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10.7 Comparison and Contrast

Learning objectives.

  • Determine the purpose and structure of comparison and contrast in writing.
  • Explain organizational methods used when comparing and contrasting.
  • Understand how to write a compare-and-contrast essay.

The Purpose of Comparison and Contrast in Writing

Comparison in writing discusses elements that are similar, while contrast in writing discusses elements that are different. A compare-and-contrast essay , then, analyzes two subjects by comparing them, contrasting them, or both.

The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. The purpose of conducting the comparison or contrast is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities. For example, if you wanted to focus on contrasting two subjects you would not pick apples and oranges; rather, you might choose to compare and contrast two types of oranges or two types of apples to highlight subtle differences. For example, Red Delicious apples are sweet, while Granny Smiths are tart and acidic. Drawing distinctions between elements in a similar category will increase the audience’s understanding of that category, which is the purpose of the compare-and-contrast essay.

Similarly, to focus on comparison, choose two subjects that seem at first to be unrelated. For a comparison essay, you likely would not choose two apples or two oranges because they share so many of the same properties already. Rather, you might try to compare how apples and oranges are quite similar. The more divergent the two subjects initially seem, the more interesting a comparison essay will be.

Writing at Work

Comparing and contrasting is also an evaluative tool. In order to make accurate evaluations about a given topic, you must first know the critical points of similarity and difference. Comparing and contrasting is a primary tool for many workplace assessments. You have likely compared and contrasted yourself to other colleagues. Employee advancements, pay raises, hiring, and firing are typically conducted using comparison and contrast. Comparison and contrast could be used to evaluate companies, departments, or individuals.

Brainstorm an essay that leans toward contrast. Choose one of the following three categories. Pick two examples from each. Then come up with one similarity and three differences between the examples.

  • Romantic comedies
  • Internet search engines
  • Cell phones

Brainstorm an essay that leans toward comparison. Choose one of the following three items. Then come up with one difference and three similarities.

  • Department stores and discount retail stores
  • Fast food chains and fine dining restaurants
  • Dogs and cats

The Structure of a Comparison and Contrast Essay

The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both and the reason for doing so. The thesis could lean more toward comparing, contrasting, or both. Remember, the point of comparing and contrasting is to provide useful knowledge to the reader. Take the following thesis as an example that leans more toward contrasting.

Thesis statement: Organic vegetables may cost more than those that are conventionally grown, but when put to the test, they are definitely worth every extra penny.

Here the thesis sets up the two subjects to be compared and contrasted (organic versus conventional vegetables), and it makes a claim about the results that might prove useful to the reader.

You may organize compare-and-contrast essays in one of the following two ways:

  • According to the subjects themselves, discussing one then the other
  • According to individual points, discussing each subject in relation to each point

See Figure 10.1 “Comparison and Contrast Diagram” , which diagrams the ways to organize our organic versus conventional vegetables thesis.

Figure 10.1 Comparison and Contrast Diagram

Comparison and Contrast Diagram

The organizational structure you choose depends on the nature of the topic, your purpose, and your audience.

Given that compare-and-contrast essays analyze the relationship between two subjects, it is helpful to have some phrases on hand that will cue the reader to such analysis. See Table 10.3 “Phrases of Comparison and Contrast” for examples.

Table 10.3 Phrases of Comparison and Contrast

Comparison Contrast
one similarity one difference
another similarity another difference
both conversely
like in contrast
likewise unlike
similarly while
in a similar fashion whereas

Create an outline for each of the items you chose in Note 10.72 “Exercise 1” and Note 10.73 “Exercise 2” . Use the point-by-point organizing strategy for one of them, and use the subject organizing strategy for the other.

Writing a Comparison and Contrast Essay

First choose whether you want to compare seemingly disparate subjects, contrast seemingly similar subjects, or compare and contrast subjects. Once you have decided on a topic, introduce it with an engaging opening paragraph. Your thesis should come at the end of the introduction, and it should establish the subjects you will compare, contrast, or both as well as state what can be learned from doing so.

The body of the essay can be organized in one of two ways: by subject or by individual points. The organizing strategy that you choose will depend on, as always, your audience and your purpose. You may also consider your particular approach to the subjects as well as the nature of the subjects themselves; some subjects might better lend themselves to one structure or the other. Make sure to use comparison and contrast phrases to cue the reader to the ways in which you are analyzing the relationship between the subjects.

After you finish analyzing the subjects, write a conclusion that summarizes the main points of the essay and reinforces your thesis. See Chapter 15 “Readings: Examples of Essays” to read a sample compare-and-contrast essay.

Many business presentations are conducted using comparison and contrast. The organizing strategies—by subject or individual points—could also be used for organizing a presentation. Keep this in mind as a way of organizing your content the next time you or a colleague have to present something at work.

Choose one of the outlines you created in Note 10.75 “Exercise 3” , and write a full compare-and-contrast essay. Be sure to include an engaging introduction, a clear thesis, well-defined and detailed paragraphs, and a fitting conclusion that ties everything together.

Key Takeaways

  • A compare-and-contrast essay analyzes two subjects by either comparing them, contrasting them, or both.
  • The purpose of writing a comparison or contrast essay is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities between two subjects.
  • The thesis should clearly state the subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both, and it should state what is to be learned from doing so.

There are two main organizing strategies for compare-and-contrast essays.

  • Organize by the subjects themselves, one then the other.
  • Organize by individual points, in which you discuss each subject in relation to each point.
  • Use phrases of comparison or phrases of contrast to signal to readers how exactly the two subjects are being analyzed.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

hiroshi is planning to write an essay

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Writing a Paper: Comparing & Contrasting

A compare and contrast paper discusses the similarities and differences between two or more topics. The paper should contain an introduction with a thesis statement, a body where the comparisons and contrasts are discussed, and a conclusion.

Address Both Similarities and Differences

Because this is a compare and contrast paper, both the similarities and differences should be discussed. This will require analysis on your part, as some topics will appear to be quite similar, and you will have to work to find the differing elements.

Make Sure You Have a Clear Thesis Statement

Just like any other essay, a compare and contrast essay needs a thesis statement. The thesis statement should not only tell your reader what you will do, but it should also address the purpose and importance of comparing and contrasting the material.

Use Clear Transitions

Transitions are important in compare and contrast essays, where you will be moving frequently between different topics or perspectives.

  • Examples of transitions and phrases for comparisons: as well, similar to, consistent with, likewise, too
  • Examples of transitions and phrases for contrasts: on the other hand, however, although, differs, conversely, rather than.

