APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

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Standard Format

Formatting rules, various examples.

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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referencing in thesis

APA 7th Referencing

Apa 7th referencing: theses.

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Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation.

  • Referencing theses: Examples

The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation:

  • Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics ).
  • Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets].
  • University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of Thesis, for e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]
  • Database or Archive Name
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/

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Theses and dissertations

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A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment.

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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis

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Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format

Dissertations & Theses

Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted: 

Examples: 

Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global: 

Reference:  

Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  

(Banks, 2020).

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Banks, 2020, p. 157).

Master's thesis from a University scholarship database: 

Sears, L. B. (2017). The public voice and sustainable food systems: Community engagement in food action plans [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Kansas.  https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/26899  

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sears, 2017). 

(Sears, 2017, p. 24). 

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Pages Referenced

Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to page 333 of the APA Manual (7th Edition) for more information.

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APA 7th referencing style

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Thesis - from website

Thesis - from database.

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APA 6th Referencing Style Guide

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Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?

Theses and dissertations from online sources, theses and dissertations in hardcopy format.

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Terminology

Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from.  For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work.

  • Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is
  • Use the information there for your APA reference

At Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)

Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.

Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.

Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work;  e.g. a film, artwork, novel.

In some other parts of the world such as North America, a dissertation may be for a doctoral degree and a thesis for a master's degree.  

See Section 7.05  in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition .

Reference format for a thesis from a commercial database:

Reference format for a thesis from an institutional repository:

A Doctoral dissertation (USA) from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database

Reference list entry:

  • Include the name of the database and the order number of the document
  • Use this style for theses retrieved from a commercial database

Thesis from a NZ institutional repository :

  • Include the full URL for the thesis/dissertation and the full name of the degree-granting institution/university
  • Also include the location of the university, if outside the United States.

In-text citations guide  

Reference format for unpublished thesis/dissertation:

  • Give the correct full name of the university, not its abbreviation or brand name.
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Referencing styles

Author-date citations (Harvard) Numbered notes Numbered reference citations (Vancouver) OSCOLA

Introduction

Source references are vital to academic works (both print and digital) and so it is essential that they are clear, complete, and consistently formatted. Online bibliographical material is hyperlinked to provide readers with instant access to relevant sources or additional information.

Reference styles vary greatly across disciplines. This section details the main reference styles supported by OUP (Harvard, Vancouver, and OSCOLA) and provides examples that you can follow. If you are in doubt, your OUP editorial contact will be able to advise you on the best citation system for your text.

Author-date citations (Harvard)

The author-date style is an efficient and clear method of providing citations to published sources, which appear in a reference list at the end of the chapter or book. No superscripts are used, which means that reordering of the text does not require renumbering of notes. Instead of superscript numbers, a parenthetical citation (consisting of author name and date of publication) appears in the text and leads the reader to a full entry in a reference list that appears at the end of the chapter or book.

The method works particularly well when most of your citations are to published books or journal articles. It works less well if you are citing a lot of unauthored material or untraditional sources. Unlike numbered notes, author-date citations cannot accommodate translations or commentary outside the main text, although it is possible to combine author-date citations (for bibliographic citations) with numbered notes (for explanatory text).

In-text citation

References are cited within the text by including the author’s last name and a date parenthetically. A page number can be added if needed. If the author’s name appears in the sentence containing the citation, you need only use the date. Complete bibliographical reference information is listed at the end of the chapter or text.

Up to two author names can be used in the in-text citation. When citing a work with three or more authors, use the first author’s last name plus ‘et al.’

If you cite multiple references by the same author that were published in the same year, distinguish between them by adding labels (e.g. ‘a’ and ‘b’) to the year, in both the citation and the reference list.

Structure of the reference list

The reference list appears at the end of the chapter or text in alphabetical order. The name of the first author is inverted. In science literature, initials are often used in place of author first names.

The bibliographic elements listed below are required for the most common types of reference citations. Additional elements are mentioned that may be optional or to be used in only certain instances (e.g. a page number or other locator that is required if you are quoting a precise part of a large work, but not if the reference is to the work as a whole). Consistency in application is important.

Do not use long dashes (“—") to substitute for the name of an author who is identified in the bibliography due to how that entry will be linked in digital versions. Because the entry may not appear immediately following the entry with the full name, repeat the name in full.

Examples of author-date references in British style

Authored book.

Required elements

Lastname, Firstname/initials. Year of Publication. Title of Work .

With optional elements

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname/initials Lastname. Year of Publication. Title of Work , 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher.

Chapter in an edited book

Lastname, Firstname/initials, Year of Publication. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname/initials Lastname. Year of Publication. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname, page number(s) [or alternative locator info]. 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher.

Journal article

Lastname, Firstname/initials,Year of Publication. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number: start page.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname/initials Lastname. Year of Publication. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number (issue number) (Month or Season): start page–end page. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Magazine article

Lastname, Firstname/initials, Year of Publication. ‘Title of Article’. Day and Month of Pub. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname/initials Lastname. Year of Publication. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Magazine , Day and Month of Pub. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Required elements if a magazine article has no stated author

‘Title of Article’. Year of Publication. Name of Magazine , Month of Pub. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Website or other source

Include as much of the following as possible in your bibliographic entry: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; month and/or day of publication, most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. The year of publication should be the second element in the entry.

Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available, particularly online.

Website names are usually set in roman type, but the names of online magazines and books are italicized (like their print counterparts).

As you write ...

Example: author–date citation with a reference list and further reading —british style.

Psychoanalytic studies, along with other literary and cultural texts, not only contribute to the new discourse of the jungle but also reflect the imperialist history that brings West Europeans and Americans into contact with the geographic jungles of India, Africa, and other parts of the world (Rogers et al. 2010, 1). This colonial context needs to be sketched here as well in order to reveal how the birth of the jungle eventually produces new constructions of sexuality in the United States. Billops (1999a) notes that the word ‘jungle’ comes from the Hindi and Marathi word jangal, meaning ‘desert’, ‘waste’, ‘forest’; as well as from the Sanskrit jangala, meaning ‘dry’, ‘dry ground’, or ‘desert’. Its first appearance in English is in 1776, with its meaning already shifted towards what might be more recognizable today: ‘Land overgrown with underwood, long grass, or tangled vegetation; also, the luxuriant and often almost impenetrable growth of vegetation covering such a tract’ (Dreft and Smithers 1978, 87). Brought into English as a result of an imperialist presence in India, ‘jungle’ is intimately related to the larger rise of Western imperialism around the world, particularly in the nineteenth century (Billops 1999b). Western powers such as Britain and France went from controlling 35 per cent of the earth’s surface in 1800 to, by 1914, ‘a grand total of roughly 85 per cent of the earth as colonies, protectorates, dependencies, dominions, and commonwealths’ (Said 1993, ch.2, ‘Colonial impacts’).

Reference list

Billops, Camille. 1999a. ‘Indo-European Loan Words’. Annals of Linguistics 21 (4): pp. 38–44.

Billops, Camille. 1999b. ‘Indo-European Vowel Shift: Evidence and Interpretation’. Annals of Linguistics 21 (4): p. 45.

Dreft, Edward, and Susan Smithers. 1978. ‘Words Working’. International Journal of American Linguistics 62 (3): pp. 227–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1978.tb25475.x.

Rogers, Jason, Millicent Eng, and Rene Woo. 2010. ‘English-Based African Creoles’. In Spreading the People: Colonizing Languages in the Raj , edited by Jason Rogers, pp. 310–330. 2nd ed. London: Verso.

Said, Eleanor. 1993. The European Dream of Africa . New York: Random House.

Further reading

Bickerton, Derek. 2008. Bastard Tongues: A Trail-Blazing Linguist Finds Clues to Our Common Humanity in the World’s Lowliest Languages . New York: Hill and Wang.

‘Evolutionary Linguistics’. 2012. Wikipedia. Updated 4 November. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_linguistics.

Mfuti, Miriam. 2001. ‘Pidgin Town’. In The Oxford Handbook of Pidgins and Creoles , edited by Alain Smet, pp. 107–112. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rambow, John. 2007. ‘Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?’ Bangalore Monkey blog. 21 December. http://www.bangaloremonkey. com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

Examples of author-date references in US style

Lastname, Firstname/initials, Year of Publication.  Title of Work .

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname Lastname/initials. Year of Publication.  Title of Work , 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, Year of Publication. “Title of Chapter in an Edited Book.” In  Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname Lastname/initials. Year of Publication. “Title of Chapter in an Edited Book.” In  Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname, page number(s) [or alternative locator info]. 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher.

Lastname, Firstname/initials,Year of Publication. “Title of Article.”  Name of Journal  vol. number, start page.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname Lastname/initials. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.”  Name of Journal  vol. number (issue number) (Month or Season Year): start page–end page. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Lastname, Firstname/initials, Year of Publication. “Title of Article.”  Name of Magazine , Month of Pub.

Lastname, Firstname/initials, and Firstname Lastname/initials. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.”  Name of Magazine , Month and Day of Pub. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Required elements If a magazine article has no stated author:

“Title of Article.” Year of Publication.  Name of Magazine , Month of Pub.

 “Title of Article.” Year of Publication.  Name of Magazine , Month and Day of Pub, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Include as much of the following as possible in your bibliographic entry: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; month and/or day of publication, most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. The year of publication should be the second element in the entry. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available, particularly online.

The names of websites are usually set in roman type, but the names of online magazines and books are italicized (like their print counterparts).

Reference list vs. bibliography

Note that a reference list in the author-date system can contain only items that are actually cited in the work. The reference list must contain all of those items. This differs from a bibliography in the numbered-note system, which can contain both cited items and items of interest that have not been specifically cited. If there are uncited works that you would like to draw to the reader’s attention, these can be placed after the references in a separate listed titled ‘Further reading’.

Example: author–date citation with a reference list and further reading—US style

Psychoanalytic studies, along with other literary and cultural texts, not only contribute to the new discourse of the jungle but also reflect the imperialist history that brings West Europeans and Americans into contact with the geographic jungles of India, Africa, and other parts of the world (Rogers et al. 2010, 1). This colonial context needs to be sketched here as well in order to reveal how the birth of the jungle eventually produces new constructions of sexuality in the United States. Billops (1999a) notes that the word “jungle” comes from the Hindi and Marathi word jangal, meaning “desert,” “waste,” “forest”; as well as from the Sanskrit jangala, meaning “dry,” “dry ground,” or “desert.” Its first appearance in English is in 1776, with its meaning already shifted toward what might be more recognizable today: “Land overgrown with underwood, long grass, or tangled vegetation; also, the luxuriant and often almost impenetrable growth of vegetation covering such a tract” (Dreft and Smithers 1978, 87). Brought into English as a result of an imperialist presence in India, “jungle” is intimately related to the larger rise of Western imperialism around the world, particularly in the nineteenth century (Billops 1999b). Western powers such as Britain and France went from controlling 35 percent of the earth’s surface in 1800 to, by 1914, “a grand total of roughly 85 percent of the earth as colonies, protectorates, dependencies, dominions, and commonwealths” (Said 1993, ch.2, “Colonial impacts”).

Billops, Camille. 1999a. “Indo-European Loan Words.” Annals of Linguistics 21 (4): pp. 38–44.

Billops, Camille. 1999b. “Indo-European Vowel Shift: Evidence and Interpretation.” Annals of Linguistics 21 (4): p. 45.

Dreft, Edward, and Susan Smithers. 1978. “Words Working.” International Journal of American Linguistics 62 (3): pp. 227–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1978.tb25475.x.

Rogers, Jason, Millicent Eng, and Rene Woo. 2010. “English-Based African Creoles.” In Spreading the People: Colonizing Languages in the Raj , edited by Jason Rogers, pp. 310–330. 2nd ed. London: Verso.

