Long Multiplication Worksheets

This page includes Long Multiplication worksheets for students who have mastered the basic multiplication facts and are learning to multiply 2-, 3-, 4- and more digit numbers. Sometimes referred to as long multiplication or multi-digit multiplication, the questions on these worksheets require students to have mastered the multiplication facts from 0 to 9.

There are a variety of strategies for completing long multiplication including the classic paper and pencil methods, lattice multiplication (which we feature on this page), mental strategies, manipulative use, technology, and various other paper and pencil algorithms. Multi-Digit multiplication can be a frustrating experience for many students. Try to teach multi-digit multiplication using more than one strategy.

Most Popular Long Multiplication Worksheets this Week

Multiplying 2-Digit by 2-Digit Numbers

Long multiplication practice worksheets including a variety of number sizes and options for different number formats.

Two-Digit multiplication is a natural place to start after students have mastered their multiplication facts. The concept of multiplying two-digit numbers requires a knowledge of place and place value, especially if students are to fully understand what they are accomplishing with the various strategies they use. A question such as 24 × 5 can be thought of as (20 + 4) × 5. Mentally, this becomes much easier as students multiply 20 by 5 then 4 by 5 and add the two products. A good way to build understanding of place value is with base ten blocks. These manipulatives also translate very well into paper and pencil and mental math strategies.

An extra digit can throw off some students but add an extra challenge to others. Always ensure that students are ready for three-digit multiplication or both you and your student will be frustrated. Three-digit multiplication worksheets require a mastery of single-digit multiplication facts and a knowledge of a multi-digit multiplication strategy that will enable students to both understand the question and get the correct answer. Four-digit multiplication was invented in 350 B.C. as a way of punishing children who stole bread from the market. Just kidding! It's actually a great challenge for students who have experienced success with their multiplication facts and have a good handle on a long multiplication strategy. What do you give students who have mastered their multiplication facts and long multiplication and who love a challenge? Look no further than five- to eight-digit multiplication. Enjoy!

There are no thousand separators in the numbers on the first worksheets. It makes it a little more difficult to read the numbers, but sometimes it is better not to have too many things in the way when students are learning long multiplication. The answer keys include answers with the steps shown, so students and teachers can diagnose any problems in the steps they took to answer the questions. The answers use a paper and pencil algorithm that is commonly used in the U.S. and other countries.

  • Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers 2-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ✎ 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ✎ 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ✎ 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ✎ 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ✎
  • 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ✎ 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ✎ 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ✎ 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ✎
  • 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication
  • 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication
  • 7-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 7-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication 7-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication
  • 8-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 8-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication 8-Digit by 8-Digit Multiplication
  • Large Print Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers 2-digit by 1-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 2-digit by 2-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 3-digit by 1-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 3-digit by 2-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 3-digit by 3-digit Multiplication ( Large Print )
  • Large Print 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 4-digit by 1-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 4-digit by 2-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 4-digit by 3-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 4-digit by 4-digit Multiplication ( Large Print )
  • Large Print 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 5-digit by 1-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 5-digit by 2-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 5-digit by 3-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 5-digit by 4-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 5-digit by 5-digit Multiplication ( Large Print )
  • Large Print 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets 6-digit by 1-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 6-digit by 2-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 6-digit by 3-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 6-digit by 4-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 6-digit by 5-digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) 6-digit by 6-digit Multiplication ( Large Print )

Commas are included as thousands separators for the numbers on the next worksheets. Commas are used in the U.S. and other English-speaking countries as a way of making numbers easier to read. As with the other long multiplication worksheets on this page, the answer keys include the steps.

  • Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Comma-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • 7-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 7-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • 8-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 8-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 8-Digit Multiplication (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Comma-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Comma-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Comma-Separated Thousands)

Separating thousands with spaces avoids any confusion with commas and periods. Various number formats in different countries and languages use commas and periods for both decimals and thousand separators, but a space is only ever used as a thousands separator. It is more common in some countries such as Canada and France, but it is being adopted more in other parts of the world.

  • Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Space-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • 7-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 7-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • 8-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 8-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 8-Digit Multiplication (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Space-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Space-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Space-Separated Thousands)

In some places, periods are used as thousands separators and commas are used as decimals. This is very confusing to people who are used to U.S. formatted numbers.

  • Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Period-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • 7-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 7-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 7-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • 8-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 8-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 7-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands) 8-Digit by 8-Digit Multiplication (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print Long Multiplication Worksheets up to 3-Digit Numbers with Period-Separated Thousands 2-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 3-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 4-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 4-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 4-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 5-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 5-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 5-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands)
  • Large Print 6-Digit Long Multiplication Worksheets with Period-Separated Thousands 6-Digit by 1-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 2-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 3-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 4-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 5-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands) 6-Digit by 6-Digit Multiplication ( Large Print ) (Period-Separated Thousands)

Other Long Multiplication Strategies

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Lattice, or sieve, multiplication is a great strategy for students to use to calculate long multiplication problems on pencil and paper. We've made the first step of preparing a lattice easy as the worksheets below have them pre-drawn. With a little practice, students can use graph paper or draw their own lattices freehand. The first factor is separated by place value along the top of the lattice, giving each place value its own column. The second factor is separated in the same way, but along the right side with one place value per row. The single digit column and row numbers are multiplied together and their product is written in the corresponding box, separating the tens and ones places on either side of the diagonal. Finally, the diagonal "rows" are summed and regrouped starting with the diagonal in the lower right hand corner which will only have a singl-digit in it. The answer keys we've provided should give you a good idea of how to accomplish lattice multiplication like a pro. Once students have a little practice, you might find that this is their preferred method for calculating the products of large numbers. This method is highly scalable, which means it is a straight-forward task to multiply a 10-digit by a 10-digit number, etc.

  • Various-Digit Lattice Multiplication Worksheets With Lattices Included 2-Digit × 2-Digit Lattice Multiplication 2-Digit × 3-Digit Lattice Multiplication 3-Digit × 2-Digit Lattice Multiplication 3-Digit × 3-Digit Lattice Multiplication 4-Digit × 2-Digit Lattice Multiplication 4-Digit × 3-Digit Lattice Multiplication 4-Digit × 4-Digit Lattice Multiplication 4-Digit × 5-Digit Lattice Multiplication 5-Digit × 4-Digit Lattice Multiplication 5-Digit × 5-Digit Lattice Multiplication

The distributive property of multiplication allows students to "split" factors into addends to make the multiplication easier. This also helps students learn to complete multiplication mentally rather than using paper and pencil methods. Often times, the numbers are split up by place value, so 123 becomes 100 + 20 + 3. If one wanted to multiply 123 by 4, you could multiply 100 by 4, 20 by 4 and 3 by 4 to get 400, 80 and 12 which sums to 492. If you multiply a multi-digit number by a multi-digit number, you can split both numbers into place value addends. For example, 938 × 74 = (900 + 30 + 4) × (70 + 4) = (900 × 70) + (900 × 4) + (30 × 70) + (30 × 4) + (8 × 70) + (8 × 4) = 63000 + 3600 + 2100 + 120 + 560 + 32 = 69412. All of the worksheets in this section have a model question included. Of course, it might be easier to complete questions with larger numbers using box multiplication.

  • Multiplication Worksheets For Learning The Distributive Property Of Multiplication 2-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎ 3-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎ 4-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎ 5-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎ 2-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎ 3-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication Using the Distributive Property ✎

Multiplying on graph paper helps students "line up" their numbers when completing long multiplication questions. These worksheets include custom grids that have the right amount of room for one question.

