EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR)
- Vol. 9 Issue. 5 (May-2023) EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR)
A STUDY ON CONSUMER PREFERENCE AND SATISFACTION LEVEL TOWARDS HALDIRAM'S PRODUCTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TIRUPUR CITY
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Literature Review of Impact of Branding on Base of the Pyramid Markets with Special Reference to India
The bottom of the pyramid has been the topic of many research articles and scholarly discussions. Since Prahalad and Hart wrote about how multinationals can help alleviate poverty and create value propositions for themselves in 2004, many companies have been looking at strategies to serve the BOP segment in emerging markets. While an equally good number of companies have invested a lot of money in these markets and have failed, only a small minority of corporations that have engaged with the BOP sector have created businesses of high volume and profitability. This paper examines through review of the literature, the impact of branding on people living on less than $2 per day and then what how of reaching these customers in a profitable manner for corporations.
Gurprit S. Kindra
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine base of pyramid (BOP) customer perceptions on the importance of branding as a purchase driver and to investigate firms' marketing programs used to manage brands at the BOP. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative data collection methods comprising in-depth one-to-one consumer interviews, focus groups, ethnographic observations and case studies were used to conduct the research. Findings – Key findings include the identification of importance of brands to BOP consumers, evolution of brand communities, and impact of social networks on the marketing programs used by firms to build brand equity. Research limitations/implications – The sample used for consumer interviews is small and confining the focus to the food and personal hygiene sector may limit generalization of findings to a broader population. Practical implications – The study provides managers with insights on the importance of brands in the purchase decision at BOP and on the different nature and focus of marketing programs which can be effective at the BOP, specifically the need to align programs to social networks. Social implications – The study provides insights on how firms can improve livelihoods at the BOP by provision of employment and business opportunities through their brand equity building activities. Originality/value – Research into the BOP is a relatively new area of study in international business. This expands knowledge in the area by employing empirical mixed research methods to study consumers and firms, since the two have a dyadic relationship – thereby providing new insights on branding at the BOP.
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Post on 26-Oct-2014
prabhu shankar agarwal
Frito lay india, snack foods, ganga bishen, marketing mix.
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Case Study: Haldiram’s Group – Seeking the ‘Right’ Marketing
! 2003, IBS Center for Management Research. All rights reserved. To order copies, call +91-08417-236667/68 or write to IBS Center for Management Research (ICMR), IFHE Campus, Donthanapally, Sankarapally Road, Hyderabad 501 504, Andhra Pradesh, India or email: [email protected] www.icmrindia.org
This case was written by K. Prashanth, under the direction of Vivek Gupta, IBS Center for Management Research. It was compiled from published sources, and is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a management situation.
“It is far easier to sell something that the consumer is already accustomed to. The company (Haldiram’s) caters to the Indian palate, which is its primary driver of success.”
- Neeraj Garg, Associate, AT Kearney.1
INTRODUCTIONOver a period spanning six and a half decades, the Haldiram’s Group (Haldiram’s) had emerged as a household name for ready-to-eat snack foods in India. It had come a long way since its relatively humble beginning in 1937 as a small time sweet shop in Bikaner, in the Rajasthan state of India. In 2001, the turnover of the Haldiram’s was Rs 4 billion. The group had pres-ence not only in India but in several countries all over the world.
Till the early 1990s, Haldiram’s comprised of three units, one each in Kolkata, Nagpur and New Delhi. The Agarwals family that owned Haldiram’s were always conscious of the need to satisfy customers in order to grow their business. The company offered a wide variety of traditional Indian sweets and snacks at competitive prices that appealed to people belonging to differ-ent age groups.
Haldiram’s had many ‘firsts’ to its credit. It was the first com-pany in India to brand ‘namkeens’. The group also pioneered new ways of packaging namkeens. Its packaging techniques increased the shelf life of namkeens from less than a week to more than six months. It was also one of the first companies in India to open a restaurant in New Delhi offering traditional In-dian snack food items such as “panipuri,” “chatpapri,” and so
on, which catered to the needs of hygiene conscious non-resident Indians and other foreign customers.