“Evolutionary Linguistics.” 2012. Wikipedia. Updated November 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_linguistics.

Mfuti, Miriam. 2001. “Pidgin Town.” In The Oxford Handbook of Pidgins and Creoles , edited by Alain Smet, pp. 107–112. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rambow, John. 2007. “Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?” Bangalore Monkey blog. December 21. http://www.bangaloremonkey. com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

Numbered notes

Using numbered notes is a common method of citing sources, particularly in the humanities. Sequential superscript numbers appear in the text to direct the reader to bibliographic or explanatory information that appears in a note.

This is a flexible style that allows authors to combine bibliographic information with annotation, translation, or other commentary. Scholars who frequently cite unpublished material will find numbered notes more useful than author-date citations.

Endnotes or footnotes?

In print publishing, notes can be placed at the bottom of the page as footnotes or at the end of a chapter or book in a separate section as endnotes.

Footnotes are preferred in cases where the information in the note is important enough that readers need it to fully engage with the material. Please note that in a digital context, footnotes in the traditional sense are not possible. Depending on the format, footnotes can appear at the end of a section or chapter, or they may be viewed by clicking or hovering over the superscript numbers in the text to display individual footnotes.

Endnotes are a better choice in print if the material in the notes does not need immediate engagement by the reader. For digital publications where individual chapters may be made available to readers, the notes should appear with the chapter, rather than separately at the end of the work. This varies according to discipline, so please consult your OUP editorial contact if you are unsure.

The formatting of bibliographic information is identical for footnotes and endnotes.

Please use the following guidance:

  • Numbered notes appear sequentially in the text as superscripts, ideally at the end of a sentence, following the closing punctuation.
  • Use Arabic numerals.
  • Numbers should restart at 1 at the beginning of each chapter and run consecutively to the end of each chapter. Do not start renumbering within a chapter (e.g. per page or per double-page spread) or use asterisks, as this will cause confusion in a digital environment.
  • Do not number the notes continuously throughout a book, because a later change would necessitate extensive renumbering.

Note structure and format

Required bibliographic elements are given below for the most common types of reference citations, along with optional elements that if used, must be consistent.

  • Page numbers are useful locators when referencing in print publications.
  • Give page ranges using the fewest number of figures as possible (e.g. pp. 126–27, not pp. 126–127).
  • When referencing a digital publication, you may not have access to a print page number. Cite a specific locator (e.g. chapter titles and sub-headings). Do not use location numbers from a proprietary e-reader (e.g. Kindle location numbers).
  • Edition numbers are not required when citing a first edition but are necessary for subsequent editions.

Numbered notes in British style

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work , 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

  • Michael Murray, Climate Change at the Poles (New York: Scribner, 2007), p. 9.
  • Darian Ibrahim and Carol Marche, Financing the Next Silicon Valley , 3rd ed. (San Francisco: Upbeat Press, 2010).

Edited book

Firstname Lastname, ed., Title of Work (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, eds., Title of Work , 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

  • Anton Smirov, ed., Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012).

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume’, in Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume’, in Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Hanna Growiszc, ‘Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature’, in Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain , edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.

Authored book with an editor or translator

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work , ed./trans. Firstname Lastname, (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work , ed./trans. Firstname Lastname, 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

  • Günter Grass, The Tin Drum , trans. Breon Mitchell (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2009).

 Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics , ed. and trans. Terence Irwin (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999).

Multi-volume work

References to multi-volume book citations can take a variety of forms, depending on whether an individual volume or the entire work is being cited, and the authorship of the work.  

Citing one volume of a multi-volume work

  • Robert Caro, The Path to Power , vol. 1, The Years of Lyndon Johnson (New York: Knopf, 1982), p. 267.

Citing a multi-volume work as a whole

Robert Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson , 4 vols (New York: Knopf, 1982–2012).

Allison Wyste, ed. Indian and Tibetan Cooking , vol. 6, Cuisines of Asia, ed. Robert Trautmann (London: Brill Books, 2007).

Multi-volume work with series editor and individual author/editors

Whenever possible, include a DOI (preferred) or a stable URL for citations to journal articles. However, a URL or DOI is not sufficient to stand alone as a reference.

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal vol. number, (Year): start page.

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal vol. number, issue number (Month or Season Year): start page–end page, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Barbara Eckstein, ‘The Body, the Word, and the State: J. M. Coetzee’s “Waiting for the Barbarians”’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction 22, no. 2 (Winter 1989): pp. 175–198, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1345802.

David Hyun-Su Kim, ‘The Brahmsian Hairpin’, 19th Century Music 36, no. 1 (Summer 2012): pp. 46–47, doi:10.1525/ncm.2012.36.1.046. 

A DOI or URL can be included for articles that you consulted online. The citations for online-only magazines follow the same pattern as print-based magazines, with the addition of URLs. If an online journal or magazine has a stable home page that allows a user to search for articles by title or author, it is acceptable to include the URL for that page (rather than the longer, more specific URL).

‘Title of Article’, Name of Magazine , Month of Pub, Year.

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Magazine , Month and Day of Pub, Year, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Mary Rose Himler, ‘Religious Books as Best Sellers’, Publishers Weekly , 19 February 1927.

‘Amazon Best Books 2012 Revealed’, Publishers Weekly , 13 November 2012, http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/54738-amazon-best-books-2012-revealed.html.

Fritz Allhoff, ‘The Paradox of Nonlethal Weapons’, Slate , 13 November 2012, http://www.slate.com.

Law citation styles vary widely depending on jurisdiction. The following examples are for citing law cases in a non-specialist academic context. If you are writing specialist legal content, see ‘Citing of Legal Materials’ for detailed citation information.

Case Number Name of Case [Year] Report VolNo-FirstPageNo

Case C-34/89 P Smith v EC Commission [1993] ECR I-454

Name of Case [Year] VolNo Report, PageNo

Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, 78

Name of Case , VolNo Reporter SeriesNo (Year)

Name of Case , VolNo Reporter SeriesNo (Name of Court Year)

Bowers v Hardwick 478 US 186 (1986).

Unpublished or informally published content

The titles of unpublished works are set in quotation marks rather than italics. In place of a publisher, location or institutional information can be given.

Troy Thibodeaux, ‘Modernism in Greenwich Village, 1908–1929’ (PhD dissertation, New York University, 1999), p. 59.

Mary Koo, ‘Prakriti and Purusha: Dualism in the Yoga of Patanjali’ (lecture, Theosophical Society, Chennai, India, 17 May 2008).

To cite a website or other source that does not fall within those covered here, include as much of the following as possible (in this order) in your citation: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication or most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available, especially online.

The names of websites are usually set in roman type but the names of online magazines and books are italicized (like their print counterparts).

  • ‘The Board of Directors of the Coca-Cola Company Authorizes New Share Repurchase Program’, Coca- Cola Company, 18 October 2012, http://www.coca-colacompany.com/media-center/press-releases/the-board-of-directors-of-the-coca-cola-company-authorizes-new-share-repurchase-program.
  • John Rambow, ‘Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?’, Bangalore Monkey blog, 21 December 2007, http://www.bangaloremonkey.com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.
  • Wikimedia privacy policy, Wikimedia Foundation, accessed 26 November 2010, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/ Privacy policy.

Numbered notes in US style

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work , (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, eds., Title of Work , (Year of Publication).

  • Hanna Growiszc, “Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature,” in Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain , edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.
  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics , ed. and trans. Terence Irwin (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999).

Multi-volume book citations can take a variety of forms, depending on whether an individual volume or the work as a whole is being cited, and on how the multi-volume work was authored or edited.

  • Robert Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson , 4 vols. (New York: Knopf, 1982–2012).
  • Allison Wyste, Indian and Tibetan Cooking , vol. 6, Cuisines of Asia, ed. Robert Trautmann (London: Brill Books, 2007).

Firstname Lastname, “Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume,” in Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

Firstname Lastname, “Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume,” in Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Firstname Lastname, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal vol. number, (Year): start page.

Firstname Lastname, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal vol. number, issue number (Month or Season Year): start page–end page, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

  • Barbara Eckstein, “The Body, the Word, and the State: J. M. Coetzee’s ‘Waiting for the Barbarians,’” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 22, no. 2 (Winter 1989): pp. 175–198, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1345802.
  • David Hyun-Su Kim, “The Brahmsian Hairpin,” 19th Century Music 36, no. 1 (Summer 2012): pp. 46–47, doi:10.1525/ncm.2012.36.1.046.

A DOI or URL can be included for articles that you consulted online. Online-only magazines follow the same pattern as print-based magazines, with the addition of URLs. If an online journal or magazine has a stable home page that allows a user to search for articles by title or author, it is acceptable to cite that page rather than a longer, more specific URL.

“Title of Article,” Name of Magazine , Month of Pub, Year.

Firstname Lastname, “Title of Article,” Name of Magazine, Month and Day of Pub, Year, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

  • Mary Rose Himler, “Religious Books as Best Sellers,” Publishers Weekly , February 19, 1927.
  • “Amazon Best Books 2012 Revealed,” Publishers Weekly , November 13, 2012, http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/54738-amazon-best-books-2012-revealed.html.
  • Fritz Allhoff, “The Paradox of Nonlethal Weapons,” Slate , November 13, 2012, http://www.slate.com.

Law - case law

Law citation styles can vary widely depending on jurisdiction. These examples are for citing legal case law in a non-specialist academic context. If you are writing specialist legal content, see ‘Citing of legal materials’ for detailed information on law citation.

Name of Case [Year] VolNo Report PageNo

Ridge v. Baldwin [1964] AC 40, 78

Name of Case , Vol No. Reporter Series No. (Year)

Bowers v Hardwick , 478 U.S. 186 (1986)

Name of Case , Vol No. Reporter Series No. (Name of Court Year)

Bowers v. Hardwick 478 U.S. 186 (1986)

The titles of unpublished works are set in quotation marks rather than italics. Since there is no publisher, location or institutional information can be cited.

  • Troy Thibodeaux, “Modernism in Greenwich Village, 1908–1929” (PhD dissertation, New York University, 1999), p. 59.
  • Mary Koo, “Prakriti and Purusha: Dualism in the Yoga of Patanjali’ (lecture, Theosophical Society, Chennai, India, May 17, 2008).

If you need to cite a website or other source that does not fall within those covered here, include as much of the following as possible (in this order): author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication or most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available, especially online.

  • “The Board of Directors of the Coca-Cola Company Authorizes New Share Repurchase Program,” Coca-Cola Company, October 18, 2012, http://www.coca-colacompany.com/media-center/press-releases/the-board-of-directors-of-the-coca-cola-company-authorizes-new-share-repurchase-program.
  • John Rambow, “Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?,” Bangalore Monkey blog, December 21, 2007, http://www.bangaloremonkey. com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.
  • Wikimedia privacy policy, Wikimedia Foundation, accessed November 26, 2010, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/ Privacy_policy.

Short citations

When a work is cited for the first time in a chapter, full bibliographic information should be given (for an alternative, see ‘Numbered notes in combination with a bibliography’). Subsequent citations should be shortened as in the following examples.

Legal short citations

Give the first mention of legal cases in full. Subsequent mentions within the same article or chapter can be shortened to the case name alone, given in italics (even if italics are not used in the original citation)

  • Case C–34/89 P Smith v EC Commission [1993] ECR I–454
  • P Smith v EC Commission.

Example: short citations in US style

  • See, for example, Alan Hess, Googie: Fifties Coffee Shop Architecture (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1985) and Noah Sheldon, Ranch House (New York: Harry S. Abrams, 2004).
  • Sheldon, Ranch House , p. 207.
  • Ashraf Salama, “Evolutionary Paradigms in Mosque Architecture,” Faith & Form 40, no. 1 (2007): pp. 16–17.
  • Salama, “Evolutionary Paradigms.”
  • Hess, Googie , p. 21.
  • Wikimedia privacy policy, para. 16.