For more information, check out our transitions page.

Structure Your Paper

Consider how you will present the information. You could present all of the similarities first and then present all of the differences. Or you could go point by point and show the similarity and difference of one point, then the similarity and difference for another point, and so on.

Include Analysis

It is tempting to just provide summary for this type of paper, but analysis will show the importance of the comparisons and contrasts. For instance, if you are comparing two articles on the topic of the nursing shortage, help us understand what this will achieve. Did you find consensus between the articles that will support a certain action step for people in the field? Did you find discrepancies between the two that point to the need for further investigation?

Make Analogous Comparisons

When drawing comparisons or making contrasts, be sure you are dealing with similar aspects of each item. To use an old cliché, are you comparing apples to apples?

  • Example of poor comparisons: Kubista studied the effects of a later start time on high school students, but Cook used a mixed methods approach. (This example does not compare similar items. It is not a clear contrast because the sentence does not discuss the same element of the articles. It is like comparing apples to oranges.)
  • Example of analogous comparisons: Cook used a mixed methods approach, whereas Kubista used only quantitative methods. (Here, methods are clearly being compared, allowing the reader to understand the distinction.

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How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

Published September 27, 2020. Updated May 4, 2022.

Compare and Contrast Essay Definition

A compare and contrast essay discusses similarities and differences between two subjects. The discussion shows the writer’s deep understanding of both subjects.

Overview of a Compare and Contrast Essay

  • Choose what two subjects to compare and contrast.
  • Brainstorm similarities and differences between the two subjects.
  • Develop a thesis statement and write an introduction.
  • Write an analysis, using the block method or the point-by-point method.
  • Write a conclusion.

This page will cover the following points:

Key Takeaways

What is a compare and contrast essay, step 1: choose what to compare and contrast, step 2: brainstorm similarities and differences, step 3: write an introduction and a thesis, step 4: use block method or point-to-point, step 5: write a conclusion.

  • Why Do Teachers Assign Compare and Contrast Essays?
  • A compare and contrast essay discusses the similarities and differences between two subjects to show a deep understanding of both.
  • Pick subjects and points that are relevant to your class .
  • Use your essay’s thesis statement to show the reader why the similarities and differences are important.
  • Choose whether you’d like to focus on one subject at a time ( block method ) or move back and forth between subjects ( point-to-point method ).
  • A  compare and contrast essay outline includes a full thesis statement and uses appropriate structure ( block method or point-to-point ).
  • A  thesis statement is the foundation of an essay, listing your paper’s main comparisons and explaining why they’re important.
  • With  block structure , you dedicate each body paragraph to one of your two subjects.
  • With  point-to-point , you dedicate each body paragraph to one of your main points about both subjects.

A compare and contrast essay discusses the similarities and differences between two subjects. This shows a deep understanding of both subjects.

Sometimes, instructors ask students to weigh the positives and negatives of both subjects, choose which subject is better, and defend their position. Read the essay prompt carefully!

Worried about your writing? Submit your paper for a Chegg Writing essay check , or for an Expert Check proofreading . Both can help you find and fix potential writing issues.

In some classes, your instructor will tell you which two subjects to focus on. They’ll usually pick topics discussed in lectures.

For example, in an American literature course, your instructor may ask you to compare and contrast two writers like Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac. Both were part of the same literary movement (the Beat Generation) but still had unique styles and priorities.

Your instructor may let you choose your subjects. Pick two people, things, or ideas discussed in class with clear differences but something in common, too.

Let’s say, for example, your class is talking about pizza (what a great class, right?). You’ll want to choose two subjects in that category that are comparable, such as New York-style pizza and Chicago deep-dish pizza. Both are types of pizza, and they both mean a lot to certain American cities.

You can also find ways to contrast these two pizzas. They both have a distinct shape and are eaten differently (try eating deep-dish pizza with your hands!).

Although your class probably isn’t talking about pizza, the point here is to pick two subjects that:

  • Your instructor or textbook discussed.
  • You feel confident about and which have several important similarities and differences.

But how will you know if any given similarity or difference is important ? In the next section, you’ll brainstorm your essay’s main points and pick the ones that are most appropriate for your class.

By now, you’ve chosen (or were told) your two subjects. Next, it’s time to think about what differences and similarities your paper should focus on.

Since this brainstorming session is just for you, feel free to use whichever method you prefer. Some people like to use Venn diagrams to organize their thoughts. Others prefer a T-chart or just jotting ideas down.

Not all compare and contrast points are made equal. Think about what your instructor has talked about in class so far. Then, decide which points would sound the most appropriate for your course.

This is also a good time to revisit the prompt. Your instructor may have already hinted at what they’d like you to discuss in the instructions.

Here’s an example of a brainstorming session about New York- and Chicago-style pizza. Let’s figure out which of these compare and contrast points would be best for the paper:

Point #1: Because of the size, often sold by the slice, it is a quick fast-food option Point #1: Mostly sold by the pie, making it more common for “sit-down” restaurants or at-home cooking
Point #2: Hand-tossed crust Point #2: Thick, deep crust
Point #3: Important for NYC’s identity Point #3: Important for Chicago’s identity
Point #4: Many restaurants nearby make it Point #4: Many restaurants nearby make it

After brainstorming, you have four very different points for your pizza paper. Each could be helpful, depending on the class.

If the class is about local history, then the last point, “many restaurants nearby make it,” will be useful. If not, then that point is likely the least relevant.

Meanwhile, a class about United States history will care deeply about how these different foods helped shape the identity of Chicago and New York City, respectively (point #3).

Points #1 and #2 talk about the size and shape of the pizza. These would be great choices for a home economics class, where the preparation and presentation of the dish are important.

Whichever points you choose for your compare and contrast essay, make sure they make sense and seem relevant to your class. Never throw in an extra point just to reach the word count for the paper. Your instructor will be able to tell!

Once you have three or four relevant points for your compare and contrast essay, it’s time to write the thesis statement. This will tell your instructor why these similarities and differences are important and worth talking about in an essay.

The introduction is where you’ll tell your audience what your two subjects are. You’ll also discuss the main ways you plan to compare and contrast them.

One of the most important parts of your introduction (and the whole paper) is your thesis statement. The thesis is the main argument of your essay.

Why should someone care about the similarities and differences between these two subjects? That’s the question your thesis statement should answer.

Let’s think, for example, about the New York- and Chicago-style pizza essay. Why should your instructor care about comparing and contrasting these two pizza types?

