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Philosophy of Education (8609) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments

February 21, 2023 Sarfraz Allma Iqbal Open University , Universities 0

Philosophy of Education (8609) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments

Philosophy of Education (8609) B.Ed Autumn 2021 Solved Assignments

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Philosophy of Education (8609)  Assignment 02

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1: Discuss the method designed by Socrates to give and acquire knowledge?                                                                                     (20)Marks

Ans: THE SOCRATIC METHOD:

Born in Athens in 469 B.C. Socrates was the son of poor parents. His father was a sculptor and mothers a mid-wife. Nothing is known about the early education of Socrates. He grew as an adult very much unnoticed by the people around him and took up the occupation of his father. But soon, Socrates felt a divine vocation to examine himself by questioning other men.

Socrates recognized the unscientific nature of the methods of the sophists, his own method was essentially systematic and founded on general principles. According to Aristotle, "There are two things which we may fairly attribute to Socrates, his inductive discourses and his universal definitions. Inductive reasoning was his method of arriving at a definition. The result attained by his method could not be regarded as satisfying the requirements of scientific exactness, but this did not disturb Socrates, for he himself continually and emphatically disclaimed the possession of any knowledge, except perhaps the knowledge of his own limitations." The intoxicated Alcibiades says of him in the Symposium, 'He knows nothing' and is ignorant of all things—such is the appearance which he puts on.' Although not possessing knowledge himself, Socrates claimed to have the gift of discerning its presence in others, and of having the power to assist them to bring it to light.

The first task of Socrates was to arouse men from that false self-satisfaction which wasby him believed to be the cause of their misery, and to lead them to self-examination and self-criticism. He says "Herein is the evil of ignorance, that he who is neither good nor wise is nevertheless satisfied with himself: he has no desire for that of which he feels no want." Socratic Mission was to make men feel this want, to teach others what the utterance of the Delphic oracle had taught him—his own ignorance; to imbue them with a divine discontent; to make them feel, as Alcibiades puts it the serpent's sting', 'the pang of philosophy'. In his defence, Socrates neither disowned his mission nor his method. 'I am that gadfly', he told his judges, 'which God has attached to the state, and all day long and in all places am always fastening upon you, arousing and persuading and reproaching you.

The prejudice against the sophists was intensified by the fact that they degraded knowledge by making its aim direct utility. Education was with the Greeks training for leisure, not for a livelihood. It was asked the Protagoras, 'Why may you not learn of him in the same way that you learned the arts of grammarian or musician or trainer, not with the view of making any of them a profession, but only as a part of education and because a private gentleman ought to know them?

Ultimately, a complaint was lodged with the state that Socrates was corrupting the youth and propagating atheism. He was tried in the court and so many witnesses were produced. In this trial the words of Socrates concerning death, virtue and so many other important things have become historical. However, he was condemned to death. In jail, his friends tried to persuade him to escape. He, however, refused and pointed out that everyone must obey the laws of the state even at the cost of his death. He was given hemlock which he drank cheerfully and embraced death. In the whole history of humanity there had been no greater humanist, philosopher and

lover of wisdom than Socrates. This short, stocky, stout, blear-eyed and snubnosed man, with a large mouth and thick lips, careless in his dress, clumsy and uncouth, was perhaps the most beloved teacher of his disciples. This is amply clear by the writings of his main disciple Plato.

Q 2: Explain the components of hierarchy of values proposed by John Lock.?      

Ans: John Lock’ theory of knowledge:

John Locke was born on 29 August 1632 at Wrington in the county of Somerset in the south-west of England. His father was a lawyer and small landowner. Little is known about John Locke’s early education. However, at the age of 15 in 1647, he was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke’s studies at Westminster were centred upon the classical languages of Latin and

Greek, and he also began to study Hebrew. He was a hardworking boy and in 1650 was elected to a King’s scholarship. This gave him the right to free lodgings within the school, and also access to major scholarships at both Oxford and Cambridge. In 1652 Locke’s diligence was rewarded when he was elected to a £20 scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford.

Locke’s formal course at Oxford would have included classics, rhetoric, logic, morals and geometry, and he took his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1656. This was followed by further study for the Master of Arts degree, taken two years later, in June 1658. Other subjects of study with which he was concerned were mathematics, astronomy, history, Hebrew, Arabic, natural philosophy, botany, chemistry and medicine. In 1667, at the age of 35, Locke left the University of Oxford to take up a post in the household of the Earl of Shaftesbury at Exeter House in London. ll Locke’s published works, including those that had been issued anonymously, were bequeathed to the Bodleian Library, Oxford. His work in the field of education is an essay concerning human understanding (1690), two treatises of government (1690), and some thoughts concerning education (hereafter referred to as Thoughts).

A Theory of Knowledge:

Although the Thoughts was most immediately concerned with education, by far the most important of Locke’s writings, and one which had great significance for education, was the Essay concerning human understanding.

Locke’s rejection of innate ideas even extended to moral principles. Justice and faith were not universal, nor was the idea of God. Differences in the ideas of people stemmed not from differences in their abilities to perceive or release their innate ideas, but from differences in their experiences. How then was knowledge acquired? How might men come to universal agreement? ‘To this I answer, in one word, from experience’ (Essay, 2. 1. 2). But experience itself, gained via the senses, was not sufficient of itself for knowledge. That also required the active agency of the mind upon such experience.