Numbered notes in combination with a bibliography

It is possible to combine notes and bibliography so that all the notes, including the first reference, are short citations that lead the reader to a full citation in the bibliography. This system results in shorter notes and less work for the reader, since complete information is easily available in the alphabetical bibliography and need not be hunted for through all the chapter notes. This requires that all cited sources appear in a bibliography, which can also contain works that are not cited but are germane to the topic.

Structure of a bibliography entry

Bibliographies are structured similarly to notes, but there are some important differences. The first author name (and only the first) is inverted for alphabetization. Punctuation format also varies slightly between notes and bibliographic entries.

Do not use long dashes (e.g. “—") to substitute for an author’s name if it is repeated in the bibliography. Repeat the name in full because in a digital version, the shortened entry may not follow the complete one immediately.

Bibliography entries in British Style

Lastname, Firstname, Title of Work , (Year of Publication).

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Work , 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

Lastname, Firstname. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Lastname, Firstname,‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Year): start page.

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Month or Season Year): start page–end page. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

‘Title of Article’. Name of Magazine , Month Year of Pub.

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Magazine , Day Month Year of Pub, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

If you need to cite a website or other source that does not fall within those covered here, include as much of the following as possible (in this order): author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication, most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available, especially online.

Sample bibliography

Growiszc, Hanna. ‘Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature’. In Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain , edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.

Himler, Mary Rose. ‘Religious Books as Best Sellers’. Publishers Weekly , 19 February 1927.

Khan, Imran, and Richard Collins. ‘True Belief: Hindu Metanarratives in Bollywood’. Journal of Cinema Studies 7, no. 4 (2009): pp. 104–115. doi:10.1086/jcs113.3.752.

Murray, Michael. ‘The Antarctic Summer Lengthens’. Journal of Climate Studies 20, no. 9 (2011): p. 203.

Murray, Michael. Climate Change at the Poles (New York: Scribner, 2007).

Rambow, John. ‘Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?’ Bangalore Monkey blog. 21 December 2007. http://www.bangaloremonkey.com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

Bibliography entries in US style

Lastname, Firstname, “Title of Chapter in an Edited Book.” In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. “Title of Chapter in an Edited Book.” In Title of Edited Volume , edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Lastname, Firstname,“Title of Article.” Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Year): start page.

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Month or Season Year): start page–end page. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

“Title of Article.” Name of Magazine , Month of Pub, Year.

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. “Title of Article.” Name of Magazine , Month and Day of Pub, Year, doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Growiszc, Hanna. “Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature.” In Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain, edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.

Himler, Mary Rose. “Religious Books as Best Sellers.” Publishers Weekly, February 19, 1927.

Khan, Imran, and Richard Collins. “True Belief: Hindu Metanarratives in Bollywood.” Journal of Cinema Studies 7, no. 4 (2009): pp. 104–115. doi:10.1086/jcs113.3.752.

Murray, Michael. “The Antarctic Summer Lengthens.” Journal of Climate Studies 20, no. 9 (2011): p. 203.

Rambow, John. “Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?” Bangalore Monkey blog. December 21, 2007. http://www.bangaloremonkey.com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

Numbered reference citations (Vancouver)

Numbered reference citations (also known as author–number or Vancouver references) are used in scientific and medical texts. In this system, each reference used is assigned a number. When that reference is cited in the text, its number appears, either in parentheses or brackets or as a superscript. All cited references appear in a numbered reference list at the end of the chapter or book.

An advantage of numbered references over the author–date style is that less space in the main text is required for in-text citations. The system also avoids ambiguity in the case of two works by the same author published the same year, an occasional issue in author–date citations. A disadvantage is that late addition or removal of references usually requires renumbering of both the reference list and the citations. Numbered reference citations cannot be used to provide commentary or other explanatory material to the text.

References are cited within the text by using a number in a superscript, in parentheses, or in square brackets. Although each of these variants is acceptable, only one can be used in a single text. The examples in this guide will enclose citation numbers in parentheses. Note that although citations are numbered in the order of their first appearance in the text, non-consecutive note numbers are possible, to allow references to be cited more than once. Citations can take the form of a range: for example (4–7) would cite references 4, 5, 6, and 7 simultaneously. If it is necessary to cite specific page numbers that are not present in the reference list, page numbers can be inserted into the citation: for example (4p6, 5pp1–11).

Please note the following:

  • Author first names are usually given as initials only, with no full stops (e.g. “AN” not “A.N.”) between initials. In the case of multiple authors, you can list up to six full names; for more than six authors, list the first three plus ‘et al’. All author names are inverted (i.e. last name, first name).
  • Names of journals can be abbreviated, as in the examples in this section, but must follow the standard abbreviations used by PubMed. Journal article titles are given without quotation marks and in sentence-style capitalization.
  • Do not use long dashes (e.g. “—") to substitute for the name of an author whose name is repeated in the bibliography. Repeat the name in full because linking in a digital publication may not immediately follow the entry with the full name.
  • Citations are numbered in the order in which they first appear in the text.

Required bibliographic elements are given below for the most common types of reference citations, along with optional elements (if used, be consistent). Other elements below are required if applicable (for example, you need a page number or other locator if you are quoting a precise part of a large work, but you can skip it if the reference is to the work as a whole).

Numbered reference citations in British style

Lastname FI, Title of Work , Year of Publication.

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI. Title of Work , 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication: startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info].

Unauthored book (books published by committee, agency, or group)

Title of Work . Year of Publication.

Title of Work . 16th ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication: startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info].

Lastname FI. Title of chapter in sentence case. In: Lastname FI, eds. Title of Work. Year of Publication.

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI. Title of chapter in sentence case. In: Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI, eds. Title of Work . 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication: startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info].

Lastname FI, Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Journal Title . Year of Publication; Volume No.

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI, et al. Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Journal Title . Year of Publication; Volume No. (Issue No.) (Supplement No.): startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info]. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Magazine or newspaper article

Lastname FI. Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title . Month and Year of Publication.

Lastname FI. Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title . Day Month and Year of Publication: startpage–endpage. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

If the article has no stated author:

Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title . Month and Year of Publication.

Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title . Day Month and Year of Publication: startpage–endpage. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Include of the following (in this order) in your bibliographic entry: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication or most recent revision (or, failing that, date accessed); and URL. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available online and in non-traditional formats. Follow the capitalization and italicization patterns of the examples here as much as possible.

If the nature of the material you are citing is not clear from the bibliographic information, you can provide a descriptor in brackets after the first element of the reference.

Example: Numbered reference citations and reference list—British style

Colorectal cancer (cRc) is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in Europe and North America (1). While early stage cRc is associated with an excellent 5-year survival rate (90% for localized disease), approximately 20% of patients present with metastatic disease, and many patients diagnosed with stage ii or iii cancer will experience a recurrence and develop distant metastases (2). At present, established clinico-pathological criteria are used to estimate risks of recurrence in stage ii and iii disease, and this is routinely used in the selection of patients or adjuvant systemic therapy following surgical resection. The clinical outcome of patients who receive such adjuvant treatment can, however, vary widely, when additional molecular factors are taken into consideration. Identification of novel prognostic markers is, therefore, vital in improving the prognosis of this disease (3). One of the recently described substances important for angiogenesis is endoglin. Endoglin, also known as cD105, is a receptor for transforming growth factor-ß1 molecule, which binds preferentially to the activated endothelial cells that participate in tumour angiogenesis, with weak or negative expression in vascular endothelium of normal tissues. Endoglin is induced by hypoxia. Therefore, it is very useful for assessment of neo-angiogenesis of malignant neoplasms (4–6). Many reports indicate that endoglin assessed immunohistochemically in colorectal cancer correlates not only with tumour microvessel density, but also with survival. It has also been reported as a valuable parameter predicting patients having an increased risk of developing metastatic disease. Endoglin is expressed not only on cell surfaces since its soluble form (sol-end) can be detected also in blood (4–7). A few studies evaluated the clinical significance of elevated sol-end levels in colorectal cancer patients (7).

1. Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M, Heanue M, Colombet M, Boyle P. Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol . 2007; 18: pp. 581–592.

2. Meyerhardt JA, Mayer RJ. Systemic therapy for colorectal cancer. In: Boniol M, Smith J, eds. Oncological Research Reviews . 16th ed. New York, NY: Dekker; 2005; pp. 476–487.

3. Allegra CJ, Paik S, Colangelo LH, et al. Prognostic value of thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, and p53 in patients with Dukes’ B and C colon cancer: a National Cancer Institute-National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project collaborative study. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: pp. 241–250.

4. Drug Topics Red Book . Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare, 2009: p. 232.

5. FDA approves new treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. 2012. US Food and Drug Administration website. 27 September. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm321271.htm.

6. Stivarga [package insert]. Wayne, NJ: Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, 2012.

7. Mysliwiec P, Pawlak K, Kuklinski A, Kedra B. Combined perioperative plasma endoglin and vegF-a assessment in colorectal cancer patients. Folia Histochem Cytobiol . 2008; 46(2)(suppl. 1): pp. 487–49.

Numbered reference citations and reference list in US style

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI. Title of Work , 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication.

Title of Work. Year of Publication.

Title of Work. 16th ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication: startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info].

Lastname FI, Title of chapter in sentence case. In: Lastname FI, ed. Title of Work. Year of Publication.

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI. Title of chapter in sentence case. In: Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI, eds. Title of Work. 2nd ed. City of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication: startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info].

Lastname FI, Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of Publication; Volume No. (Issue No.)

Lastname FI, Lastname FI, Lastname FI, et al. Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of Publication; Volume No. (Issue No.)(SupplementNo): startpage–endpage [or alternative locator info]. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Lastname FI. Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title. Month, Day, and Year of Publication.

Lastname FI. Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title. Month, Day, and Year of Publication: startpage–endpage. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title. Month, Day, and Year of Publication.

Title of article in sentence case. Magazine or Newspaper Title. Month, Day, and Year of Publication: startpage–endpage. doi: DOI [or stable URL].

Include as much of the following as possible in your bibliographic entry (in this order): author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication or most recent revision, or, failing that, date accessed; and URL if available. Some flexibility is acceptable to accommodate the wide variety of content available online and in non-traditional formats. Follow the capitalization and italicization patterns of these examples.

Example: Numbered reference citations and reference list—US style

Colorectal cancer (cRc) is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in Europe and North America (1). While early stage cRc is associated with an excellent 5-year survival rate (90% for localized disease), approximately 20% of patients present with metastatic disease, and many patients diagnosed with stage ii or iii cancer will experience a recurrence and develop distant metastases (2). At present, established clinico-pathological criteria are used to estimate risks of recurrence in stage ii and iii disease, and this is routinely used in the selection of patients or adjuvant systemic therapy following surgical resection. The clinical outcome of patients who receive such adjuvant treatment can, however, vary widely, when additional molecular factors are taken into consideration. Identification of novel prognostic markers is, therefore, vital in improving the prognosis of this disease (3). One of the recently described substances important for angiogenesis is endoglin. Endoglin, also known as cD105, is a receptor for transforming growth factor-ß1 molecule, which binds preferentially to the activated endothelial cells that participate in tumor angiogenesis, with weak or negative expression in vascular endothelium of normal tissues. Endoglin is induced by hypoxia. Therefore it is very useful for assessment of neo-angiogenesis of malignant neoplasms (4–6). Many reports indicate that endoglin assessed immunohistochemically in colorectal cancer correlates not only with tumor microvessel density, but also with survival. It has also been reported as a valuable parameter predicting patients having an increased risk of developing metastatic disease. Endoglin is expressed not only on cell surfaces, since its soluble form (sol-end) can be detected also in blood (4–7). A few studies evaluated the clinical significance of elevated sol-end levels in colorectal cancer patients (7).

1. Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M, Heanue M, Colombet M, Boyle P. Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol. 2007; 18: pp. 581–592.

2. Meyerhardt JA, Mayer RJ. Systemic therapy for colorectal cancer. In: Boniol M, Smith J, eds. Oncological Research Reviews. 16th ed. New York, NY: Dekker; 2005; pp. 476–487.

3. Allegra CJ, Paik S, Colangelo LH, et al. Prognostic value of thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, and p. 53 in patients with Dukes’ B and C colon cancer: a National Cancer Institute-National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project collaborative study. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: pp. 241–250.

4. Drug Topics Red Book. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare, 2009: p. 232.

5. FDA approves new treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. US Food and Drug Administration website. September 27, 2012. http://www.fda. gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm321271.htm.

7. Mysliwiec P, Pawlak K, Kuklinski A, Kedra B. Combined perioperative plasma endoglin and vegF-a assessment in colorectal cancer patients. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2008; 46(2)(suppl. 1): pp. 487–492.

For legal works, we recommend that you follow The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA). The fourth edition (published in 2012) covers International Law. The full set of guidance can be found at https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/migrated/oscola_4th_edn_hart_2012.pdf

Information on how to apply OSCOLA style in EndNote, Latex, Refworks and Zotero can be found at https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research-subject-groups/publications/oscola-styles-endnote-latek-refworks-and-zotero

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How to Best Use References in a Dissertation

Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 12th, 2021 , Revised On September 20, 2023

“In a dissertation, references refer to the sources and citations used to support and validate the research.”

They provide evidence, scholarly context, and acknowledgment of the works consulted during the study. References typically include books, journal articles, websites, and other relevant publications cited in the dissertation.

Writing a dissertation can be challenging especially if you haven’t had the chance to write a dissertation before. You need to look into relevant literature, analyze past researches, conduct surveys, interviews, etc. and also reference and cite information that you’ve gathered from different sources.

Many students are usually confused regarding which sources should be mentioned and which be omitted. This confusion arises because they are unaware of the fact as to which sources are credible, reliable, and authentic and which are not.

Thus, the question always remains ‘How to Best Use References in a Dissertation’?

While there is no single way to best use references in a dissertation, students should have a clear understanding of the concept of the use of credible and reliable sources in their dissertation paper.

In today’s world where changes take place frequently, some newspaper articles published online are also categorized as authentic and credible sources.

Information and/or data can be extracted from these articles and included in dissertations with proper use of a citation.

To make sure that references are used appropriately in dissertations, here are a few ways that you can follow:

Research Relevant Studies

Depending on the  topic of your dissertation , make sure to research and look into similar researches that have been conducted in the past. In addition to this, you could also read, analyze and review researches that have utilized the same model or talk about the same theory as you are applying in your dissertation.

Doing so will add a lot of value to your dissertation and you will be able to include models and theories with correct references and citations.

Include Recent Researches

As important as relevant studies are for your dissertation, including recent studies only is equally important. Using reference in a dissertation that belong to the past five to ten years are acceptable; however, using references of the 1980s or 1990s is not recommended.

The main reason being changes in time, settings, environment, participants, etc. All these factors contribute a lot towards accurate conclusions, thus they are regarded as essential when using a study for reference purposes.

Also, writing a dissertation in the current setting, considering the current environment, only recent researches must be included in the dissertation. This gives readers the idea that the research that has been conducted is recent.

Also Read:   How to avoid plagiarism in an academic paper

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Cite/Reference while Writing

Many of us are guilty of extracting information from various sources when writing without noting down the reference. As a result, we lose track of that particular reference and end up spending hours looking for that specific article or research.

Thus, you should always note down the reference as soon as you refer to it in your dissertation or when you include data or information. In this manner, you will have a complete list of references that you’ve used when you’ve finished writing your dissertation.

Also, doing so will save you a lot of your time, and you will be able to finish your dissertation without any delays.

Know when and where to Cite

Remember the hours you spent looking for the  statistics  or the specific piece of information that you mentioned in your dissertation, but forgot to cite? This usually happens when the deadline is nearing, and we’re in a hurry to complete our dissertation.

However, you should always keep in mind that when you rush things, you tend to spend a lot more time than needed. Thus, whenever you’re mentioning a fact, statistics, or a particular piece of information that is exact and accurate, always cite it.

Not doing so will keep your readers in doubt whether the statistic or number mentioned is accurate or not. On the other hand, if you cite those exact numbers, readers will have the impression that you have done your research, and they can even crosscheck it by referring to your citation.

Choose the Correct Referencing Style

There are various referencing styles. Depending on your university and other requirements, the right referencing style is chosen and conveyed to you.

What you should make sure of is understanding the required referencing style, so you can cite accurately. A Harvard style referencing style example includes a reference list with the name of authors, the journal or book name, the publisher’s name, and the date and the page number.

When citing the exact words of an author or when defining a theory or model, make sure that you include the page number as they are required for direct quotations.

If, in case you do not understand any of the referencing styles, you should either follow the guidelines provided by your tutor or you can also search the internet for your required referencing style.

With time, new editions of referencing styles have been introduced to make sure that all thesis and dissertations follow the same pattern. Thus, make it a practice to crosscheck your referencing style from the internet to make sure that you’re following the latest format and edition.

Proofread your Reference List

This is one of the most important, but often most ignored aspects when looking at how to use references correctly. Your reference list should be sorted as soon as you finish writing your dissertation.

For instance, it should be alphabetically arranged, the number of references should be appropriate for the dissertation, and should be free from all types of errors such as formatting, grammatical and style .

The correct style should be followed, the reference list should be properly formatted and proofread to eliminate all errors. An ideal list of reference examples includes correct mention of the author name, year of publication, and name of the book.

The publisher’s name should be italicized and the page number should also be mentioned. For academic journals, mentioning volume and issue number is mandatory. All these aspects should be considered to make sure that an accurate reference list is prepared for your dissertation.

Crosscheck your Citations

When citing your dissertation, you need to make sure that your text corresponds with the in-text citation that you’re including. Not doing so will make your research unreliable and unauthentic.

Readers will get an impression that the in-text citations have been included just for the sake of it, instead of being related to the text and information that is being mentioned.

Thus, the best in-text citation example includes the name of the author along with the year of publication. If there is a direct quote or a definition included in the exact words of the author, then the page number must be also indicated while citing.

Make sure that all your in-text citations are in line with the information that has been presented and discussed in the paper.

Number of References to be Used

‘How many references should I use for my dissertation? This is a question that most students face. They usually get confused when it comes to the number of references that should be used in a dissertation. There’s no right number of references that should be used in a dissertation.

It depends on the topic, the academic level of the dissertation, and the  literature review  that is being presented.

Also, the models and theories used in the paper contribute to the total number of references. Ideally, it is recommended that every paragraph of 100 words or more should have a reference; however, this is not required and mandatory in all cases.

The literature review is usually the chapter that uses the most references. This helps in formulating a dissertation that is not only informative but is backed by credible resources as well.

Referencing a dissertation is an easy task if done in the right manner. To answer the question, ‘how to best use references in a dissertation, you need to make sure that you’ve collected the right sources  and are referring to credible and reliable information only.

Once you’ve sorted your references, you’re on your way to right an authentic dissertation. The literature review is an important aspect of every dissertation for mentioning relevant theories, models, and information. Thus, this section is critical when it comes to referencing. You should make sure that the models and theories are referenced appropriately, and all references are recent.

If you’re still unsure of whether you’re using references in the right manner or not, or you’re seeking help with referencing your dissertation, get in touch with our professional  dissertation writing services .

At ResearchProspect, we make sure that your dissertation is properly referenced and accurately cited. All our information is up to date, and we make sure that only recent references are included in the dissertation to leave a lasting impression on the readers. Contact us today and leave your referencing worries to us!

FAQs About References in a Dissertation

Can i cite old research papers in my dissertation.

Old papers are usually outdated in terms of significance and impact. Therefore, you must look for recent papers to cite in your dissertation. 

Why is it important to cite/ reference while writing?

Without citation, it looks like you are presenting someone else’s words as your views idea, which will eventually count as plagiarism . 

Moreover, the citations increase the credibility and accuracy of the information presented in the paper.

Which is the correct referencing style?

There are many referencing styles available to pick from, such as MLA, APA, Harvard referencing style , etc. You must check with your university preferences to choose one. However, most UK universities prefer Harvard referencing style. 

You May Also Like

A list of glossary in a dissertation contains all the terms that were used in your dissertation but the meanings of which may not be obvious to the readers.

How to Structure a Dissertation or Thesis Need interesting and manageable Finance and Accounting dissertation topics? Here are the trending Media dissertation titles so you can choose one most suitable to your needs.

Have you failed dissertation, assignment, exam or coursework? Don’t panic because you are not alone. Get help from our professional UK qualified writers!

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To be made up of:

  • Year of submission (in round brackets).
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  • (Accessed: date).

In-text citation: 

(Smith, 2019)

Reference List:  

Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).

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Home » References in Research – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

References in Research – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

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References in Research

References in Research

Definition:

References in research are a list of sources that a researcher has consulted or cited while conducting their study. They are an essential component of any academic work, including research papers, theses, dissertations, and other scholarly publications.

Types of References

There are several types of references used in research, and the type of reference depends on the source of information being cited. The most common types of references include:

References to books typically include the author’s name, title of the book, publisher, publication date, and place of publication.

Example: Smith, J. (2018). The Art of Writing. Penguin Books.

Journal Articles

References to journal articles usually include the author’s name, title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and publication date.

Example: Johnson, T. (2021). The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health. Journal of Psychology, 32(4), 87-94.

Web sources

References to web sources should include the author or organization responsible for the content, the title of the page, the URL, and the date accessed.

Example: World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

Conference Proceedings

References to conference proceedings should include the author’s name, title of the paper, name of the conference, location of the conference, date of the conference, and page numbers.

Example: Chen, S., & Li, J. (2019). The Future of AI in Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Technology, Beijing, China, July 15-17, pp. 67-78.

References to reports typically include the author or organization responsible for the report, title of the report, publication date, and publisher.

Example: United Nations. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals Report. United Nations.

Formats of References

Some common Formates of References with their examples are as follows:

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

The APA (American Psychological Association) Style has specific guidelines for formatting references used in academic papers, articles, and books. Here are the different reference formats in APA style with examples:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Example : Smith, J. K. (2005). The psychology of social interaction. Wiley-Blackwell.

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example : Brown, L. M., Keating, J. G., & Jones, S. M. (2012). The role of social support in coping with stress among African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 218-233.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication or last update). Title of page. Website name. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, December 11). COVID-19: How to protect yourself and others. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html

Magazine article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example : Smith, M. (2019, March 11). The power of positive thinking. Psychology Today, 52(3), 60-65.

Newspaper article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page numbers.

Example: Johnson, B. (2021, February 15). New study shows benefits of exercise on mental health. The New York Times, A8.

Edited book

Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Example : Thompson, J. P. (Ed.). (2014). Social work in the 21st century. Sage Publications.

Chapter in an edited book:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Publisher.

Example : Johnson, K. S. (2018). The future of social work: Challenges and opportunities. In J. P. Thompson (Ed.), Social work in the 21st century (pp. 105-118). Sage Publications.

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style

The MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is a widely used style for writing academic papers and essays in the humanities. Here are the different reference formats in MLA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Smith, John. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Journal article

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, Publication year, page numbers.

Example : Brown, Laura M., et al. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 22, no. 1, 2012, pp. 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name, Publication date, URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC, 11 Dec. 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Publication date, page numbers.

Example : Smith, Mary. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, Mar. 2019, pp. 60-65.