Since the very beginning, the brand ‘Haldiram’s’ had been re-nowned for its quality products. The company employed the best available technology in all its manufacturing facilities in In-dia. Given the increasing popularity of Haldiram’s products, the group planned to expand its operations.
However, some analysts felt that Haldiram’s still had to over-come some hurdles. The company faced tough competition not only from sweets and snack food vendors in the unorganized market but also from domestic and international competitors like SM Foods, Bakeman’s Industries Ltd, Frito Lay India Ltd.(Frito Lay) and Britannia Industries Ltd. Moreover, the group had to overcome internal problems as well. In the early 1990s, because of the conflict within the Agarwals family, Haldi-ram’s witnessed an informal split between its three units as they started operating separately offering similar products and sharing the same brand name. In 1999, after a court verdict these units started operating as three different companies with clearly defined territories. This split had resulted in aggressive competition among themselves for a higher share of domestic and international markets.
BACKGROUND NOTE In 1937, Ganga Bishen Agarwal, (popularly known as Haldi-ram), opened a small sweet shop in Bikaner, a small district in Rajasthan. Bikaner had a large number of sweet shops selling sweets as well as namkeens. ‘Bhujia sev,’ a salty snack pre-
p a r e d b y G a n g a Bishen, was very popular among the residents of Bikaner and was also pur-chased by tourists coming to Bikaner. In 1941, the name ‘Haldi-ram’s Bhujiawala’ was used for the first time.
In 1950, Prabhu Shankar Agarwal (Prabhu), along with his fa-ther Rameshwar Lal Agarwal (son of Ganga Bishen), expanded the business by establishing a small manufacturing unit for sweets and namkeens in Kolkata. The success of this unit moti-vated Prabhu to upgrade its machinery to improve the quality of its products.
As demand for Haldiram’s products increased, it was decided to scale up the company’s manufacturing and distri-but ion act iv i t ies. In 1970, a large manufac-turing unit was set up in Nagpur in the state of Maharashtra (India). In 1983, a retail outlet was set up in New Delhi. The out let became very popular not only among the Delhiites but also among tourists visiting Delhi.
Haldiram’s was able to achieve significant growth during the 1980s and 1990s. In 1992, a manufacturing unit with a retail out-let attached to it was set up in the outskirts of Delhi. A year later, Haldiram’s syrups and crushes were successfully launched in the Indian market. In 1995, a restaurant was opened in New Delhi. In 1997, realizing the potential of nam-keens, the company set up a manufacturing unit in Delhi exclu-sively for making namkeens. To add potato products to its exist-ing product portfolio, machinery was imported from the US. Haldiram’s maintained high quality standards at every stage of the production process. All its food items were prepared and packaged in a very hygienic environment.
In the mid 1990s, Haldiram’s added bakery items, dairy prod-ucts, sharbats and ice creams to its portfolio. At the beginning of the 21st century, Haldiram’s products reached millions of con-sumers not only in India, but also in several other countries, in-cluding the US, Canada, UK, UAE, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Japan and Thailand.
Analysts felt that the growing popularity of Haldiram’s products could be attributed to its constant focus on all the elements of the marketing mix. An article posted on the APEDA’s website – apeda.com quoted some of the company’s strengths, “To sus-tain in the competitive market, Haldiram’s has endeavored stress on its product quality, packaging, shelf life, competitive price with a special emphasis on consumers satisfaction and its lingering taste is amongst the best available in the world.”
THE MARKETING MIX 22
Figure 1.1 The Original Haldi-ram’s Shop in Bikaner
Figure 1.2: Haldiram’s nam-keen Nazrana
PRODUCTSHaldiram’s offered a wide range of products to its customers. The product range included nam-keens, sweets, sharbats, bak-ery items, dairy products, pa-pad and ice-creams (See Ex-hibit I for details of product range). However, namkeens remained the main focus area for the group contributing close to 60% of its total reve-nues. By specializing in the manufacturing of namkeens, the company seemed to have created a niche market. While the Nagpur unit manufactured 51 different varieties of namkeens, the Kolkata unit manufactured 37 and the Delhi unit 25. The raw ma-
terials used to prepare namkeens were of best quality and were sourced from all over India.
