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Quit India Movement - 1942 (Modern Indian History NCERT Notes)

Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan also known as August Kranti Maidan is the place where the quit India movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi. He along with other leaders gathered here on August 8 and 9, 1942.

The outcome of the movement was that Congress was declared an unlawful association and its offices all over the country were raided. The leaders were arrested and there rose a chaotic moment with this incident.

 This article gives you the Quit India Movement summary, factors responsible for Quit India Movement and other notes relevant for UPSC and other government exams .

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Candidates can also download Quit India Movement notes PDF from the link provided below.

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Aspirants can also read important topics related to Indian Freedom Struggle linked below:

 

Quit India Movement Facts for UPSC

quit india essay

  • Also known as the India August Movement or August Kranti.
  • It was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942. (knowindia.gov.in mentions August 1942 as Quit India Movement month/year.)
  • The movement gave the slogans ‘Quit India’ or ‘Bharat Chodo’. Gandhi gave the slogan to the people – ‘Do or die’.
  • In line with the Congress ideology, it was supposed to be a peaceful non-violent movement aimed at urging the British to grant India independence.
  • The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress Working Committee on 8 August 1942 in Bombay. Gandhi was named the movement’s leader.
  • An immediate end to British rule over India.
  • Declaration of the commitment of free India to defend itself against all kinds of imperialism and fascism.
  • Formation of a provisional government of India after British withdrawal.
  • Sanctioning a civil disobedience movement against British rule.
  • Government servants : do not resign your job but proclaim loyalty to the INC.
  • Soldiers : be with the army but refrain from firing on compatriots.
  • Peasants: pay the agreed-upon rent if the landlords/Zamindars are anti-government; if they are pro-government, do not pay the rent.
  • Students: can leave studies if they are confident enough.
  • Princes: support the people and accept the sovereignty of them.
  • People of the princely states: support the ruler only if he is anti-government; declare themselves as part of the Indian nation.

Causes of Quit India Movement – Why was it launched?

  • The Second World War had started in 1939 and Japan, which was part of the Axis Powers that were opposed to the British in the war were gaining onto the north-eastern frontiers of India.
  • The British had abandoned their territories in South-East Asia and had left their population in the lurch. This act did not garner much faith among the Indian population who had doubts about the British ability to defend India against Axis aggression.
  • Gandhi also believed that if the British left India, Japan would not have enough reason to invade India.
  • Apart from hearing news about British setbacks in the war, the war-time difficulties such as high prices of essential commodities fostered resentment against the British government.
  • The failure of the Cripps Mission to guarantee any kind of a constitutional remedy to India’s problems also led to the INC calling for a mass civil disobedience movement.

Read about the allied, axis and central powers from below:

  •   Difference Between Axis and Allied Powers 
  • Difference Between Axis and Central Powers

Response to Quit India Movement

  • The British government responded to the call of Gandhi by arresting all major Congress leaders the very next day. Gandhi, Nehru, Patel, etc. were all arrested. This left the movement in the hands of the younger leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia. New leaders like Aruna Asaf Ali emerged out of the vacuum of leadership.
  • Over 100000 people were arrested in connection with this movement. The government resorted to violence in order to quell the agitation. They were mass floggings and lathi charges. Even women and children were not spared. About 10000 people died in police firing in total.
  • There was no communal violence.
  • The INC was banned. Its leaders were jailed for almost the whole of the war. Gandhi was released on health grounds in 1944.
  • The people responded to Gandhi’s call in a major way. However, in the absence of leadership, there were stray incidences of violence and damage to government property. Many buildings were set on fire, electricity lines were cut and communication and transport lines were broken.
  • Some parties did not support the movement. There was opposition from the Muslim League , the Communist Party of India (the government revoked the ban on the party then) and the Hindu Mahasabha.
  • The League was not in favour of the British leaving India without partitioning the country first. In fact, Jinnah asked more Muslims to enlist in the army to fight the war.
  • The Communist party supported the war waged by the British since they were allied with the Soviet Union.
  • Subhas Chandra Bose, was by this time, organizing the Indian National Army and the Azad Hind government from outside the country.
  • C Rajagopalachari, resigned from the INC since he was not in favour of complete independence.
  • In general, the Indian bureaucracy did not support the Quit India Movement.
  • There were strikes and demonstrations all over the country. Despite the communist group’s lack of support to the movement, workers provided support by not working in the factories.
  • In some places, parallel governments were also set up. Example: Ballia, Tamluk, Satara.
  • The chief areas of the movement were UP Bihar, Maharashtra, Midnapore, and Karnataka. The movement lasted till 1944.

Importance of Quit India Movement – Significance/What it achieved?

  • Despite heavy-handed suppression by the government, the people were unfazed and continued their struggle.
  • Even though the government said that independence could be granted only after the end of the war, the movement drove home the point that India could not be governed without the support of the Indians.
  • The movement placed the demand for complete independence at the top agenda of the freedom movement.
  • Public morale and anti-British sentiment were enhanced.

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Quit India Movement - Causes, Impact, Limitations, Significance

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Modern History

Prelims : History of India and Indian National Movement.

Mains : Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Quit India Movement was a massive anti-colonial struggle in India, launched on August 8, 1942 , under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who gave the mantra of “Do or Die” during this Movement. Projected initially as the civil disobedience movement, this ‘third great wave’ of India’s struggle for freedom soon took a violent turn with the aim of ‘fight to the finish’ of the colonial empire. Gandhi, understanding the mood of the nation and the importance of individual liberties, was even prepared for riots and violence caused by the Quit India Movement as he thought it morally correct to defend against the state’s organised violence.

Also known as the “ August Kranti Movement,” Quit India Movement was more a rejection of British rule than a traditional Satyagraha and also influenced the unprecedented and tumultuous events for the next five years in Indian history.

Causes of Quit India Movement

The Quit India Movement was the culmination of years of Indian disillusionment with British rule, with the immediate causes being the failure of Cripps mission , hardships caused during World War II and the Japanese knocking at the doors of Indian borders. Some of the major causes of the Quit India Movement are as follows:

  • The Indian people had grown increasingly disillusioned with the British government's failure to fulfil its promises regarding India's self-rule.
  • The British, although they gained Indian support in World War II, did not want to transfer the power easily.
  • The August offer and Cripps mission failed to satisfy the demands of the nationalists.
  • Further, the British support to the demand of Pakistan by the Muslim League was making the Indian nationalists (particularly Gandhi) infuriated.
  • By 1942, India's struggle for independence had been ongoing for several decades. The nationalistic sentiments were at its peak, and people grew increasingly impatient with British rule.
  • The extent and activities of the people during the Quit India Movement also reflect this sentiment.
  • They had participated wholeheartedly in the Individual Satyagraha movements of 1940. Further, along with the Kisan Sabha movements, it had prepared the ground for the final battle against the imperialist forces.
  • They already had tasted the sweetness of self-rule through the Congress rule in the period of 1937-39.
  • Therefore, now the people wanted to drive out the British from India.
  • India's participation in World War II placed significant economic burdens and restrictions on the country.
  • The war effort led to rising prices, shortages of essential goods, and increased taxation, causing immense hardships for the Indian population.
  • The shortage of supply of essential goods and the export of rice caused large-scale deprivation and death, ultimately resulting in the Bengal Famine of 1943.
  • Reverses suffered by the British in Southeast Asia and the advancement of Japanese troops towards the borders of India increased the popular discontent among the people.
  • The retreat of the British troops from Burma further enhanced this fear.
  • The British attitude towards Indian subjects also exposed the racial discrimination policy of the British.
  • Indians thought they were on their own. Thus there was the utmost need of a nationalist government to defend its borders.
  • And in this situation, the failure of the Cripps Mission led Gandhi and Congress to launch the final strike against the British.

Launch of the Quit India Movement

Congress Working Committee of the Indian National Congress met at Wardha on July 14, 1942, and decided to launch a mass civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhi.

  • Formal launch: The All India Congress Committee met at Gowalia Tank, Bombay, on 8 August 1942 and passed the famous Quit India Resolution. Gandhi sloganed his 'Do or Die' call on the same day.
  • Demands: It demanded an end to British rule in India with immediate effect, the formation of a provisional government after the war and the declaration of free India.
  • Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned in Poona.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, and other leaders were imprisoned in the Ahmednagar Fort.

Nature of the Quit India Movement

Although the Movement was initially started as a civil disobedience movement, it differed from other movements launched by Gandhi.

  • Different from earlier movements:
  • The NCM of 1920-22 and the CDM of 1930-34 were conceived as the peaceful resistance to British rule, and the social base expanded slowly to accommodate wider participation of people.
  • On the contrary, the Quit India Movement was a massive uprising from the very beginning to compel the British to quit India.
  • The British’ attitude towards Indians and their endorsement to Jinnah’s communal polity frustrated Gandhi.
  • Knowing the mood of the Indians, especially in the limited but symbolic Individual Satyagrahas, he even believed that the masses could adopt a violent path in self-defence against a well-equipped and strong aggressor. It was reflected in his article in ‘the Harijan’ in March 1942.
  • He opined that every individual must consider himself free and should act for himself to attain freedom.
  • Thus, he was more concerned for the ends (freedom) than the means (methods). 
  • Clear goal and objectives: The 1942 Movement’s goal was less ambiguous in its objectives as it was launched to make the complete withdrawal of the British from India. It has four main features:
  • Accommodative of violence against the state,
  • Aimed at destroying the British rule involving anybody believing in complete independence instead of trained satyagrahis,
  • Students were called to play the major role and should lead the Movement after the arrest of senior Congress leaders and
  • Total defiance of government authority.
  • Once the main leaders were arrested on 9 August, the Movement took a radical turn, often cited as the most ‘un-Gandhian’ method of the freedom movement. 
  • As Gandhi had already sanctioned violence and the role of younger generations, the movement developed at the grassroots level.
  • Purpose: The purpose of such underground activities was to maintain popular morale, establish a line of command, provide guidance, and distribute arms and ammunition.
  • Key personalities: Rammanohar Lohia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta, Biju Patnaik, Chhotubhai Puranik, Achyut Patwardhan, Sucheta Kripalani, and R.P. Goenka. Usha Mehta established an underground radio station in Bombay.
  • Parallel governments: The movement also saw the emergence of parallel governments in certain parts of India.
Chittu Pandey- Released many Congress leaders
Satish Chandra Samanta

undertook cyclone relief work.

- Sanctioned grants to schools.

- The rich supplied paddy to the poor.

- Organised (electricity units).

Y.B. Chavan, Nana Patil, etc.

- Named (Parallel Government).

- Organised (justice forums).

- Carried out prohibition campaigns.

- Organised (marriages following Gandhi's principles).

Spread of the Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement had two phases: themass movement phase (August to September 1942), and the quasi-guerrilla insurgency phase (afterwards). The people started burning and destroying anything that symbolised British authority, such as post offices, police stations, government buildings, Railways and telegraph lines. The scale of participation in Bihar and eastern UP was unparalleled.