  • Multiplication with Grid Support 2-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 2-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 3-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 3-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 3-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 4-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 4-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 4-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 4-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 5-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 5-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 5-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 5-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎ 5-Digit × 5-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support ✎
  • Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) 2-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 2-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 3-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 3-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 3-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 4-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 4-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 4-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 4-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 5-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 5-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 5-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 5-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎ 5-Digit × 5-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support (No Regrouping Boxes) ✎

In case you or your students want to make up your own questions, these blanks should expedite the process.

  • Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks 2-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 2-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 3-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 3-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 3-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 4-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 4-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 4-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 4-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 5-Digit × 1-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 5-Digit × 2-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 5-Digit × 3-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 5-Digit × 4-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎ 5-Digit × 5-Digit Multiplication with Grid Support Blanks ✎

The halving and doubling strategy is accomplished very much in the same way as its name. Simply halve one number and double the other then multiply. In many cases, this makes the multiplication of two numbers easier to accomplish mentally. This strategy is not for every multiplication problem, but it certainly works well if certain numbers are involved. For example, doubling a 5 results in a 10 which most people would have an easier time multiplying. Of course, this would rely on the other factor being easily halved. 5 × 72, using the halving and doubling strategy (doubling the first number and halving the second in this case) results in 10 × 36 = 360. Practicing with the worksheets in this section will help students become more familiar with cases in which this strategy would be used.

  • Halving and Doubling Multiplication Strategy Worksheets Halving and Doubling Strategy with Easier Numbers Halving and Doubling Strategy with Harder Numbers

Multiplying numbers in number systems other than decimal numbers including binary, quaternary, octal, duodecimal and hexadecimal numbers.

  • Multiplying in Other Base Number Systems Worksheets Multiplying Binary Numbers (Base 2) Multiplying Ternary Numbers (Base 3) Multiplying Quaternary Numbers (Base 4) Multiplying Quinary Numbers (Base 5) Multiplying Senary Numbers (Base 6) Multiplying Octal Numbers (Base 8) Multiplying Duodecimal Numbers (Base 12) Multiplying Hexadecimal Numbers (Base 16) Multiplying Vigesimal Numbers (Base 20) Multiplying Hexatrigesimal Numbers (Base 36) Multiplying Various Numbers (Various Bases)

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The Long Multiplication Method: How To Teach Long Multiplication So All Your KS2 Pupils ‘Get It’

Neil almond.

The long multiplication method can be very difficult to teach in Years 5 and 6, as anyone who has taught upper KS2 before will know. 

Despite best intentions, there will always be a few pupils who are either unsure of the simpler 4 by 1-digit approach or who are not secure on their times tables.

If this academic year will be your first time teaching Year 6, you have all of this to look forward to but don’t despair – it happens every year.

What is long multiplication?

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Long multiplication is a written multiplication method used when multiplying two or three digit numbers by another number of two or more digits. It is often referred to as column multiplication.

long multiplication method example

In Year 5 and Year 6 at primary school, long multiplication means multiplying a number that is at least three digits by one that is two digits or more.

Before tackling long multiplication at KS2 children should ideally be confident with their times tables and understand key terms including the multiplicand and the multiplier.

  • The multiplicand is the number you are starting with for the multiplication
  • The multiplier is how many groups of these you need; how many times you’re going to multiply the multiplicand by.

Not sure if your pupils are ready to jump into long multiplication? Grid method multiplication is a great ‘stepping stone’ to the column method .

In the maths national curriculum for England, the formal long multiplication method is mentioned in both in Year 5 and Year 6.

  • In the Year 5 objectives for multiplication and division, it states that ‘pupils should be taught to multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written  method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers.’
  • In the Year 6 objectives for multiplication and division, it says that, ‘pupils should be multiply multi-digit numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication.’

The appendix at the end of the year group objectives gives us an insight into what this looks like:

long multiplication ks2 National Curriculum example

This nicely sets out a progression model for teachers once the class are comfortable with multiplying 3 or 4-digit numbers by a 1-digit number.

A quick look through the 2019 SATs arithmetic paper shows there are 4 marks up for grabs for getting the long multiplication questions correct. There are also many examples where pupils will need to select this method in the two reasoning papers as it is the most time efficient method – important to be able to get through the paper!

Therefore, it is crucial that pupils become fluent in the method. When I say fluent, this is what I mean:

‘Fluency is the process of retrieving information from out of long-term memory with no effort on our working memory, freeing up valuable space in our working memory to give attention to other things.’

Read more: Fluency, Reasoning and Problem Solving

The formal long multiplication method is a step by step method of supporting children to understand conceptually and practically how to multiply one three or four digit number by another two digit number or greater.

Here is the long multiplication method broken down step by step using the second example from the national curriculum appendix:

long multiplication method

Example: 124 x 26

  • Set the question in the formal method, making sure the ones and tens digits, and so on, line up
  • Remember to start the process of multiplication with the ones
  • Multiply 6 by 4
  • Write the answer down correctly – including any regrouping
  • Multiply 6 by 2
  • Add anything that you have regrouped from the previous multiplication.
  • Write the answer down correctly
  • Drop a zero as we are now multiplying with 10s
  • Multiply 2 by 4
  • Write the answer correctly
  • Multiply 2 by 2
  • Write the answer down
  • Multiply 2 by 1
  • Add the two answers (sometimes known as partial products) up together correctly

That’s a total of 16 steps that children need to become fluent in to get to the final answer. Bearing in mind the limits of our working memory, this is a lot to take on and can quite easily overwhelm it. This will prevent this information from being encoded.

So one answer to the question: How to do long multiplication? is to simply follow the steps.

But this is missing out a crucial stage of learning – moving from a procedural to a conceptual understanding of what’s going on.

The rest of this article explains how to teach long multiplication to develop a conceptual understanding, which will have the biggest impact for your class. It includes links to multiplication worksheets  to provide you with lots of practice.

Two lessons from cognitive science have massively changed the way I approach teaching the long multiplication method.

1. Long and short term memory

The first has been understanding that we have a long-term memory that is near limitless in the information that it can store; and working memory, where we make our conscious thoughts.

Important to note is that the space in our working memory is limited , many researchers put it at between 4 or 7 items. Oliver Caviglioli has graciously sketched a wonderful poster that show this process.

cognitive load theory

From the model, we can see that the person uses their attention to take things from the environment into the working memory. The person then attempts to encode this information into their long-term memory,  but some information may be forgotten for a myriad of reasons.

When that information is in their long-term memory, they will be able to bring it back to the forefront of their working memory to use it. If those memories remain dormant for too long (that is we don’t recall those memories for a long period of time), they too can be forgotten.

Read more: Learning and memory in the classroom

2. cognitive load theory.

The other lesson from cognitive science that has impacted my teaching has been the role of cognitive load theory in the classroom . Cognitive load theory attempts to explain why it is that we fail to encode new information from our working memory into our long-term memory.

This could be down to many reasons, such as:

  • the work being too complicated;
  • being covered too quickly;
  • too many distractors in the environment;
  • not having prior knowledge of topic (we will come back to this later);

How does this help us teach the long multiplication method? Well let’s be clear about something first.

My outcome for the first lesson or two will be to give my pupils confidence in learning the method. Only then will we move on to the rest.

Essential precursor multiplication knowledge

Before we start work on long multiplication, I will always check which members of my class have already struggled with multiplication in Year 3 or 4.

If a child is not secure in their multiplication facts , then you need to stage an intervention to get them up to speed. Contrary to popular opinion, learning multiplication facts is important, and while you may be able to teach times tables for instant recall at earlier ages, by upper KS2 it’s very difficult to find the time.