Here’s an example thesis statement for that paper:

Both New York-style and Chicago deep-dish pizza are important to the identities of their respective cities. However, the fast, portable nature of by-the-slice New York-style pizza makes it easier for the average New Yorker to eat frequently than does the deep-dish pizza for Chicago residents.

This thesis statement not only points out differences and similarities between the pizzas but also begins to say why those differences matter. Remember that the rest of your paper should support the points made in your thesis statement and address important questions.

For example, in the pizza-paper thesis, common questions might include:

What makes New York-style pizza more portable? In what ways are these pizzas important to each city’s identity?

Now, you have a compelling thesis statement for your paper ready to go. Next, you’ll spend some time thinking about how you want to present the similarities and differences between your two subjects.

Would you like to talk about one subject at a time? Or would you prefer to switch between the two to better highlight their differences?

In the next section, you’ll learn the pros and cons of both of these styles. Then, you’ll decide which one is right for your paper.

Here’s what a well-outlined introduction looks like:

– Begin with a lighthearted discussion about the centuries-long debate over cats and dogs.

– Thesis statement: Cats and dogs have varying activity levels, maintenance needs, and ways of showing affection, which potential owners should keep in mind before deciding between the two.

There are many ways to format your compare and contrast paper. But to keep things simple, let’s focus on the two most popular strategies.

With the block method , you make all your points about subject #1 before switching to subject #2. You may dedicate one or even two full paragraphs to the first subject before comparing it with the second one.

Here’s an example outline for a block method essay:

Paragraph 1: Introduction

P2: Subject #1

P3: Subject #1 (continued)

P4: Subject #2

P5: Subject #2 (continued)

P6: Conclusion

There are pros and cons to each method. The main benefit of the block method is that it is easy to keep your paper organized. Because you’re only discussing one subject at a time, your instructor can easily tell what you’re talking about.

There are still cons to this structure, though. For example, it will be harder for your audience to remember the points you made about subject #1 when you finally get to subject #2.

If you want to more closely compare and contrast your two subjects, you’ll want to use the point-to-point approach.

With point-to-point, you’ll dedicate each of your body paragraphs to a similarity or difference between the two subjects. You’ll compare and contrast both subjects in each body paragraph.

Let’s take a look at an outline organized for the point-to-point method:

P2: Similarity #1

P3: Similarity #2

P4: Difference #1

P5: Difference #2

The main benefit of point-to-point is that the similarities and differences between your two subjects will be more clear. After all, you’re going back and forth between the two at all times.

Because you are switching so often, though, you’ll want to write very clearly. Be sure to use plenty of transition words, which you’ll learn more about in the next section. Otherwise, your instructor may lose track of what you’re discussing.

Both of these methods will work with most compare and contrast essays. You’ll have to decide for yourself if you feel your subjects would be better discussed one at a time (block method) or back and forth (point-to-point).

Template on block structure and point-to-point examples

Transition words for a compare and contrast essay.

In a compare and contrast essay, you’ll be discussing at least two different subjects throughout the paper. That’s why it’s helpful to use transition words. These words will let your audience know when you’re moving on to a new topic or directly contrasting two ideas.

Here are some useful transition words for compare and contrast essays:

  • in contrast

As you can guess, some of these words (ex: “similarly” and “likewise”) help you compare your two subjects. Here’s an example:

Pizza-by-the-slice places are an iconic image of New York City. Similarly , visitors to Chicago make it a point to find a deep-dish pizza restaurant.

Other transition words (ex: “in contrast” and “unlike”) point to an important difference. Let’s try one out:

Unlike New York-style pizza, which can be enjoyed on the go, Chicago deep-dish pizza is suited better for a traditional, sit-down restaurant.

Use these and other transition words to make your points more clear. Try using different transition words throughout your paper, such as using “similarly” once and then “likewise” the next time. That way, you can avoid monotonous sentences.

By the time you reach the conclusion of a compare and contrast paper, you’ve already done a lot of planning and writing. It’s completely understandable if you feel a bit burned out.

Like many other papers, you’ll want to use the conclusion of your compare and contrast essay to remind your instructor of your main points. But it’s also important not to copy and paste your introduction into the conclusion.

Try to find a new, eye-catching way to transition back into your main points and restate your thesis. Here’s an example for the New York- and Chicago-style pizzas:

In the season 2 episode of The Office (US), “Valentine’s Day,” Michael Scott visits downtown New York City and immediately runs into a Sbarro’s restaurant for a “New York slice.” The scene is a joke about Michael’s naïveté. But it also points to how second nature New York-style pizza is for experiencing the area. Both New York-style and Chicago deep-dish pizza hold a special place in their city’s identities…

As always, make sure whatever you write is appropriate for your class. With a topic as light-hearted as pizza, a quick The Office reference fits right in. But in other essays, a pop culture reference would be distracting.

Here’s an example of an outline for a conclusion:

– Talk about famous cats and dogs in pop culture and their personalities, like Chloe and Max from The Secret Life of Pets .

–  Restate thesis: From the palaces of Ancient Egypt to the condos of modern-day New York City, both cats and dogs have long been revered for their companionship. Potential owners should consider cats and dogs’ varying activity levels, grooming needs, and ways of showing affection before deciding which pet is right for them.

Use your conclusion to reinforce the points made throughout the paper. Adding anecdotes like the one above can make your paper stand out and keep the attention of your instructor. It’s also a way to let them know that you took the assignment seriously from the beginning to the very end.

Example Compare and Contrast Essay on J azz vs. Rock

Before you turn in that paper, don’t forget to cite your sources in APA format , MLA format , or a style of your choice.

Why Do Teachers assign Compare and Contrast Essays?

In many cases, your instructor assigns compare and contrast papers to test your comprehension of two subjects, as well as to see how well you understand authors, historical periods, or other concepts discussed in class.

Planning and writing these essays can be intimidating at first. In this guide, though, you’ll find helpful tips, from the first brainstorming session all the way to wrapping up the conclusion.

Published August 19, 2020.

By James Ardis. James is a writer who earned his MFA in Poetry from the University of Mississippi. He’s also taught English as a Second Language in South Korea, Thailand, and to refugees living in America.

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7 Steps for Writing an Essay Plan

7 Steps for Writing an Essay Plan

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

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Have you ever started writing an essay then realized you have run out of ideas to talk about?

This can make you feel deflated and you start to hate your essay!