Regional Participation in the Quit India Movement

  • Students, peasants, and workers were actively involved in the Quit India Movement. The underground activities were strong there, which practically broke the law and order. 
  • Severe organisations and dacoit gangs were active, having links with Jayprakash Narayan and other members of the Congress Socialist Party.
  • JP Narayan and Rammanohar Lohia formed a parallel government based on the Nepal border till 1944.
  • The socialist group Azad Dastas carried out underground activities in Bihar.
  • Armed villagers targeted police posts and local courts and engaged in looting.
  • There were strikes in Kanpur, Lucknow and Nagpur and violent clashes with striking millworkers in Delhi.
  • The Quit India Movement primarily occurred in towns and cities , where protests, acts of sabotage, and damage to essential services took place.
  •  In many parts of Bengal, the worker, tribal and peasant movements picked up momentum by linking up with the Quit India movement.
  • In districts such as East Khandesh, Satara, Broach, and Surat large numbers of peasants took part in guerrilla-style attacks on government property, lines of communication, and people known to be sympathetic to British rule.
  • In Gujarat, a parallel government called the "Azad Government" was established in Ahmedabad, replicating the existing administrative structure.
  • Bombay was inspired by inciting underground publications such as the Bombay Provincial Bulletin, Do or Die News-sheet, Free India, War of India Bulletin, Free State of India Gazette and the Congress Gazette.
  • South India: K.T. Bhashyam, a Bangalore-based Congress leader who was active in trade unions and organised strikes.

Social Base

  • Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh witnessed the unprecedented participation of the students.
  • Militant students of Patna and Benares played a significant role in this movement.
  • Peasants: The extent of the peasants’ participation was limited as the Quit India Movement was focused more on nationalism than anything else. Still, in Bihar and Eastern UP, they were more active.
  • Tribals: In Bengal and Orissa, they participated in the struggle.
  • Government officials: Government employees, particularly those from lower ranks of the police and administration, took part, which decreased people's devotion to the government. Some government officials , including police, passed on secret information to the activists.
  • Women: Women's participation was remarkable during the Quit India Movement. They actively took part in protests, strikes, and demonstrations and played a significant role in organising and mobilising local communities.

Limitations of the Quit India Movement

While the Quit India Movement played a crucial role in India's struggle for independence, it also had several limitations that affected its overall impact:

  • Failed to meet its objectives: The movement did not immediately lead to freedom , and it took more years of struggle and negotiations before independence was achieved.
  • Lack of central leadership: The lack of central leadership hindered effective coordination and decision-making, leading to confusion and fragmentation within the movement.
  • Muslim League, Communist Party of India, and Hindu Mahasabha were against the Movement.
  • Bureaucracy was also against the Movement.
  • B. R. Ambedkar and Periyar were also against the Movement.
  • Communal divide:
  • Muslim participation in the movement was even lower than the CDM. Jinnah appealed to Muslims to join the armed forces.
  • Muslim League used this time period to mobilise masses that helped it in the next elections of 1945-46, which strengthened its demand of a separate state, ultimately resulting in the Partition .
  • Further, there were some areas of communal violence during the Movement.
  • Neglected by historians:
  • This is due to the absence of the major political parties and the leaders playing the central role in the Quit India Movement.

Significance of the Quit India Movement

The Quit India Movement was active until 1944 when the British ruthlessly crushed it. Although it failed to oust the British from India, which was its objective, the Movement was a significant phase of India’s quest for self-rule.

  • In terms of spirit and enthusiasm, this Movement beat all the other earlier movements.
  • NCM was urban-based, and CDM was wider, but the QIM was the most violent and radical, supported mainly by the poor and labour class, the hardest hit by wartime inflation.
  • Despite the lack of central leadership, the role played by the younger generations, peasants, tribals, and women was unparalleled.
  • The mass participation, especially in some parts of India, was unprecedented.
  • It was a movement of the subaltern classes of India with a bottom-up approach from the grassroots level.
  • The movement witnessed the central role played by the Congress Socialist Party’s leaders, such as  JP Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia.
  • Further, it also gave birth to some young generation leaders, like Aruna Asaf Ali. 
  • The way for independence: Although it did not immediately achieve its goals, it contributed to the weakening of British rule and set the tone for future protests such as during the INA Trials.

PYQs on Quit India Movement

Q)  With reference to 8th August 1942 in Indian history, which one of the following statements is correct? (UPSC Prelims 2021)

a) The Quit India Resolution was adopted by the AICC.

b) The Viceroy’s Executive Council was expanded to include more Indians.

c) The Congress ministries resigned in seven provinces.

d) Cripps proposed an Indian Union with full Dominion status once the Second World War was over.

Answer: (a)

Q)  With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events: (UPSC Prelims 2017)

  • Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
  • Quit India Movement launched
  • Second Round Table Conference

What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events?

a) 1 – 2– 3

b) 2 – 1 – 3

c) 3 – 2 – 1

d) 3 – 1 – 2

Answer: (c)

Q)  Quit India Movement was launched in response to (UPSC Prelims 2013)

a) Cabinet Mission Plan

b) Cripps Proposals

c) Simon Commission Report

d) Wavell Plan

Answer: (b)

FAQs on the Quit India Movement

What was the reason for launching the quit india movement.

The failure of the Cripps Mission was the immediate cause of the Quit India movement . The INC did not provide unconditional support to the British during World War II, as the British assumed. Among the Indian masses, the sense of nationalism and self-rule had grown in popularity.

Who launched the Quit India Movement?

On 8 August 1942, at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the 'Quit India movement’. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.

What was the Quit India Movement's slogan?

The slogan of the Quit India Movement was "Do or Die." This slogan reflected the Indian people's determination to achieve independence from British rule at any cost. As a result, the movement is regarded as a pivotal event in India's struggle for independence from oppressive British rule.

Who was known as the Queen of Quit India Movement?

The prominent female leader known as the "Queen of the Quit India Movement" was Aruna Asaf Ali. She played a significant role in the Indian independence movement and was an influential figure during the Quit India Movement of 1942.

What is the role of Rani Gaidinliu in the Quit India Movement?

Rani Gaidinliu established the Naga Raj movement and rallied support from various Naga tribes to resist British control during the Quit India Movement. In 1944, Rani Gaidinliu was arrested by the British authorities and sentenced to life imprisonment for her involvement in the independence movement. She was released in 1947 following India's independence.

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Cultural India

Quit india movement.

Also Known as: Bharat Chhodo Andolan

Launched on: 8 August 1942

Launched at: Bombay

Launched by: Indian National Congress

Nature of Movement: Mass Protests

Objective: Withdrawal of British from India

The Indian National Congress launched the ‘Quit India Movement’ on August 8, 1942 at the Bombay session of the ‘All-India Congress Committee.’ The sole aim of the movement was to force the British to withdraw from India. The movement was launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who delivered an exhilarating ‘Do or Die’ Quit India speech at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay (now Mumbai). Even though the British were concentrating all their energy in the Second World War, they were prepared to act against the Congress leaders, and almost all the main leaders of the Congress were imprisoned within hours of the launch of the movement. Many Indian industrialists and other groups did not support the movement for various reasons. This made sure the movement initiated by Gandhi had no major impact in terms of attaining immediate independence. However, it did play a crucial role leading up to India’s eventual independence in the year 1947.

Image Credit : http://www.freepressjournal.in/webspecial/quit-india-movement-all-you-need-to-know-in-10-points/1118275

Image Credit : http://www.freepressjournal.in/webspecial/quit-india-movement-all-you-need-to-know-in-10-points/1118275

During the ‘Second World War’ in 1939, Indian soldiers were sent to fight for the British against the German troops. On October 10, 1939, the ‘Congress Working Committee’ passed a resolution, which stated that Indian soldiers should not be sent to the war without people’s consultation. Seven days later, the Viceroy issued a statement in response to the resolution, in which he claimed that the British’s objective in waging wars was to reinforce peace in the world. He also promised that the British administration would make Indian-friendly modifications to the ‘Act of 1935’ once the war comes to an end. However, the Viceroy’s claims could not convince the Indian leaders, who were looking to put further pressure on the British government.

The Congress ministers from across eight provinces resigned as they were instructed to do so by the High Command. Meanwhile, the ‘Conservative Party’ assumed power in Britain as Winston Churchill was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain as the Prime Minister of Britain. Though the Conservatives failed to consider the demands put forth by the Congress, they did concede to some of the demands in order to gain the support of the Indians at a time when the war had intensified, which had worsened Britain’s state.

On August 8, 1940, the Viceroy of India issued a statement, requesting full co-operation from the Indians during Britain’s campaign in the ongoing ‘Second World War.’ In return, the Viceroy promised to add more Indian members in the ‘Viceroy’s Executive Council’ and to consider Indians’ rights to form their own constitution among other tactical benefits. As expected, the deal was rejected by the Congress and the ‘Muslim League’ too did not accept the proposal as the Viceroy had failed to mention about the creation of a separate Muslim state called Pakistan.

At a meeting held by the ‘Congress Working Committee’ in Wardha, Mahatma Gandhi, who was dissatisfied with the Viceroy’s proposal, spoke about launching a movement that would display individual civil disobedience. Gandhi then chose Vinoba Bhave to initiate the movement, which encouraged many to initiate fiery protests all over the country. Many protestors, who were requesting their fellow Indians not to support Britain in its war campaign, were arrested. On December 3, 1941, the Viceroy ordered the release of almost 14,000 Indians, who were arrested in connection with the protests. The acquittal order was passed with a hope of gaining Indian support in the war as the situation in Europe had become critical, thanks to Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.

In March 1942, the British sent a delegation to India, which was led by the then Leader of the House of Commons, Stafford Cripps. Hence, the delegation came to be known as ‘Cripps mission.’ The sole purpose of the delegates’ visit was to convince the ‘Indian National Congress’ to support the Britain whole-heartedly in its war campaign. In return, the mission promised distribution of power from the Britain administration to an elected Indian legislature. However, the talks failed to produce any results as the mission failed to address the key demands of the Indians, including their right to form self-government.

The failure of ‘Cripps mission’ was one of the key factors contributing towards Gandhi’s decision to call for ‘Bharat Chhodo Andolan’ (Quit India Movement) on August 8, 1942. The movement was initiated with a hope of attaining immediate independence from the British. Gandhi’s call for immediate independence was also heavily influenced by his fear of a possible Japanese invasion of India and the supposed British inability to defend the India during such a situation.

Image Credit : http://www.samacharnama.com/knowing-about-quite-india-movement-on-9-august/quit-india-movement-9-august/

Image Credit : http://www.samacharnama.com/knowing-about-quite-india-movement-on-9-august/quit-india-movement-9-august/

Not surprisingly, Gandhi’s ‘Quit India Movement’ faced opposition from several Indians, who chose not to support the movement for various reasons. The Congress’ draft that proposed massive civil disobedience if the country doesn’t attain immediate independence was opposed by the prominent leader and Gandhi’s loyalist, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, who chose to quit the Congress. Though leaders like Maulana Azad and Jawaharlal Nehru were apprehensive of the call, they chose to remain loyal to Gandhi and believed in the Mahatma’s decision. However, various other leaders, including Allama Mashriqi opposed the Congress Working Committee’s resolution, stating that the movement was ‘pre-mature.’ He also said the Congress must first hold a discussion with the ‘Muslim League’ pertaining to the creation of Pakistan and should then consider all the other groups in order to make a demand to free India.

Several political groups, such as the ‘Muslim League,’ ‘Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh,’ ‘Hindu Mahasabha,’ and the ‘Communist Party of India’ did not support the movement. The ‘All-India Muslim League’ feared the Muslims will be oppressed by the Hindus if the British decided to leave India without creating a separate state for the Muslims. Hence, it did not support the movement, which worked in favor of the British. What also worked in favor of the British was the silence of ‘Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’ (RSS). Led by M.S. Golwalkar, RSS failed to join the movement as it did not want to go against the ruling government. This decision by the RSS attracted criticisms from general public as well as from certain important members of the RSS itself. However, the organization continued its stance against ‘Quit India Movement,’ which pleased the British authorities.