Locke, however, was neither a dogmatist nor a builder of systems. He acknowledged the possible existence of certain eternal verities—God, morality, the laws of nature—whose essence might be confirmed, rather than discovered by experience and reason. He also admitted the existence of some innate powers or qualities, recognizing that some children seem to be from birth innately more adept than others in certain respects. Nevertheless, in spite of these qualifications, Locke inclined towards nurture rather than nature and may be categorized as the founder of empiricism, a tradition that has predominated in English philosophical and educational thought until this day.

The opening phrase of the Thoughts, ‘A sound mind in a sound body is a short, but full description of a happy state in this world’, a quotation from Juvenal, and indeed given in Latin in the letter to the Clarke family and in manuscripts prior to the first edition, launches the book into a discussion about the health of the child. Locke’s advice in this respect was generally sensible, if at times a trifle idiosyncratic.

Thus his Views on Plenty of open air, exercise and sleep; plain diet, no wine or strong drink, and very little or no physick’ (Thoughts, s. 30) would command general support today, though his advice on toughening the feet by wearing thin or leaky shoes so that gentlemen’s sons might acquire the ability, if necessary, to go barefoot as the poor do, might seem to be somewhat harsh. Locke’s advocacy of the benefits of cold water extended to teaching children to swim, both for the general promotion of their health and for the preservation of life.

Q.3 Elaborate the classification of different types of knowledge proposed by Al-Ghazali?                                                                          (20) Marks

Ans: knowledge proposed by Al-Ghazali:

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazzali is one of the most important scholars of Islamic thought. He was a philosopher, a legal scholar, a theologian and a mystical thinker. Imam Ghazali was an expert in the field of fiqh al-Syafii’ and Kalam al-Asy’ari. Coming at a time when there were many disputations between philosophers and theologians, between rationalists and traditionalists and the Mystical and the orthodox, he tried to bridge these divisions. His IhyaUlum al- Din, The Revival of Religious Sciences embarks on a massive endeavor to find a golden mean between all these diverging trends.

Imam Ghazali was a teacher at University of Nidzamiyah, Baghdad. Al- Ghazali's philosophy of education is based upon Islamic perspective on education, in which Al-Ghazali's predisposition towards understanding and integration of numerous intellectual schools is apparent. He got recognition as mystical, legal and philosophical educational thinker. For Al-Ghazali, the aim of education is to nurture human beings so that they abide by the teachings of religion and henceforward will be rewarded in the life hereafter.

Children learn from society and the surrounding environment. These elements play vital role for the development of their behaviors and personality. The children are also under the influence of their families, their customs, traditions, language and religious traditions. Therefore, the major responsibility for children's education rests on the parents. However, this responsibility is subsequently shared by the teachers. Al-Ghazali emphasized the significance of childhood in character building. A good brought up will result in a good character and help them to live a good life; while, a bad brought up will spoil the character of children and it will be difficult to bring them back to the straight path. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the significant characteristics of this period so that children can be dealt in a sound and effective manner.

Al-Ghazali emphasized to reward children. He explained that when children demonstrate good manners, they should be rewarded and praised so that they would become happy. Moreover, when children accidentally commit mistakes, parents should pretend as if they have not notice the mistake and do not ever embarrass them by telling other people about the mistakes done. However, if children repeat the same mistake for the second time, parents should talk to them discreetly and tell them that they should not do such things. At elementary stage, children must be trained to be obedient to their parents, teachers, and elders. They must also behave well towards their fellow students. They should be prohibited from boasting to their peers about their clothes, the economic status of their parents the food they eat, and accessories they have. Rather, they should be taught generosity, modesty, and civility. Attention must also be paid on their company as it affects their character. Therefore, they must advise to have intelligent and truthful friends.

Al-Ghazali has described following classifications of sciences according to: 1.Classification according to ‘nature’:

a.    theoretical (religious and theological) and

b.    practical (politics, home economics and ethics),

2.    Classification according to their ‘origin’:

a.     Revealed sciences, taken from the prophets (exegesis, unity of God, customs, rites, morality) and

b.    Rational sciences, produced by human thinking and reason (natural sciences, mathematics, theology, etc.) For Al-Ghazali the revealed and the rational sciences complement each other.

3.    Classification according to their purpose or aim

a.      Science of transaction (governing the behaviour and actions of human beings—the sciences of customs and rites) and

b.      science of unveiling (essence of things and pertaining to the apprehension of the reality).

teacher should be an example and a model. The teacher is not limited to the teaching of a particular subject matter; rather, it should incorporate all aspects of the personality and life of the student. The student, in turn, has a duty to consider the teacher as a father, to whom he owes obedience and respect. Al- Ghazali stresses that learning is only effective when it is put into practice, and is aimed at inculcating the right habits rather than simply memorizing information. Al Ghazali recommended that the teacher before moving to next subject matter, teacher must ensure that the students have mastered the first subject matter. Teacher should consider the interconnectedness of knowledge and the relations between its various branches. For religious education, Al Ghazali recommended an early introduction to the fundamentals of religion through memorization, inculcation, and repetition. In the subsequent stage, understanding, explanation, and conscious practice must be carried out.

Q.4: What is Perennialism? Describe the main features of Perennialises’ educational curriculum?                                                             

Ans: Perennialism:

Perennial means "everlasting," like a perennial flower that comes up year after year. The educational philosophy of perennialism is derived from both idealism and realism. From idealism comes the combination of ideas that truth is

universal and unchanging. It is independent of time, place, and the immediate physical reality that surrounds us. From realism comes an emphasis on rationality and the importance of education in training of intellect in the search for truth. The roots of perennialism lie in the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, as well as that of St. Thomas Aquinas. Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in 1963 and Mortimer Adler, who further developed this curriculum based on 100 great books of western civilization.