Haldiram’s sought to customize its products to suit the tastes and preferences of customers from different parts of India. It launched products, which catered to the tastes of people belong-ing to specific regions. For example, it launched ‘Murukkus,’ a South Indian snack, and ‘Chennai Mixture’ for south Indian cus-tomers. Similarly, Haldiram’s launched ‘Bhelpuri,’ keeping in mind customers residing in western India. The company offered certain products such as ‘Nazarana,’ ‘Panchratan,’ and ‘Premium’ only during the festival season in gift packs. These measures helped Haldiram’s compete effectively in a market that was flooded with a variety of snack items in different shapes, sizes and flavors.
PRICINGHaldiram’s offered its products at competitive prices in order to penetrate the huge unorganized market of namkeens and sweets. The company’s pricing strategy took into consideration the price conscious nature of consumers in India. Haldiram’s launched namkeens in small packets of 30 grams, priced as low as Rs.5. The company also launched namkeens in five different packs with prices varying according to their weights (Refer Table I).
The prices also varied on the basis of the type of namkeens and the raw materials used to manufacture it. The cost of metallized packing also had an impact on the price, especially in the case of snack foods. The company revised the prices of its products up-
Gallery 1.1: Haldiram’s Products Catering to Regional Tastes
Figure 1.3: Haldiram’s Rose Syrup
wards only when there was a steep increase in the raw mate-
rial costs or additional taxes were imposed.
PLACEHaldiram’s developed a strong distribution network to ensure the widest possible reach for its products in India as well as overseas. From the manufacturing unit, the company’s finished goods were passed on to carrying and forwarding (C&F) agents. C&F agents passed on the products to distributors, who shipped them to retail outlets. While the Delhi unit of Haldi-ram’s had 25 C&F agents and 700 distributors in India, the Nag-
pur unit had 25 C&F agents and 375 distributors. Haldiram’s also had 35 sole distributors in the international market. The Delhi and Nagpur units together catered to 0.6 million retail out-lets in India.
C&F agents received a commission of around 5%, while dis-tributors earned margins ranging from 8% to 10%. The retail outlets earned margins ranging from 14% to 30%. At the retail outlet level, margins varied according to the weight of packs sold. Retailers earned more margins ranging from 25% to 30% by selling 30 gms pouches (priced at Rs.5) compared to the packs of higher weights.
Apart from the exclusive showrooms owned by Haldiram’s, the company offered its products through retail out-lets such as supermarkets, sweet shops, provision stores, bakeries and ice cream parlors. The products were also available in public places such as railway stations and bus stations that accounted for a sizeable amount of its sales. Haldiram’s products en-joyed phenomenal goodwill and stockists competed with each other
to stock its products. Moreover, sweet shops and bakeries stocked Haldiram’s products despite the fact that the com-pany’s products were competing with their own products.