Other important political organizations like the ‘Communist Party of India’ and the ‘Hindu Mahasabha’ too did not support the movement. While the ‘Hindu Mahasabha’ stated that the movement will bring about internal disorder, the ‘Communist Party of India’ supported the British during the war as it wanted to support Soviet Union in its battles against the Hitler-led Nazi Germany.

What further weakened the movement was the fact that many Indian businessmen and students also did not support the movement. The businessmen supported the war as they were enjoying huge profits through heavy wartime spending, while many students simply ignored the movement as they were focused on the progression of Subhas Chandra Bose in his effort to free India.

Image Credit : https://commons.wikimedia.org

Image Credit : https://commons.wikimedia.org

Renowned British author John F. Riddick stated that the ‘Quit India Movement’ was responsible in the destruction of 155 government buildings, including 70 police stations. He also said that the movement led to attacks on at least 250 railway stations and 550 post offices. Throughout India, there were 2,500 instances of telegraph wires sabotage by the protestors.

In Bihar alone, 57 battalions of British troops had to be deployed to restore order in the region.

In Uttar Pradesh, people started breaking into jails, releasing many Congress leaders. Some local rulers even proclaimed their own rule.

In West Bengal, the peasants were engaged in violent activities as they were angered by the fact that the British government had introduced new taxes and had even forced them to export rice.

Image Credit : https://caravandaily.com/portal/75-years-of-quit-india-movement-when-hindutva-brigade-ganged-up-with-british-rulers-and-muslim-league/

Image Credit : https://caravandaily.com/portal/75-years-of-quit-india-movement-when-hindutva-brigade-ganged-up-with-british-rulers-and-muslim-league/

Suppression of the Movement

By 1944, almost all demonstrations as part of the movement had been suppressed. The British had imprisoned Gandhi as well as all the members of ‘Congress Working Committee.’ In fact, many prominent Congress leaders were isolated from the rest of the world for more than three years. While Gandhi’s personal secretary, Mahadev Desai, and his wife, Kasturbai, died in prison, Gandhi’s own health was fast deteriorating.

Since many demonstrations were violent in nature, the British had responded with mass detentions as more than 100,000 people were arrested, which eventually led to the suppression of the movement.

Many civilians and protestors were shot dead by the police and there was a general feeling that the ‘Quit India Movement’ had failed miserably, which depressed many nationalists.

Image Credit : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quit_India_Movement

Image Credit : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quit_India_Movement

Impact of the Quit India Movement

Though the movement initiated by Gandhi had no major impact in terms of attaining immediate independence, it did play a crucial role leading up to India’s eventual independence. Firstly, the movement kept the Congress Party united through thick and thin and the movement established a fact in the minds of the British that to attain complete freedom the Indians were ready to dig deeper than they had expected. The movement also conveyed to the British that India had the support of global leaders, as the then American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had urged the British administration to consider at least some of the demands put forth by the Indian leaders.

Another major impact the movement had on the independence was the destruction it had caused through various protests and violent activities. Since the movement was responsible in the destruction of many edifices and facilities, the British had to reconstruct many facilities if they were to rule India for a longer period of time. However, destruction and monetary loss incurred by Britain during the ‘Second World War’ made sure the British administration was left with insufficient funds to rebuild India. Hence, the British understood that it was almost impossible for them to govern India in the long run. Once the war came to an end in 1945, the only question that lingered on many British minds was how to exit India peacefully and gracefully.

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Home » Modern Indian History » Freedom to Partition (1939 – 1947) » Quit India Movement

  • The failure of Cripps Mission
  • The arrival of Japanese armies on Indian borders
  • The rising prices and shortages in food supplies
  • The different opinion within the congress
  • The resolution was rejected, but it showed the intent of Congress
  • If they did not agree, he would launch a Civil Disobedience movement.
  • Eventually, he decided in favour of launching the movement.
  • On 8th August 1942, the AICC passed the Quit India Resolution

quit india essay

Introduction

  • The Quit India Movement has rightly been described as the most massive antiimperialist struggle on the eve of Partition and Independence.
  • 1942, the year that the movement was launched and the next five years witnessed unparalleled and tumultuous events in the political history of India
  • Sharp increase in popular nationalism, large-scale deprivation and death due to widespread famine conditions particularly the Bengal Famine of 1943, heightened Japanese aggression in Burma and Malaya, hopes of a military deliverance through the onward march of the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ of Subhas Chandra Bose, and widening of the communal divide leading to the vivisection of the political fabric of the country were some of these developments

The Movement

  • The Congress gave the call for ousting British but it did not give any concrete line of action to be adopted by the people.
  • Everyone is free to go the fullest length under Ahimisa to complete deadlock by strikes and other non-violent means. Satyagrahis must go out to die not to live. They must seek and face death. It is only when individuals go out to die that the nation will survive, Karenge Ya/Marenge (do or die).
  • There were, hartals, demonstrations and processions in cities and towns. The Congress leadership gave the call, but it was the people who launched the Movement .
  • The assembly of public meetings was prohibited under rule 56 of the Defence of India Rules.
  • Since all the recognised leaders-central, provincial or local-had been arrested, the young and more militant cadres-particularly students with socialist leanings took over as leaders at local levels in their areas.
  • Later, it was the repressive policy of the government which provoked the people to violence.
  • attacks on government buildings, police stations and post offices,
  • attacks on railway stations, and sabotaging rail lines,
  • cutting off the telegraph wires, telephones and electric power lines,
  • disrupting road traffic by destroying bridges, and
  • workers going on strike, etc.
  • In Maharashtra , a parallel government was established in Satara which continued to function for a long time.
  • In Bengal, Tamluk Jatiya Sarkar functioned for a long time in Midnapore district. This national government had various departments like Law and Order, Health, Education, Agriculture, etc., along with a postal system of its own and arbitration courts.
  • People established Swaraj in Talacher in Orissa.
  • In this essence, the movement got a massive response from people of Bombay, Andhra, UP, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Karnataka, Bengal, etc.
  • But the responses in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, etc, were weak.
  • This was another trend in the movement, besides mass action.
  • The participants in these activities were the Socialists, Forward Bloc members, Gandhi ashramites, revolutionary nationalists and local organisations
  • The main personalities taking up underground activity were Rammanohar Lohia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta, Biju Patnaik, Chhotubhai Puranik, Achyut Patwardhan, Sucheta Kripalani and R.P. Goenka
  • This phase of underground activity was meant to keep up popular morale by continuing to provide a line of command and guidance to distribute arms and ammunition

quit india essay

The British Government’s reaction

  • The Government had geared all its forces to suppress the popular upsurge.
  • Arrests, detentions, police firings, burning of Congress offices, etc. were the methods adopted by the Government.
  • The press was muzzled. The military took over many cities; police and secret service reigned supreme.
  • Rebellious villages were fined heavily and in many villages, mass flogging was done.

Significance of Quit India Movement

  • The Quit India Movement failed to end British rule in India. Yet, this was one movement that demonstrated the will and reserve of diverse communities of Indians to withstand both the highhandedness of imperial authorities and the elitism of the Indian Political class.
  • The Quit India Movement stands apart from the earlier movements in terms of the spirit and enthusiasm that it infused in ordinary people to support indigenous institutions and structures of power.
  • The parallel governments that such efforts produced indicate the basic difference between the 1942 movement and the earlier movements
  • Loyalty to government suffered considerable erosion. This also showed how deep nationalism had reached.
  • The movement established the truth that it was no longer possible to rule India without the wishes of Indians.
  • The great significance was that the movement placed the demand for independence on the immediate agenda of the national movement. After Quit India, there could be no retreat.
  • Also, in this struggle, the common people displayed unparalleled heroism and militancy . The repression they faced was the most brutal, and the circumstances under which resistance was offered were most adverse.

On the whole, the Quit India movement collapsed, but not without demonstrating the determination of the masses to do away with British rule. The Congress leadership did not condemn the deviation by the people from the principle of non-violence, but at the same time disowned any responsibility for the violent acts of the people. Eventually, by 1945 the Congress was moving in the direction of focusing its attention and energies on the 1946 elections.

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In Search of Gandhi: Essays and Reflections

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Ten ‘Quit India’

  • Published: October 2004
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The Quit India resolution, passed by the All India Congress Committee on 8 August 1942, called for the immediate end to British rule in India. This chapter discusses the imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee for two years and highlights the challenges faced by him during this period. Gandhi clarified that their non-violent rebellion was not a programme of seizure of power. The chapter talks of his rejection of the claim that it was sabotage and underground activity that had strengthened the national cause or brought freedom to India.

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Analysis: “Quit India”

As in most speeches, Gandhi’s “Quit India” address is highly tailored to his present and future audiences, including the All India Congress in addition to thousands of others gathered there that day. To be as effective as possible, Gandhi layers his speeches with appeals . He also employs specific references, juxtaposes ideas, and uses lofty language to create a call to action toward independence. The overarching structure of his speeches is practical and strategic. The first two speeches are delivered in Hindi and are very specific to the business of the All India Congress. The first speech sets up the vote for the resolution, and the second speech is Gandhi’s attempt to unify all the factions that still differ after the vote. The final speech, delivered in English, broadens the scope of his message to the wider world and attempts to connect India’s independence to larger themes of freedom worldwide.

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Quit India campaign

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Refusing to support the colonial British government’s involvement in World War II, in 1942 the Indian National Congress party launched the campaign known as Quit India. The movement called for India’s immediate independence and for British withdrawal from the subcontinent. Although it was quickly suppressed, the Quit India campaign raised the threat of a massive nonviolent struggle and thereby influenced Britain’s decision to grant independence to India.

Mahatma Gandhi , the leader of the Congress party, had long espoused the idea of passive resistance to bring about change in India. In the wake of the 1919 Amritsar massacre , he passionately promoted nonviolent protest against British rule. In the late 1920s he switched from supporting Indian self-rule within the British Empire to leading the fight for independence.

Gandhi’s campaign for independence through civil disobedience raised a swell of national pride and an increasing sense of possibility throughout the 1930s. In the early 1940s, Great Britain asked that talks on Indian independence be postponed until after the war. Gandhi refused and instead put forth the Quit India policy. He and other nationalist leaders were jailed, which quieted the movement for two years. The goal of Indian independence was finally realized in 1947.

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Quit India Movement

quit india essay

With the failure of the Cripps Mission, there was widespread discontentment among the Indians. Japan was advancing towards India and the fall of India to Japan was imminent. Gandhiji warned that only a free India could defend herself and he urged for the right of self-determination to Indians.

But there was also a difference of opinion among the Indian leaders. While Gandhiji demanded that the British should immediately withdraw from India, Subhash Chandra Bose from Berlin urged for co-operation with Japan as with this means India would be liberated.

The difficulties of Britain would be the opportunities of India. Since the Congress was opposed both to British and Japanese imperialism, the call of Subhas did not appeal to them. Another eminent leader of the Congress, C. Rajagopalachari did not support the proposal of immediate withdrawal of Britishers.

He was, rather in favour of accepting the Cripps proposal and the principle of Pakistan. Being unable to agree with the proposals of Gandhiji, Rajagopalachari resigned from Congress.