According to Perennialists, when students are immersed in the study of those profound and enduring ideas, they will appreciate learning for its own sake and become true intellectuals. For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted over centuries. They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education.

Main features of Perennialises’ educational curriculum:

The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum as constant. The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students' growth in enduring disciplines. The loftiest accomplishments of humankind are emphasized– the great works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science. Perennialism maintains that the purpose of schools is to prepare children to accept their places in a society built upon a long and tested tradition. Society has a natural order, and schools should operate as testing grounds to determine where children will fit in this order. To do this, schools should offer all children an academic curriculum based on the classics, compendiums of human knowledge that have been tested over time. The purpose of such a curriculum is to train the intellect in a broad, general way. As a result, it will become evident who are the brightest and best, who will be fit to be the leaders in society. Perennialism contends that schools should not address either the fleeting, narrow interests of students or the immediate needs of society. These concerns are left to other social institutions.

Perennialists recommend that students learn from reading and analyzing the works by history's finest thinkers and writers. Perennialist classrooms are also centered on teachers in order to accomplish these goals. The teachers are not concerned about the students' interests or experiences. They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are believed to be most beneficial to disciplining students' minds. The perennialist curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. Perennialists think it is important that individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively. They emphasize that students should not be taught information that may soon be outdated or found to be incorrect. Perennialists disapprove of teachers requiring students to absorb massive amounts of disconnected information. They recommend that schools spend more time teaching about concepts and explaining to make these concepts meaningful for students.

.5:What is Montessori Method of teaching? What are the influences of Montessori Approach on the educational system of today?

Ans: Montessori Method of teaching:

Montessori is a special way for children and adults to be together . Every aspect of the experience is planned to help children become confident, capable, creative, caring and happy people who are a delight to be with. The Montessori philosophy of education influences all aspects of child's experience. All activities are carefully planned to make it easy for children to become that special person each child can be. Teachers are called directress to remind them to gently direct and guide the children in their activities rather than dictate the child's every move. This leads to mutual respect and affection helping the children develops confidence in their own ability. The variety of materials to explore, the teacher's quiet demonstration of their possibilities, and the time available for the child to watch older children, all work together to help the child develop the courage to try new things. Children are encouraged to thoroughly explore an activity. They quickly learn to examine a problem carefully, seeking the possibilities and discovering the solution. The child's confidence matures in their own ability. At an early age

the child discovers the scientist's delight in solving problems, the mathematician's delight in playing with patterns, the artist's delight in creation, the sociologist's and psychologist's delight in understanding people and the leaders delight in getting things done with people. Montessori sets the stage to allow groups of children to have these experiences without infringing on each other’s rights or needs.

Montessori Philosophy:

According to dr. maria montessori, “a child's work is to create the person she/he will become.” children are born with special mental powers which aid in the work of their own construction. but they cannot accomplish the task of self-construction without purposeful movement, exploration, and discovery of their environment—both the things and people within it. they must be given the freedom to use their inborn powers to develop physically, intellectually, and spiritually. a montessori classroom provides this freedom within the limits of an environment which develops a sense of order and self discipline. also basic to montessori's philosophy is her discovery of sensitive periods in children's development. during these periods children seek certain stimuli with immense intensity, to the exclusion of all others. so it is during this time that a child can most easily master a particular learning skill. dr. montessori devised special materials to aid children in each sensitive period. it is the responsibility of the teacher to recognize these periods in individual children and put them in touch with the appropriate materials in the classroom environment., freedom in education:.

Freedom to Maria Montessori (1966) does not mean that we leave a child on his/her own to do whatever he/she wishes to do: rather it means that we need to remove all obstacles which might hinder the child’s “normal” development.

In a Montessori environment the adult does not dictate to the child what activity he/she should do but freedom means that the child is free to choose an activity within a prepared environment. It also means that the child is free to choose a place where to perform the work within that prepared environment. When children worked in the “Children’s House” they had a choice as to sit for example, on a chair by a small table or use carpeted floor for their work space. The adult in the Montessori environment does not schedule changes in activities for the child but gives freedom to the child to be able to work on the activity until its completion regardless of the time it takes, as well to repeat the activity as many times as the child finds it necessary. Freedom in a Montessori environment also means for a child to freely walk around and get a new activity when he/she so desires, and

“greatest” of all, it means freedom to observe another child and learn by observing.

Movement in Education:

Movement in education was important for Dr. Montessori. It was to be done indoors as well as outdoors. Indoors, Dr. Montessori taught children to walk gracefully without bumping into any objects. She taught them to walk and march. For one of the indoor activities Maria Montessori constructed out of paper a set of circular tracks. She had the children walk in a circle trying not to step outside of the tracks. Dr. Montessori believed that children should play outdoors so that they could be kept healthy and grow. She wrote that children need to be active so that their bones and muscles develop. For example, she recommended free games where children would play “with balls, hoops, bean bags and kites” (Montessori, 1966). She also recommended other educational gymnastics which included gardening and taking “care of plants and animals (watering and pruning the plants, carrying the grain to the chickens, etc).

Dr. Montessori believed that exercise was important not only for children but everyone. She stated that “very individual should take sufficient exercise to keep his muscles in a healthy state” (Montessori, 1966).The children in the Montessori schools also learned to look after themselves and thus be more independent of adults. For example, little children learned to undress and dress themselves. They hung their outdoor garments on hooks which were placed on the wall within their reach. The small washstands were also within the children’s reach so they could wash their hands, and comb their hair. Dr Montessori believed that hands are of special importance to human beings. Since a child “develops himself through his movements, through the work of his hands, he has need of objects with which he can work that provide motivation for his activity”.