You may also like: 35 times tables games suitable for home and school – choose one or two each week for home learning if your pupils still need to build consistency.

Read more: Commutative property of multiplication

How to make long multiplication easier.

It has been my experience that pupils who are fluent in their multiplication tables have an easier time working with larger numbers, such as 3 or 4 digit by 1-digit multiplication.

This makes sense as if they are fluent in these areas, they are effectively reducing what their working memory needs to attend to. Assuming fluency in these two things, what they need to learn is reduced from 16 to 4-6 things.

A child who is not secure in multiplication is likely to use so much of their working memory on solving the multiplication part of the question that all the other steps, as we saw in the model earlier, are forgotten.

This is an important point for teachers to recognise: it’s not that one child has an innate ability to do long multiplication and one child does not. It’s that one child has simply retained the crucial knowledge needed to be successful and therefore can make the connection to prior knowledge to drastically reduce what they need to actively work out.

As Ausubel said, “The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach them accordingly”

KS2 Long Multiplication Worksheets

Give your pupils a head start on practising their long multiplication skills with this free pack of multiplication worksheets.

No matter what pupils’ starting point is, there are still things we can do in the classroom to help them all get to grips with the procedure of long multiplication. As I mentioned earlier, my aim for the first couple of lessons is to build confidence in the method.

To do that, I ensure that our first multiplier is 11. By making the second factors 11, all that is required here is to multiply by one. I have yet to come across a child, even those who may struggle with their multiplication, who doesn’t know the 1 times table.

See also: Lowest common multiple , Highest common factor & What is a multiple

This significantly reduces the cognitive load on and helps free up all their working memory to learn the procedure of long multiplication. Of course, these pupils will still have to learn their multiplication facts but this just helps break down those barriers and helps them become successful.

Now, the procedure looks like this:

long multiplication simpler

The step-by-step process to solve the problem is the same as the example above but we have dramatically cut down the strain on working memory.

This makes it far more likely that the procedure will be remembered, as pupils can focus all their attention on understanding the procedure and not on the multiplication. Again, I would like to stress that the purpose of this is so pupils can get to grips with the procedure so it can be internalised.

Step 1 – Establishing prior multiplication knowledge

To start the lesson, I would have several 4 by 1-digit questions on the board for the class to make their way through independently. During this, I’d make sure that I got around to all the pupils who I believe may struggle at this and ascertain what they are struggling with – is it the multiplication or the procedure? If it was the former, I would assist them with their multiplication tables and if it was the latter, I would go through an example with them.

long multiplication lesson slide

After sufficient time has passed, I would go through the questions on the board to check for understanding both of the procedure and their knowledge of ‘multiplication’:

  • What is the multiplicand and multiplier? (i.e. ‘the top number’ and ‘the bottom number’)
  • How do I write this in the column method?
  • What is the result of ___ multiplied by____?
  • What happens if the product is greater than a single digit?
  • What place value do I start multiplying at?

Pupils’ responses to these questions will help plan future interventions. In my experience, I have not come across many pupils whose prior attainment means they cannot set out the column method of multiplication correctly.

If you do need to track back to establish a more solid base in multiplication then, there is a bootcamp for multiplication or a more comprehensive guide to teaching multiplication to each year group throughout KS2. Keeping your pupils engaged whilst helping them develop their multiplication skills is also important, so we created a blog on the best multiplication games to play at KS1 and KS2.

Step 2 – Introducing the new idea of long multiplication

During this next part of the lesson, I would show an example of the type of question they would be expected to answer by the end of the unit – in this case, it would be a 4 by 2-digit multiplication with any digit using the long multiplication method.

I would very quickly ask them to spend 30 seconds discussing with each other to see what is different about this question from the one that they did at the start of the lesson.

Once they have noticed that there is a double digit number as the multiplier, I would then solve this silently at a normal pace – the reason for this is to show how effortless it can be and to give them the confidence that this is something that they do not need to struggle with.

I would then show them another example. This time, the example would be with 11 as the multiplier – this would be on the same slide as the previous example.

453x11

I would then ask: ‘Thumbs up for yes, thumbs down for no. Has the way I have set out the calculation in the column method changed when the multiplier has two digits?”

I would then hope to see all thumbs down. If a child has put their thumbs up, I would engage in a whole-class dialogue to see why this is the case and refer to the example that is on the board.

Step 3 – Setting out the long multiplication method

My next step is to write the calculation out in the column method for long multiplication.

453x11 column

My next instruction to the class would be: ‘For the starter, we looked at examples where the multiplier was a one-digit number. That number would be in the ‘ones’ place value. So with the number that is in the ‘ones’ in this 2-digit number, we do exactly the same.’

To ensure everyone is participating, I would ask them to show me, using fingers or mini-whiteboards, the answer to the multiplication questions – not because I think they don’t know it but to keep their working memory firmly on the maths at hand.

On the board, I now have:

453

Now we are onto the new piece of information we want pupils to learn, so I would slow down and explain what is happening here, using this moment again to reinforce place value.

“So far everything that has happened before is not new to us. Now we have a brand new step. To understand what happens we need to activate our knowledge of place value. The first digit in the multiplier is in the ones and it is worth one.

The second digit is in the tens place so it is worth 10. This means we have 10 multiplied by 3. To show that we are multiplying by 10, we can place a zero in the ones place to act as a place holder. ”

Then, I would write the zero in the correct place.

long multiplication method 453

“We can then multiply the numbers in the multiplicand as if we were multiplying them by 1.”

Next, I would call upon all pupils to solve the multiplication, again showing me on their fingers or mini-whiteboards to ensure participation.

long multiplication method with partial products

Finally, I would ask pupils to look at the other worked example on the board and to tell their partner what the final step would be –the addition of the two products. The class would do this with me, showing the answers with their fingers or on mini-whiteboards.

That will leave us with the finished product of:

long multiplication method 4983

Step 4 – Repeated examples of long multiplication method

Repeat the above process with 2 more examples.

As you go through each example, get the pupils to do more of the explaining, particularly when it comes to the dropping of the zero and reminding one another to add the two products together. If you find children struggling, stop and rehearse this to ensure the correct language is being embedded.

Insist on correct answers in full sentences and correct language. When pupils are unable to do this, I ask for a volunteer who I have picked out who  can  do this to give a model answer, and then get the original pupils who were unable to answer at first to repeat what was said.

Step 5 – Pupils’ turn with long multiplication method

I would then provide two long multiplication questions that I would ask pupils to complete independently. During this time, I will observe and support as required.

In previous blogs, I have mentioned being aware of learning vs performing and this is no different. Despite hearing pupils give really articulate answers during step 2 or getting both questions right in step 3, I am still very much aware that although these pupils are performing well, nothing has changed in their long-term memory as they are merely repeating what has been shown to them.

Depending on the outcome of step 3, I will either need to:

  • go over more examples and alter my explanations;
  • or continue onto step 4.

Step 6 – Pupils’ repeated practice of long multiplication

Happy that pupils are able to copy the process and understand it, I would now provide a long multiplication worksheet for them to complete.

There is no need to differentiate the worksheet; every child will have equal access to the work.

To differentiate the work sheet would only lead to an increase in the attainment gap. The differentiation will come from additional instruction that I may give during this time.

The worksheet that I would give would not be 20 questions of the same topic. Here, I would make use of interleaving. 10 questions of what I have taught would be on the sheet in random order, the other 10 questions would be made up from previous taught content.