BBC World Service - Witness, The Quit India Movement

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Gandhiji adopted a stern attitude to pressurize the British Government to quit India. But when this proposal did not receive any response from the government, the Congress Working Committee met at Wardha on 14th July 1942 and adopted the famous “Quit India Resolution”. With little modification this resolution was adopted by the All India Congress Committee at its Bombay session on 8 th August 1942. The Committee asserted India’s right to freedom and decided to start a mass struggle on non-violent means on the widest possible scale.

Addressing the Conference, Gandhiji gave the call “Do or Die”, either to get India free or to die in this attempt. But before the movement could be launched Gandhiji and all other leaders of the Congress were imprisoned. Thus, the people were left leaderless. People took it as a challenge and resorted to hartals, mass meetings, processions etc. The Government banned them all and imposed section 144 at most of the places.

The police forcefully dispersed the public meetings, “lathi charged” and even fired at the public. The Congress was declared an unlawful association. In the absence of leaders, people voluntarily did whatever they could in protest of the British rule . Under this circumstance, it was impossible to continue the movement in non-violent means.

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The people disrupted railway lines, burnt out police and railway stations, destroyed telephone and telegraph poles. The revolt was spearheaded by the students, peasants, workers and lower middle class people. People set up parallel government at some places. The government was able to crush the open movement with a heavy hand. But the underground movement continued for a long period. The Socialist Party under the leadership of Jaya Prakash Narain, Ram Manohar Lohia, and Mrs. Aruna Asaf Ali etc. largely participated in organizing underground movement.

The Quit India Movement was not supported by the Muslim League and the Communists. When Russia joined the war on behalf of the Allies, the communists began to demand the withdrawal of the movement and pleaded all support to the government in its war effort. The Muslim League considered the movement as the attempt of the Congress to turn out the British forcefully as a result of which Muslims would be enslaved by the Hindus. Even the depressed class leader Dr. B.R. Ambedkar described the movement as irresponsible and an act of madness.

The movement collapsed as it lacked leadership and organisation from the beginning. Jayaprakash Narain said that the movement failed due to lack of co-ordination among the Congress people agitating in different parts of the country. There was absence of a clear cut programme of action. Another weakness of the movement was that it was confined only to students, peasants and lower middle class. But the upper middle class had lost their faith in the Gandhian methods of action.

Thus, the movement did not enjoy widespread popularity which greatly contributed to its failure. But the movement was not a dismal failure; rather the movement of 1942 gave the death blow to the British rule. India’s march towards freedom was hastened. This movement sparked off an aggressive national consciousness. Many people sacrificed their careers, property and even lives.

The movement also created a World-wide opinion particularly in U.S.A. and China in favour of India’s independence. President F.D. Roosevelt of U.S.A, put pressure on the British Government to grant the right of self determination to India. On the whole, the movement had its own importance and facilitated the freedom movement in India.

Related Articles:

  • Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan during Quit India Movement
  • History of the Quit India Movement
  • Essay on Quit India Movement (1942)
  • Role of Gandhiji in Quit Indian Movement

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Indian History

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Quit India Movement

  • 10 Aug 2020
  • GS Paper - 1
  • Modern Indian History
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Why in News

On 8 th Aug 2020, India completed 78 years of Quit India Movement also known as August Kranti.

  • Taking inspiration from the Quit India Movement, the Prime Minister gave a call for the revival of its spirit of the Quit India Movement by coining a new slogan karenge aur karake rahenge in place of Gandhi’s slogan of karo ya maro (Do or Die).
  • The aim of this slogan is to achieve the goal of building a “New India” by 2022.
  • Gandhiji gave the call “Do or Die”  in his speech delivered at the Gowalia Tank Maidan, now popularly known as August Kranti Maidan.
  • Aruna Asaf Ali popularly known as the 'Grand Old Lady' of the Independence Movement is known for hoisting the Indian flag at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai during the Quit India Movement.
  • Meherally had also coined the slogan “Simon Go Back”.
  • The immediate cause for the movement was the collapse of Cripps Mission.
  • The British assumption of unconditional support from India to British in World War II was not taken well by the Indian National Congress .
  • The anti-British sentiments and demand for full-independence had gained popularity among indian masses.
  • The two decades of mass movement which were being conducted on a much more radical tone under the leadership of the various associated and affiliated bodies of the Congress, like All India Kisan Sabha, Forward Bloc etc. had already prepared the ground for the movement.
  • There were militant outbursts happening at several places in the country which got channelized with the Quit India Movement.
  • The economy was also in shatters as a result of World War II.
  • The demand was to end the British rule in India with immediate effect to get the cooperation of Indians in World War-II against fascism.
  • There was a demand to form a provisional government after the withdrawal of the Britishers.
  • There were strikes and demonstrations all over the country and workers provided the support by not working in the factories.
  • Gandhiji was soon imprisoned at Aga Khan Palace in Pune and almost all leaders were arrested.
  • In the second phase, the focus shifted to the countryside, which witnessed a major peasant rebellion, marked by destruction of communication sys­tems, such as railway tracks and stations, telegraph wires and poles, attacks on government buildings or any other visible symbol of colo­nial authority.
  • The last phase witnessed the formation of national governments or parallel governments isolated pockets (Ballia, Tamluk, Satara etc.)
  • Spontaneous Violence: The movement saw violence at some places which was not premeditated.
  • Future Leaders: Underground activities were taken by leaders that included Ram Manohar Lohia, J.P. Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, Biju Patnaik, Sucheta Kriplani, etc which later emerged as prominent leaders.
  • Women Participation: Women took active participation in the movement. Female leaders like Usha Mehta helped set up an underground radio station which led to the awakening about the movement.
  • The League was not in favour of the British leaving India without partitioning the country first.
  • The Communist party supported the British since they were allied with the Soviet Union.
  • The Hindu Mahasabha openly opposed the call for the Quit India Movement and boycotted it officially under the apprehension that the movement would create internal disorder and will endanger internal security during the war.
  • Meanwhile, Subhas Chandra Bose, organised the Indian National Army and the Azad Hind government from outside the country.
  • As C Rajagopalachari was not in favour of complete independence, he resigned from the INC.

Cripps Mission

  • Japanese aggression in South-East Asia, keenness of British Government to secure the full participation of India in the war, mounting pressure from China and the United States, as well as from the Labour Party in Britain, led British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to send Cripps Mission to India in March 1942.
  • Under Stafford Cripps, the mission was sent to resolve the Indian question of a new constitution and self-government.
  • An Indian Union with a dominion status would be set up; it would be free to decide its relations with the Commonwealth and free to participate in the United Nations and other international bodies.
  • A constituent assembly would be convened after the war to frame a new constitution.
  • Members of the assembly partly elected by the provincial assemblies and partly nominated by the princes.
  • Any province not willing to accept the constitution would be given ‘the same full status as the Indian Union’, - designed to appease the Muslim League’s call for Pakistan.
  • The constitution making body and the British Government would negotiate a treaty to effect the transfer of power and to safeguard racial and religious minorities.
  • The Indian National Congress, however, was not satisfied as its demand for immediate complete independence had been rejected.
  • Mahatma Gandhi said that Cripps' offer of Dominion Status after the war was a "post-dated cheque drawn on a failing bank’’.
  • The Quit India movement was violently suppressed by the British – people were shot, lathi-charged, villages burnt and enormous fines imposed.
  • Over 100000 people were arrested and the government resorted to violence in order to crush the agitation.
  • The Britishers declared the INC to be an unlawful association.
  • New leaders like Aruna Asaf Ali emerged out of the vacuum of leadership.
  • While the Quit India campaign was crushed in 1944, with the British refusing to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war had ended, they came to the important realization that India was ungovernable in the long run due to the cost of World War II.
  • It changed the nature of political negotiations with British the, ultimately paving the way for India's independence.

quit india essay

Quit India Movement: Essay and Important Facts

The fourth decade of the twentieth century is of utmost importance in the history of India’s struggle for freedom. This was the period of the Second World War (1939 -1945), which shattered the mighty British Empire to its core. During the Second World War, in 1942, the Allied Powers (the Soviet Union, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom) suffered losses in South East Asia. Being a British Colony, India feared the Japanese attack during the war, and hence Britain wanted Indian support in the war for which Britain sent Cripps Mission to India; however, the Cripps Mission failed to pacify Indian leaders. After the failure of the Cripps Mission, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee at the Gowalia Tank Maidan on 8 August 1942; the movement is also known as the August Kranti Movement.

Quit India Resolution

On 14 July 1942, the Congress Working Committee at Wardha adopted a resolution, demanding an end to British rule in India following which a movement called the Quit India Movement started under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. On 8 August 1942, in his Quit India speech at the Gowalia Tank Maidan, Mahatma Gandhi said,

Everyone of you should from this moment onwards consider yourself a free man or women and act as if you are free. I am not going to satisfy with anything short of complete freedom. We shall do or die .We shall either free India or die in the attempt”

While proposing massive civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi summoned people from different sections of the society like government servants, soldiers, students, and princes of princely states.

Spread of the movement

On 9 August 1942, all Congress leaders were arrested and taken to some unknown location. The Congress Working Committee, the All India Congress Committee, and the Provincial Congress Committees were declared unlawful associations under the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1908. Public meetings were strictly prohibited. As the senior leaders were under arrest, the responsibility of spearheading the movement came into the hands of young leaders. Aruna Asif Ali, a relatively unknown figure at that time presided over the Congress Committee session on 9 August 1942.

The arrest of Mahatma Gandhi and others and the underground activity

Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu were arrested and kept in Aga Khan Palace in Pune. Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Jayaprakash Narayan were arrested in Patna and kept in Hazaribagh jail, but Jaiprakash Narayan escaped, and he started an underground network. Ram Manohar Lohiya, Jayaprakash Narayan, Aruna Asif Ali, Tushar Mehta, Biju Patnaik, Achyut Patwardhan, Sucheta Kriplani, and RP Goenka were actively involved in these underground activities. Usha Mehta was famous for starting an underground radio in Bombay. The main aim of these underground activities was to keep up the movement alive in the absence of its main leaders.

A newspaper cutting about the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi and others during the Quit India Movement in 1942

Parallel governments across the country

A significant feature of the Quit India Movement was the emergence of parallel governments in some parts of the country. The first such parallel government was set up in Ballia in Eastern UP under Chittu Pandey. He was responsible for the release of many arrested Congress leaders. In Tamluk (Medinipur Bengal), the ‘Jatiya Sarkar’ or Tamluk National Government undertook cyclone relief work, sanctioned grants to schools, and supplied paddy from the rich to the poor. In Satara (Maharashtra), a parallel government called ‘Prati Sarkar’ was organized under the leadership of YB Chavan, Nanaji Patel, etc. Village libraries and Nyayadan Mandals were organized, prohibition campaigns carried out, and ‘Gandhi Marriages’ were organized.

Prati Sarkar, a parallel government in Satara, Maharashtra during the Quit India Movement in 1942

Participation of the masses and the movement gaining momentum

There was wide participation of the people from every section of society. Youth, especially the students of schools and colleges, remained at the forefront. Women, workers, and peasants showed keen interest in participation. Government officials also participated in the movement to some extent. Muslims all across the country helped the movement to gain momentum by providing shelter to the underground leaders, and there was a complete absence of communal clashes during the movement. Contrary to popular sentiments, some organizations did not participate in the movement but rather opposed it. Communists, Muslim League, and Hindu Mahasabha were prominent among these. Many princely states showed a cold response to the movement, and the heads of these princely states were not enthusiastic about the movement.