Newspaper article

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Publication date, page numbers.

Example : Johnson, Bob. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, 15 Feb. 2021, p. A8.

Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Thompson, John P., editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. Sage Publications, 2014.

Chapter in an edited book

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last name, Publisher, Publication year, page numbers.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, Sage Publications, 2014, pp. 105-118.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is a widely used style for writing academic papers, dissertations, and books in the humanities and social sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Chicago style:

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Publication year): page numbers.

Example : Brown, Laura M., John G. Keating, and Sarah M. Jones. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 22, no. 1 (2012): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name. Publication date. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. December 11, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Publication date.

Example : Smith, Mary. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 2019.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Publication date.

Example : Johnson, Bob. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Example : Thompson, John P., ed. Social Work in the 21st Century. Sage Publications, 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, page numbers. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, 105-118. Sage Publications, 2014.

Harvard Style

The Harvard Style, also known as the Author-Date System, is a widely used style for writing academic papers and essays in the social sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Harvard Style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Smith, John. 2005. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number (issue number): page numbers.

Example: Brown, Laura M., John G. Keating, and Sarah M. Jones. 2012. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 22 (1): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name. URL. Accessed date.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. Accessed April 1, 2023.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, month and date of publication.

Example : Smith, Mary. 2019. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 2019.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, month and date of publication.

Example : Johnson, Bob. 2021. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Year of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Thompson, John P., ed. 2014. Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. 2014. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, 105-118. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Vancouver Style

The Vancouver Style, also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, is a widely used style for writing academic papers in the biomedical sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Vancouver Style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of publication; volume number(issue number):page numbers.

Example : Brown LM, Keating JG, Jones SM. The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents. J Res Adolesc. 2012;22(1):218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Webpage. Website Name [Internet]. Publication date. [cited date]. Available from: URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others [Internet]. 2020 Dec 11. [cited 2023 Apr 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Title of Magazine. Year of publication; month and day of publication:page numbers.

Example : Smith M. The Power of Positive Thinking. Psychology Today. 2019 Mar 1:32-35.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. Year of publication; month and day of publication:page numbers.

Example : Johnson B. New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health. The New York Times. 2021 Feb 15:A4.

Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Example: Thompson JP, editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Chapter. In: Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. page numbers.

Example : Johnson KS. The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities. In: Thompson JP, editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2014. p. 105-118.

Turabian Style

Turabian style is a variation of the Chicago style used in academic writing, particularly in the fields of history and humanities. Here are the different reference formats in Turabian style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page numbers.

Example : Brown, LM, Keating, JG, Jones, SM. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” J Res Adolesc 22, no. 1 (2012): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Publication date. Accessed date. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. December 11, 2020. Accessed April 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of publication, page numbers.

Example : Smith, M. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 1, 2019, 32-35.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of publication.

Example : Johnson, B. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Thompson, JP, ed. Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s Last name, First name, page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Johnson, KS. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by Thompson, JP, 105-118. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Style

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style is commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other technical fields. Here are the different reference formats in IEEE style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Oppenheim, A. V., & Schafer, R. W. Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Abbreviated Journal Title, vol. number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers, Month year of publication.

Example: Shannon, C. E. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 379-423, July 1948.

Conference paper

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Paper.” In Title of Conference Proceedings, Place of Conference, Date of Conference, pp. page numbers, Year of publication.

Example: Gupta, S., & Kumar, P. “An Improved System of Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition.” In Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology, Harbin, China, Dec. 2011, pp. 144-147.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Date of publication or last update. Accessed date. URL.

Example : National Aeronautics and Space Administration. “Apollo 11.” NASA. July 20, 1969. Accessed April 1, 2023. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html.

Technical report

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Report.” Name of Institution or Organization, Report number, Year of publication.

Example : Smith, J. R. “Development of a New Solar Panel Technology.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-6A20-51645, 2011.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Patent.” Patent number, Issue date.

Example : Suzuki, H. “Method of Producing Carbon Nanotubes.” US Patent 7,151,019, December 19, 2006.

Standard Title. Standard number, Publication date.

Example : IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic. IEEE Std 754-2008, August 29, 2008

ACS (American Chemical Society) Style

ACS (American Chemical Society) style is commonly used in chemistry and related fields. Here are the different reference formats in ACS style:

Author’s Last name, First name; Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Abbreviated Journal Title Year, Volume, Page Numbers.

Example : Wang, Y.; Zhao, X.; Cui, Y.; Ma, Y. Facile Preparation of Fe3O4/graphene Composites Using a Hydrothermal Method for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2012, 4, 2715-2721.

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication.

Example : Carey, F. A. Organic Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2008.

Author’s Last name, First name. Chapter Title. In Book Title; Editor’s Last name, First name, Ed.; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication; Volume number, Chapter number, Page Numbers.

Example : Grossman, R. B. Analytical Chemistry of Aerosols. In Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications; Baron, P. A.; Willeke, K., Eds.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 2001; Chapter 10, pp 395-424.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Webpage. Website Name, URL (accessed date).

Example : National Institute of Standards and Technology. Atomic Spectra Database. https://www.nist.gov/pml/atomic-spectra-database (accessed April 1, 2023).

Author’s Last name, First name. Patent Number. Patent Date.

Example : Liu, Y.; Huang, H.; Chen, H.; Zhang, W. US Patent 9,999,999, December 31, 2022.

Author’s Last name, First name; Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. In Title of Conference Proceedings, Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication; Volume Number, Page Numbers.

Example : Jia, H.; Xu, S.; Wu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Tang, Y.; Huang, X. Fast Adsorption of Organic Pollutants by Graphene Oxide. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2017; Volume 1, pp 223-228.

AMA (American Medical Association) Style

AMA (American Medical Association) style is commonly used in medical and scientific fields. Here are the different reference formats in AMA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year; Volume(Issue):Page Numbers.

Example : Jones, R. A.; Smith, B. C. The Role of Vitamin D in Maintaining Bone Health. JAMA. 2019;321(17):1765-1773.

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : Guyton, A. C.; Hall, J. E. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2015.

Author’s Last name, First name. Chapter Title. In: Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: Page Numbers.

Example: Rajakumar, K. Vitamin D and Bone Health. In: Holick, M. F., ed. Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:211-222.

Author’s Last name, First name. Webpage Title. Website Name. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Example : National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/breast-prevention-pdq. Published October 11, 2022. Accessed April 1, 2023.

Author’s Last name, First name. Conference presentation title. In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Place of Conference.

Example : Smith, J. R. Vitamin D and Bone Health: A Meta-Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; September 20-23, 2022; San Diego, CA.

Thesis or dissertation

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Thesis or Dissertation. Degree level [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis]. University Name; Year.

Example : Wilson, S. A. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles; 2018.

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Style

The ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) style is commonly used in civil engineering fields. Here are the different reference formats in ASCE style:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title, volume number, issue number (year): page numbers. DOI or URL (if available).

Example : Smith, J. R. “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas.” Journal of Environmental Engineering, vol. 146, no. 3 (2020): 04020010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001668.

Example : McCuen, R. H. Hydrologic Analysis and Design. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; 2013.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In: Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: page numbers.

Example : Maidment, D. R. “Floodplain Management in the United States.” In: Shroder, J. F., ed. Treatise on Geomorphology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2013: 447-460.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Paper Title.” In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Location. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: page numbers.

Example: Smith, J. R. “Sustainable Drainage Systems for Urban Areas.” In: Proceedings of the ASCE International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure; November 6-9, 2019; Los Angeles, CA. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers; 2019: 156-163.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Report Title.” Report number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “Hurricane Sandy Coastal Risk Reduction Program, New York and New Jersey.” Report No. P-15-001. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; 2015.

CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style

The CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is commonly used in the scientific and medical fields. Here are the different reference formats in CSE style:

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue):Page numbers.

Example : Smith, J.R. “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas.” Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2020;146(3):04020010.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Chapter Title.” In: Editor’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial., ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year:Page numbers.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Paper Title.” In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Location. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : Smith, J.R. “Sustainable Drainage Systems for Urban Areas.” In: Proceedings of the ASCE International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure; November 6-9, 2019; Los Angeles, CA. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers; 2019.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Report Title.” Report number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Bluebook Style

The Bluebook style is commonly used in the legal field for citing legal documents and sources. Here are the different reference formats in Bluebook style:

Case citation

Case name, volume source page (Court year).

Example : Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Statute citation

Name of Act, volume source § section number (year).

Example : Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7401 (1963).

Regulation citation

Name of regulation, volume source § section number (year).

Example: Clean Air Act, 40 C.F.R. § 52.01 (2019).

Book citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Book Title. Edition number (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example: Smith, J.R. Legal Writing and Analysis. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers; 2015.

Journal article citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Journal Title. Volume number (year): first page-last page.

Example: Garcia, C. “The Right to Counsel: An International Comparison.” International Journal of Legal Information. 43 (2015): 63-94.

Website citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed month day, year).

Example : United Nations. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Oxford Style

The Oxford style, also known as the Oxford referencing system or the documentary-note citation system, is commonly used in the humanities, including literature, history, and philosophy. Here are the different reference formats in Oxford style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example : Smith, John. The Art of Writing. New York: Penguin, 2020.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume, no. issue (year): page range.

Example: Garcia, Carlos. “The Role of Ethics in Philosophy.” Philosophy Today 67, no. 3 (2019): 53-68.

Chapter in an edited book citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor’s Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example : Lee, Mary. “Feminism in the 21st Century.” In The Oxford Handbook of Feminism, edited by Jane Smith, 51-69. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed day month year).

Example : Jones, David. “The Importance of Learning Languages.” Oxford Language Center. https://www.oxfordlanguagecenter.com/importance-of-learning-languages/ (accessed 3 January 2023).

Dissertation or thesis citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” PhD diss., University Name, Year of Publication.

Example : Brown, Susan. “The Art of Storytelling in American Literature.” PhD diss., University of Oxford, 2020.

Newspaper article citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year.

Example : Robinson, Andrew. “New Developments in Climate Change Research.” The Guardian, September 15, 2022.

AAA (American Anthropological Association) Style

The American Anthropological Association (AAA) style is commonly used in anthropology research papers and journals. Here are the different reference formats in AAA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example : Smith, John. 2019. The Anthropology of Food. New York: Routledge.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume, no. issue: page range.

Example : Garcia, Carlos. 2021. “The Role of Ethics in Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 123, no. 2: 237-251.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor’s Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Lee, Mary. 2018. “Feminism in Anthropology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Feminism, edited by Jane Smith, 51-69. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed day month year).

Example : Jones, David. 2020. “The Importance of Learning Languages.” Oxford Language Center. https://www.oxfordlanguagecenter.com/importance-of-learning-languages/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” PhD diss., University Name.

Example : Brown, Susan. 2022. “The Art of Storytelling in Anthropology.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Day.

Example : Robinson, Andrew. 2021. “New Developments in Anthropology Research.” The Guardian, September 15.

AIP (American Institute of Physics) Style

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) style is commonly used in physics research papers and journals. Here are the different reference formats in AIP style:

Example : Johnson, S. D. 2021. “Quantum Computing and Information.” Journal of Applied Physics 129, no. 4: 043102.

Example : Feynman, Richard. 2018. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. New York: Basic Books.

Example : Jones, David. 2020. “The Future of Quantum Computing.” In The Handbook of Physics, edited by John Smith, 125-136. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conference proceedings citation

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Title of Paper.” Proceedings of Conference Name, date and location: page range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example : Chen, Wei. 2019. “The Applications of Nanotechnology in Solar Cells.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Nanotechnology, July 15-17, Tokyo, Japan: 224-229. New York: AIP Publishing.