Read more: 8 Differentiation Strategies For Your Classroom To Use Across The Attainment Gap

Again, these would be allocated in a random order so that pupils have to switch between what has been taught in this moment and strengthening the retrieval of previously learnt content. This continuous switching helps the encoding process.

Where possible, make the content relatable to what has been taught; for example, as I have taught multiplication, I would have some division questions from the previous year’s objectives in there to reinforce that division is the inverse of multiplication.

When revising for SATs, you may want to interleave long multiplication problems with long division problems to further reinforce the relationship between the two.

The last multiplication question would also have a different multiplier than 11 to see if pupils could apply the process when the demand on working memory is greater.

As this happens, I would be circulating the room to gauge how pupils are doing – not only on the questions from this lesson but previous content too. Pupils are free to skip over questions that they are not sure of.

Step 7 – Shared marking

In this step, pupils will be called on to give answers and the whole class can mark as they hear the answer. If some of them disagree with an answer we can discuss it as a class until the correct answer is found.

Step 8 – Diagnostic question s

Diagnostic questions and diagnostic assessment in general is an incredibly effective way to gauge pupils’ understanding of a concept. They work by posing a question and giving 4 possible answers.

While one answer is correct, the other three distractors will be carefully planned to show a specific misconception.

An example of the one I would use in this lesson is below.

long multiplication method question

Which long multiplication question shows the correct answer?

In this example each wrong answer shows the misconception in play.

  • A is correct but you can see how each other answer could be an error a child could make:
  • In B they have dropped a zero when multiplying by the ones.
  • In C they forgot to drop the zero when multiplying by the tens column
  • In D they forgot to add on the one that had been carried over when the added 8 to 6.

It is having this selection of incorrect answers that makes diagnostic questions so powerful; they clearly identify what the pupil is thinking, and can provide you with immediate feedback on performance which you can correct based on the answer given.

When doing this in lessons, I assign each letter a number so A=1, B=2, etc. which corresponds with the number of fingers I want them to hold up. I then give the command ‘think’. Pupils will think about what the correct answer is.

I will then say ‘hide’ and they will cover the fingers they wish to show on one hand with the other. Finally, I will say ‘show’ and the pupils show me the corresponding finger and I can quickly look around the classroom to see the answers they have given.

The other benefit of diagnostic questions is to discuss through the wrong answers and get to the bottom of why they are wrong. These make for fantastic discussion points and really get the class thinking and looking to find the errors.

If you’re interested in trying out more diagnostic questions, you can download a free set of maths diagnostic tests for Year 5 and 6 or visit the Third Space Learning Maths Hub for a large number of diagnostic assessments on every KS2 maths curriculum topic.

Hopefully the gradual progressive structure of the lesson – or it may be two or three, depending on your class – shows how the long multiplication method can be taught with confidence and learnt by most Year 5s and Year 6s.

It is worth repeating again that the main aims for the first lesson are to build pupil confidence and begin to learn this method of multiplication.

As their confidence grows and the process is embedded further, the multiplier can be changed and reasoning and problem solving questions can be introduced and answered with greater independence.

If you need more long multiplication examples, Third Space Learning’s White Rose lesson slides and worksheets for Year 6 Four Operations gives you more opportunities to work through the stages step by step.

Here are two long multiplication examples set out for you.

Example 1: 6321 x 15 = 94,815

long multiplication example 1

Example 2: 6321 x 25 = 158,025

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Here are a few long multiplication questions and answers to get you started:

  • 1543 x 11 = 16,973
  • 2,374 x 13 = 30,862
  • 4,537 x 27 = 122,499
  • 8,983 x 37 = 332,371
  • 9,452 x 48 = 453,696

Read more: Teaching multiplication KS2

If you’re looking for more questions and long multiplication worksheets then register for more primary maths resources here.

Do you have pupils who need extra support in maths? Every week Third Space Learning’s maths specialist tutors support thousands of pupils across hundreds of schools with weekly online 1-to-1 lessons and maths interventions designed to address learning gaps and boost progress. Since 2013 we’ve helped over 150,000 primary and secondary school pupils become more confident, able mathematicians. Learn more or request a personalised quote for your school to speak to us about your school’s needs and how we can help.

Primary school tuition targeted to the needs of each child and closely following the National Curriculum.

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FREE Long Division Worksheets for KS2

3 ready to use worksheets for your class that will help them with all aspects of long division from 1-digit numbers through to working out multiples!

One worksheet covering division with 1-digit numbers, one covering 2-digit numbers and one for working out multiples.

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Long Multiplication: Definition with Examples

What is long multiplication, how to multiply using long multiplication, long multiplication column method, solved examples on long multiplication, practice problems on long multiplication, frequently asked questions on long multiplication.

Long multiplication is a method of multiplying large numbers easily. It simplifies the process of multiplication of two numbers that are not otherwise easy to multiply.

For example, we can easily find the product of $55 \times 20$ by multiplying 55 by 2 and then adding a 0 at the rightmost place of the answer.

$55 \times 2 = 110$ and $55 \times 20 = 1100$

However, sometimes, finding the product is not this easy. In such cases, we use the method of long multiplication. It is often termed as the long hand multiplication (long multiplication by hand).

Long Multiplication: Definition

Long multiplication is a method of multiplication using which multiplying two large numbers that have two or more digits becomes easier.  

But how to multiply large numbers? Many times, finding the product is not this easy. In such cases, we use the long method of multiplication. 

For example: $47 \times 63 =$ ?

We can find the answer in simple steps using long multiplication. Let’s discuss the method in detail in the next section. 

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Let’s discuss the steps for multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number using the long multiplication method.

Let us multiply 47 by 63 using the long multiplication method .

Step 1: First, write the two numbers, one below the other, such that their place values are aligned. We generally write the bigger number on top and a multiplication sign on the left and draw a line below the numbers as shown below.

long multiplication step 1

Important Note:  

  • In the long multiplication method, the number on the top (63) is called the multiplicand . The number by which it is multiplied, that is, the number at the bottom (43), is called the multiplier .
  • If you write the small number on the top and perform the multiplication, the answer will still be the same since the order does not matter while multiplying two numbers.

Step 2: Multiply the ones digit of the top number by the ones digit of the bottom number.

Write the product as shown in the image. Don’t forget the carryover that goes in the next place!

long multiplication step 2

Step 3: Multiply the tens digit of the top number by the ones digit of the bottom number. Add the carryover.

long multiplication step 3

This is our first partial product which we got by multiplying the top number by the ones digit of the bottom number.

Step 4: Now, we place a 0 below the ones digit as shown. This is because we will now be multiplying the digits of the top number by the tens digit of the bottom number. 

long multiplication step 4

Step 5: Multiply the ones digit of the top number by the tens digit of the bottom number.

long multiplication step 5

Step 6: Multiply the tens digit of the top number by the tens digit of the bottom number.

long multiplication step 6

This is the second partial product obtained by multiplying the top number by the tens digit of the bottom number.

Step 7: Now, add the two partial products.

long multiplication step 7

Let’s summarize.

long multiplication of 63 with 47

We follow the above long multiplication steps only for multiplying numbers greater than two digits.

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Addition and Multiplication Expression for Array Worksheet

Long multiplication is also known as the column method of multiplication since we perform the multiplication vertically or column wise.

Let’s take another example to understand this better. 

Multiply 321 by 23.

Take a look at the long multiplication chart that shows the long multiplication step by step. You can refer to it to avoid mistakes when solving long multiplication problems. 

Long multiplication column method example

Multiplying Decimals Using Long Multiplication

Let’s understand how to multiply decimals with the help of the long multiplication method.