Intellectual Education:

Dr. Montessori (1966) described teaching little children to write by first letting them touch the letters made of wood with their index finger of the right hand, then with two fingers (index and the middle finger, and on the third occasion having them touch the letters “with a wooden rod held like a pen in writing” (p.250). This muscular exercise was a preparation for writing but through it they also learned to recognize the letters of the alphabet and eventually would learn to read. In Geography for example, children learned to recognize the shape and name of each continent by placing shapes of continents set into wooden boards. The name of each continent was written on each shape as well as on the board under the shape.

Mathematics teaching was done by rods and beads. The shortest rod was 10 cm and the others were multiples of 10, such as 20 cm, 30 cm and so

on up to 100 cm which is one meter. Beads were counting numbers like 1, 2, 3 and so on. Children used the rods and beads to learn basic addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Geometry was an 199 important part of the little children’s learning. They learned for example not only to recognize geometric objects such as a rectangle and a cylinder, but also to differentiate among the sizes of a rectangle or a cylinder. One of the exercises was to organize cylinders according to width size when the height was the same. The cylinders would be

lined up and placed in their proper place in the holes of a long wooden board. Each cylinder would fit into one particular hole on the board. This was a self- correcting exercise so the children would rejoice when they got all the cylinders in their correct places. All the Montessori didactic tools were self-correcting making learning quite simple and straight forward.

Montessori has devised certain formal gymnastic exercises, which develop coordinated movements in the child. For these exercises she has also devised special apparatus. Muscular education and training is given through walking, holding objects and handwork, Rhythmic exercises are also provided. These exercises not only make children healthy but also give them training for practical life.

Exercises for Sense Training:

Montessori attached more importance to sensory training than learning, thinking or reasoning. She, therefore, devised apparatus for providing exercises in sense-training. The Didactic Apparatus sharpens the pupils’ senses and accelerates learning. The varied material includes blocks, cylinders, paper, cabinets; coins, tables, pencils and wools of different colors, boxes, balls, cubes, rods, and water of different temperatures. This material is meant to give perception of size, form, weight, touch, hearing and color

The sense of touch is developed by presenting water at different temperatures to the child. Sand-papers of graded roughness are also used for this purpose. Perception of size is developed through handling a series of wooden cylinders

of varying heights and diameters. Series of blocks and rods of graded diameters are also used for this purpose. Sense of hearing is developed through boxes, containing pebbles and other sound producing material. Sense of weight is cultivated through blocks and tables of wood of varying weights. Colour sense is trained through samples of wood of different colors, arranged and graded according to the depth of colour, as we have already stated under the ‘Principle of Self-education’.

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AIOU Solved Assignments B.Ed

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023 assignments 1 and 2  Philosophy of Education (8609) spring 2023. aiou past papers .

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

Course: Philosophy of Education (8609) Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023 Level: B. Ed Assignment No.1

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q 1:     Discuss the branches of Philosophy?

The Branches of Philosophy

Western philosophy can be divided into six branches that have assumed various importance over time. Traditionally metaphysics sets the questions for philosophy. Epistemology asks how do we know. Ethics and politics have to do with action and quality of life. Aesthetics or value theory has to do with beauty, balance, and harmony. Logic has to do with the relations of things. Epistemology sometimes replaces metaphysics these days, because it has fewer religious overtones. Among Eastern European and continental philosophers, philosophy tends to be the study of politics. Logic is critical for analytic philosophers, who are deeply suspicious of ethics, politics, and metaphysics.

Understanding philosophy in the 6th century b.c. involves taking into account different priorities than those of the 19th century a.d. However, these division remain helpful for identifying what’s at stake. Metaphysics, which studies the nature of existence is closely related to Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know what we do about the world around us. Ethics, the study of how (wo)men should act depends on Epistemology, because we need knowledge to make good choices. Politics studies human interaction. Aesthetics studies the value of things. Logic is about the symbolic representation of language and thought processes. Once the domain of Aristotle, the foundation of the exact sciences must now take into account relativity, uncertainty and incompleteness. 5/17

Epistemology

The theory of knowledge, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech), is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, scope and possibility of knowledge. Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy. But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. A philosopher of religion must be objective. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. It is not attacking other religions and defending his own.

Metaphysics

Metaphysics however (derived from the Greek words “ta meta ta physika biblia”) – meaning ‘the book that follows the physics book’. It was the way students referred to a specific book in the works of Aristotle, and it was a book on First Philosophy. (The assumption that the word means “beyond physics” is misleading) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the study of “first principles” and “being” (ontology). In other words, Metaphysics is the study of the most general aspects of reality, pertaining to subjects such as substance, identity, the nature of the mind, and free will. In other words it is a study of nature and the nature of the world in which humans live.

Logic (from Classical Greek ????? (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. However, the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish

Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the “science (study) of morality”. In philosophy, ethical behaviour is that which is “good” or “right”. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy.

Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the creation and appreciation of beauty through critical analysis and reflection.

Other Branches

Philosophy of Education:  Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Classic works include Plato’s Republic, Locke’s Thoughts Concerning Education, and Rousseau’s Emile.

Philosophy of History:  Fairly minor branch (not as minor as education), although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i.e. the universe and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end? Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx. Classic works include Vico’s New Science, and Hegel and Marx’s works.

Philosophy of Language:  Ancient branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century under Wittgenstein. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Classic works include Plato’s Cratylus, Locke’s Essay, and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.