How to write an Essay Plan

The best way to avoid this mid-essay disaster is to plan ahead: you need to write an Essay Plan!

Essay planning is one of the most important skills I teach my students. When I have one-to-one tutorials with my students, I always send them off with an essay plan and clear goals about what to write.

Essay Planning isn’t as dull as you think. In fact, it really does only take a short amount of time and can make you feel oh so relieved that you know what you’re doing!

Here’s my 7-Step method that I encourage you to use for your next essay:

The 7-Step Guide on How to write an Essay Plan

  • Figure out your Essay Topic (5 minutes)
  • Gather your Sources and take Quick Notes (20 minutes)
  • Brainstorm using a Mind-Map (10 minutes)
  • Arrange your Topics (2 minutes)
  • Write your topic Sentences (5 minutes)
  • Write a No-Pressure Draft in 3 Hours (3 hours)
  • Edit your Draft Once every Few Days until Submission (30 minutes)

I’ve been using this 7-Step essay planning strategy since I was in my undergraduate degree. Now, I’ve completed a PhD and written over 20 academic journal articles and dozens of blog posts using this method – and it still works!

Let’s go through my 7 steps for how to write an essay plan.

Prefer to Watch than Read? Here’s our video on writing an Essay Plan.

how to write an essay plan

1. figure out your essay topic. here’s how..

Where did your teacher provide you with your assessment details?

Find it. This is where you begin.

Now, far, far, far too many students end up writing essays that aren’t relevant to the essay question given to you by your teacher. So print out your essay question and any other advice or guidelines provided by your teacher.

Here’s some things that your assessment details page might include:

  • The essay question;
  • The marking criteria;
  • Suggested sources to read;
  • Some background information on the topic

The essay question is really important. Once you’ve printed it I want you to do one thing:

Highlight the key phrases in the essay question.

Here’s some essay questions and the key phrases you’d want to highlight:

Will artificial intelligence threaten the future of work?Artificial Intelligence, Work
How does the film ‘Frozen’ challenge and/or for children who watch it?Frozen, gender roles, children
What are the reasons behind the rise of right-wing nationalism in the past 10 years?Nationalism, Past 10 years
What are the most effective strategies for raising developing nations out of poverty?Developing Nations, Poverty, Strategies

This strategy helps you to hone in on exactly what you want to talk about. These are the key phrases you’re going to use frequently in your writing and use when you look for sources to cite in your essay!

The other top thing to look at is the marking criteria. Some teachers don’t provide this, but if they do then make sure you pay attention to the marking criteria !

Here’s an example of a marking criteria sheet:

Sample Essay Topic: Is Climate Change the Greatest Moral Challenge of our Generation?

Takes an informed position on the issue of climate change30%
Critically examines competing perspectives on the topic30%
Applies theoretical ideas to practical situations30%
Academic writing and referencing10%

Now, if you have a marking criteria you really need to pay attention to this. You have to make sure you’ve ticked off all the key criteria that you will be marked on. For the example above, your essay is going to have to make sure it:

  • Takes a position about whether climate change is a serious challenge for human kind;
  • Discusses multiple different people’s views on the topic;
  • Explores examples and case studies (‘practical situations’);
  • Uses referencing to back up your points.

The reason you need to be really careful to pay attention to this marking criteria is because it is your cheat sheet: it tells you what to talk about!

Step 1 only takes you five minutes and helps you to clearly clarify what you’re going to be talking about! Now your mind is tuned in and you can start doing some preliminary research.

2. Gather your Sources and take Quick Notes. Here’s how.

Now that you know what your focus is, you can start finding some information to discuss. You don’t want to just write things from the top of your head. If you want top marks, you want some deep, detailed and specific pieces of information.

Fortunately, your teacher has probably made this easy for you.

The top source for finding information will be the resources your teacher provided. These resources were hand picked by your teacher because they believed these were the best sources available our there on the topic. Here are the most common resources teachers provide:

  • Lecture Slides;
  • Assigned Readings.

The lecture slides are one of the best resources for you to access. Lecture slides are usually provided online for you. Download them, save them on your computer, and dig them up when it’s time to write the essay plan.

Find the lecture slides most relevant to your topic. To take the example of our climate change essay, maybe climate change is only discussed in three of the weeks in your course. Those are the three weeks’ lecture slides you want to hone-in on.

Flick through those lecture slides and take quick notes on a piece of paper – what are the most important topics and statistics that are relevant to your essay question?

Now, move on to the assigned readings . Your teacher will have selected some readings for you to do for homework through the semester. They may be eBooks, Textbooks or Journal Articles.

These assigned readings were assigned for a reason: because they have very important information to read ! Scan through them and see if there’s any more points you can add to your list of statistics and key ideas to discuss.

Next, try to find a few more sources using Google Scholar. This is a great resource for finding more academic articles that you can read to find even more details and ideas to add to your essay.

Here’s my notes that I researched for the essay question “Is Climate Change the Greatest Moral Challenge of our Generation?” As you can see, it doesn’t have to be beautiful #Studygram notes! It’s just rough notes to get all the important information down:

sample of rough notes scrawled on paper

Once you’ve read the assigned lecture slides and readings, you should have a good preliminary list of ideas, topics, statistics and even quotes that you can use in step 3.

3. Brainstorm using a Mind-Map. Here’s how.

Do your initial notes look a little disorganized?

That’s okay. The point of Step 2 was to gather information. Now it’s time to start sorting these ideas in your mind.

The best way to organize thoughts is to create a Mind-Map. Here’s how Mind-Maps often look:

sample blank mind-map

For your essay plan Mind-Map, write the essay question in the middle of the page and draw a circle around it.

mind-map with essay question written in center

Then, select the biggest and most important key ideas that you think are worth discussing in the essay. To decide on these, you might want to look back at the notes you took in Step 2.

Each key idea will take up around about 200 – 350 words (1 to 2 sentences).

Here’s a rough guide for how many key ideas you’ll want depending on your essay length:

  • 1000-word essay: 3 to 4 key ideas
  • 1500-word essay: 5 to 7 key ideas
  • 2000-word essay: 6 to 8 key ideas
  • 3000-word essay: 9 to 12 key ideas

Once you’ve selected your key ideas you can list them in a circle around the essay question, just like this:

mind map with essay question and key ideas filled-in

Last, we need to add detail and depth to each key idea. So, draw more lines out from each key ideas and list:

  • Two sources that you will cite for each key idea;
  • A statistic or example that you will provide for each key idea;
  • Any additional interesting facts for each key idea

Here’s how it might look once you’re done:

completed mind-map

4. Arrange your Topics. Here’s how.

You’re well and truly on your way to getting your essay down on paper now.