Example: Multiply $3.6 \times 5.5$

Step 1 : First, we place the smaller number out of the two on the right-hand side and change the decimal number to a fraction.

$5.5 \times 3.6 = \frac{55}{10} \times \frac{36}{10}$

Step 2 : Then, we multiply the numerators using the steps of the long multiplication method. We leave the denominator as it is for now.

55 multiplied by 36 using long multiplication

Step 3 : Now, we divide the answer (that we got in step 2) by the denominator to get the final answer. 

$\frac{1980}{100} = 19.80$

Long Multiplication Using the Horizontal Method

Let’s now understand how to use the horizontal method with the help of a long multiplication example. As the name suggests, we multiply the numbers horizontally but follow the same steps as we discussed earlier.

Example: Multiply 48 by 24.

Step 1 : First, we write the numbers beside each other and place them horizontally.

$48 \times 24$

Step 2 : Now, we multiply the second number (number on the right side) with the ones digit of the first number.

Here, we multiply 24 with 8, since 8 is at the ones place in 48.

$24 \times 8 = 192$

Step 3 : Now, we multiply the second number with the tens digit of the first number.

Here, we multiply 24 with 40, since 4 is at the tens place in 48.

$24 \times 40 = 960$

Step 4 : Finally, we add the partial products obtained from steps 2 and 3 to get the final answer.

Addition of partial products in long multiplication

Thus, $48 \times 24 = 1152$

Long Multiplication with Negative Numbers

The multiplication of negative numbers using the method of long multiplication follows the same steps as mentioned above. However, we have to carefully consider the signs of the two numbers in order to decide the sign of the product.

For instance, when we multiply two negative numbers with each other, the sign of the result remains positive. On the other hand, it becomes negative when a negative number and a positive number are multiplied.

The figure below shows how the sign changes upon multiplication with negative numbers:

Rules for multiplying signed numbers

Fun Facts about Long Multiplication

  • Long multiplication is also known as the column method of multiplication.
  • Whenever any number is multiplied by zero, the answer is also zero.
  • When the number 9 is multiplied by any other number, the sum of digits in the product is always 9.

For example, $9 \times 25 = 225$ and $2 + 2 + 5 = 9$; 

                               $9 \times 9 = 81$ and $8 + 1 = 9$.

  • Long multiplication can also be referred to as repeated addition because multiplying any number is just an alternative to adding it repeatedly.
  • Whenever any even number from 0 to 9 is multiplied by 6, the product has the same even number in the ones digit. 

For example, $6 \times 4 = 24,\;  6 \times 2 = 12$

  • Whenever two large numbers (let’s say three-digit or four-digit numbers) are multiplied, the process of long multiplication remains the same. For example:

112 multiplied by 232 using long multiplication

Long multiplication is a method that simplifies the multiplication of large numbers, including two-digit, three-digit numbers, etc., with each other. Let’s solve a few examples and practice problems based on long multiplication!

1. Multiply 38 by 91 using the column method.

Solution: 

91 multiplied by 38 using long multiplication

2. Multiply 72 by 44 using the column method.

Solution : 

72 multiplied by 44 using long multiplication

3. Multiply – 58 by 30.

The sign of the product when we calculate $(\;-\;58) \times (30)$ will be negative.

58 multiplied by 30 using long multiplication

Since 58 has a negative sign, the final answer will be $ – 1740$.

$(\;-\;58) \times (30) = \;-\;1740$

4. Alia bought 42 notebooks, each worth $\$9.6$ . How much did she spend?

To find the amount Alia spent, multiply 9.6 by 42.

$9.6 \times 42 = \frac{96}{10} \times 42$

96 multiplied by 42 using long multiplication

Now, we divide 4032 by 10 to get the final answer, which is $403.2$.

$9.6 \times 42 = 403.2$

Thus, Alia spent $403.2 on notebooks.

5. Multiply $-70$ and $-15$ .

Let’s find $(70) \times (15)$. 

70 multiplied by 15 using long multiplication

Since both the numbers are negative, the final answer will remain positive, $1050$.

$(70) \times (15) = 1050$

Attend this quiz & Test your knowledge.

Multiply 95 by 13 using the column method.

Long Multiplication: Definition with Examples

Multiply the decimals 1.2 and 6.7.

Multiply the negative numbers $(-\;89)$ and $(-\;61)$..

Long Multiplication: Definition with Examples

Multiply 45 by 21 using the horizontal method.

Multiply 530 by 22..

Long Multiplication: Definition with Examples

What are negative numbers?

Negative numbers are those whose value is less than zero and thus have a negative sign (-) before them.

What are positive numbers?

Positive numbers are those whose value is greater than zero.

What is a decimal?

A decimal number represents the number that separates a whole number from a fractional number. It is represented by a dot (.) sign.

What is the meaning of the horizontal method of multiplication?

The horizontal method refers to a method wherein numbers are arranged in a horizontal line from left to right.

What is the meaning of the column method of multiplication?

The column method refers to a method wherein numbers are placed one below the other from top to bottom.

What is short multiplication?

Short multiplication is the method of multiplication commonly used when multiplying a three-digit or larger number with a single-digit number.

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Long Multiplication

Long multiplication is considered a special method of multiplying large numbers that are 2-digits and more. The method to multiply numbers more than 10 is known as the long multiplication method. For this method, knowledge of the multiplication table from 1-10 is needed. In this section, we will learn about long multiplication by understanding the multiplication of large numbers, the column method of multiplication, and how to apply them while solving problems.

What is Long Multiplication?

Long multiplication is a method of multiplying 2 or more numbers together. Consider that we have to multiply any two numbers greater than 10 or 100, we usually perform long multiplication. The other name for long multiplication is the column method of multiplication as numbers can be multiplied in a column as well. Usually, finding the product of two numbers cannot be simple, that is when we use the long multiplication method.

Let us look at this example, consider 31 × 49. Here, we are multiplying 31 with 49 directly by writing one of these numbers in expanded form i.e. 31 = 30 + 1. 30 is the tenth part and 1 is the unit part. So 31 × 49 can be written as 30 × 49 + 1 × 49. First, we are multiplying 49 with 30 and then we are multiplying 49 with 1, and then we are adding them. So, instead of direct multiplication, we have performed long multiplication, which makes the process simple and accurate.

Long Multiplication Column Method

The column method of multiplication is almost as same as the long multiplication method, the only difference is here in the long multiplication method we perform multiplication horizontally, and in the column method of multiplication, we perform multiplication vertically. Just like the long multiplication, the column method also has a step-wise procedure. They are:

  • Step 1: Arrange the numbers in a column format according to their place value. The larger number is usually written on top.
  • Step 2: Once arranged, start by multiplying the bottom number in the one's place with the top number.
  • Step 3: Always remember to move right to left, hence when the result is obtained arrange it below the two numbers. Start multiplying the ten's number in the bottom number with the top number. Place the result by leaving the one's place empty or placing a zero.
  • Step 4: Once the numbers are obtained, using the method of addition to arrive at the final solution.

Let us look at an example for a better understanding. Multiply 52 × 11.

Step 1: Vertically arrange the numbers as shown below.

Column Long Multiplication

Step 2: First multiply 52 with 1.

Column Long Multiplication

Step 3: Now multiply 52 with the 1 at the tenth place, here we are actually multiplying 52 with 10.

Column Long Multiplication

Step 4: Now add 52 and 520.

Column Long Multiplication

Therefore, 52 × 11 = 572.