Participation of masses during the Quit India Movement in 1942

Government’s tactic to suppress the movement

There was heavy repression from the government side. The agitating people were attacked, Lathi charged, and tear-gassed by the police. More than 10,000 people were killed across the country. The military took over many cities. The disobedient villages were fined heavily.

Police teargas demonstrators during the Quit India Movement in 1942

Consequences

Though the government succeeded in suppressing the movement, this movement demonstrated that the Nationalist feeling in the common masses had reached its zenith, and Britishers realized that they would no longer rule India against the wishes of its people. By this time, the immediate agenda of the movement had become ‘complete independence.’ The courage and resistance that the masses showed in this movement were unparalleled. The people wanted to get India free from the shackles of slavery, oppression, and insult. The dawn of freedom was near. In February 1943, Mahatma Gandhi started a fast to condemn the violence that the common people faced during government repression. Meanwhile, the Muslim League demanded a separate state of Pakistan and observed Pakistan Day on 23 March 1943, giving a clear message to the Muslim population that their fate was different from secular India.

Important Facts

  • After the failure of the Cripps Mission in 1942, there was a feeling of frustration among all sections of the people across India.
The presence of British Empire in India is an invitation to Japan to invade.”
  •  In July 1942, a resolution was adopted by the Congress Working Committee, which is generally referred to as the ‘Quit India resolution,’ under which a non-violent movement was started under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Through individual civil disobedience, organizational revamping, and a consistent propaganda campaign, Mahatma Gandhi was preparing the masses for bigger future agitations against British Raj.
  • On 9th August 1942, the big leaders of the Congress were arrested and taken to an unknown location. Consequently, leadership in the movement was provided by less-known leaders like Aruna Asif Ali.
  • Congress and its associated organizations were declared illegal under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1908.
  • Many leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan, Aruna Asif Ali, Usha Mehta, etc., went underground and continued disruptive activities to keep the movement alive.
  • An important feature of the Quit India Movement was the formation of parallel governments in many places across India like Ballia, Tamluk, and Satara.
  • There was immense participation in the movement across various activities of society, which included women, youth, workers, government officials, and the Muslim population.
  • Communists, the Muslim League, and the Hindu Mahasabha did not support the movement.
  • The government suppressed the movement with an iron hand, killing more than 10,000 people, and many villages were fined heavily for participating in the movement.
  •  This movement removed fear from the minds of the people against Colonial rule, demanding an end to British rule in India.

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Aruna Asaf Ali: Brave Heart Of The Quit India Movement | #IndianWomenInHistory

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Aruna Asaf Ali was a luminous star in the firmament of India’s freedom struggle. Indeed, modern Indian history would be bleak and meaningless without mentioning her invaluable contributions to the country’s struggle for independence.

Early Years

She was born Aruna Ganguly, into a Bengali family domiciled in United Province, on 16 July 1909. Since the Gangulys were adherents of the Brahmo Samaj , they were fairly progressive, as compared to their orthodox fellow upper castes. Aruna’s father owned and ran a restaurant. She was related to the Tagore family as the Rabindranath Tagore’s youngest daughter Mira had married her father’s younger brother.

In an age when the bulk of Indian women were not allowed to study, Aruna received the best possible education: schooling at Sacred Heart Convent , Lahore, followed by All Saints’ College , Nainital . After her graduation, she taught at the prestigious Gokhale  Memorial School in  Calcutta .

A life-changing event

In 1928, when Aruna was barely out of her teens, a chance meeting changed her life forever. In Allahabad, she came in contact with a progressive barrister by the name of Asaf Ali. Their ideology and taste were so similar that an age difference of 21 years notwithstanding, they were determined to tie the knot.

In the teeth of vehement opposition from both their families, owing to obvious socio-cultural-religious differences, they went ahead with their plans. In one of her numerous biographies Aruna Asaf Ali is quoted  saying:

“My father was no more when Asaf and I married in September 1928. My paternal uncle Nagendranath Ganguly, a university professor who regarded himself as my guardian, said to relatives and friends that as far as he was concerned I was dead and he had performed my  shraddh”

However, well-known profiles from the freedom struggle such as Gandhi, Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, C. Rajgopalachari and Maulana Azad blessed the newly-weds. It was a star studded affair so to say. After her marriage, Aruna moved in with her husband’s family. Though Asaf Ali planned to leave his ancestral home in Old Delhi’s dingy Kucha Chelan locality and move to the posh Civil Lines area, yet she refused because she had no wish to separate Ali from his doting mother Akbari Begum.

Their married life was by and large peaceful. They were so devoted and dedicated towards their motherland that the couple avoided raising a family. Asaf Ali was one of the three lawyers who defended Bhagat Singh and his accomplice Batukeshwar Dutt during their trial.

Also Read:  6 Strikes By Indian Women That Will Inspire You

Asaf Ali moulded his wife’s mindset by introducing her to authors like Virginia Woolf, Shaw and Marx among others. A staunch Congressman, he inspired Aruna to join the party. Owing to her enthusiasm and zeal, she soon became an important member of the Congress .

She participated in public processions during the  Salt Satyagraha (1930) and was arrested on charges of being a vagrant. She remained in prison even after the  Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931, when all political prisoners were released. In solidarity with other women prisoners, she refused to leave the premises unless the others also released. Following Gandhiji’s intervention and a public outcry, Aruna Asaf Ali walked free.

Then came the momentous period of her life. The struggle for independence had reached its pinnacle. On 8 August 1942, the  All India Congress Committee  passed the  Quit India resolution   at its Bomb a y  session. Forthwith the government arrested all the major leaders besides all members of the  Congress Working Committee , in a bid to pre-empt success of the movement.

To overcome the crisis, Aruna Asaf Ali who was then 33, swiftly stepped in to preside over the remainder of the session. On the following day i.e 9th August, she hoisted the Congress flag at the Gowalia Tank Maidan (now Azad Maidan) in Bombay, before a huge crowd of supporters and party workers. Decades later, during the golden jubilee celebration of the Quit India movement in 1992, Aruna Asaf Ali, by then a frail 83-year-old, recreated the historic occasion by raising a flag at the historic venue in Mumbai.

Back to the incident, police resorted to lathi charge and lobbed tear gas shells to disperse the surging crowds who had gathered to witness the event. To escape arrest, Aruna went underground. Around this time, along with  Ram Manohar Lohia , she would edit  Inquilab , a monthly magazine of the Congress Party . 

Aruna was a member of the  Congress Socialist Party – an intraparty unit for activists with  socialist  leanings. However, she steadily grew disillusioned with the Congress Party ’s approach towards socialism, which she held so dear. Her time with the Socialist Party ended when she joined the  Communist Party of India  in the early 1950s. 

She played a crucial role in the formation of National Federation of Indian Women (NFIW), the women’s wing of CPI. In 1956, following Khrushchev-Stalin spat she quit the CPI. In 1958 she was elected the mayor of Delhi. She masterminded the establishment of reputed publications (now defunct) like Patriot (daily) and Link (weekly). In 1964, she rejoined the Congress but quit active politics. 

A grateful nation remembers

Following her husband’s demise in 1953, Aruna lived alone for the rest of her life. Aruna Asaf Ali died in  New Delhi  on 29 July 1996, aged 87. The following year she was bestowed the  Bharat Ratna ,  posthumously . In 1998, the government issued a commemorative stamp for her. A strategic road in south Delhi Aruna Asaf Ali Marg was named in her  memory. Most importantly, she earned the sobriquets Heroine of the 1942 Movement  and Grand Old Lady of the Independence movement.

Also Read:  Remembering The Red Feminist: Anuradha Ghandy | #IndianWomenInHistory

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Delhi based Ruchira Ghosh is a trained journalist with nearly two & a half decade’s writing experience and exposure to print, web and television.

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quit india essay

English Summary

Short Essay on Quit India Movement

Table of Contents

Amidst World War-II, on 8 th August 1940, the British Government announced ‘Dominion Status’ to India through its famous ‘August Offer’ which was rejected by the Indians.

Gandhi, who was not prepared to oppose the Government by a mass upsurge, so far, now changed his mind. He was convinced of the necessity of starting a mass movement again. He raised the slogan of ‘Do or Die’.

Gandhi regarded the movement as the last struggle for Indian independence. In his speech before the All India Committee, he declared “it was going to be the last struggle of his life to win the freedom of India.”

The government became aware of the movement and prepared itself in advance. All the members of the Congress including Gandhi were arrested before they work. Other leaders were also arrested and people were left leaderless.

REAONS FOR THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

Following were the main causes that led to the Quit India Movement.

PHASES OF QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

Quit India Movement has been popularly divided into three phases:

The first phase started from the day of arrest of Gandhi. The news of Quit India Movement and Gandhi’s arrest took the people unaware but the reaction was spontaneous.

The second phase began from the middle of August when the focus shifted from the centre to the out skirts where the mob began to attack the court buildings. Places like eastern parts of U.P., Bihar, West Bengal , Karnataka, Maharashtra where the mob tried to set up parallel governments though short-lived and unsuccessful.

This was characterised by the youth and was directed against communications and police confrontations, occasionally rising to the level of Guerrilla Warfare.

In Bombay, Poona, Satara, Karnataka and U.P., underground organisations became active. The Government atrocities crossed all the limits but failed to restrict the movement from reaching its climax.

FAILURE OF THE MOVEMENT

Importance of the movement.

The importance of the Quit India Movement can never be undermined. It witnessed nationalistic feelings of the people at the zenith.

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Article On Quit India Movement 500, 300 Words for Kids, Children and Students in English

July 18, 2020 by Prasanna

Article On Quit India Movement:  Quit India Movement was one of the prominent historical movements of India, which led to the path of Independence in India in 1947.

After the Cripps strategic, Congress solidly made plans to escalate the movement for the opportunity. The Working Committee of the Congress passed a goal on July 14, 1942, at Wardha. The goal requested that the British standard in India be finished quickly, giving India freedom.

It was at long last affirmed in the Mumbai meeting where it was chosen to begin a nationwide non-violent movement under the authority of Mahatma Gandhi. After many sacrifices, struggles, movements, India got its independence from the rule of the British.

You can read more  Article Writing  about people, sports, technology many more.

Long And Short Articles On Quit India Movement for Students and Children in English

The Quit India Movement is an essential part of the history of Independence of India, which should be known by every Indian citizen. Students who go to schools and colleges can get asked to write articles on the subject for their assignments and exams. The long articles are useful to people studying in classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. On the other hand, the short articles are standard among students of grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

Short Article On Quit India Movement

Long Article On Quit India Movement 500 Words In English

The Quit India Movement otherwise called India August Movement or “Bharat Choro Andolan” was propelled at the Bombay meeting of the All India Congress Committee (AICC) by Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942. The protest was started to demand a conclusion to the British rule in India. Since in August, the movement was held, it is otherwise called August Kranti or August Movement. The movement was begun on August 9, 1942, and from that point forward the day is commended as August Kranti Day/Diwas. The day is praised by paying tribute to political dissidents with national integration speeches and different occasions.

Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan otherwise called August Kranti Maidan is where Mahatma Gandhi conveyed his speech denoting the start of the Quit India Movement. Mahatma alongside different pioneers accumulated here on August 8 and 9, 1942. The maidan also houses a landmark as a tribute to the recorded occasion.