Table 1: Price Range of ‘Namkeens’ Offered by Haldiram’s
Pack Weight Price (in Rs)
180 gms – 250 gms 18-35
400 gms – 500 gms 40-70
Source: IBS Center for Management ResearchSource: IBS Center for Management Research
Figure 1.4: A Haldi-ram’s Exclusive Showroom
Table 1.4.2: Product Range of Haldiram’s GroupThe Haldiram’s group had a very exhaustive product range, especially in namkeens category. The product range of the Delhi, Nagpur, and Kolkata units is given below:Nagpur Unit:The product range consists of namkeens, chips, papad, sharbat, bakery items, dairy products, ice creams, and sweets.A Namkeens: Agra taj dal moth. all in one, alu laccha, alu masala chips, alu wafer, bhel mudhi, bhel puri, bhujia, bhujia sev, channa chor, channa nut, chatpata dal, samosa, dry fruit mix, falahari chivda, golden mixture, khari bundi, khatta mitha, lahsan sev, madras mixture, masala channa dal, masala kaju, masala peanut, masala potato chips, masala sev wafer, milan mix, masala wafer, mixture, mung dal, murukku., panchrathan mixture, plain bhujia, potato stick, potato chilli chatpata, salted peanut, special kanhari dalmoth, B Sweets: Rasgulla, rajbhog, rasbahar, soan cake ,soan papdi. C Bakery products: Butter pay, cherry bread, cream roll, doughnut, magic puff, pizza base, premium bread, sandwich bread.D Dairy Products: Milk and butter.E Ice creams: Different flavors such as vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry.F Papad New Delhi Unit:A. Namkeens: Shahi Mixture, khatta meetha, panchrattan , moong dal, nut cracker, kashmiri mixture, cornflakes mixture, aloo bhujia, kaju mixture, dal biji bhujia, navrattan, chana jor garam, bombay chana hara chiwda, all in one chilli chatak lachha, mint lachha bhelpuri, plain bhujia sev, kranchy mixture, methi sev. B. Sweets: Perishable sweets (atta ladoo, besan ladoo, kaju burfee, kaju roll, pinni, pista burfee and plain burfee), and other sweets (soan papdi, jam phal, rasgulla, kalam petha, karachi halva, kesar rasbari, kesar gandhari, raj bhog. C. Syrups: Different flavors such as pine apple, orange, badam and roseKolkata Unit:A. Tinned and Packaged sweets:Ready–to–eat snacks, tomato flavored corn chips, cotella chips, cheese in chilli flavors, pickles, papad, syrups.
Source: haldiram.com (New Delhi), haldirams.com (Nagpur), asianvendors.com (Kolkata)
Haldiram’s also offered its products through the Internet. The company tied up with indiatimes.com, a website owned by the Times of India group to sell its products over the Internet. Haldi ram’s products could be ordered through a host of other web-s i t e s i n I n d i a a n d a b r o a d . G i f t s t o i n d i a . c o m , giftssmashhits.com, tohfatoindia.com and channelindia.com en-abled people residing abroad to send Haldiram’s gift packs to specified locations in India. Region-specific websites enabled people to send gifts to specified regions. These include i n d i a m a r t . c o m ( D e l h i a n d s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s ) , m u m b a i f l o w e r s g i f t s . c o m ( M u m b a i ) , a n d chennaiflowersgifts.com (Chennai and other parts of Tamil-nadu). These websites competed on issues such as delivery time, which varied between 48 hrs to one week, delivery charges (some websites offered free delivery of products) and value added services (like sending personal messages along with the gift packs).
PROMOTIONHaldiram’s product promotion had been low key until competi-tion intensified in the snack foods market. The company tied with ‘Profile Advertising’ for promoting its products. Conse-quently, attractive posters, brochures and mailers were de-signed to enhance the visibility of the Haldiram’s brand.
Different varieties of posters were designed to appeal to the masses. The punch line for Haldiram’s products was, ‘Always in good taste.’ Advertisements depicting the entire range of Haldiram’s sweets and namkeens were published in the print media (magazines and newspapers). These advertisements
had captions such as ‘millions of tongues can’t go wrong,’ ‘What are you waiting for, Di-wali?’ and ‘Keeping your taste buds on their toes.’
To increase the visibility of the Haldiram’s brand, the com-pany placed its hoardings in high traffic areas such as train stations and bus stations. Posters were de-signed for display on pub-lic transport vehicles such as buses, and hoardings, focused on individual prod-ucts were developed. Cap-tions such as ‘yeh corn hain’ (this is corn), ‘chota
Figure 1.5: Haldiram’s Punch Line
Figure 1.7: A Haldiram’s Hoard-ing for an Individual Product
Figure 1.6: Haldi-ram’s ‘What are you waiting for, Diwali?’ Ad
samosa – big mazaa’ (small samosa – big entertainment), ‘yeh Kashmiri mix khoob jamega’ (this namkeen item will gel well) and ‘oozing with taste’ (for Rasgoolas) promoted individual products. For those customers who wanted to know more about Haldiram’s products, special brochures were designed
which described the products and gave information about the ingredients used to make it. Mailers were also sent to loyal customers and important corporate clients as a token of appreciation for their patron-age.