Philosophy of Law:  Also called Jurisprudence. Study of law attempting to discern what the best laws might be, how laws came into being in the first place, attempting to delimit human laws from natural laws, whether we should always obey the law, and so on. Law isn’t often directly dealt with by philosophers, but much of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it.

Philosophy of Mathematics:  Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols (numbers, triangle, operands) of mathematics that we use to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on. Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field.

Philosophy of Mind:  Study of the mind, attempting to ascertain exactly what the mind is, how it interacts with our body, do other minds exist, how does it work, and so on. Probably the most popular branch of philosophy right now, it has expanded to include issues of AI. Classic works include Plato’s Republic and Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations, although every major philosopher has had some opinion at least on what the mind is and how it works.

Philosophy of Politics:  Closely related to ethics, this is a study of government and nations, particularly how they came about, what makes good governments, what obligations citizens have towards their government, and so on. Classic works include Plato’s Republic, Hobbes’ Leviathan, Locke’s Two Treatises, and J.S. Mill’s On Liberty.

Philosophy of Religion:  Theology is concerned with the study of God, recommending the best religious practises, how our religion should shape our life, and so on. Philosophy of religion is concerned with much the same issues, but where Theology uses religious works, like the Bible, as its authority, philosophy likes to use reason as the ultimate authority.

Philosophy of Science:  It is the Study of science concerned with whether scientific knowledge can be said to be certain, how we obtain it, can science really explain everything, does causation really exist, can every event in the universe be described in terms of physics and so on. Also popular in recent times, classic works include Hume’s Treatise on Human Nature, Kripke’s Naming and Necessity, Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609

Q 2:     Analyze the Relationship of Education and Philosophy?

Principles and values of life learnt through education and experience gives birth to philosophy in one’s life. Philosophy lays the foundation of leading one’s life based on our principles. Education is the source of learning and philosophy it’s applications in our daily life.

Education and philosophy, the two disciplines, are very closely related and in some areas they overlap each other. It is quite often said that, ‘Philosophy and Education are two sides of the same coin’. ‘Education is the dynamic side of philosophy’. Education is practical in nature and philosophy is theory. It is not vague to say that theory and practical are identical. The educator, who has to deal with the real facts of life, is different from the arm chair theorist who is busy in speculation. Philosophy is a way of life. In a wider sense philosophy is a way of looking at life, nature and truth. It sets up the ideals for an individual to achieve them in his life time.

Education on the other hand is the dynamic side of philosophy. It is the active aspect and the practical means of realising the ideals of life. Education is a sacred necessity of life, both from the biological and sociological point of view. Education and philosophy, the two disciplines, are very closely related and in some areas they overlap each other. It is quite often said that, ‘Philosophy and Education are two sides of the same coin’. ‘Education is the dynamic side of philosophy’. To elaborate further, ‘Philosophy and Education are the two flowers of one stem, the two sides of one coin. One can never be thought of without the other. The presence of one is incomplete without the other. The art of education cannot be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. There is a close interaction between the two; one without the other is unserviceable.’ Education is practical in nature and philosophy is theory. It is not vague to say that theory and practical are identical. The educator, who has to deal with the real facts of life, is different from the arm chair theorist who is busy in speculation.

But a close observation of the various interpretations of philosophy will prove that these two are nothing but the one and same thing seen from different angles. Philosophy is the study of the realities, the pursuit of wisdom. It is not mere theorizing but something which comes naturally to every individual. A person who goes deep into the reason and nature of things and tries to arrive at certain general principles with a view to apply them in his daily life, is a philosopher. Philosophy is a way of life. In a wider sense philosophy is a way of looking at life, nature and truth. It sets up the ideals for an individual to achieve them in his life time. Education on the other hand is the dynamic side of philosophy. It is the active aspect and the practical means of realising the ideals of life. Education is a sacred necessity of life, both from the biological and sociological point of view. It is true that education works like a catalyst for a better life, a social desirable life. As a pot is made out of clay and a finished product comes out of raw material, so also from the immature child comes out the civilized man through education. Education renews and re-builds the social structure in the pattern of philosophical ideals. Human being, who is born and grows up with inherited propensities, determines the basic trails of man, but education paves a long way for his success in life. Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means to earn living, nor is it only a nursery of thought or a school for a citizenship. Rather, it is the initiation into the life of spirit, a training of human souls in pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.

The basic relationship between philosophy and education can be analysed as follows. It is philosophy, that provides the purpose or the aim and it is education which makes it practical. Philosophy shows the way and education moves on in that direction. When we define education as the modification or behaviour, the direction in which, modification to be carried out is determined by philosophy. Thus philosophy deals with the end and education with the means. In fact, we can observe that the great philosophers of all times have been also great educators. For example, Socretes and Plato, the great philosophers, were also famous educators. A teacher is not a teacher, in true sense of the term, if he/she is not able to discover the relationship between philosophy and education. According to Thomson, every teacher should realize the importance of philosophy in education. Good philosophy thus would not only conceive the type of society which is needed in the society. It is philosophy which would give to the teachers a sense of adventure. A true teacher should have knowledge of the subject he/she teaches the pupils and the society. He/she should also have the moralistic sense which comes from philosophy.