Example : American Institute of Physics. 2022. “About AIP Publishing.” AIP Publishing. https://publishing.aip.org/about-aip-publishing/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Patent citation

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. Patent Number.

Example : Smith, John. 2018. US Patent 9,873,644.

References Writing Guide

Here are some general guidelines for writing references:

  • Follow the citation style guidelines: Different disciplines and journals may require different citation styles (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). It is important to follow the specific guidelines for the citation style required.
  • Include all necessary information : Each citation should include enough information for readers to locate the source. For example, a journal article citation should include the author(s), title of the article, journal title, volume number, issue number, page numbers, and publication year.
  • Use proper formatting: Citation styles typically have specific formatting requirements for different types of sources. Make sure to follow the proper formatting for each citation.
  • Order citations alphabetically: If listing multiple sources, they should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name.
  • Be consistent: Use the same citation style throughout the entire paper or project.
  • Check for accuracy: Double-check all citations to ensure accuracy, including correct spelling of author names and publication information.
  • Use reputable sources: When selecting sources to cite, choose reputable and authoritative sources. Avoid sources that are biased or unreliable.
  • Include all sources: Make sure to include all sources used in the research, including those that were not directly quoted but still informed the work.
  • Use online tools : There are online tools available (e.g., citation generators) that can help with formatting and organizing references.

Purpose of References in Research

References in research serve several purposes:

  • To give credit to the original authors or sources of information used in the research. It is important to acknowledge the work of others and avoid plagiarism.
  • To provide evidence for the claims made in the research. References can support the arguments, hypotheses, or conclusions presented in the research by citing relevant studies, data, or theories.
  • To allow readers to find and verify the sources used in the research. References provide the necessary information for readers to locate and access the sources cited in the research, which allows them to evaluate the quality and reliability of the information presented.
  • To situate the research within the broader context of the field. References can show how the research builds on or contributes to the existing body of knowledge, and can help readers to identify gaps in the literature that the research seeks to address.

Importance of References in Research

References play an important role in research for several reasons:

  • Credibility : By citing authoritative sources, references lend credibility to the research and its claims. They provide evidence that the research is based on a sound foundation of knowledge and has been carefully researched.
  • Avoidance of Plagiarism : References help researchers avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original authors or sources of information. This is important for ethical reasons and also to avoid legal repercussions.
  • Reproducibility : References allow others to reproduce the research by providing detailed information on the sources used. This is important for verification of the research and for others to build on the work.
  • Context : References provide context for the research by situating it within the broader body of knowledge in the field. They help researchers to understand where their work fits in and how it builds on or contributes to existing knowledge.
  • Evaluation : References provide a means for others to evaluate the research by allowing them to assess the quality and reliability of the sources used.

Advantages of References in Research

There are several advantages of including references in research:

  • Acknowledgment of Sources: Including references gives credit to the authors or sources of information used in the research. This is important to acknowledge the original work and avoid plagiarism.
  • Evidence and Support : References can provide evidence to support the arguments, hypotheses, or conclusions presented in the research. This can add credibility and strength to the research.
  • Reproducibility : References provide the necessary information for others to reproduce the research. This is important for the verification of the research and for others to build on the work.
  • Context : References can help to situate the research within the broader body of knowledge in the field. This helps researchers to understand where their work fits in and how it builds on or contributes to existing knowledge.
  • Evaluation : Including references allows others to evaluate the research by providing a means to assess the quality and reliability of the sources used.
  • Ongoing Conversation: References allow researchers to engage in ongoing conversations and debates within their fields. They can show how the research builds on or contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

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How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

Citing a thesis or dissertation.

Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.

Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (online)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.  Website Name , URL.

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Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County . 2011. University of Maryland, PhD dissertation.

In-text Citation Structure

(Author Last Name page #)

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(Wilson 14)

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NWU Harvard Referencing Guide

  • Introduction
  • Text references
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  • Chapter in a collected work
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Theses and dissertations

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Use recognised abbreviations for universities and degrees. According to the NWU manual for master’s and doctoral studies, the following terms are used:

For international theses and dissertations use the terms on the title page. Full stops are optional in the abbreviations for qualifications, eg: M.Sc. or MSc (Magister Scientiae), Ph.D. or PhD (Philosophiae Doctor).

Harvard referencing theses and dissertations

Saah, P. 2017. Exploring Mintzberg’s managerial roles of academic leaders at a selected higher education institution in South Africa . Mafikeng: North-West University. (Mini-dissertation – MBA). Text reference: (Saah, 2017:103).

Doctoral theses and master’s dissertations are widely available on institutional repositories. Include the permanent link (“handle”) to the thesis / dissertation in the reference list.

Note: when giving a permanent link, a date of access is not necessary.

Harvard referening theses and dissertations

International theses / dissertations accessed from a commercial database e.g. ProQuest:

Carroll, A.R. 2018. Ecosystems, communities, and species: understanding mammalian response to ancient carbon cycle perturbations . Ann Arbor, MI: University of New Hampshire. (Dissertation – PhD). http://nwulib.nwu.ac.za/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/docview/2058145688? accountid=12865 Date of access: 13 Apr. 2019. Text reference: (Carroll, 2018:59).

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Title: explainability for machine learning models: from data adaptability to user perception.

Abstract: This thesis explores the generation of local explanations for already deployed machine learning models, aiming to identify optimal conditions for producing meaningful explanations considering both data and user requirements. The primary goal is to develop methods for generating explanations for any model while ensuring that these explanations remain faithful to the underlying model and comprehensible to the users. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first enhances a widely used rule-based explanation method. It then introduces a novel approach for evaluating the suitability of linear explanations to approximate a model. Additionally, it conducts a comparative experiment between two families of counterfactual explanation methods to analyze the advantages of one over the other. The second part focuses on user experiments to assess the impact of three explanation methods and two distinct representations. These experiments measure how users perceive their interaction with the model in terms of understanding and trust, depending on the explanations and representations. This research contributes to a better explanation generation, with potential implications for enhancing the transparency, trustworthiness, and usability of deployed AI systems.

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Thesis / Dissertation

Cite a thesis or dissertation (unpublished, published online, or accessed through a database). Use other forms to cite books , journal articles , reports , and conference proceedings .

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement.

Rui-Qi Sun&#x;

  • 1 BinZhou College of Science and Technology, Binzhou, China
  • 2 Binzhou Polytechnic, Binzhou, China
  • 3 Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
  • 4 National Institute of Vocational Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

Introduction: The present study aimed to examine the effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation, and the mediating role of learning engagement among Chinese college students to investigate the relationships between the three variables.

Methods: The study used convenience sampling to recruit Chinese university students to participate voluntarily. A total of 443 valid questionnaires were collected through the Questionnaire Star application. The average age of the participants was 18.77 years old, with 157 males and 286 females. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS.

Results: (1) Chinese college students’ online game addiction negatively affected their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (the three dimensions of learning engagement); (2) behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement negatively affected their reduced academic achievement motivation; (3) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

1. Introduction

Online games, along with improvements in technology, have entered the daily life of college students through the popularity of computers, smartphones, PSPs (PlayStation Portable), and other gaming devices. Online game addiction has recently become a critical problem affecting college students’ studies and lives. As early as 2018, online game addiction was officially included in the category of “addictive mental disorders” by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was updated specifically to include the category of “Internet Gaming Disorder” (IGD). Prior research investigating Chinese college students’ online game addiction status mostly comprised regional small-scale studies. For example, a study on 394 college students in Chengde City, Hebei province, China showed that the rate of online game addiction was about 9% ( Cui et al., 2021 ). According to the results of an online game survey conducted by China Youth Network (2019) on 682 Chinese college students who played online games, nearly 60% of participants played games for more than 1 h a day, over 30% stayed up late because of playing games, over 40% thought that playing games had affected their physical health, over 70% claimed that games did not affect their studies, and over 60% had spent money on online games. This phenomenon has been exacerbated by the fact that smartphones and various portable gaming devices have become new vehicles for gaming with the development of technology. The increase in the frequency or time spent on daily gaming among adolescents implies a growth in the probability of gaming addiction, while an increase in the level of education decreases the probability of gaming addiction ( Esposito et al., 2020 ; Kesici, 2020 ). Moreover, during the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents’ video game use and the severity of online gaming disorders increased significantly ( Teng et al., 2021 ).

A large body of literature on the relationship between problematic smartphone use and academic performance has illustrated the varying adverse effects of excessive smartphone obsession ( Durak, 2018 ; Mendoza et al., 2018 ; Rozgonjuk et al., 2018 ). These effects are manifested in three critical ways: first, the more frequently cell phones are used during study, the greater the negative impact on academic performance and achievement; second, students are required to master the basic skills and cognitive abilities to succeed academically, which are negatively affected by excessive cell phone use and addiction ( Sunday et al., 2021 ); third, online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation ( Demir and Kutlu, 2018 ; Eliyani and Sari, 2021 ). However, there is currently a lack of scientifically objective means of effective data collection regarding online game addiction among college students in China, such as big data. Hong R. Z. et al. (2021) and Nong et al. (2023) suggested that the impact of addiction on students’ learning should be explored more deeply.

Since the 1990s, learning engagement has been regarded as a positive behavioral practice in learning in Europe and the United States, and plays an important role in the field of higher education research ( Axelson and Flick, 2010 ). Recently, studies on learning engagement among college students have also been a hot topic in various countries ( Guo et al., 2021 ). According to Fredricks et al. (2004) , learning engagement includes three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive.

The concept of behavioral engagement encompasses three aspects: first, positive behavior in the classroom, such as following school rules and regulations and classroom norms; second, engagement in learning; and third, active participation in school activities ( Finn et al., 1995 ). Emotional engagement refers to students’ responses to their academic content and learning environment. The emotional responses to academic content include students’ emotional responses such as interest or disinterest in learning during academic activities ( Kahu and Nelson, 2018 ), while the emotional responses to the learning environment refer to students’ identification with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Cognitive engagement is often associated with internal processes such as deep processing, using cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, the ability to think reflectively, and making connections in daily life ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Cognitive engagement emphasizes the student’s investment in learning and self-regulation or strategies.

According to Yang X. et al. (2021) , learning engagement refers to students’ socialization, behavioral intensity, affective qualities, and use of cognitive strategies in performing learning activities. Besides, Kuh et al. (2007) argued that learning engagement was “the amount of time and effort students devote to instructional goals and meaningful educational practices.” Learning engagement is not only an important indicator of students’ learning process, but also a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement ( Zhang, 2012 ). It is also an essential factor in promoting college students’ academic success and improving education quality.

As one of the crucial components of students’ learning motivation ( Han and Lu, 2018 ), achievement motivation is the driving force behind an individual’s efforts to put energy into what he or she perceives to be valuable and meaningful to achieve a desired outcome ( Story et al., 2009 ). It can be considered as achievement motivation when an individual’s behavior involves “competing at a standard of excellence” ( Brunstein and Heckhausen, 2018 ). Students’ achievement motivation ensures the continuity of learning activities, achieving academic excellence and desired goals ( Sopiah, 2021 ). Based on the concept of achievement motivation, academic achievement motivation refers to the mental perceptions or intentions that students carry out regarding their academic achievement, a cognitive structure by which students perceive success or failure and determine their behavior ( Elliot and Church, 1997 ). Related research also suggests that motivation is one variable that significantly predicts learning engagement ( Xiong et al., 2015 ).

Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the internal influence mechanism of college students’ online game addiction on their reduced academic achievement motivation and the role of learning engagement, which is also an issue that cannot be ignored in higher education research. The present study explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation among college students by establishing a structural equation model (SEM) to shed light on the problem of online game addiction among college students.

2. Research model and hypotheses

2.1. research model.