Long Multiplication With Decimals

The long multiplication method can be used in decimal numbers as well. Let us look at an example: Multiply 4.1 × 2.7.

While performing the multiplication, keep the smaller number to the right-hand side.

Step 1: Remove the decimal and convert the decimal number into a fraction.

4.1 × 2.7 = 41/10 × 27/10

Step 2: Now keep the 10s in the denominator.

41/10 × 27/10 = (41 × 27) / (10 × 10)

Step 3: Perform the long multiplication on numerators and keep the denominator aside for a while.

Long Multiplication with Decimal

Step 4: Now divide the result of the multiplication by the denominator that we kept aside. To derive at a decimal number we convert 1107 by considering the two zeros from the denominator and counting the decimal point from the last number i.e. 7 towards the next number i.e. 0. Hence, the decimal point is placed two numbers after the last number.

(1107) / (10 × 10) = 1107 / 100 = 11.07

Long Multiplication With Decimal

Therefore, 4.1 × 2.7 = 11.07

Long Multiplication Horizontal Method

In long multiplication, one of the methods apart from the column method is the horizontal method. This method is mostly used among single-digit numbers and 2-digit numbers. Let us look at the step-wise procedure of solving long multiplication in the horizontal method:

  • Step 1: Arrange the numbers horizontally next to each other in the normal multiplication format.
  • Step 2: Start by multiplying the first number at the one's place with the other number.
  • Step 3: Always move from right to left in long multiplication. Once the first number is done, multiply the number in the ten's place with the other number.
  • Step 4: Once the result is obtained and written in a column format, use the method of addition to find the final solution.

Let us use the above example for a better understanding of multiplying 2-digits. Multiply 31 × 49

Step 1: Arrange the numbers horizontally and begin with multiplying 49 with 1.

Long Multiplication Horizontal Method

Step 2: Now, multiply 49 with 3, and put a cross sign just below 9 (the unit place of the number 49), this cross sign represents a 0.

Example of Long Multiplication

Step 3: Write zeros before the number 49 so that it will cover till the number 1 of 147, write the numbers just below another number so that the addition becomes easy.

Step 4: Add these two numbers 0049 and 1470.

Example of Long Multiplication

Hence, 31 × 49 = 1519. In long multiplication, the cross represents a zero. Also, while multiplying numbers up to 3-digits, we have to add two crosses while we multiply to a hundred place number.

Long Multiplication With Negative Numbers

The long multiplication on negative numbers follows the same rule as positive numbers, the only difference is the sign convention. We have to remember the sign conventions while multiplying the numbers. When a positive number is multiplied by a negative number, the solution is a negative number. Whereas, when two negative numbers are multiplied with each other, the solution is a positive number.

Long Multiplication with Negative Numbers

Examples of Long Multiplication

Example 1: An NGO wants to create wall paintings on all the metro stations in a city. If a city has a total of 23 metro stations and the NGO decided to run the campaign in 19 such cities. How many metro stations can they cover?

Solution: Given,

Metro stations in a city = 23

Number of cities = 19

By using the horizontal method, we arrange the numbers 23 and 19 horizontally and start multiplying 9 with 23 first and move on to 1 with 23.

Total metro stations covered by the NGO will be:

Long Multiplication Example

Therefore, the NGO will paint a total of 437 metro stations.

Example 2: Help Paul to perform the multiplication 101 × 34

Solution: We can solve 101 × 34 by the long multiplication horizontal method.

Long Multiplication Example

Therefore, 101 × 34 = 3434

Example 3: Help Tim to multiply 3214 × 4561 by column method of long multiplication.

Solution: We can solve 3214 × 4561 by the column method of long multiplication.

Column Method of Long Multiplication

Therefore, 3214 × 4561 = 14659054

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Practice Questions on Long Multiplication

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FAQs on Long Multiplication

What is meant by long multiplication.

Long multiplication is a method of multiplication used for multiplying numbers up to 2-digits and more. Long multiplication can be done in two ways - numbers written in a horizontal manner and numbers written in a column manner. Large numbers with more than 3-digits are multiplied using the long multiplication method. Multiplication of two numbers is also called the product of two numbers. Long multiplication can also be known as the column method of multiplication.

What are the Steps for Long Multiplication Horizontal Method?

There 4 steps required to perform long multiplication on large numbers, they are:

  • Arrange the numbers in a horizontal manner.
  • Start by multiplying the first number at the one's place with the other number.
  • Always move from right to left in long multiplication. Once the first number is completed, multiply the number in the ten's place with the other number.
  • Once the result is obtained and written in a column format, use the method of addition to find the final solution.

What are the Steps for Long Multiplication Column Method?

The steps for column-wise long multiplication are very similar to the normal long multiplication. The column method is done vertically and the 4 steps are:

  • Arrange the numbers in a column format according to their place value.
  • Start by multiplying the bottom number in the one's place with the top number.
  • Once the result is obtained arrange it below the two numbers. Start multiplying the ten's number in the bottom number with the top number.
  • Once the numbers are obtained, using the method of addition to arrive at the final solution.

Can Long Multiplication be Used for Decimal Numbers?

Yes, the long multiplication method can be used for decimal numbers as well. While multiplying decimal numbers, always keep the smaller number to the right-hand side. For decimal numbers, both the horizontal and the vertical long multiplication methods can be used.

Can Long Multiplication be Used for Negative Numbers?

Yes, the long multiplication method can be used for negative numbers with the help of a few rules such as:

  • A positive number multiplied with a positive number will result in a positive number.
  • A negative number multiplied with a positive number or vice versa will result in a negative number.
  • A negative number multiplied by a negative number will result in a positive number.

How to Solve Long Multiplication Problems?

Long multiplication problems can be solved using two methods - the long multiplication method and the column method. The long multiplication method requires the numbers to be written horizontally whereas the column method requires the numbers to be written vertically. Both methods help in solving problems with large numbers.

How to do Long Multiplication Easily?

The long multiplication method can be performed easily and in a quick manner if we keep a few things in mind. For multiplication, it is always better to relate to addition as it is used to arrive at the final solution. Always remember the multiplication table from the numbers 1-10. For long multiplication, it is always helpful in breaking down the problem into steps for better understanding and arriving at the result faster.

Long Multiplication

Long Multiplication is a special method for multiplying larger numbers.

It is a way to multiply numbers larger than 10 that only needs your knowledge of the ten times Multiplication Table .

Let us say we want to multiply

612 × 24

  • First we multiply 612 × 4 (=2,448),
  • then we multiply 612 × 20 (=12,240),
  • and last we add them together (2,448 + 12,240 = 14,688).

But we can do better!

When we multiply 612 × 20 we only need to multiply 612 ×  2 and place the result one column over (so it is the same as multiplying by 20).

We just have to be careful about lining up the columns . Here is how to do it (press the play button):

More Than Two Digits

The same idea works when multiplying by more than two digit numbers. We just have to move over more spaces:

Have a try yourself with these Long Multiplication Worksheets

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Solve Problems with Multiplication-Reasoning and Problem Solving

Solve Problems with Multiplication - Reasoning and Problem Solving

Solve Problems with Multiplication - Reasoning and Problem Solving

This worksheet includes a range of reasoning and problem solving questions for pupils to practise the main skill of Solve Problems with Multiplication.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

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What's included in the pack?

Solve Problems with Multiplication reasoning and problem solving worksheet Answer sheet

National Curriculum Objectives:

(6C8)  Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (6C6)  Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers

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Long multiplication Year 5

Long multiplication Year 5

Subject: Mathematics

Age range: 7-11

Resource type: Worksheet/Activity

Mrs SCM

Last updated

19 September 2018

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Multiplication and Division KS2

This collection is one of our Primary Curriculum collections - tasks that are grouped by topic.