The choice of students must cater to the principles and purposes of philosophy. Choice of curriculum needs philosophers or leaders of thought. With the change of time and circumstances, the curricula also changes and this change can be brought out by philosophers alone. The necessary conditions should be fulfilled so that the child is allowed to go in a free atmosphere with the ultimate aim of becoming a happy and a rightly adjusted person of the society. The learning process is an active way of doing things; hence the curriculum for the child should concern itself with the realities of life. As far as the methods of teaching are concerned, it can be said that the child is influenced; to give a particular shape to his life by the way he is taught. The philosophy of the teacher is reflected in the child by his method of teaching. So the course of life of the child is definitely influenced by philosophy. Here comes the utility of philosophy. The Education- philosophy relationship may be further pointed out as given below:

According to Alfred Weber “Philosophy is a search for comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of the nature of things a person who searches into the reason and nature of things, who tries to arrive at a general principle, and who attempts to apply those principles to daily conduct of life, acts like a true philosopher. According to John Dewey, philosophy is “critical reviewing of just those familiar things.”

{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q 3:     Evaluate the role of following branches of philosophy in system of education:

  • Epistemology 

Epistemology : the study of knowledge. In particular, epistemology is the study of the nature, scope, and limits of human knowledge.

  • Epistemology investigates the origin, structure, methods, and integrity of knowledge.
  • “The earth is spherical”
  • “The earth is an oblate spheroid” ( i.e. , flattened at the poles).
  • But what about the Himalayas and the Marianas Trench? Even if we surveyed exactly the shape of the earth, our process of surveying would alter the surface by the footprints left and the impressions of the survey stakes and instruments. Hence, the exact shape of the earth cannot be known. Every rain shower changes the shape.
  • (Note here as well the implications for skepticism and relativism: simply because we cannot exactly describe the exact shape of the earth, the conclusion does not logically follow that the earth does not have a shape.)
  • Russell’s  Five-Minute-World Hypothesis : Suppose the earth were created five minutes ago, complete with memory images, history books, records,  etc. , how could we ever know of it? As Russell wrote in  The Analysis of Mind , “There is no logical impossibility in the hypothesis that the world sprang into being five minutes ago, exactly as it then was, with a population that “remembered” a wholly unreal past. There is no logically necessary connection between events at different times; therefore nothing that is happening now or will happen in the future can disprove the hypothesis that the world began five minutes ago.” For example, an omnipotent God could create the world with all the memories, historical records, and so forth five minutes ago. Any evidence to the contrary would be evidence created by God five minutes ago. ( Q.v.,  the Omphalos hypothesis.)
  • Suppose everything in the universe (including all spatial relations) were to expand uniformly a thousand times larger. How could we ever know it? A moment’s thought reveals that the mass of objects increases by the cube whereas the distance among them increases linearly. Hence, if such an expansion were possible, changes in the measurement of gravity and the speed of light would be evident, if, indeed, life would be possible.
  • Russell’s Five-Minute-World Hypothesis is a philosophical problem; the impossibility of the objects in the universe expanding is a scientific problem since the latter problem can, in fact, be answered by principles of elementary physics.

ii)        Axiology:

The Main Branches of Philosophy  are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for one area overlaps into the others.

  • Nature of value : is value a fulfillment of desire, a pleasure, a preference, a behavioral disposition, or simply a human interest of some kind?
  • Criteria of value :  de gustibus non (est) disputandum ( i.e.,  (“there’s no accounting for tastes”) or do objective standards apply?
  • Status of value : how are values related to (scientific) facts? What ultimate worth, if any, do human values have?
  • Consider this example analyzed by J. O. Urmson in his well-known essay, “Saints and Heroes”:  “We may imagine a squad of soldiers to be practicing the throwing of live hand grenades; a grenade slips from the hand of one of them and rolls on the ground near the squad; one of them sacrifices his life by throwing himself on the grenade and protecting his comrades with his own body. It is quite unreasonable to suppose that such a man must be impelled by the sort of emotion that he might be impelled by if his best friend were in the squad.”
  • Did the soldier who threw himself on the grenade do the right thing? If he did not cover the grenade, several soldiers might be injured or be killed. His action probably saved lives; certainly an action which saves lives is a morally correct action. One might even be inclined to conclude that saving lives is a duty. But if this were so, wouldn’t each of the soldiers have the moral obligation or duty to save his comrades? Would we thereby expect each of the soldiers to vie for the opportunity to cover the grenade?

{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q 4:     Discuss the main tenets of idealism and Realism

Plato is an astute and important philosopher, who writes beautifully and with great power and elegance on Truth and Reality. His work is still profoundly important in today’s Post modern world, and can be easily understood due to its simplicity of language and engaging style of dialogue. – He appreciated that all Truth comes from Reality and this Truth was profoundly important to the future of Humanity.

When the mind’s eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and its beliefs shifting, and it seems to lack intelligence. (Plato, 380BC

The idealists believes that material or physical universe is not complete expression of reality, the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. While the physical and material world is destructible and changeable, the spirit behind it is indestructible and unchangeable

Idealism in general is the metaphysical doctrine,(metaphysics is an area of philosophy that is concerned with questions about reality.It deals with questions like: what is reality? What is existence? Is the universe rationally designed or ultimetly meaningless? The basic assumption of epistemological Idealism is that we only know our own ideas (representations or mental images) metaphysics also involves questions concerning ,Is human nature physicle or spritual (mind-body problem)?Does a person make free choices or do events and conditions force one into determined decisions? So “idealism” in general is, metaphysical that a world of material objects containing no thought either could not exist as it is experienced, or would not be fully “real.

Fundamental principles of Idealism:

· Idea is real

· Man is supreme creation

· God is the source of all knowledge

· Values are Absolute

1-Idea is real: It is a system of philosophy which believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea.