Packaging was an important aspect of Haldiram’s product promotion. Since namkeens
were impulse purchase items, attractive packaging in different colors influenced purchases. Haldiram’s used the latest tech-no logy ( food i tems were packed in n i t rogen f i l led pouches) to increase the shelf life of its products. While the normal shelf life of similar prod-ucts was under a week, the shelf life of Haldiram’s products was about six months. The company projected the shelf life of its products as its unique selling proposition. Posters highlight-
ing the shelf life of its products carried the caption ‘six months on the shelf and six seconds in your mouth.’ During festival sea-son, Haldiram’s products were sold in attractive looking special gift packs.
The showrooms and retail outlets of Haldiram’s gave impor-tance to point of purchase (POP) displays. Haldiram’s snacks were displayed on special racks, usually outside retail outlets. The showrooms had sign boards displaying mouth-watering delicacies with captions such as ‘Chinese Delight,’ ‘Simply South,’ ‘The King of all Chats.’ Posters containing a brief ac-
count of the history of Haldiram’s, along with pic-tures of its products, were also on display at these showrooms.
Haldiram’s also diversi-fied into the restaurant business to cash in on its brand image. The com-pany established restau-
rants in Nagpur and Delhi. The restaurant at Nagpur devised an innovative strategy to increase its business: It facilitated peo-ple who were traveling by train through Nagpur station to order food from places where stockists of Haldiram’s Nagpur unit were located. The customers could order for lunch/dinner by sending a demand draft (DD) or cheque to the Nagpur unit or giving the same to specified local distributors belonging to the Nagpur unit. Along with the DD/cheque, customers had to pro-
Figure 1.8: Haldiram’s Me-tallized Packaging
Figure 1.10: Snack Foods at the South Delhi Restaurant
Figure 1.9: Haldiram’s Festive Pack
vide information such as the name of the train, its likely time of arrival at Nagpur, their names and coach and seat numbers.
Haldiram’s restau-rants in Delhi also used innovat ive ways to attract cus-tomers. The restau-
rant located at Mathura road had special play area for children. To cater to NRI’s and foreign tourists, who hesitated to con-sume snack foods sold by the roadside vendors since it was not prepared in a hygienic manner, the Haldiram’s restaurant located in South Delhi used specially purified water to make snack foods including pani puri and chat papri. These promo-tional strategies helped Haldiram’s to compete effectively with local restaurant chains such as Nathus, Bikanerwala and Agar-wals and with western fast food chains such as McDonald’s and Pizza Hut.
POSITIONINGThe above initiatives helped Haldiram’s to uniquely position its brand. Haldiram’s also gained an edge over its competitors by minimizing promotion costs. Appreciating the company’s ef-forts at building brand, an analyst said, “Haldiram once was
just another sweet maker but it has moved into trained brands first by improving the product quality and packaging. Through
its clever products and brilliant distribu-tion it had moved into the star category of brands.”2
Haldiram’s earned recognition both in India and abroad. The Nagpur unit of Haldiram’s was con-ferred the Interna-tional Food Award by
the Trofeo International Alimentacion of Barcelona, Spain for having maintained high standards in quality and hygiene, at its manufacturing unit. The Delhi unit was awarded the Keshalkar Memorial Award by the All India Food Preservers Association in the mid 1980s in recognition of its efforts for popularizing eth-nic Indian foods in India and abroad. In 1994, the unit was awarded the International Award for Food & Beverages by the Trade Leaders Club in Barcelona, Spain. The unit also re-ceived the Brand Equity Award in 1998. Manoharlal Agarwal, who played a key role in the success of the Delhi unit, was in-cluded in the eighth edition of Distinguished Leadership by the Board of Registrars of The American Biographical Institute. Haldiram’s was also admitted as the member of Snack Food Association, US.
