism movement throughout the world, out of which ecofeminism is the one social derivation. As a social movement, it is rooted in environmental and feminist ethics (Hosseinnezhad 2017).In the rush of multiple disciplinary kinds of research as geography, political ecosystem, and post-structuralism, it established an alternative eco-gender solution ...

  16. Ecofeminism and Education

    Summary. Ecofeminism is a theoretical, political, and educational movement that draws specific parallels between the domination of women and other marginalized groups, and the degradation of nature. While much of ecofeminist thought is focused on examining the interconnectivity between social and environmental injustices, ecofeminism is as vast ...

  17. Everything You Need to Know About Ecofeminism

    The rise of ecofeminism as a research field is also encouraging the publication of an increasing number of high-quality papers, which help to promote both the environment and feminism simultaneously. Without ecofeminism forming as a concept, there might not be as much research interest as there now is. Future advances in the field

  18. Women and Nature: An Ecofeminist Study on the Select Novels of ...

    Ecocriticism or green criticism is the study of literature and the environment from an interdisciplinary point of view. Ecofeminism or feminist ecocriticism gives a feminist approach in understanding ecology. Ecofeminism is a recurrent theme used by science fiction writers to emphasize nature and environment either on Earth or on any other part ...

  19. Reconstructing ecofeminism: A study of Kamala Markandaya's nectar in a

    In this context, the present paper attempts to study how the concept of ecofeminism, which was originally postulated in the West, is reflected in Indian writer Kamala Markandaya's novel Nectar in a Sieve(1954). Furthermore, this paper investigates how the Indian English novel adds a new dimension to ecofeminist discourse, which consists in a ...

  20. Ecofeminism

    ecofeminism, branch of feminism that examines the connections between women and nature. Its name was coined by French feminist Françoise d'Eaubonne in 1974. Ecofeminism uses the basic feminist tenets of equality between genders, a revaluing of non-patriarchal or nonlinear structures, and a view of the world that respects organic processes, holistic connections, and the merits of intuition ...

  21. A Comprehensive Study of Ecofeminism

    Ecofeminism, as a theory, challenges the existing patriarchal paradigms and holds that the there is a strong connection between women and nature and they are inseparable. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive view of ecofeminism as an emerging theory of literary research by focusing on its origin, development, precepts, and ...

  22. (PDF) Ecofeminism

    crusade of Ecofeminism links the philosophy of. feminism with ecology. The term coined by the. French writer Francoise d'Eaubonne in the year 1 974. This philosophy intertwines the abuse and ...

  23. PDF Ecofeminism in the Novels of Sarah Joseph and Anita Nair

    This research area is not extensively researched so far. It is, thus, a fresh and original area to be explored. The present research work is interdisciplinary in ... In the essay "Toward a queer ecofeminism", Greta Gaard points out that The goal of this essay is to demonstrate that to be truly inclusive, any theory of ecofeminism

  24. Graduate Student Presents Innovative Research at Second Annual New

    On April 12, M.A. Communication student Rylee Nelson presented her research, "Wind Energy Barbie: Ecofeminism and the Wind Sector in New Jersey," at the 2024 NJ Wind Institute Research Symposium. ... This paper analyzes the historical implication of ecofeminism, the role of feminism in the workplace, and the current inclusivity plans of the ...