2-Man is supreme creation:According to Idealism man is being spritual is a supreme creation of God.They believe that man has spirit or mind and through this spirit or mind he controls the environment.

3- God is the source of all knowledge: Although the man is supreme creation of God and he can create values, yet he cannot find knowledge of ulimate reality from anyone, elsewhere except God, not possible through the methods of observation, experimentation,reasoning,etc.,Idealists advocate the use of intution for knowing the ultimate.

4- Values are Absolute: Idealists believes in three spritual values, they are the Truth, the Beauty and the Goodness. The Truth is an intellectual value, the beauty is an aesthetic value and the good is a moral values. For Plato these three values are identical to each other.

Epistemology:

Things that are abstract super natural or out of human mind are not the facts. Idealist’s point of view about knowledge is that the good knowledge is useful for the society. Idealists believe that ideas are the only true reality. It is not that all idealists reject matter (the material world), but rather they hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability and uncertainty. While some ideas are enduring. Thus idealism might be more correct descriptive term for this philosophy. Idealism believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea. Material or physical world is not complete expression of reality. To him the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. (Shahid, 2006) Idealism believes in refined wisdom. It is based on the view that reality is a world within a person’s mind. It believes that truth is in the consistency of ideas and that goodness is an ideal state to strive to attain. As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught the wisdom of past heroes. Aristotle’s theory of Realism:

Realism believes in the world as it is. It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is what we sense and observe and that goodness is found in the order of the laws of nature. Realistic believe that the fact is something that is made an image in the human mind (Shahid, 2006.)

As a result, schools exist to reveal the order of the world and universe. Students are taught factual information. Realism is the classical philosophy of education. Like other aspects of life the Realism also searches in education for the fact and reality in education. Realism discuses the three basic questions of philosophy that is: 1) what is good? 2) What is fact? 3) What is reality? In the first question realism discuses with the nature of knowledge known as “Entomology”. The second question is about the nature of value, known as “Epistemology”. At the third question the educational philosophy discusses about the nature of beauty, known as “Axiology”(Shahid, 2006).

Realistic educators say that knowledge is that what is good. Virtue. The fact is in the supernatural. The physical world is just an image of the reality. Reality is that what is never changing (permanent). So if it is like that then there should be uniform education in everywhere. Realistic philosophy says that they have a treasury of literature in their literature that is a good source of knowledge. One has to get knowledge from this treasury of literature. Aristotle is known as the father of the realistic approach.

Comparison of idealism and realism in Education

Comparatively idealism and realism both are classic but two different doctrines of education. One is symbolist (Idealis) and the other is materialistic (realism) The source of knowledge in idealism is taken from the past literature that is usually abstract type of knowledge stressing the concept of supernatural (Metaphysical) phenomenon where the idealists focus upon the picture of an object in one’s ideas. The teacher in the idealistic approach is autocratic who has more knowledge and pedagogical strength then the pupil. He/she has to select the content and learning experiences for the what ever he/she thinks is suitable and in effective for the students.

. On the other hand the idealism has fully stressed upon the objects and their ideas on the human mind. Both the philosophies have to well furnish the students’ cognitive strength that is useful to prepare him for the life and its challenges. The teacher in idealism has to face the pupil and to engage him in the discussion in his/her selected topic. The student learns by the discussion. This method is known as ‘Debate’ or Socratic method.

While Realists place enormous emphasis upon critical reason aided by observation and experimentation. Realists support the lecture method and other formal ways of teaching. The teacher lectures and the learner has a role of passive and obedient listener. The learning experiences or content in the idealism is chosen situational regarding the need of the learner where in the idealism these learning experiences are chosen from the literature that have been written by the great philosophers in the past. The learner in the realistic approach is a passive factor that has to follow the teacher what ever the teacher says. He/she is a gentle and obedient in front of the teacher. The learner has to inculcate as much as he/she can and also can express his inculcated knowledge. He is a hardworking pupil. The same in idealism but here the learner is comparatively more active then that of the realism. The pupil can take participation in the discussion and debates.

{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2023 Code 8609

Q 5:     Describe the different sources of knowledge.

Inspiration, revelation, insight, intuition, ecstasy, divine sight and the supreme, blissful state are the seven planes of knowledge. There are four sources of knowledge: instinct, reason, intuition, and direct knowledge of Brahman (God) or Brahma-Jnana (knowledge of God).

Instinct When an ant crawls on your right arm, the left hand automatically moves towards the right arm to drive the ant away. The mind does not reason here. When you see a scorpion near your leg, you withdraw the leg automatically. This is called instinctive or automatic movement. As you cross a street, how instinctively you move your body to save yourself from the cars! There is no thought during such kind of mechanical movement. Instinct is found in animals and birds also. In birds, the ego does not interfere with the free, divine flow and play. Hence the work done by them through their instinct is more perfect than that done by human beings. Have you ever noticed the intricate and exquisite work done by birds in the building of their beautiful nests ?

Reason  Reason is higher than instinct and is found only in human beings. It collects facts, generalizes, reasons out from cause to effect, from effect to cause, from premises to conclusions, from propositions to proofs. It concludes, decides and comes to final judgment. It takes you safely to the door of intuition and leaves you there. Belief, reason, knowledge and faith are the four important psychic processes. First you have belief in a doctor. You go to him for diagnosis and treatment. The doctor makes a thorough examination of you and prescribes certain medicines. You take them. You reason out: “Such and such is the disease. The doctor has given me some iron and iodide. Iron will improve my blood. The iodide will stimulate the lymphatics and absorb the exudation and growth in the liver. So I should take it.” Then, by a regular and systematic course of these drugs, the disease is cured in a month. You then get knowledge and have perfect faith in the efficacy of the medicine and the proficiency of the doctor. You recommend this doctor and his drugs to your friends so that they too might benefit from his treatment.