One Wasn't Square

Mrs Morgan, the class's teacher, pinned numbers onto the backs of three children. Use the information to find out what the three numbers were.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

All the Digits

This multiplication uses each of the digits 0 - 9 once and once only. Using the information given, can you replace the stars in the calculation with figures?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Cycling Squares

Can you make a cycle of pairs that add to make a square number using all the numbers in the box below, once and once only?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Can you replace the letters with numbers? Is there only one solution in each case?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiplication Square Jigsaw

Can you complete this jigsaw of the multiplication square?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Shape Times Shape

These eleven shapes each stand for a different number. Can you use the number sentences to work out what they are?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

What Do You Need?

Four of these clues are needed to find the chosen number on this grid and four are true but do nothing to help in finding the number. Can you sort out the clues and find the number?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Investigate the sum of the numbers on the top and bottom faces of a line of three dice. What do you notice?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

How Do You Do It?

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Table Patterns Go Wild!

Nearly all of us have made table patterns on hundred squares, that is 10 by 10 grids. This problem looks at the patterns on differently sized square grids.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Journeys in Numberland

Tom and Ben visited Numberland. Use the maps to work out the number of points each of their routes scores.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Ordering Cards

This problem is designed to help children to learn, and to use, the two and three times tables.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Let Us Divide!

Look at different ways of dividing things. What do they mean? How might you show them in a picture, with things, with numbers and symbols?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Place four pebbles on the sand in the form of a square. Keep adding as few pebbles as necessary to double the area. How many extra pebbles are added each time?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Sweets in a Box

How many different shaped boxes can you design for 36 sweets in one layer? Can you arrange the sweets so that no sweets of the same colour are next to each other in any direction?

Round and Round the Circle

What happens if you join every second point on this circle? How about every third point? Try with different steps and see if you can predict what will happen.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Highest and Lowest

Put operations signs between the numbers 3 4 5 6 to make the highest possible number and lowest possible number.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Zios and Zepts

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Abundant Numbers

48 is called an abundant number because it is less than the sum of its factors (without itself). Can you find some more abundant numbers?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Find at least one way to put in some operation signs to make these digits come to 100.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Flashing Lights

Norrie sees two lights flash at the same time, then one of them flashes every 4th second, and the other flashes every 5th second. How many times do they flash together during a whole minute?

The Moons of Vuvv

The planet of Vuvv has seven moons. Can you work out how long it is between each super-eclipse?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Mystery Matrix

Can you fill in this table square? The numbers 2 -12 were used to generate it with just one number used twice.

Four Goodness Sake

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiplication Squares

Can you work out the arrangement of the digits in the square so that the given products are correct? The numbers 1 - 9 may be used once and once only.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Factor Lines

Arrange the four number cards on the grid, according to the rules, to make a diagonal, vertical or horizontal line.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Two Primes Make One Square

Can you make square numbers by adding two prime numbers together?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Cubes Within Cubes

We start with one yellow cube and build around it to make a 3x3x3 cube with red cubes. Then we build around that red cube with blue cubes and so on. How many cubes of each colour have we used?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

I'm thinking of a number. My number is both a multiple of 5 and a multiple of 6. What could my number be?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Which Is Quicker?

Which is quicker, counting up to 30 in ones or counting up to 300 in tens? Why?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

A Square of Numbers

Can you put the numbers 1 to 8 into the circles so that the four calculations are correct?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Odd Squares

Think of a number, square it and subtract your starting number. Is the number you're left with odd or even? How do the images help to explain this?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Up and Down Staircases

One block is needed to make an up-and-down staircase, with one step up and one step down. How many blocks would be needed to build an up-and-down staircase with 5 steps up and 5 steps down?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Carrying Cards

These sixteen children are standing in four lines of four, one behind the other. They are each holding a card with a number on it. Can you work out the missing numbers?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

An Easy Way to Multiply by 10?

Do you agree with Badger's statements? Is Badger's reasoning 'watertight'? Why or why not?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiples Grid

What do the numbers shaded in blue on this hundred square have in common? What do you notice about the pink numbers? How about the shaded numbers in the other squares?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Factors and Multiples Game

This game can replace standard practice exercises on finding factors and multiples.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Music to My Ears

Can you predict when you'll be clapping and when you'll be clicking if you start this rhythm? How about when a friend begins a new rhythm at the same time?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

What's in the Box?

This big box multiplies anything that goes inside it by the same number. If you know the numbers that come out, what multiplication might be going on in the box?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Factor-multiple Chains

Can you see how these factor-multiple chains work? Find the chain which contains the smallest possible numbers. How about the largest possible numbers?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

This challenge is a game for two players. Choose two of the numbers to multiply or divide, then mark your answer on the number line. Can you get four in a row?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Picture a Pyramid ...

Imagine a pyramid which is built in square layers of small cubes. If we number the cubes from the top, starting with 1, can you picture which cubes are directly below this first cube?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

The Remainders Game

Play this game and see if you can figure out the computer's chosen number.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Which Symbol?

Choose a symbol to put into the number sentence.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Times Tables Shifts

In this activity, the computer chooses a times table and shifts it. Can you work out the table and the shift each time?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Counting Cogs

Which pairs of cogs let the coloured tooth touch every tooth on the other cog? Which pairs do not let this happen? Why?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Light the Lights Again

Each light in this interactivity turns on according to a rule. What happens when you enter different numbers? Can you find the smallest number that lights up all four lights?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Follow the Numbers

What happens when you add the digits of a number then multiply the result by 2 and you keep doing this? You could try for different numbers and different rules.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Curious Number

Can you order the digits from 1-3 to make a number which is divisible by 3 so when the last digit is removed it becomes a 2-figure number divisible by 2, and so on?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Factor Track

Factor track is not a race but a game of skill. The idea is to go round the track in as few moves as possible, keeping to the rules.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

So It's Times!

How will you decide which way of flipping over and/or turning the grid will give you the highest total?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Square Subtraction

Look at what happens when you take a number, square it and subtract your answer. What kind of number do you get? Can you prove it?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

This Pied Piper of Hamelin

Investigate the different numbers of people and rats there could have been if you know how many legs there are altogether!

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiply Multiples 1

Can you complete this calculation by filling in the missing numbers? In how many different ways can you do it?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiply Multiples 2

Can you work out some different ways to balance this equation?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Multiply Multiples 3

Have a go at balancing this equation. Can you find different ways of doing it?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Division Rules

This challenge encourages you to explore dividing a three-digit number by a single-digit number.