In the speech of the Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank, Gandhiji called the country to ‘Do or Die’ in the speech which he delivered. After a few hours of the speech, the entire Indian National Congress members were arrested by the British Government without trial.

A few national pioneers like Mahatma Gandhi, Abdul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel were captured.

The Congress was announced an unlawful affiliation, leaders were captured, and its workplaces everywhere throughout the nation were attacked, and their assets were solidified.

The primary portion of the movement was peaceful with demonstrations and parades. The peaceful protest was conveyed until Mahatma Gandhi’s discharge.

The second half of the movement was fierce with attacks and setting fire at post workplaces, government structures and railroad stations. Lord Linlithgow embraced the arrangement of brutality.

The Viceroy’s Council of Muslims, Communist Party and Americans supported Britishers.

After the capture of significant pioneers, young Aruna Asaf Ali managed the AICC meeting. Despite a few police alerts and government noticed for prohibiting open processions and gatherings, a large group accumulated at Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan where Aruna Asaf Ali raised the flag.

The last phase of the movement was set apart on September 1942 where mobs are getting together and bombings in government spots of Mumbai and Madhya Pradesh.

The British wouldn’t allow prompt independence and expressed that it must be conceded after the war finished. At last, India got autonomy in 1947.

Gandhi’s ideology of non-violence and method of Satyagraha, it was the technique of struggle ceasefire battle that quickened and continued the inclination for freedom and empowered India to accomplish independence in 1947. We find steady and moderate progress from minority scale of opportunity searchers to mass organi­zation of opportunity searchers during the hour of Gandhi, and his most extraordinary commitment was the fruitful methodology of struggle truce struggle in stages to continue the rhythm of the movement.

Without a doubt, Gandhi was an extraordinary strategist of the twentieth-century mass political assembly process motivated by the self-dependent rule of the majority through a higher amount of non-violence methods.

Short Article On Quit India Movement 300 Words in English

Gandhiji launched the “Bharat Chhodo Andolan” or the Quit India Movement in August 1942. A demand was declared for an immediate end of British rule by the All India Congress Committee, which was passed as a resolution on 8th August 1942 in Bombay. Every one of this nation started dreaming of a free India inspired by Gandhiji’s slogan ‘Karo ya Maro’(‘Do or Die’). Congress decided to arrange a mass movement on the enormous scale possible on non-violent lines.

As a result, the British government took a hasty decision and banned the Congress, and most of their leaders were arrested before they could even start deploying the people. But still, the people were unstoppable; there were exhibitions and rebellion all over the country.

The people attacked the railway station, police stations and law courts as they were the symbols of the British Government. People even started their independent government in some places such as Ballia, Tamluk, Dharwar, Satara, Talcher, Balasore. These places were freed from British rules. The movement was most widespread in Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Bombay, Andhra Pradesh.

As a result the British responded with viciousness and the army was called to assist the police and lathi-charges, the firing was made to unarmed people. The rebels were arrested and tortured, and over sixty thousand people were jailed by the end of the year.

Jai Prakash Narayan, S M Joshi, Achyut Patwardhan and Smt Sucheta Kripalani were among the few leaders who were able escape from the arrest and went to hiding and tried to lead the mass movement. The people of the nation suffered very much during the Second World war also due to the terrible famine which took place in Bengal in AD 1943. More than thirty lakh people died due to the famine, and the Government did next to nothing about it. Quit India Movement was one of the renowned struggles of Indian History.

Long Article On Quit India Movement 500 Words

10 Lines on Article on Quit India Movement

  • On 8 August 1942, the All-India Congress Committee meeting in Bombay, Mahatma Gandhi propelled the ‘Quit India’ movement.
  • The ‘Quit India’ movement, united the Indian individuals against the British rule.
  • Quit India Movement is otherwise called the August Movement.
  • The Quit India movement was a swan song of the British Rule in India which was otherwise called the Bharat Chhodo Andolan.
  • Around then, Aruna Asaf Ali lifted the Indian Tricolor in the Gowalia Tank Maidan gladly.
  • On September 1942, the final phase of the movement was noticed.
  • Congress was proclaimed an unlawful affiliation and pioneers were captured.
  • The British never considered freedom and expressed that it must be allowed after the 2nd World war finished.
  • Mumbai’s August Kranti Maidan was where Mahatma Gandhi conveyed his speech.
  • August Kranti Maidan additionally houses a landmark as a tribute to the historic occasion.

FAQ’s on Article on Quit India Movement

Question 1. What was the main reason for Quit India Movement?

Answer: The main reason was the Independence of India.

Question 2. Who launched the Quit India Movement?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement.

Question 3. What was the famous slogan of Quit India Movement?

Answer: ‘Do or Die’ was the slogan.

Question 4. When does Quit India movement end?

Answer: On 8th August 1942, this movement ended.

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QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT IN ASSAM: A HISTORICAL STUDY

Profile image of Siva Nath Pait

2023, IJRAR

The Quit India Movement was the last phase of freedom movement of India's Independence struggle started with the resolution adopted on 8 th August, 1942 by the Congress working committee's meeting at Bombay. Gandhiji's call to the nation was 'Do or Die' and inspired by this motto of Gandhiji the movement received wholesale responses from the countrymen. Gandhiji and several prominent congress leaders were arrested on the very following day of the passing of the 'Quit India' Resolution and the British Government declared Congress an illegal organization. Likewise the other parts of the country, in Assam too the movement started with a massive response from the Assamese people. Prominent Congress leaders including Gopinath Bordoloi, Sinddhi Nath Sarma were arrested. Assamese women also took active participation in this movement. Assamese women organized Mrityu-Bahini or Santi-Sena which was the backbone of the movement.There were hartals, strikes and demonstrations in all districts of Assam. The British Government resorted a repressive method to subdue the movement. Kushal Konwar, Kanaklata and many other sacrificed their lives in this movement.

Related Papers

kalikrishnA sutradhar

The Quit India Movement of 1942 has occupied a very important place in the history of India as well as Bengal in the history of the Indian National Freedom Movement. It is to be noted that many scholars and historians have written and researched a lot about the Quit India movement in general, but there has been little discussion of this movement in the field of regional or local history. I have proceeded here to write an essay on the spread and impact of the Quit India Movement on North Bengal in northern part of West Bengal. Before entering into this subject, it is necessary to shed some light on the word "uttarbanga".

quit india essay

Shamsul Islam

75TH ANNIVERSARY OF QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT 1942: WHEN PATRIOTIC INDIANS WERE BEING MASSACRED, MAIMED & INCARCERATED, HINDUTVA BRIGADE HAD GANGED UP WITH THE BRITISH RULERS & THE MUSLIM LEAGUE Quit India Movement [QIM] also known as ‘August Kranti' (August Revolution) was a nation-wide Civil Disobedience Movement for which a call was given on August 7, 1942 by the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee. It began on August 8, with Gandhi making a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech delivered in Mumbai at the Gowalia Tank Maidan. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. Over 100,000 arrests were made which included the total leadership of Congress including Gandhi, mass fines were levied and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. Hundreds of civilians were killed in violence many shot by the police army. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets and establishing parallel governments. Innumerable patriotic Indians were shot dead for the crime that they were holding Tricolour. Even before that a terrible massacre took place in Mysore where the armed forces of Mysore Raja who was very close to Hindu Mahasabha and RSS shot dead 22 Congress activists for saluting Tricolour. It is to be noted that after declaring Congress an anti-national and unlawful organization, the British masters allowed only Hindu Mahasabha and Muslim League to function. Most of us know that the then Communist Party of India opposed the QIM thus betraying a great phase of mass upsurge in the history of the freedom struggle. But it is well documented that despite CPI’s call for keeping aloof from QIM large number of Communist activists participated in it. However, what role the then Hindutva camp—consisting of the Hindu Mahasabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh —played in the QIM is under wraps for reasons unknown. The Hindutva camp not only opposed QIM but also provided multi-faceted and multi-dimensional support to the British rulers in suppressing this historic mass upsurge. In this connection, shocking documents are available; these should be read to be believed. READ THE WHOLE STORY... https://sabrangindia.in/article/partners-crime-hindutva-brigade-muslim-league-collaborated-british-75-years-quit-india http://www.countercurrents.org/2017/08/07/75th-anniversary-of-quit-india-movement-1942/

This August 8, 2016, we are commemorating the 74th anniversary of the Quit India Movement [QIM]. QIM also known as ‘August Kranti'(August Revolution) was a nation-wide Civil Disobedience Movement for which a call was given on August 7, 1942 by the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee. It began on August 8, with Gandhi making a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech delivered in Mumbai at the Gowalia Tank Maidan. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. Over 100,000 arrests were made, mass fines were levied and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. Hundreds of civilians were killed in violence many shot by the police army. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets and establishing parallel governments. Most of us know that the then Communist Party of India opposed the QIM thus betraying a great phase of mass upsurge in the history of the freedom struggle. However, what role the then Hindutva camp—consisting of the Hindu Mahasabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh —played in the QIM is under wraps for reasons unknown. The Hindutva camp not only opposed QIM but also provided multi-faceted and multi-dimensional support to the British rulers in suppressing this historic mass upsurge. In this connection shocking documents are available; these should be read to be believed.

Papori Borah

The history of freedom struggle of India would be incomplete without mentioning the contribution of women. History has always talked a little about women. As like that the history of Indian Freedom Movement is filled with the names of eminent male freedom fighters whereas women freedom fighter has got very little place in it. In reality without the help of women the success of the freedom struggle and dream of Independent India would have never been achieved. Even when great freedom fighters were in the jail, numbers of Indian women individually and in groups came out and took various initiatives. Indian women have played an impactful role in this journey from being part of the non-cooperation movement to the quit India movement. As like almost every part of India the women of Assam also responded to each and every phases of the freedom movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi, namely, the Non−Cooperation Movement (1920/21), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and the Quit India Movement (1942). They participated in these movements through various ways such as by organizing processions, picketing, boycotting foreign goods and cloths, educating women and visited remotest areas to propagate the message of the movements. They also actively formed Congress women wings, Mahila Shanti Sena and Mahila Samities in Assam. Through their active role in the freedom struggle they made noteworthy contribution towards improvement of woman status, expansion of woman's education and organization of woman and social welfare in Assam. Likewise many women of Lakhimpur district also participated in various phases of the National Movements. But their role and scarifies has not got much scholarly attention exclusively. The paper is an attempt to discuss and draw attention towards the role of women of Lakhimpur district, Assam in the Freedom Struggle of India.

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (Hum)

Mohammad Golam Rabbani

The Quit India Movement of 1942 was the ever-biggest mass movement spear headed by the Indian National Congress and was characterized by spontaneous and sporadic revolts. It took a violent turn in many urban places across the country. In Bengal, it was intense in Kolkata and in some western districts but fairly moderate in eastern districts as a whole. Nevertheless, a very tangible evidence of public mobilization into this movement in some eastern districts is accessible. But over the long period of time as of today, the public history sources on the Quit India movement in Eastern Bengal are rare. Newspaper reports are also scanty. The archival documents contain only few police reports on public agitations versus police actions. However, the historiography of Quit India Movement has remained aloof towards what happened in the eastern districts of Bengal, so far. In this backdrop, this paper attempts to shed light on the media discourse and mass mobilization of the Quit India Movement in Eastern Bengal.