Previous research usually regarded learning engagement as a variable of one or two dimensions, and scholars tend to favor the dimension of behavioral engagement. However, other ignored dimensions are inseparable parts of learning engagement ( Dincer et al., 2019 ). In a multi-dimensional model, the mutual terms of each dimension form a single composite structure. Therefore, the present study took the structure proposed by Fredricks et al. (2004) as a reference, divided learning engagement into behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions as mediating variables, and explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation. The research frame diagram is shown in Figure 1 .

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Figure 1 . The research model.

2.2. Research questions

2.2.1. the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.

Learning engagement has been viewed as a multidimensional concept in previous studies. Finn (1989) proposed the participation-identification model to make pioneering progress in learning engagement study. Schaufeli et al. (2002) suggested that learning engagement was an active, fulfilling mental state associated with learning. Chapman (2002) pointed out affective, behavioral, and cognitive criteria for assessing students’ learning engagement based on previous research. Fredricks et al. (2004) systematically outlined learning engagement as an integration of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. The updated International Classification of Diseases [ World Health Organization (WHO), 2018a , b ] specifies several diagnostic criteria for gaming addiction, including the abandonment of other activities, the loss of interest in other previous hobbies, and the loss or potential loss of work and social interaction because of gaming. Past studies have shown the adverse effects of excessive Internet usage on students’ learning. Short video addiction negatively affects intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation ( Ye et al., 2022 ). Students’ cell phone addiction negatively affects academic commitment, academic performance, and relationship facilitation, all of which negatively affect their academic achievement ( Tian et al., 2021 ). The amount of time spent surfing the Internet and playing games has been identified to negatively affect students’ cognitive ability ( Pan et al., 2022 ). College students’ cell phone addiction, mainly reflected in cell phone social addiction and game entertainment addiction, has also been noted to impact learning engagement; specifically, the higher the level of addiction, the lower the learning engagement ( Qi et al., 2020 ). Gao et al. (2021) also showed that cell phone addiction among college students could negatively affect their learning engagement. Choi (2019) showed that excessive use of cell phones might contribute to smartphone addiction, which also affects students’ learning engagement. Accordingly, the following three research hypotheses were proposed.

H1 : Online game addiction negatively affects behavioral engagement.
H2 : Online game addiction negatively affects emotional engagement.
H3 : Online game addiction negatively affects cognitive engagement.

2.2.2. The relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation

Achievement motivation is people’s pursuit of maximizing individual value, which embodies an innate drive, including the need for achievement, and can be divided into two parts: the intention to succeed and the intention to avoid failure ( McClelland et al., 1976 ). On this basis, Weiner (1985) proposed the attributional theory of achievement motivation, suggesting that individuals’ personality differences, as well as the experience of success and failure, could influence their achievement attributions and that an individual’s previous achievement attributions would affect his or her expectations and emotions for the subsequent achievement behavior while expectations and emotions could guide motivated behavior. Birch and Ladd (1997) indicated that behavioral engagement involved positive behavioral attitudes such as hard work, persistence, concentration, willingness to ask questions, and active participation in class discussions to complete class assignments. Students’ attitudes toward learning are positively related to achievement motivation ( Bakar et al., 2010 ). Emotional engagement involves students’ sense of identity with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Students’ perceptions of the school environment influence their achievement motivation ( Wang and Eccles, 2013 ). Cognitive engagement encompasses the ability to use cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, and reflective thinking ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Learning independence and problem-solving abilities predict student motivation ( Saeid and Eslaminejad, 2017 ). Hu et al. (2021) indicated that cognitive engagement had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement among the learning engagement dimensions, and that emotional engagement was also an important factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Therefore, the following three research hypotheses were proposed:

H4 : Behavioral engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H5 : Emotional engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H6 : Cognitive engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.

2.2.3. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation

Past studies have demonstrated the relationship between online game addiction and students’ achievement motivation. For example, a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress has been reported ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ), and a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation has been reported ( Cao et al., 2008 ). Students addicted to online games generally have lower academic achievement motivation because they lack precise academic planning and motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Yayman and Bilgin (2020) pointed out a correlation between social media addiction and online game addiction. Accordingly, there might be a negative correlation between online game addiction and academic achievement motivation among college students.

Students addicted to online games generally have lower motivation for academic achievement because they lack precise academic planning and learning motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Similarly, Haji Anzehai (2020) reported a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress.

Learning engagement is often explored as a mediating variable in education research. Zhang et al. (2018) found that learning engagement was an essential mediator of the negative effect of internet addiction on academic achievement in late adolescence and is a key factor in the decline in academic achievement due to students’ internet addiction. Li et al. (2019) noted that college students’ social networking site addiction significantly negatively affected their learning engagement, and learning engagement mediated the relationship between social networking addiction and academic achievement. Accordingly, the following research hypothesis was proposed.

H7 : Learning engagement mediates the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

3. Research methodology and design

3.1. survey implementation.

The present study employed the Questionnaire Star application for online questionnaire distribution. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese college students to participate voluntarily. The data were collected from October 2021 to January 2022 from a higher vocational college in Shandong province, China. Participants were first-and second-year students. According to Shumacker and Lomax (2016) , the number of participants in SEM studies should be approximately between 100 and 500 or more. In the present study, 500 questionnaires were returned, and 443 were valid after excluding invalid responses. The mean age of the participants was 18.77 years. There were 157 male students, accounting for 35.4% of the total sample, and 286 female students, accounting for 64.6%.

3.2. Measurement instruments

The present empirical study employed quantitative research methods by collecting questionnaires for data analysis. The items of questionnaires were adapted from research findings based on corresponding theories and were reviewed by experts to confirm the content validity of the instruments. The distributed questionnaire was a Likert 5-point scale (1 for strongly disagree , 2 for disagree , 3 for average , 4 for agree , and 5 for strongly agree ). After the questionnaire was collected, item analysis was conducted first, followed by reliability and validity analysis of the questionnaire constructs using SPSS23 to test whether the scale met the criteria. Finally, research model validation was conducted.

3.2.1. Online game addiction

In the present study, online game addiction referred to the addictive behavior of college students in online games, including mobile games and online games. The present study adopted a game addiction scale compiled by Wu et al. (2021) and adapted the items based on the definition of online game addiction. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale were: “I will put down what should be done and spend my time playing online games” and “My excitement or expectation of playing an online game is far better than other interpersonal interactions.”

3.2.2. Learning engagement

In the present study, learning engagement included students’ academic engagement in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive. The learning engagement scale compiled by Luan et al. (2020) was adapted based on its definition. The adapted scale had 26 questions in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “I like to actively explore unfamiliar things when I am doing my homework” and “I will remind myself to double-check the places where I tend to make mistakes in my homework.”

3.2.3. Reduced academic achievement motivation

Reduced academic achievement motivation in the present study refers to the reduction in college students’ intrinsic tendency to enjoy challenges and achieve academic goals and academic success. The achievement motivation scale developed by Ye et al. (2020) was adapted to measure reduced academic achievement motivation. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “Since playing online games, I do not believe that the effectiveness of learning is up to me, but that it depends on other people or the environment” and “Since I often play online games, I am satisfied with my current academic performance or achievement and do not seek higher academic challenges.”

4. Results and discussion

4.1. internal validity analysis of the measurement instruments.

In the present study, item analysis was conducted using first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which can reflect the degree of measured variables’ performance within a smaller construct ( Hafiz and Shaari, 2013 ). The first-order CFA is based on the streamlined model and the principle of independence of residuals. According to Hair et al. (2010) and Kenny et al. (2015) , it is recommended that the value of χ 2 / df in the model fitness indices should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value should be greater than 0.100; the values of the goodness of fit index (GFI) and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) should not be lower than 0.800; the factor loading (FL) values of the constructs should also be greater than 0.500. Based on the criteria above, the items measuring the online game addiction construct were reduced from 10 to seven; the items measuring the behavioral engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the emotional engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the cognitive engagement construct were reduced from eight to six; and the items measuring the reduced academic achievement motivation construct was reduced from 10 to six, as shown in Table 1 .

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Table 1 . First-order confirmatory factor analysis.

4.2. Construct reliability and validity analysis

In order to determine the internal consistency of the constructs, the reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach’ s α value. According to Hair et al. (2010) , a Cronbach’ s α value greater than 0.700 indicates an excellent internal consistency among the items, and the constructs’ composite reliability (CR) values should exceed 0.700 to meet the criteria. In the present study, the Cronbach’ s α values for the constructs ranged from 0.911 to 0.960, and the CR values ranged from 0.913 to 0.916, which met the criteria, as shown in Table 2 .

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Table 2 . Construct reliability and validity of constructs.

In the present study, convergent validity was confirmed by two types of indicators, FL and average variance extracted (AVE). According to Hair et al. (2011) , an FL value should be greater than 0.500, and items with an FL value less than 0.500 should be removed; and AVE values should be greater than 0.500. In the present study, the FL values of the constructs ranged from 0.526 to 0.932, and the AVE values ranged from 0.600 to 0.805; all dimensions met the recommended criteria, as shown in Table 2 .

According to Awang (2015) and Hair et al. (2011) , the square root of the AVE of each construct (latent variable) should be greater than its correlation coefficient values with other constructs to indicate the ideal discriminant validity. The results of the present study showed that the three constructs of online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation had good discriminant validity in the present study, as shown in Table 3 .

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Table 3 . Discriminant validity analysis.

4.3. Correlation analysis

Pearson’s correlation coefficient is usually used to determine the closeness of the relationship between variables. A correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 indicates a high correlation between variables; a correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.8 indicates a moderate correlation between variables; while a correlation of less than 0.3 indicates a low correlation. Table 4 shows the Correlation Analysis results. Online game addiction was moderately negatively correlated with behavioral engagement ( r  = −0.402, p  < 0.001), moderately negatively correlated with emotional engagement ( r  = −0.352, p  < 0.001), slightly negatively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = −0.288, p  < 0.001), and slightly positively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = 0.295, p  < 0.001). Behavioral engagement was moderately positively correlated with emotional engagement ( r  = 0.696, p  < 0.001), moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = 0.601, p  < 0.001), and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = −0.497, p  < 0.001). Emotional engagement was moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r  = 0.787, p  < 0.001) and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r  = −0.528, p  < 0.001). Cognitive engagement was moderately negatively correlated with reduced motivation for academic achievement ( r  = −0.528, p  < 0.001).

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Table 4 . Correlation analysis.

4.4. Analysis of fitness of the measurement model

According to Hair et al. (2010) and Abedi et al. (2015) , the following criteria should be met in the analysis for measurement model fitness: the ratio of chi-squared and degree of freedom ( χ 2 / df ) should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) should not exceed 0.100; the goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), normed fit index (NFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI) and relative fit index (RFI) should be higher than 0.800; and the parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI) and the parsimonious fitness of fit index (PGFI) should be higher than 0.500. The model fitness indices in the present study were χ 2  = 1434.8, df  = 428, χ 2 / df  = 3.352, RMSEA = 0.073, GFI = 0.837, AGFI = 0.811, NFI = 0.899, NNFI = 0.920, CFI = 0.927, IFI = 0.927, RFI = 0.890, PNFI = 0.827, and PGFI = 0.722. The results were in accordance with the criteria, indicating a good fitness of the model in the present study ( Table 5 ).

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Table 5 . Direct effects analysis.

4.5. Validation of the research model

Online game addiction had a negative effect on behavioral engagement ( β  = −0.486; t  = −9.143; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on emotional engagement ( β  = −0.430; t  = −8.054; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on cognitive engagement ( β  = −0.370; t  = −7.180; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a positive effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = 0.19; t = −2.776; p < 0.01). Behavioral engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.238; t  = −3.759; p < 0.001). Emotional engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.221; t  = −2.687; p < 0.01), and cognitive engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β  = −0.265; t  = −3.581; p < 0.01), as shown in Figure 2 Table 6 .