Gallery 1.3: Haldiram’s Restaurants (1. Nagpur, 2. Delhi)
Gallery 1.2: A Haldiram’s Mailer
THE ROAD AHEADIn the financial year 2001-2002, the combined turnover of all three units of Haldiram’s was estimated at Rs. 4 billion. The com-pany targeted a growth of 15% for the financial year 2002-2003. Analysts felt that, given the competition in the industry, Haldi-ram’s needed to develop new initiatives achieve this growth.
The competition in the ready-to-eat snack foods market in India was intensifying. Frito Lay India Ltd. (Frito Lay), one of Haldi-ram’s major competitors, was expanding its market share. In-stead of directly competing with the market leader Haldiram’s, the company launched innovative products in the market and backed them with heavy publicity. Frito Lay’s product range con-sisted of a mixture of traditional Indian and western flavors which appealed to younger and older generations. Its products included Leher Namkeens, Leher Kurkure (snack sticks), Lays (flavored Chips), Cheetos (snack balls), Uncle Chips and Nu-tyumz (nut snacks). Frito-Lay was the first company to launch small 35 gm packs namkeens priced at Rs. 5 and also the first company in the organized sector to launch Aloo Bhujia.
Another competitor, SM Foods, introduced a range of innovative products. The company launched India’s first non-wafer chips in 1988. SM offered products under two main brands – Peppy and Piknik. Under Peppy, it had sub brands such as Cheese Balls, Ringos, Hi Protein Crispies, Potato Rackets, Hearts, Veggie Treat, Mixtures and Minerette. Under Piknik, it had Protein Pin, Junior and Corn Puffs. Haldiram’s also faced tough competition from domestic players such as Britannia Industries Ltd., Bikaner-
wala Foods and ITC. In addition, FMCG major HLL had also announced plans to enter the snack food market. Analysts felt that Haldiram’s lagged behind competitors in offer-ing snack foods targeted at children, who were always eager to try new flavors in every product category. They felt that the company concentrated too much on traditional Indian items such as Bhujia Sev and Moong Dal. Haldiram’s had in fact, taken steps to fill the gaps in its portfolio. Rajendra Agarwal, the owner of the Nagpur unit said, “We want to expand our market by introducing snacks that will appeal to younger peo-ple. There will be no growth in the traditional snacks category.3
The unit planned to launch products such as flavored ready-to-eat popcorn and a product similar to Leher Kurkure.
Though Haldiram’s had increased its focus on advertising and promotion in the last couple of years, still more initiatives in this direction were necessary. Frito Lay’s expenditure on prod-uct promotion was much higher. With successful ad cam-paigns such as “control nahin hotha” (it is irresistible) for the Leher brand of namkeens, the company made sure that it at-tracted the attention of viewers.
According to media reports, Haldiram’s lagged behind competi-tors in the area of customer service. A report in Deccan Herald that Prabhu Shankar Agarwal, the owner of the Kolkata unit, was arrested on charges of manhandling customers only reiter-ated this opinion. The report also mentioned that few of the company’s restaurants did not possess the minimum require-ments, such as sufficient seating arrangements and adequate parking lots.
Haldiram’s also had to deal with problems created by spurious products. Some companies claiming to be close associates of the original Haldiram’s of Bikaner used the Haldiram’s brand name in their products. For example the ‘Haldiram Madanlal’ company claimed that its proprietor, Anil Kumar Agarwal, be-longed to the Haldiram’s family of Bikaner. The manufacture of spurious products threatened to dilute the Haldiram’s brand im-age apart from affecting the sales.
According to some analysts, many of the problems facing Haldi-ram’s arose due to an informal split between its three units in the early 1990s. The split occurred when Prabhu Shankar Agar-wal, who was heading the Kolkata unit of Haldiram’s, filed a complaint in the court against the Delhi and Nagpur units, alleg-ing breach of contract when they opened a sweet shop in New Delhi in 1991. This led to a bitter court battle for many years. The court delivered a final verdict in 1999, when Haldiram’s units were formally split as three separate companies with spe-cific business territories.