Prof Kapil K U M A R Chair Professor

The mightiest challenge to the British authority in India during the twentieth century came in the form of Quit India movement – a movement comparable only to that of the struggle of 1857. A number of studies have dealt with this massive upsurge of Indian people. Most of these researches highlight or hero worship the National level leadership – particularly Gandhi for giving the " Do or Die " slogan and for launching the struggle. Similarly, a lot of debate has taken place as to the role of different political parties and individuals during the movement. Certain studies have highlighted the popular response to the movement and how parallel governments were established and administered during the movement. Yet, not much attention has been devoted to the attitudes, mental framework and mobilization efforts of the local leadership at a time when all eyes were centred towards the Congress Working Committee meeting at Bombay. The Congress ministries resignation, the deliverance day celebrations by the Muslim League, the Pakistan resolution, Subhas Chandra Bose escape and the formation of INA along with the half-hearted individual satyagrah by Gandhi were the major events that preceded the Quit India movement. Though, the Congress had resigned from the government in the provinces, the very formation of these ministries had one positive impact on the people. It had become clear to the masses that freedom can be a reality and the British Raj was not going to survive for long. And it was this psyche of the people that shaped the events of the Quit India movement. With the leadership having been immediately arrested and the Congress having offered no definite programme of action, the people in different

Ananya Publication

Rajkumar Mandal

The contribution of the students is a fascinating chapter in the discussion of the history of India's freedom struggle. Students had an outstanding contribution to the history of the Indian independence movement. When Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905, for the first time a large number of students participated in the freedom struggle. Later students became a formidable force under the leadership of Gandhiji. He called upon students to walk out of schools and colleges during the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement. Students across the country responded immediately and were the first to organize against British rule. In 1936, India's first student organization All-India Students' Federation was established. This organization actively supported the Indian National Congress in the freedom struggle. Students took an active role during the Quit India movement led under the leadership of Gandhiji. Students also played a prominent role in the Quit India movement in the Contai subdivision of the undivided Medinipur district. Although the history of the freedom struggle of the country has been written, a specific region's writing has been scant. Just as the guidance of the top leaders is needed to organize a larger movement or programme, the contribution of regional grassroots leadership to make the movement successful cannot be ignored. Therefore, an attempt has been made to analyse the descriptive account of how the students encouraged the grassroots people to spontaneously participate in the Quit India movement by associating with the regional leaders of the Contai sub-division of Medinipur district in the anti-British movement.

Indian Historical Review

Kanchi Venugopal Reddy

Ravinder Kaur Cheema

Bombay, the commercial capital of India, has been an aerated city, since the period of British rule and thereafter turned a platform for launching the first national political organisation named the Bombay Association. This association voiced the political and economic national level demands in the form of petition. Eminent personalities such as Jagannath Shanker Shet, Bhau Daji Lad, Furdoonji and others through their ideology played a vital role in shaping the political association. Gradually, Bombay became a major spot of freedom struggle activities that were led by leaders like Lokmanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi and others. Gandhiji's famous and final call at the declaration of Quit India Movement in 1942 for one and all to actively participate in the movement at Bombay brought the student community to the forefront of the movement. This paper intends to highlight the contribution of the student community of Bombay that added strength to the freedom struggle of the country. Also the response of the British government in dealing with the student community will be a matter of concern in the deliberation. Young leader Usha Mehta and her associates took the leadership due to the imprisonment of all congress leaders and carried the movement ahead.

Tarun Gogoi

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Zimbabwe

India's Predicted XI vs Zimbabwe, 3rd T20I: Who Will Make Way For Yashasvi Jaiswal, Sanju Samson?

Team india is all set to take on zimbabwe in the third t20i on wednesday in harare. a total of two changes could be made in the indian team for the match..

quit india essay

Team India is all set to take on Zimbabwe in the third T20I on Wednesday in Harare. Opener Abhishek Sharma broke several records with his maiden T20I century against Zimbabwe in the second T20I of the five-match series on Sunday. Abhishek's knock helped India defeat Zimbabwe by 100 runs and level the series 1-1. This match will be a special one for India as the T20 World Cup winners Yashasvi Jaiswal , Sanju Samson , and Shivam Dube have also joined the squad. Shubman Gill and co are likely to make a few changes to their lineup, in order to include Jaiswal in the Playing XI.

Abhishek, the left-handed opener, did enough to live up to his pre-series hype with a 46-ball century in only his second game and did look the part opening the innings.

However, Jaiswal, with a handsome strike rate of 161 plus in 17 T20I matches, including a hundred and four half-centuries, does have the first claim to be skipper Shubman Gill's opening partner by virtue of being the reserve opener of the first-choice T20 team.

Although rare but it is not uncommon for batters to be dropped in the very next match after a milestone innings.

But skipper Gill is unlikely to let that happen with his best friend since their U-14 days and someone who scored his first international ton with a willow borrowed from the former.

So, it could well be a case of one of the two southpaws batting at one drop. Sanju Samson, who normally bats at No. 3 for Rajasthan Royals, might come in at No.5, while Ruturaj Gaikwad , who batted at No.3, will probably drop down a place to No.4.

As far as Zimbabwe is concerned, their batting has left a lot to be desired with scores of 115 while batting first and 134 in the second essay chasing 235.

On the Harare Sports Club track where there is a bit of extra bounce available for the spinners, Ravi Bishnoi (6/24 from 8 overs) and Washington Sundar (3/39 in 8 overs) have proved to be unplayable at times.

Bishnoi, who normally bowls 20 to 22 googlies in his 24 balls per match, has varied his pace brilliantly and with home skipper Sikandar Raza being kept quiet, the other batters haven't looked good enough to counter the Indian bowling attack.

India's Predicted XI for the 3rd T20I: Shubman Gill (c), Abhishek Sharma, Ruturaj Gaikwad/Yashasvi Jaiswal, Sai Sudharsan , Riyan Parag , Rinku Singh , Sanju Samson (wk), Washington Sundar, Ravi Bishnoi, Avesh Khan , Mukesh Kumar

(With PTI Inputs)

India

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I quit my day job at 29 by investing in real estate. I'm now a stay-at-home dad building generational wealth for my kids.

  • Matt Krueger quit his job at 29 to go full-time into real estate investing and Airbnb management.
  • The Iowa native and his wife have been buying and renovating houses as they lived in them since 2015.
  • Kruger said breaking into the short-term rental market was key to growing their rental income. 

Insider Today

This as-told-to essay is based on a transcribed conversation with Matt Krueger, 30, about building income from rental properties in Des Moines, Iowa. Business Insider has verified his ownership of the properties with documentation. The following has been edited for length and clarity.

After getting married in 2014, my wife and I moved into an apartment together. We were renting but wanted to buy a house .

We weren't earning much. I was a cellphone rep on an hourly wage, making around $35,000 in 2014, and she was a veterinary technician who made $24,000 that year.

My in-laws inspired us in our real estate journey. My father-in-law worked as a meat cutter in a grocery store but was able to quit his job at 45 after becoming a real estate investor .

I was listening to a podcast and discovered house hacking : fixing up a property as you live in it so you can rent it out to tenants. We used this method several times and generated income from long-term rental properties.

In 2021, I decided to enter the short-term rental business, listing properties on Airbnb. It hugely increased our revenue from property investment and enabled me to quit my day job in 2022.

I feel blessed to have increased my earnings to the point where I could become a stay-at-home dad at 29.

We started our real-estate investment journey with long-term rentals

In 2015, we bought our first home in Des Moines, Iowa, for $92,000. At the time, we lived off my salary and saved all my wife's income, which we used for a 3% down payment minus $1,000 "first-time home buyers credit," around $3,700.

The house was a dive, but we started fixing it up. We couldn't afford to hire contractors, so my father-in-law helped us, and we used YouTube to learn how to renovate. We would do one project, save up my wife's income, and then start the next project, working on the house bit by bit. We spent around $5,000 on renovations.

It was like living in a construction zone, but we loved it. Painting and flooring the house connected us as a married couple. We made an ugly house into something we could call a home.

After 15 months, we moved out and straight into a second house, which we bought for $130,000 in 2016. We paid the $4,700 down payment with savings from my wife's salary.

We rented out our first property for $1,200 a month, and after paying the mortgage and expenses, we made $515 in net income monthly.

We continued to house hack fixer-upper properties using conventional loans. Because they were primary residences, we only had to put down 3% deposits and would slowly renovate the houses until they were ready to be rented. That year, we had our first kid and my wife stopped working.

In 2017, we sold our first property, which we purchased for $92,000, for $145,000, and bought another house for $130,000.

In 2018, we bought our fourth property for $195,000, which we live in now. It was a dump, but we liked that it came with land, so we decided to fix it up and stay put there.

To ensure we were renovating competently, I'd have my father-in-law and my father, who's done some woodworking, check through things. I also asked questions in Facebook groups, but overall, I felt it was relatively easy to learn basic plumbing and electrical stuff. At points, we did hire some professional help, like an electrician and someone to help us move a wall.

It took us about a year to renovate and move out of each of our first few properties and for them to become cash-flowing. We'd work on renovations in the evenings and weekends together.

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Between 2017 and 2021, our rental income averaged $1,200 to $1,500 monthly, taking into account money set aside for mortgage payments.

I was inspired to try short-term rentals and quit my day job in 2022

One day, I listened to a podcast about short-term rentals and Airbnb. It seemed different from what I knew about long-term rentals, but I was enticed by the crazy numbers they were earning.

I wasn't sure if it would be possible in Des Moines — the online data suggested it was a bad market for Airbnb — but I wanted to try.

We could take out a $150,000 home equity line of credit, or HELOC, on our primary home, which we'd been renovating for two years. In late 2021, we used it to buy a $160,000 family home as an Airbnb rental.

We used money from our HELOC to invest around $30,000 in renovations and furnishings. We tried to target families by adding amenities like a game room and getting professional photos taken. When we listed the house on Airbnb, the bookings rolled in pretty quickly. We made around $52,000 in revenue from that house in 2022.

I decided I wanted to go all in on real estate in 2022. I'd moved jobs a few times within the cellular sales field and was on a $68,000 salary, but I was making more from properties, so I called my boss and quit. I was 29 at the time.

In 2022, we bought and flipped a condo in Texas using money from our HELOC. We also bought a second short-term rental in 2022 using our HELOC to pay for the deposit, furnishings, and renovations. We sold the condo for nearly $100,000 profit and used that income to repay the line of credit.

Then, we used the HELOC again for the down payment on a fourplex and duplex in 2022.

At the end of 2023, we did a cash-out refinance on our second Airbnb property, which paid back half of our HELOC. Then, at the beginning of 2024, we sold our duplex to pay off the rest of the HELOC.

Lastly, in April 2024, we drew $80,000 of our HELOC for the down payment, renovations, and furnishings on our third and most recent Airbnb. We plan to do a cash-out refinance in a year to pay back any remaining balance on our HELOC, but we are also using the cash flow from the newest Airbnb to pay it back.

Taking out a line of credit on your primary home can be risky, but we always ensure we pay back the credit as quickly as possible. We have the cash flow, and in the worst-case scenario, we could sell one of our properties to make the payments.

One downside of short-term rentals is the increased admin

In 2023, we made around $97,000 in revenue from long-term rentals and around $143,000 from two short-term rentals. In May this year, we opened our third short-term rental, hoping to increase our revenue even further.

We've been successful with short-term rentals because we've focused on creating an experience for guests. We invested in hot tubs, barbecues, outdoor games, and arcade rooms. Last year, we hit around 70% occupancy.