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Always, Sometimes or Never? Number

Are these statements always true, sometimes true or never true?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Satisfying Four Statements

Can you find any two-digit numbers that satisfy all of these statements?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Picture Your Method

Can you match these calculation methods to their visual representations?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Compare the Calculations

Can you put these four calculations into order of difficulty? How did you decide?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Dicey Array

Watch the video of this game being played. Can you work out the rules? Which dice totals are good to get, and why?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

4 by 4 Mathdokus

Can you use the clues to complete these 4 by 4 Mathematical Sudokus?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

Xavi's T-shirt

How much can you read into a T-shirt?

long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

IMAGES

  1. Solve Problems with Multiplication

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

  2. KS2 Differentiated long multiplication word and reasoning problems

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

  3. The 2, 4 and 8 Times Tables

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

  4. Long multiplication Year 5

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

  5. Reasoning about Multiplication

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

  6. Long Multiplication Word Problems

    long multiplication reasoning and problem solving

VIDEO

  1. Multiplication Shortcut Trick

  2. Skill Set

  3. multiplication problem solving #shorts #short

  4. #reasoning #mitacademy #maths #bhagusaba #bhodasma rules #miteshganvit #shots

  5. Singapore Math

  6. 📐EASIEST SOLUTION || GEOMETRY QUESTION 🧠✨#matholympiadquestion #geometry

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Year 5 Multiply 3-Digits by 2-Digits Reasoning and Problem Solving

    National Curriculum Objectives: Mathematics Year 5: (5C6a) Multiply and divide numbers mentally drawing upon known facts Mathematics Year 5: (5C7a) Multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers Differentiation:

  2. Long Multiplication Worksheets

    There are a variety of strategies for completing long multiplication including the classic paper and pencil methods, lattice multiplication (which we feature on this page), mental strategies, manipulative use, technology, and various other paper and pencil algorithms. Multi-Digit multiplication can be a frustrating experience for many students.

  3. PDF Year 6 Multiply 4-Digits by 2-Digits Reasoning and Problem Solving

    Reasoning and Problem Solving Multiply 4-Digits by 2-Digits Developing 1a. 2,211 x 23 = 50,853 2a. An explanation that recognises Jake has not correctly multiplied the thousands in the first number by the tens in the second number. 3a. Various answers, for example: 2,311 x 23 = 53,153 and 2,322 x 23 = 53,406 Expected 4a. 7,931 x 21 = 166,551 5a.

  4. Long Multiplication Worksheets

    Math explained in easy language, plus puzzles, games, quizzes, videos and worksheets. For K-12 kids, teachers and parents. Long Multiplication Worksheets Worksheets » Long Multiplication Worksheet Example; Easy : 6 × 15: Simple : 11 × 44: Intermediate : 15 × 67: Hard : 34 × 129:

  5. Long Multiplication Method KS2: How To Teach It Step-By-Step

    Neil Almond The long multiplication method can be very difficult to teach in Years 5 and 6, as anyone who has taught upper KS2 before will know. Despite best intentions, there will always be a few pupils who are either unsure of the simpler 4 by 1-digit approach or who are not secure on their times tables.

  6. Long Multiplication? Definition, Methods, Steps, Examples, Facts

    Example: Multiply 3.6 × 5.5. Step 1: First, we place the smaller number out of the two on the right-hand side and change the decimal number to a fraction. 5.5 × 3.6 = 55 10 × 36 10. Step 2: Then, we multiply the numerators using the steps of the long multiplication method. We leave the denominator as it is for now.

  7. Long Multiplication

    Let us look at an example: Multiply 4.1 × 2.7. While performing the multiplication, keep the smaller number to the right-hand side. Step 1: Remove the decimal and convert the decimal number into a fraction. 4.1 × 2.7 = 41/10 × 27/10. Step 2: Now keep the 10s in the denominator.

  8. Long Multiplication

    Long Multiplication. Long Multiplication is a special method for multiplying larger numbers.. It is a way to multiply numbers larger than 10 that only needs your knowledge of the ten times Multiplication Table.. Let us say we want to multiply . 612 × 24. First we multiply 612 × 4 (=2,448), ; then we multiply 612 × 20 (=12,240), ; and last we add them together (2,448 + 12,240 = 14,688).

  9. PDF Learning to Think Mathematically About Multiplication

    reasoning skills to visualize the product of two numbers as an area. The intent of this chapter is to present students with problems that will help them develop facility with this representational model for multiplication computation, as well as to use that model to better understand what multiplication really is.

  10. Long Multiplication

    Challenge Level. A 3 digit number is multiplied by a 2 digit number and the calculation is written out as shown below. Each star like this stands for one digit. Apart from the zero shown the only digits which occur are 2, 3, 5 and 7.

  11. Long multiplication

    Furthermore, long multiplication enhances critical thinking and problem-solving skills. It encourages logical reasoning, attention to detail, and perseverance. These skills are transferable and valuable in various aspects of life, both inside and outside the classroom. Conclusion: Congratulations on mastering the art of long multiplication!

  12. Long Multiplication Word Problems

    When it comes to young children, a little extra help at home goes a long way. Plus, make sure you try out these 3 digit multiplication sheets and our 3 Digits x 2 Digits Long Multiplication Worksheet for some extra practice. For some more word problems resources, you might like these Multi-Step Fractions of Amounts Activity Sheets.

  13. Solve Problems with Multiplication-Reasoning and Problem Solving

    Answer sheet National Curriculum Objectives: (6C8) Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (6C6) Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers This resource is available to download with a Premium subscription.

  14. Long Multiplication Calculator

    Long Multiplication Example: Multiply 234 by 56. Long Multiplication Steps: Stack the numbers with the larger number on top. Align the numbers by place value columns. Multiply the ones digit in the bottom number by each digit in the top number. 6 × 4 = 24. Put the 4 in Ones place. Carry the 2 to Tens place.

  15. PDF Number: Multiplication and Division with Reasoning

    multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12 Missing numbers 10 = 5 x What number could be

  16. Multiplication Practice Questions

    The Corbettmaths Practice Questions on Multiplication. Videos, worksheets, 5-a-day and much more

  17. White Rose Compatible Year 6 Multiply 4-Digit by 2-Digit ...

    In the pack, children use their reasoning skills to identify and correct common errors and misconceptions and solve problems by applying their knowledge of long multiplication. These Year 6 worksheets support the White Rose step 'Multiply up to a 4-digit number by a 2-digit number'. You might also like this Year 6 Diving into Mastery: Add and ...

  18. PDF Phase 2: Reasoning Strategies for Multiplication & Division

    Reasoning strategies involves the students in seeking efficient strategies for the solving of basic number combinations. In so doing, students acquire the ability to look at numbers and operations in many equivalent ways. In addressing a single-digit computation, the student must first understand the problem (the meaning of the operation) and ...

  19. Long multiplication Year 5

    Long multiplication Year 5. Subject: Mathematics. Age range: 7-11. Resource type: Worksheet/Activity. Mrs SCM. 4.56 82 reviews. ... docx, 25.75 KB docx, 102.91 KB docx, 36.34 KB docx, 25.75 KB. Green- fluency Red- reasoning Purple- problem solving. Creative Commons "Sharealike" Reviews. 4 Something went wrong, please try again later. Brommie. 4 ...

  20. 533 Top "Long Multiplication Reasoning" Teaching Resources ...

    Differentiated Problem Solving Tic-Tac-Toe Worksheets . 8 reviews . Last downloaded on. PlanIt Maths Year 6 Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication ... Explore more than 533 "Long Multiplication Reasoning" resources for teachers, parents and pupils as well as related resources on "2 Digit By 2 Digit Multiplication" Get to know us ...

  21. Multiplication and Division KS2

    Challenge Level. This challenge is a game for two players. Choose two of the numbers to multiply or divide, then mark your answer on the number line.

  22. Reasoning In Multiplication & Division

    Mental Math: Multiplication and Division 4:49 Solving Mathematical Problems Using Estimation 7:38 Estimating a Difference by Rounding 4:57

  23. Tree of Thoughts Prompting. Solving multi-step problems with LLMs…

    (from [10]) The generic text-to-text format of LLMs is incredibly powerful. To solve any problem, we can simply i) write a textual prompt that describes the problem and ii) generate a relevant output/solution with the language model. For this reason, LLMs are considered to be foundation models, or models that can singlehandedly be adapted to solve a wide variety of tasks.

  24. Page couldn't load • Instagram

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