Intuition Intuition is personal spiritual experience. The knowledge obtained through the functioning of the causal body (Karana Sarira) is intuition. Sri Aurobindo calls it the Supermind or Supramental Consciousness. There is direct perception of truth, or immediate knowledge through Samadhi or the Superconscious State. You know things in a flash. Professor Bergson preached about intuition in France to make the people understand that there was a higher source of knowledge than the intellect. In intuition there is no reasoning process at all. It is direct perception. Intuition transcends reason but does not contradict it. Intellect takes a man to the door of intuition and returns. Intuition is Divya Drishti (divine vision); it is the eye of wisdom. Spiritual flashes and glimpses of truth, inspiration, revelation and spiritual insight come through intuition. The mind has to be pure for one to know that it is the intuition that is functioning at a particular moment. Brahma-Jnana (knowledge of God) is above intuition. It transcends the causal body and is the highest form of knowledge. It is the only Reality.

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AIOU Course Code 8609-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2022

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Course: Philosophy of Education (8609) Semester: Autumn, 2022      

Level: b.ed                                                           .

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Question No 1

Discuss the role of philosophy in educating a society.         

Philosophy is one of the most important disciplines in a society, and it has a lot to say about our way of life. we want to explore the role of philosophy in educating a society. We will look at how philosophy can help us think critically about the world around us, and how it can shape our values and beliefs. Perhaps the most important task of a society is to ensure that its members are well-educated. Philosophy can play an important role in this process by helping people develop both their cognitive and emotional capacities. So read on for insights about the role philosophy plays in education, and why it is so important for social progress.

The Role of Philosophy in Educating a Society

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Question No 2

Define realism. What are the influences of realism on education?

The realistic approach to education has been gaining in popularity over the last few decades. This is evident in the number of schools that are now teaching using this method, as well as the depictions of educational experiences found in movies and other forms of popular culture. When we use this approach to learning, we are more likely to remember information for a longer period of time and appreciate the different perspectives that our classmates may have. While there are many benefits to teaching using a realistic approach, it is important to be aware of the dangers that can come with it. we will explore some of the influences of realism on education and discuss some ways in which you can use this approach safely and effectively.

Realism in Education: Definition

Realism in education is the acknowledgement that individuals and society are complex and that their interactions produce consequences. It is based on the assumption that people are motivated primarily by self-interest and that humans are imperfect beings who make mistakes. These assumptions have led to a number of important educational innovations, including the development of test-based accountability systems and teacher evaluation methods.

Question No 3

Which philosophy id dominant in our contemporary educational system?

The dominant philosophy in our contemporary educational system is positivism. This philosophy states that knowledge is based on observable facts and that there is a separation between objective reality and human experience. In this post, we will explore the implications of positivism on education and discuss the ways you can use it to improve your teaching practice.

Philosophical Dichotomy

There is a philosophical dichotomy which dominates our contemporary educational system. This dichotomy is between different schools of thought, commonly known as the “Two Philosophies.” The Two Philosophies are Aristotelianism and Platonism.

Aristotelianism believes that everything in the universe is made up of matter and motion. It follows that things can change and evolve over time through natural processes. This is in contrast to Platonic thought, which holds that there is one eternal form or perfect idea that exists outside of the universe. From this perspective, knowledge is gained by accessing this form within reality.

It should be noted that not all schools of thought within the Two Philosophies adhere strictly to these distinctions. For example, Hegelianism combines aspects of both Aristotelianism and Platonism. However, on the whole, these two philosophies remain dominant in education today.,

Question No 4

Describe the organization of school demanded by naturalism.

Organization demands of naturalism stipulate that individuals have a certain role in the natural world with corresponding responsibilities. Naturalists believe that humans are products of their environment and must adapt to its demands if they want to survive. This view of human nature is at the heart of much educational thinking today, as students learn to think critically about their own lives and the world around them.

What is naturalism?

Schools according to naturalism are structured in a way that ensures all students receive an equal education. This means that no one is given an advantage based on their social class, race, or ability. In order to achieve this, the curriculum is designed to be as general as possible so that everyone can learn from it. Additionally, teachers are expected to provide feedback and support for each student’s individual growth and development.

What are the goals of naturalism?

Question No 5

Define rational knowledge. How is it different from intuitive knowledge? 

Rational knowledge is different from intuitive knowledge in a few key ways. First, rational knowledge is based on principles and evidence. Intuitive knowledge, on the other hand, is based on personal experience or assumptions. Second, rational knowledge is objective and can be verified. Intuitive knowledge, on the other hand, is often subjective and can’t be verified. Third, rational knowledge is easy to remember and use. Intuitive knowledge, on the other hand, can be difficult to remember and use. What do these differences mean for us as humans? Well, it depends on our professions. Some professions – like mathematics – are based almost entirely on rational knowledge. Other professions – like nursing – are based almost entirely on intuitive knowledge. So why is this important? Because we need both types of knowledge to be successful in life. We need to be able to think logically and solve problems using our intuition, but we also need to be able to trust our gut instincts when it comes to things like choosing a mate or making financial decisions. If you want to improve your cognitive skills – whether you’re a student studying math or a businessperson trying to make savvy decisions – then learning about rational vs. intuitive knowledge is essential

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔

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Philosophy of Education Code 8609 Assignments of Spring 2023

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