Compared to long-term rentals, I do have to put more effort into maintenance. I wanted the income to be passive so I could spend as much time with my family as possible, but initially, we did the cleaning ourselves.

I now have a cleaner who goes in after each guest's visit. I've also started using software to automate certain processes. PriceLabs helps me update prices based on demand, and Hospitable automates some messaging with guests and notifies our cleaner about bookings that are happening. It's hugely reduced the amount of admin I need to do.

We set aside money from our revenue for maintenance and paying cleaners. We also cover all utilities and monthly restockables like shampoo and toilet paper.

I hope that real estate investment will support my family for the foreseeable future

I wanted real estate to give me financial freedom . Now that I've quit my job, I can provide more time and energy to my children. During the day, my wife does most of the homeschooling while I take care of the rental business and manage my social media accounts.

I also wanted to build generational wealth. I plan to leave the properties to my kids, and they can decide what to do with them.

We knew there was a chance this might not work, that we could lose money or not find a tenant, but by buying homes that needed cosmetic updates, we've built sweat equity into them, giving us a safety net from debt.

If something went wrong, I could sell all the properties and be left with a good chunk of change even after mortgage payments . If the market crashed and property values dropped, that doesn't necessarily mean rents will decrease. I think we'd still be able to land on our feet again.

I think it's riskier to rely on an employer to keep your paycheck coming than to bet on yourself. From making $35,000 a year at my day job to seeing over $258,000 in revenue in 2023, I'm making way more than I ever expected.

quit india essay

  • Main content

Workers wearing light blue shirts stand in a single-file line outside.

india’s economic promise

Women in India Face a Jobs Crisis. Are Factories the Solution?

As multinational brands shift factory production from China, Indian women — long shut out of the work force — could be prime beneficiaries.

Sarika Pawar, second from right, in line with other workers for the company bus at the All Time Plastics factory in Silvassa, India. Credit... Elke Scholiers for The New York Times

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By Peter S. Goodman

Photographs and Video by Elke Scholiers

Reporting from across India including Silvassa, New Delhi and Manesar

  • July 3, 2024

Before her husband died, leaving her to raise their 2-year-old daughter alone, Sarika Pawar had never imagined working a regular job. Like her own mother and most of the women she knew in rural India, she spent her days confined to her village. Her hours were consumed with looking after her toddler, boiling water to drink and fashioning an evening meal.

But with her husband gone, eliminating his wages as a server, she was forced to earn money. She took a job at a nearby factory run by a company called All Time Plastics in Silvassa, a city about 100 miles north of Mumbai. A dozen years later, she is still there, plucking newly molded food storage containers and other household implements off a conveyor belt, labeling them and placing them in cartons bound for kitchens as far away as Los Angeles and London.

Ms. Pawar earns about 12,000 rupees per month, or roughly $150, a meager sum by global standards. Yet those wages have allowed her to keep her daughter in high school while transforming their everyday lives.

She purchased a refrigerator. Suddenly, she could buy vegetables in larger quantities, limiting her trips to the market and giving her more power to bargain for better prices. She added a stove powered by propane — liberation from the wood fire that filled her home with smoke, and an escape from the tedious work of scouring the ground for branches to set alight.

quit india essay

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  1. Quit India Movement Essay Example

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  1. Quit India Movement

    The Quit India Movement was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British rule in India.. After the British failed to secure Indian support for the British war effort with the Cripps Mission, Gandhi made a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech delivered in Bombay on 8 ...

  2. Essay on Quit India Movement (1942)

    The Quit India movement or the Revolt of 1942 or 'August Revolution' of 1942 was the most popular and powerful mass movement in the series of agitations led by Gandhi in the course of freedom struggle. By the time this mass movement was planned, the Second World War was going on, the shadows of the Japanese invasion on India were making the ...

  3. Quit India Movement

    The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress Working Committee on 8 August 1942 in Bombay. Gandhi was named the quit India movement's leader. The movement placed the demand for complete independence at the top agenda of the freedom movement. Download Quit India movement notes PDF for UPSC 2024.

  4. Quit India Movement

    Quit India Movement was a massive anti-colonial struggle in India, launched on August 8, 1942, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who gave the mantra of "Do or Die" during this Movement.Projected initially as the civil disobedience movement, this 'third great wave' of India's struggle for freedom soon took a violent turn with the aim of 'fight to the finish' of the colonial ...

  5. Quit India Summary and Study Guide

    Summary: "Quit India". The "Quit India" speeches included three addresses Mahatma Gandhi delivered to the All India Congress Committee, as well as thousands of others who congregated to listen in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, on August 8, 1942. At the time of the speeches, India was still under British colonial rule and was growing more ...

  6. Quit India Movement

    Launched by: Indian National Congress. Nature of Movement: Mass Protests. Objective: Withdrawal of British from India. The Indian National Congress launched the 'Quit India Movement' on August 8, 1942 at the Bombay session of the 'All-India Congress Committee.'. The sole aim of the movement was to force the British to withdraw from India.

  7. Quit India Movement

    On 8th August 1942, the AICC passed the Quit India Resolution. Introduction. The Quit India Movement has rightly been described as the most massive antiimperialist struggle on the eve of Partition and Independence. 1942, the year that the movement was launched and the next five years witnessed unparalleled and tumultuous events in the political ...

  8. 'Quit India'

    The Quit India resolution passed by the All India Congress Committee on 9 August envisaged a free India resisting aggression with all the armed and non-violent forces at its disposal in cooperation with the Allied powers and the United States. In his fateful confrontation with the British government in August 1942, Gandhi made a serious, almost ...

  9. Quit India Essay Analysis

    Analysis: "Quit India". As in most speeches, Gandhi's "Quit India" address is highly tailored to his present and future audiences, including the All India Congress in addition to thousands of others gathered there that day. To be as effective as possible, Gandhi layers his speeches with appeals.

  10. Quit India speech

    Mahatma Gandhi, 1942. The Quit India speech was given by Mahatma Gandhi on the eve of the Quit India Movement, August 8, 1942.His address was issued shortly before midnight at the Gowalia Tank Maidan park in Bombay (present-day Mumbai), which has since been renamed August Kranti Maidan (August Revolution Ground).. The speech was given in support of Indian independence and the end of British ...

  11. Quit India campaign

    The movement called for India's immediate independence and for British withdrawal from the subcontinent. Although it was quickly suppressed, the Quit India campaign raised the threat of a massive nonviolent struggle and thereby influenced Britain's decision to grant independence to India. Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Congress party ...

  12. Quit India Movement UPSC Notes: History, Causes, & Impact

    Quit India Movement, also known as the August movement, was launched on August 8 1942 which sought to demand an immediate end to British rule in India.It was a part of Mahatma Gandhi's wider call for civil disobedience against the alien rule in India. This topic Quit India Movement UPSC forms an important part of the UPSC Civil services exam under the syllabus of the General Studies- 1 (GS - 1 ...

  13. Indian independence movement

    The Quit India Movement (also known as Bharat Chhodo Andolan) was a civil disobedience movement in India which commenced on 8 August 1942 in response to Gandhi's call for immediate self-rule by Indians and against sending Indians to World War II. He asked all teachers to leave their schools, and other Indians to leave their respective jobs and ...

  14. Mahatma Gandhi "Quit India" Speech Analysis

    Mar 25, 2019. My analysis on Mahatma ("Great Soul") Gandhi's "Quit India" speech given in 1942. For this analysis I used SOAPSSTONE. S ubject — O ccasion — A udience — P urpose ...

  15. Quit India Movement: Importance, Causes, Short Note, Features

    The Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement or Bharat Chhodo Andolan, was a significant civil disobedience movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942, during India's struggle for independence from British colonial rule.It was a major turning point in India's freedom struggle and marked a shift from the earlier demand for gradual autonomy to a more aggressive call ...

  16. Quit India Movement

    The Quit India Movement was not supported by the Muslim League and the Communists. When Russia joined the war on behalf of the Allies, the communists began to demand the withdrawal of the movement and pleaded all support to the government in its war effort. The Muslim League considered the movement as the attempt of the Congress to turn out the ...

  17. Quit India Movement

    Why in News. On 8 th Aug 2020, India completed 78 years of Quit India Movement also known as August Kranti.. Taking inspiration from the Quit India Movement, the Prime Minister gave a call for the revival of its spirit of the Quit India Movement by coining a new slogan karenge aur karake rahenge in place of Gandhi's slogan of karo ya maro (Do or Die).; The aim of this slogan is to achieve ...

  18. Quit India Movement: Essay and Important Facts

    Quit India Movement: Essay and Important Facts. The fourth decade of the twentieth century is of utmost importance in the history of India's struggle for freedom. This was the period of the Second World War (1939 -1945), which shattered the mighty British Empire to its core. During the Second World War, in 1942, the Allied Powers (the Soviet ...

  19. Aruna Asaf Ali: Brave Heart Of The Quit India Movement

    A grateful nation remembers. Following her husband's demise in 1953, Aruna lived alone for the rest of her life. Aruna Asaf Ali died in New Delhi on 29 July 1996, aged 87. The following year she was bestowed the Bharat Ratna, posthumously. In 1998, the government issued a commemorative stamp for her.

  20. Short Essay on Quit India Movement

    He raised the slogan of 'Do or Die'. Quit India Resolution was passed on August 8, 1942, by the Indian National Congress. The Congress handed over the leadership of the movement entirely in the hands of Gandhi and appealed to the people of India to hold together under the leadership and carried out his instructions as disciplined soldiers ...

  21. Article On Quit India Movement 500, 300 Words for Kids, Children and

    Article On Quit India Movement: Quit India Movement was one of the prominent historical movements of India, which led to the path of Independence in India in 1947. After the Cripps strategic, Congress solidly made plans to escalate the movement for the opportunity. The Working Committee of the Congress passed a goal on July 14, 1942, at Wardha.

  22. QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT IN ASSAM: A HISTORICAL STUDY

    The Quit India Movement was the last phase of freedom movement of India's Independence struggle started with the resolution adopted on 8 th August, 1942 by the Congress working committee's meeting at Bombay. ... I have proceeded here to write an essay on the spread and impact of the Quit India Movement on North Bengal in northern part of West ...

  23. Quit India By Gandhi Essay

    Quit India By Gandhi Essay; Quit India By Gandhi Essay. Good Essays. 1456 Words; 6 Pages; Open Document. Gandhi's "Quit India" Analysis The twentieth century was filled with some of the most influential leaders in history. There was Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Adolf Hitler, and so many others. The one that is a highlight in my mind ...

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    Actor George Clooney, a major Hollywood fundraiser for Democrats, said on Wednesday that President Joe Biden is no longer the same person who won the White House in 2020 and said he should drop ...

  25. India's Predicted XI vs Zimbabwe, 3rd T20I: Who Will Make Way For

    5th T20I, India in Zimbabwe, 5 T20I Series, 2024 at Harare, Jul 14, 2024

  26. Quit Day Job by Investing in Real Estate; House Hacking and HELOCs

    Matt Krueger quit his job at 29 to go full-time into real estate investing and Airbnb management. The Iowa native and his wife have been buying and renovating houses as they lived in them since 2015.

  27. Women in India Face a Jobs Crisis. Are Factories the Solution?

    Before her husband died, leaving her to raise their 2-year-old daughter alone, Sarika Pawar had never imagined working a regular job. Like her own mother and most of the women she knew in rural ...

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