There’s one last thing to do before you start getting words down on the manuscript that you will submit. You need to arrange your topics to decide which to write first, second, third, fourth, and last!

Here are some things to keep in mind:

  • Start and end with your strongest points;
  • Ensure the points logically flow.

To ensure your points logically flow, think about how you’re going to transition from one idea to the next . Does one key point need to be made first so that the other ones make sense?

Do two key points seem to fit next to one another? If so, make sure you list them side-by-side.

Have a play around with the order you want to discuss the ideas until you’re comfortable. Then, list them in order. Here’s my order for my Climate Change essay:

[Introduction]125
What is climate change?250
Is climate change caused by humans?250
What are the current impacts of climate change?250
What are the future impacts of climate change?250
Is climate change reversible?250
[Conclusion]125

Each of these key ideas is going to turn into a paragraph or two (probably two) in the essay.

5. Write your topic Sentences in just 5 minutes. Here’s how.

All good essays have clear paragraphs that start with a topic sentence . To turn these brainstormed key points into an essay, you need to get that list you wrote in Step 5 and turn each point into a topic sentence for a paragraph.

It’s important that the first sentence of each paragraph clearly states the paragraph’s topic. Your marker is going to want to know exactly what your paragraph is about immediately. You don’t want your marker to wait until the 3 rd , 4 th or 5 th line of a paragraph before they figure out what you’re talking about in the paragraph.

So, you need to state what your key idea is in the first sentence of the paragraph.

Let’s have a go at turning each of our key ideas into a topic sentence:

What is climate change?Climate change is the term used to explain rising atmospheric temperatures caused by carbon build-up in the atmosphere.
Is climate change caused by humans?Most scientists believe climate change is caused by humans.
What are the current impacts of climate change?Climate change is having an impact on people and environments right now.
What are the future impacts of climate change?The effects of climate change are expected to increase in coming decades.
Is climate change reversible?The window for reversing climate change is rapidly closing.

6. Write a No-Pressure Essay Draft in just 3 Hours. Here’s how.

Okay, now the rubber hits the road. Let’s get writing!

When you write your first draft, don’t put pressure on yourself. Remind yourself that this is the first of several attempts at creating a great essay, so it doesn’t need to be perfect right away. The important thing is that you get words down on paper.

To write the draft, have a go at adding to each of your topic sentences to turn them into full paragraphs. Follow the information you wrote down in your notes and Mind-Map to get some great details down on paper.

Forget about the introduction and conclusion for now. You can write them last.

Let’s have a go at one together. I’m going to choose the paragraph on my key idea “Is climate change caused by humans?”

I’ve already got my first sentence and my brainstormed ideas. Let’s build on them to write a draft paragraph:

screenshot of a section of a mind map displaying key ideas for the essay

  • “Most scientists believe climate change is caused by humans. In fact, according to the IPCC, over 98% of climate change scientists accept the scientific data that climate change is caused by humans (IPCC, 2018). This figure is very high, signalling overwhelming expert consensus. This consensus holds that the emission of carbon from burning of fossil fuels in the 20 th Century is trapping heat into the atmosphere. However, a minority of dissenting scientists continue to claim that this carbon build-up is mostly the fault of natural forces such as volcanoes which emit enormous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere (Bier, 2013).”

Your turn – have a go at your own draft paragraphs based on your Mind-Map for your essay topic! If you hit a rut or have some trouble, don’t forget to check out our article on how to write perfect paragraphs .

Once you’ve written all your paragraphs, make sure you write an introduction and conclusion .

Gone over the word count? Check out our article on how to reduce your word count.

7. Edit your Draft Once every Few Days until Submission. Check out this simple approach:

Okay, hopefully after your three hour essay drafting session you’ve got all your words down on paper. Congratulations!

However, we’re not done yet.

The best students finish their drafts early on so they have a good three or four weeks to come back and re-read their draft and edit it every few days.

When coming back to edit your draft , here’s a few things to look out for:

  • Make sure all the paragraph and sentence structure makes sense. Feel free to change words around until things sound right. You might find that the first time you edit something it sounds great, but next time you realize it’s not as good as you thought. That’s why we do multiple rounds of edits over the course of a few weeks;
  • Check for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors;
  • Print out your draft and read it on paper. You notice more mistakes when you read a printed-out version;
  • Work on adding any more details and academic sources from online sources like Google Scholar to increase your chance of getting a top grade. Here’s our ultimate guide on finding scholarly sources online – it might be helpful for this step!

Before you go – Here’s the Actionable Essay Plan Tips Summed up for you

Phew! That essay was tough. But with this essay plan, you can get through any essay and do a stellar job! Essay planning is a great way to ensure your essays make sense, have a clear and compelling argument, and don’t go off-topic.

I never write an essay without one.

To sum up, here are the 7 steps to essay planning one more time:

The 7-Step Guide for How to Write an Essay Plan

Chris

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd-2/ 25 Kindergarten Decoration Ideas
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After you have undergone the process of working through the expectations of the assignment and selecting a topic, it is time to brainstorm.  Brainstorming  generates the ideas that will eventually become your  thesis statement and supporting points. Developing a clear thesis will help you know what to write and how to organize it. If you have writer’s block or do not know where to begin, brainstorming can be especially helpful. 

  • Preparing to Write
  • Socratic Method of Questioning Try using the Socratic Method of Questioning to help you brainstorm. Although the Socratic method normally involves a dialogue, with one person asking questions and another responding, you could consider using the questions provided in the handout as a guide for developing your arguments. For example, you could go through each of the questions and write down possible answers. From there, you may notice that more information on a topic may be needed; perhaps there exists some controversy around a topic and you want to explore this further; or you may form your own opinion on a topic that you then want to persuade readers to share with you. These are good places to start focusing your argument. (Retrieved from http://tools4sucessnotes.wikispaces.com under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License)
  • The Academic Phrasebank Manchester University's Academic Phrasebank presents examples of commonly used phrases in academic writing, organized according to the main sections of a research paper. Common phrases used to introduce arguments, critique writing, or write a conclusion, for example, may help prompt your own ideas.
  • Organizational Strategy
  • Making an Outline

After you have brainstormed, it is necessary to  place your ideas into categories  and to select an arrangement for these categories. As with every aspect of the writing process, the method of organizing and the type of outline vary depending on individual preferences as informed by the assignment and the discipline.