The consequences of the split were a matter of concern. Though on paper, the three companies had clearly defined boundaries within which they should operate, in practice, they did not stay within their boundaries. They penetrated each other’s territories and competed among themselves for a larger share of the snacks market. Analysts felt that competitors would take advantage of this split.
Since the scope for increasing market share in India was lim-ited, these companies began to compete aggressively in inter-
national markets. They used the internet, not only to market their products but also compete with each other. Each company claimed that its products were superior to those of the others in terms of quality. For instance, an advertisement in ‘haldiramusa.com’, a web portal that sold the products of the
Delhi company in the US, read, “Our items come spe-cially packed from the Origi-nal Haldiram’s of Delhi offer-ing superior taste and supe-rior quality, the only Haldiram approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administra-tion). Try the Delhi stuff and you will never touch the Nag-pur Haldiram packets that most grocery stores store.” Analysts were of the opinion that the internal r ivalry among its own companies may lead to dilution of Haldi-
ram’s brand equity.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION:
1. “The company caters to the Indian palate, which is its pri-mary driver of success”. In light of this statement, critically examine the marketing strategies adopted by Haldiram’s to capture a sizeable market share of the organized nam-keens and sweets market in India.
Figure 1.11: The Website Ad-vertisement
2. In the modern competitive scenario, promotion is a key ele-ment in the marketing mix of a company. Critically analyze the promotion strategies adopted by Haldiram’s. What other ef-forts must the company take to effectively promote its prod-ucts?
3. Namkeens contribute a major share of the revenues of Haldi-ram’s. Given the competitive scenario in the salty snack foods market in India, where competitors such as Frito Lay are intro-ducing several innovative products, what measures must Haldiram’s take to remain competitive? Explain in detail.
1. In an article ‘It all snacks up’ in Brand Equity, Economic Times dated December 11, 2002.
2. In an article titled ‘Brands and Bollywood,’ on the website www.indiainfoline.com.
3. In an article ‘It All Snacks Up’ in Brand Equity, Economic Times dated December 11, 2002.
Additional Readings and References:
1. Haldiram launches Summer Sip, www.financialexpress.com, April 22, 2000.
2. Bhushan Ratna, Bakeman’s plans foray into salty snacks, www.blonnet.com, June 1, 2000.
3. About competition and their strategies, www.blonnet.com, June 15, 2000.
4. Shatrujeet N, Lehar Namkeen: Controlling the pack game, www.apeda.com, October 23, 2000.
5. Chatterjee, Purvita All pep and picnic, www.blonnet.com, Janu-ary 4, 2001.
6. Pepsi nuts over new nut snack, The Economic Times, Novem-ber 22, 2001.
7. Kumar, Ramesh Selling Smartly Against the Odds, www.blonnet.com, December 27, 2001.
8. Mother Dairy, Bikanerwala tie up to launch namkeens, www.financialexpress.com, January 2, 2002.
9. Unorganized markets and marketing mix elements (FMCG), www.blonnet.com, March 22,2002.
10. It's snack time folks!, www.blonet.com, June 15, 2002.11. Bhushan, Ratna Snacking gets Cracking, www.blonnet.com,
November 14, 2002.12. Kaul, Pummy ITC Munches on Snack Foods Business,
Launches Brand ‘i,’ Financial Express, November 20, 2002.13. Kukreja, Shalini It all Snacks Up, Brand Equity, Economic
Times, December 11, 2002.14. Unauthorized use of trademark lands distributor in trouble,
www.deccanherald.com.15. E x p o r t e r o f I n d i a n S n a c k s a n d S w e e t s ,
www.business.vsnl.com.16. The Savoury story, www.haldiram.com.17. Authentic Haldiram's Delights Guaranteed Fresh,
www.haldiramsusa.com.18. Brands & Bollywood, www.indianinfoline.com,
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