  • Essay Organizer (3 Topics)
  • Essay Organizer (5 Topics)

1. What is the subject of your paper? 

2. What background information, definitions, or context does the reader require in order to follow your paper?

3. What is the thesis (perspective), or what is your research question/hypothesis?

4. What organizational strategy most effectively conveys your points to the reader? List each point.

      a. Create a topic sentence for each point.

      b. Determine the evidence required to convince the reader of each point.

5. With what ideas do you want to leave your reader? What ideas should be reinforced? What are the implications of these ideas?

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Concerns raised over annual juneteeth essay contest that asks fifth-graders to write from a slave’s perspective .

By Ana Borruto

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In response to concerns from Pulaski Street Intermediate School parents about the appropriateness of an annual Juneteenth essay contest, Riverhead Central School District officials are considering changes to the prompt for next year’s assignment. 

Celebrated every June 19, Juneteenth commemorates the emancipation of enslaved African Americans in Texas in 1865. It became a federal holiday in 2021, but Pulaski Street fifth-graders have marked Juneteenth through the essay contest for nearly two decades. 

Robert ‘Bubbie’ Brown of the East End Voters Coalition helped start the tradition, developing the idea during his time at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the late 1990s, when he first learned about Juneteenth commemorations.

Each year, the students are asked to write a journal entry from the point of view of an enslaved child in 1865 who has just learned that they have been liberated.

Interim district superintendent Cheryl Pedisich confirmed in an email to the News-Review that there was “a most productive discussion” about the assignment and that the plan is to collaborate with the East End Voters Coalition on developing a new, yet-to-be-determined essay topic for the 2024-25 academic year.

Nakeea Toussaint, parent of a Pulaski Street fifth-grader, first heard about the essay from her daughter after school one day this spring. 

“I said, ‘That’s not really a profound way of thinking — that you were a slave and now you’re free — how does someone think that you would feel something about that?’ ” Ms. Toussaint said, recalling their conversation. “And she said, ‘Well, mommy, one of my teachers said that maybe my slave master was good to me, and I don’t want to be free.’ Then I lost my mind.”

Ms. Toussaint said she immediately emailed her daughter’s teacher for more information about the writing contest and the teacher sent home the instructions for her to review. 

Before Memorial Day, she reached out to Pulaski Street principal, Patrick Burke, with her concerns. In his response, according to Ms. Toussaint, Mr. Burke — who as of July 1 became principal of Mattituck High School — pointed to the contest’s long history and included a link to an earlier RiverheadLocal article reporting on the contest winner.  

“Just because it’s been given for [many] years does not make it any less offensive or any less insensitive,” Ms. Toussaint said in her reply to Mr. Burke’s email. “It’s inappropriate to ask a 10-year-old without any context.” 

She then took her concerns directly to Ms. Pedisich, who met with Ms. Toussaint, Mr. Burke and Mr. Brown after Memorial Day. She hoped the meeting would be less of a debate on the appropriateness of the assignment and more on how it could be improved. 

Ms. Toussaint expressed her frustration that the assignment hadn’t been vetted by the school’s administration or Board of Education. 

“I said, ‘there’s no historical context to the winning essays — if you want my child to pretend she’s a young slave, are you sharing with her that she was possibly raped? That her father was possibly hanging from a tree, lynched?’” she asked during the meeting. “Everybody was silent,” she said.

At the end of the meeting, Mr. Burke and Mr. Brown said they wanted to get input from the Pulaski fifth- grade teachers and Ms. Pedisich. Ms. Toussaint said she felt “disheartened” by this response and that the issue was being “downplayed.” 

Mr. Burke referred the News-Review to the superintendent’s office in response to an initial request for comment on June 21. 

Between the essay contest and some other challenges Ms. Toussaint said her children faced during their first year at Pulaski, she began looking into other education options. In her research, she came across the Riverhead Charter School and decided to email its superintendent, Raymond Ankrum, about the Juneteenth assignment. 

He shared a similar perspective, she said. In an emailed statement, Mr. Ankrum said educational assignments that force “students to relive their trauma” must be put to an end, regardless of the good intentions behind them. 

“While we rightly refrain from asking other groups to revisit their painful pasts, Black students are consistently asked to remember themselves as slaves,” Mr. Ankrum said in his email. “This is unacceptable — we must make amends and ensure that our education system prioritizes healing and empowerment for all.”

When Ms. Toussaint spoke to other community members about the essay, she said she noticed a pattern of parents being kept in the dark and only learning about the contest if their child happened to have mentioned it. In previous years, however, local media has reported on award ceremonies held by the school for the essay contest winners. Past News-Review reports indicate the winners also read their essays aloud at the annual Juneteenth Day celebration in Riverside.

Ms. Toussaint added the assignment is typically completed in the classroom and some teachers make it mandatory, while others make it optional.

Anne Ondricek, whose son just moved up from sixth grade at Pulaski, said she didn’t know about the assignment until Ms. Toussaint told her about it. When she asked her son if he had completed the essay last year in fifth-grade, he confirmed he worked on it in the classroom.

“He said he just wrote about fireworks and celebration. I never saw what he wrote,” Ms. Ondricek said. “It seems very strange to have people imagine to be slaves and for my son — who is white — it’s just like a game. It t didn’t seem like it could really have any meaning for him, while for Black people who imagine their ancestors being in those positions, I feel like it’s much more traumatizing and emotional.” 

Kevin Johnson, parent of a recent Riverhead High School graduate, remembered when his son completed the assignment in fifth grade. Similar to many other parents’ experiences, his son brought the essay prompt home and Mr. Johnson said he was immediately alarmed. 

He called the principal and the superintendent at the time, and spoke with Mr. Brown, but no changes came out of these conversations, he said. When his daughter moved up to Pulaski Street, he said he made sure she didn’t participate in the essay contest. 

“To go as far as to have that grade level of children put their minds in a place where they see themselves as a slave — with really no knowledge of slavery whatsoever — just going off of what they may have heard, could be wrong,” Mr. Johnson said. “It’s pretty insulting.” 

Mr. Brown said the East End Voters Coalition is almost “nonexistent” today, as the number of members has dwindled from nearly 20 to only three. Feeling he could no longer handle the contest himself, Mr. Brown expressed to Mr. Burke his desire to “ease out” of it. 

The East End Voters Coalition was not involved in this year’s contest, Mr. Brown said, but Mr. Burke decided to continue it by having the teachers collect all the essays, act as the judges and select three winners. 

“In the almost 20 years since we’ve been having this [contest], I haven’t had anything but positive responses from the parents, the kids and the teachers,” Mr. Brown said. “The school board even has positive comments about the contest, so we’ll see what happens.”

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How to Write a Business Plan: Your Step-by-Step Guide

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So, you’ve got an idea and you want to start a business —great! Before you do anything else, like seek funding or build out a team, you'll need to know how to write a business plan. This plan will serve as the foundation of your company while also giving investors and future employees a clear idea of your purpose.

Below, Lauren Cobello, Founder and CEO of Leverage with Media PR , gives her best advice on how to make a business plan for your company.

Build your dream business with the help of a high-paying job—browse open jobs on The Muse »

What is a business plan, and when do you need one?

According to Cobello, a business plan is a document that contains the mission of the business and a brief overview of it, as well as the objectives, strategies, and financial plans of the founder. A business plan comes into play very early on in the process of starting a company—more or less before you do anything else.

“You should start a company with a business plan in mind—especially if you plan to get funding for the company,” Cobello says. “You’re going to need it.”

Whether that funding comes from a loan, an investor, or crowdsourcing, a business plan is imperative to secure the capital, says the U.S. Small Business Administration . Anyone who’s considering giving you money is going to want to review your business plan before doing so. That means before you head into any meeting, make sure you have physical copies of your business plan to share.

Different types of business plans

The four main types of business plans are:

Startup Business Plans

Internal business plans, strategic business plans, one-page business plans.

Let's break down each one:

If you're wondering how to write a business plan for a startup, Cobello has advice for you. Startup business plans are the most common type, she says, and they are a critical tool for new business ventures that want funding. A startup is defined as a company that’s in its first stages of operations, founded by an entrepreneur who has a product or service idea.

Most startups begin with very little money, so they need a strong business plan to convince family, friends, banks, and/or venture capitalists to invest in the new company.

Internal business plans “are for internal use only,” says Cobello. This kind of document is not public-facing, only company-facing, and it contains an outline of the company’s business strategy, financial goals and budgets, and performance data.

Internal business plans aren’t used to secure funding, but rather to set goals and get everyone working there tracking towards them.

As the name implies, strategic business plans are geared more towards strategy and they include an assessment of the current business landscape, notes Jérôme Côté, a Business Advisor at BDC Advisory Services .

Unlike a traditional business plan, Cobello adds, strategic plans include a SWOT analysis (which stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) and an in-depth action plan for the next six to 12 months. Strategic plans are action-based and take into account the state of the company and the industry in which it exists.

Although a typical business plan falls between 15 to 30 pages, some companies opt for the much shorter One-Page Business Plan. A one-page business plan is a simplified version of the larger business plan, and it focuses on the problem your product or service is solving, the solution (your product), and your business model (how you’ll make money).

A one-page plan is hyper-direct and easy to read, making it an effective tool for businesses of all sizes, at any stage.

How to create a business plan in 7 steps

Every business plan is different, and the steps you take to complete yours will depend on what type and format you choose. That said, if you need a place to start and appreciate a roadmap, here’s what Cobello recommends:

1. Conduct your research

Before writing your business plan, you’ll want to do a thorough investigation of what’s out there. Who will be the competitors for your product or service? Who is included in the target market? What industry trends are you capitalizing on, or rebuking? You want to figure out where you sit in the market and what your company’s value propositions are. What makes you different—and better?

2. Define your purpose for the business plan

The purpose of your business plan will determine which kind of plan you choose to create. Are you trying to drum up funding, or get the company employees focused on specific goals? (For the former, you’d want a startup business plan, while an internal plan would satisfy the latter.) Also, consider your audience. An investment firm that sees hundreds of potential business plans a day may prefer to see a one-pager upfront and, if they’re interested, a longer plan later.

3. Write your company description

Every business plan needs a company description—aka a summary of the company’s purpose, what they do/offer, and what makes it unique. Company descriptions should be clear and concise, avoiding the use of jargon, Cobello says. Ideally, descriptions should be a few paragraphs at most.

4. Explain and show how the company will make money

A business plan should be centered around the company’s goals, and it should clearly explain how the company will generate revenue. To do this, Cobello recommends using actual numbers and details, as opposed to just projections.

For instance, if the company is already making money, show how much and at what cost (e.g. what was the net profit). If it hasn’t generated revenue yet, outline the plan for how it will—including what the product/service will cost to produce and how much it will cost the consumer.

5. Outline your marketing strategy

How will you promote the business? Through what channels will you be promoting it? How are you going to reach and appeal to your target market? The more specific and thorough you can be with your plans here, the better, Cobello says.

6. Explain how you’ll spend your funding

What will you do with the money you raise? What are the first steps you plan to take? As a founder, you want to instill confidence in your investors and show them that the instant you receive their money, you’ll be taking smart actions that grow the company.

7. Include supporting documents

Creating a business plan is in some ways akin to building a legal case, but for your business. “You want to tell a story, and to be as thorough as possible, while keeping your plan succinct, clear, interesting, and visually appealing,” Cobello says. “Supporting documents could include financial projects, a competitive analysis of the market you’re entering into, and even any licenses, patents, or permits you’ve secured.”

A business plan is an individualized document—it’s ultimately up to you what information to include and what story you tell. But above all, Cobello says, your business plan should have a clear focus and goal in mind, because everything else will build off this cornerstone.

“Many people don’t realize how important business plans are for the health of their company,” she says. “Set aside time to make this a priority for your business, and make sure to keep it updated as you grow.”

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The Enormous Risks a Second Trump Term Poses to Our Economy

A portrait of Donald Trump over which is superimposed a chart that recalls the Dow Jones industrial average.

By Robert E. Rubin and Kenneth I. Chenault

Mr. Rubin is a senior counselor to Centerview Partners and was the U.S. Treasury secretary from 1995 to 1999. Mr. Chenault is the chairman and managing director of General Catalyst and a former chairman and chief executive of American Express.

Not long ago, one of us was having lunch with someone who manages a multibillion-dollar fund when the subject turned to the prospect of a second Trump term.

This person was disturbed by many of Donald Trump’s actions and concerned about what the November presidential election could mean. But when it came to one issue — the economy — he was untroubled. “We didn’t do so badly last time,” he said. “There are some things I don’t agree with, but I don’t think it will matter that much.”

We fear this is an increasingly common view. We’ve spoken to many leaders in business and finance who, when it comes to economic policy, are open to the premise that Mr. Trump is a normal presidential candidate.

We strongly disagree. The two of us have been involved in business, government and policy for many years, with more than a century of experience between us. We’ve worked with elected officials and business leaders across the ideological spectrum. And we believe a straightforward assessment of Mr. Trump’s economic policy agenda — based on his public statements and on-the-record interviews, such as the one he recently conducted with Time magazine — leads to a clear conclusion.

When it comes to economic policy, Mr. Trump is not a remotely normal candidate. A second Trump term would pose enormous risks to our economy.

At a time when our country was already on an increasingly risky debt trajectory, Mr. Trump’s tax initiatives during his presidency added an estimated $3.9 trillion to the national debt , according to Brian Riedl of the Manhattan Institute. Mainstream analyses concluded that the result — increasing demand in an already full-employment economy while having a negligible effect on business investment — added very little benefit in the shorter term and virtually nothing in the longer term.

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  5. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

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    The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. Comparison and contrast is simply telling how two things are alike or different. The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both.

  7. 10.7 Comparison and Contrast

    The Purpose of Comparison and Contrast in Writing. Comparison in writing discusses elements that are similar, while contrast in writing discusses elements that are different. A compare-and-contrast essay, then, analyzes two subjects by comparing them, contrasting them, or both.. The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way.

  8. Academic Guides: Writing a Paper: Comparing & Contrasting

    Use Clear Transitions. Transitions are important in compare and contrast essays, where you will be moving frequently between different topics or perspectives. Examples of transitions and phrases for comparisons: as well, similar to, consistent with, likewise, too. Examples of transitions and phrases for contrasts: on the other hand, however ...

  9. How to Write a Compare & Contrast Essay

    Follow these essential steps to write an effective compare and contrast essay: Choose what two subjects to compare and contrast. Brainstorm similarities and differences between the two subjects. Develop a thesis statement and write an introduction. Write an analysis, using the block method or the point-by-point method.

  10. Writing Comparative Essays: Making Connections to Illuminate Ideas

    Here are some tips, with student examples to illustrate each. 1. Make sure you're focusing on a manageable theme or idea. One of the first ways to get on the wrong track in writing a comparative ...

  11. 7 Steps for Writing an Essay Plan (2024)

    To sum up, here are the 7 steps to essay planning one more time: The 7-Step Guide for How to Write an Essay Plan. Figure out your Essay Topic (5 minutes) Gather your Sources and take Quick Notes (20 minutes) Brainstorm using a Mind-Map (10 minutes) Arrange your Topics (2 minutes) Write your topic Sentences (5 minutes)

  12. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    Writing style: Hiroshi should consider the different writing styles used in news reports and editorials. News reports typically use a more formal and objective style, while editorials often use a persuasive and subjective style.3. Use of sources: Hiroshi should brainstorm the different types of sources used in news reports and editorials.

  13. LibGuides: Writing Centre Online Resource Guide: Planning

    The Writing Centre is a free service for students who want to improve their writing skills. Whether you are writing academic, business or personal documents, we can help you articulate ideas and structure your writing plan. About the Writing Centre. Make an Appointment ... Thesis Statements and Essay Structure >> Last Updated: Jul 3, 2024 1:53 ...

  14. What would best conclude an essay comparing different genres? A.)a

    Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and editorials. Which ideas should he brainstorm about in order to write an effective essay? Select four options. the characteristics of editorials the characteristics of news reports which genres are similar to editorials

  15. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    Hiroshi should brainstorm about the characteristics of editorials and news reports to understand their unique features and distinguish between them. [ He should also explore which genres are similar to editorials and news reports, as well as analyze how news reports and editorials are similar and different in terms of purpose, structure ...

  16. Flashcards Writing an Essay to Compare the Presentation of ...

    Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and editorials. Which ideas should he brainstorm about in order to write an effective essay? Select four options. Click the card to flip.

  17. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    To write an effective essay comparing news reports and editorials, Hiroshi should brainstorm about the following ideas: 1. The characteristics of editorials: Hiroshi should consider the unique features of editorials, such as the expression of opinions, persuasive language, and the use of subjective arguments to influence readers' opinions. 2.

  18. Concerns raised over annual Juneteeth essay contest that asks fifth

    Concerns raised over annual Juneteeth essay contest that asks fifth-graders to write from a slave's perspective ... in an email to the News-Review that there was "a most productive discussion" about the assignment and that the plan is to collaborate with the East End Voters Coalition on developing a new, yet-to-be-determined essay topic ...

  19. writing an essay to compare the presentation of ideas genres

    Select four options. to provide evidence that supports the writers ideas. to analyze the texts, ideas, or objects being compared. to highlight similarities between the texts being discussed. to point out differences between the texts being discussed. read the sentences from Yasmin's essay.

  20. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and editorials. Which ideas should he brainstorm about in order to write an effective essay? Select four options. 1 the characteristics of editorials 2 the characteristics of news reports 3 which genres are similar to editorials 4 which genres are similar to news reports

  21. How to Write a Business Plan: Step-by-Step Guide

    A one-page business plan is a simplified version of the larger business plan, and it focuses on the problem your product or service is solving, the solution (your product), and your business model (how you'll make money). A one-page plan is hyper-direct and easy to read, making it an effective tool for businesses of all sizes, at any stage.

  22. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    As a Brainly AI helper, I suggest Hiroshi brainstorm about the following ideas in order to write an effective essay:the characteristics of editorials, the characteristics of news reports, how news reports and editorials are similar and how news reports and editorials are different.Explanation:When it comes to writing an effective essay comparing news reports and editorials, there are some ...

  23. Unit Test

    Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and editorials. Which ideas should he brainstorm about in order to write an effective essay? Select four options. the characteristics of editorials the characteristics of news reports which genres are similar to editorials which genres are similar to news reports how news reports and ...

  24. The Enormous Risks a Second Trump Term Poses to Our Economy

    Mr. Rubin is a senior counselor to Centerview Partners and was the U.S. Treasury secretary from 1995 to 1999. Mr. Chenault is the chairman and managing director of General Catalyst and a former ...

  25. Hiroshi is planning to write an essay comparing news reports and

    Hiroshi should consider the qualities of editorials since he intends to write an essay comparing news reports and editorials.. You must comprehend each item separately in order to compare two things correctly. Then you may assess how they differ and how they are similar. These are the four elements he should pay attention to since his essay compares news reporting with editorials.