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Figure 2 . Validation of the research model. *** p  < 0.001.

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Table 6 . Indirect effects analysis.

Cohen’ s f 2 is an uncommon but valuable standardized effect size measure that can be used to assess the size of local effects ( Selya et al., 2012 ). When f 2 reaches 0.02 it represents a small effect size, 0.150 represents a medium effect size, and 0.350 represents a high effect size ( Hair et al., 2014 ). The explanatory power of online game addiction on behavioral engagement was 23.6%, and f 2 was 0.309. The explanatory power of online game addiction on emotional engagement was 18.5%, and f 2 was 0.227. The explanatory power of online game addiction on cognitive engagement was 13.7%, and f 2 was 0.159. The explanatory power of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement on reduced academic achievement motivation was 23.9%, and f 2 was 0.314. Figure 2 illustrates the above findings.

4.6. Indirect effects analysis

Scholars are often interested in whether variables mediate the association between predicting and outcome variables. Therefore, mediating variables can partially or entirely explain the association ( Hwang et al., 2019 ). In research fields such as psychology and behavior, where the research situation is often more complex, multiple mediating variables are often required to clearly explain the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables ( MacKinnon, 2012 ). Scientific quantitative research requires tests of confidence interval (CI; Thompson, 2002 ), and the standard value of the test numbers is often determined by 95% CI ( Altman and Bland, 2011 ). CI value not containing 0 indicates the statistical significance of the analysis results ( Nakagawa and Cuthill, 2007 ). According to the statistical results shown in Table 4 , behavioral engagement significantly positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.230 and 95% CI ranging from 0.150 to 0.300 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; emotional engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.209, 95% CI ranging from 0.130 to 0.292 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; cognitive engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.170, 95% CI ranging from 0.100 to 0.250 (excluding 0), p < 0.01, as shown in Table 6 .

4.7. Discussion

4.7.1. analysis of the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.

Online game addiction is often negatively associated with students’ learning. For example, the problematic use of short videos was reported as negatively affecting students’ behavioral engagement, while behavioral engagement positively affected students’ emotional and cognitive engagement ( Ye et al., 2023 ). Meral (2019) highlighted that students’ learning attitudes and academic performance had a negative relationship with students’ addiction to online games. Demir and Kutlu (2018) found that online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation. As the level of students’ game addiction increased, the level of their communication skills decreased ( Kanat, 2019 ). Furthermore, Tsai et al. (2020) pointed out a negative correlation between online game addiction and peer relationships as well as students’ learning attitudes. According to the results of the research model validation, it can be observed that: online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement. Therefore, it can be stated that online game addiction had significant and negative effects on all dimensions of learning engagement.

Online game addiction in the present study included aspects of computer game addiction and mobile phone game addiction. The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of Gao et al. (2021) , Choi (2019) , and Qi et al. (2020) , who pointed out that college students’ addiction to cell phones negatively affected their learning engagement.

4.7.2. Analysis of the relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation

For technology education in higher education, students’ intrinsic motivation for academic study predicts their learning engagement ( Dunn and Kennedy, 2019 ). In addition, learning engagement is positively correlated with academic achievement ( Fredricks and McColskey, 2012 ). Based on the research model validation results, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement all negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings are consistent with Hu et al.’s (2021) study which pointed out that cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement, and that emotional engagement was also an essential factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Lau et al. (2008) showed that achievement motivation positively predicted cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension. Mih et al. (2015) noted that achievement motivation positively predicted behavioral and emotional engagement in the learning engagement dimension. The present study supported the above discussion by confirming the association between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation.

4.7.3. Analysis of the mediating role of learning engagement

According to the indirect effects analysis results of the present study, learning engagement negatively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings support Haji Anzehai’s (2020) conclusion that social network addiction negatively correlated with students’ motivation to progress ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ). It is also consistent with the findings of Chen and Gu (2019) that students addicted to online games generally had lower academic achievement motivation due to a lack of precise academic planning and motivation. Cao et al. (2008) found a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation. Similarly, Zhang et al. (2018) explored the intrinsic influencing mechanism of students’ Internet addiction on academic achievement decline in their late adolescence by identifying learning engagement as the important mediating variable. Li et al. (2019) proposed that social networking site addiction among college students significantly negatively affected learning engagement and that learning engagement mediated the relationship between social network addiction and students’ academic achievement. The present study findings also support the discussion above.

5. Conclusion and suggestions

5.1. conclusion.

Currently, the problem of online game addiction among college students is increasing. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation still needs to be explored. The present study explored the relationships between the three aforementioned variables by performing SEM. The results of the study indicated that: (1) online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement; (2) online game addiction negatively affected emotional engagement; (3) online game addiction negatively affected cognitive engagement; (4) behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (5) emotional engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (6) cognitive behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (7) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.

According to the research results, when college students are addicted to online games, their learning engagement can be affected, which may decrease their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement; their academic achievement motivation may be further reduced and affect their academic success or even prevent them from completing their studies. The mediating role of learning engagement between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation indicates that reduced academic achievement motivation influenced by online game addiction could be prevented or weakened by enhancing learning engagement.

5.2. Suggestions

Universities and families play a crucial role in preventing online game addiction among college students. One of the main reasons college students play online games may be that they lack an understanding of other leisure methods and can only relieve their psychological pressure through online games ( Fan and Gai, 2022 ). Therefore, universities should enrich college students’ after-school leisure life and help them cultivate healthy hobbies and interests. Besides, a harmonious parent–child relationship positively affects children’s learning engagement ( Shao and Kang, 2022 ). Parents’ stricter demands may aggravate children’s game addiction ( Baturay and Toker, 2019 ). Therefore, parents should assume a proper perspective on the rationality of gaming and adopt the right approach to guide their children.

One key factor influencing the quality of higher education is students’ learning engagement. The integration of educational information technology has disrupted traditional teaching methods. This trend has accelerated in the context of COVID-19. College students’ growth mindset can impact their learning engagement through the role of the perceived COVID-19 event strength and perceived stress ( Zhao et al., 2021 ). Moreover, students’ self-regulated learning and social presence positively affect their learning engagement in online contexts ( Miao and Ma, 2022 ). Students’ liking of the teacher positively affects their learning engagement ( Lu et al., 2022 ). Their perceived teacher support also positively affects their learning engagement ( An et al., 2022 ). Hence, educators should focus on teacher support and care in the teaching and learning process.

Students’ motivation for academic achievement can often be influenced by active interventions. Cheng et al. (2022) noted that the cumulative process of students gaining successful experiences contributed to an increased sense of self-efficacy, motivating them to learn. Zhou (2009) illustrated that cooperative learning motivated students’ academic achievement. In addition, Hong J. C. et al. (2021) showed that poor parent–child relationships (such as the behavior of “mama’ s boy” in adults) had a negative impact on students’ academic achievement motivation, and they concluded that cell phone addiction was more pronounced among students with low academic achievement motivation. Hence, enhancing students’ academic achievement motivation also requires family support.

5.3. Research limitations and suggestions for future research

Most of the past studies on the impact of online game addiction on academics have used quantitative research as the research method. The qualitative research approach regarding students’ online game addiction should not be neglected. By collecting objective factual materials in the form of qualitative research such as interviews a greater understanding of students’ actual views on games and the psychological factors of addiction can be achieved. Therefore, future studies could introduce more qualitative research to study online game addiction.

To pay attention to the problem of students’ online game addiction, universities and families should not wait until they become addicted and try to remedy it, but should start to prevent it before it gets to that stage. In terms of developing students’ personal psychological qualities, students’ sensation-seeking and loneliness can significantly affect their tendency to become addicted to online games ( Batmaz and Çelik, 2021 ). Adolescents’ pain intolerance problems can also contribute to Internet overuse ( Gu, 2022 ). Emotion-regulation methods affect the emotional experience and play a vital role in Internet addiction ( Liang et al., 2021 ). In this regard, it is necessary to pay attention to students’ mental health status and to guide them to establish correct values and pursue goals through psychological guidance and other means.

In addition to individual factors, different parenting can considerably impact adolescents. Adolescents who tend to experience more developmental assets are less likely to develop IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022a ), and external resources can facilitate the development of internal resources, discouraging adolescents from engaging in IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022b ). Relevant research indicates that the most critical factor in adolescents’ game addiction tendency comes from society or their parents rather than being the adolescents’ fault ( Choi et al., 2018 ). Adolescents who tend to be addicted to online games may have discordant parent–child relationships ( Eliseeva and Krieger, 2021 ). Better father-child and mother–child relationships predict lower initial levels of Internet addiction in adolescents ( Shek et al., 2019 ). Family-based approaches such as improved parent–child relationships and increased communication and understanding among family members can be a direction for adolescent Internet addiction prevention ( Yu and Shek, 2013 ).

At the school level, a close teacher-student relationship is one of the main factors influencing students’ psychological state. Students’ participation in and control over the teaching and learning process as well as their closeness to teachers can increase their satisfaction and thus enhance their learning-related well-being ( Yang J. et al., 2021 ). More school resources can lead to higher adolescent self-control, attenuating students’ online gaming disorders ( Xiang et al., 2022c ).

Data availability statement

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

Ethics statement

Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. Written informed consent was not obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.

Author contributions

R-QS, and J-HY: concept and design and drafting of the manuscript. R-QS, and J-HY: acquisition of data and statistical analysis. G-FS, and J-HY: critical revision of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was supported by Beijing Normal University First-Class Discipline Cultivation Project for Educational Science (Grant number: YLXKPY-XSDW202211). The Project Name is “Research on Theoretical Innovation and Institutional System of Promoting the Modernization of Vocational Education with Modern Chinese Characteristics”.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: college students, online game addiction, learning engagement, reduced academic achievement motivation, online games

Citation: Sun R-Q, Sun G-F and Ye J-H (2023) The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among Chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement. Front. Psychol . 14:1185353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185353

Received: 13 March 2023; Accepted: 08 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2023 Sun, Sun and Ye. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Jian-Hong Ye, [email protected]

† These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Citing a thesis or dissertation: Reference overview What you need References Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes. Structure:

  2. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    Include the description "Doctoral dissertation" or "Master's thesis" followed by a comma and the name of the institution that awarded the degree. Place this information in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title and any publication number.

  3. Thesis/Dissertation

    Formatting Rules Formatting: Italicize the title Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title Various Examples See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 3:17 PM

  4. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form) or on a personal website, the format differs in that no publication number is included, and you do list a URL. Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check. Try for free Citing an unpublished dissertation in APA Style

  5. Theses

    Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation: Author. The surname is followed by first initials. Year (in round brackets). Title (in italics ). Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets].

  6. APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

    A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment. Last Updated: Jan 5, 2024 2:57 PM URL: https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa Print Page Academic Success

  7. Theses and dissertations

    Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours. Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work; e.g., a film, artwork, novel. Other parts of the world. In North America and some other countries, dissertation is used for a doctoral degree and thesis for a master's ...

  8. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis

    Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Banks, 2020). In-Text Citation (Direct Quote): (Banks, 2020, p. 157). Master's thesis from a University scholarship database: Reference:

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    Library Guides Referencing APA 7th referencing style Thesis APA 7th referencing style This is a guide to using the APA 7th referencing style from the American Psychological Association. It is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Thesis - from website Thesis - from database << Previous: Television program

  10. Library Guides: APA 6th Referencing Style Guide: Theses

    Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from. For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is. Use the information there for your APA reference.

  11. Referencing styles

    When citing a work with three or more authors, use the first author's last name plus 'et al.'. If you cite multiple references by the same author that were published in the same year, distinguish between them by adding labels (e.g. 'a' and 'b') to the year, in both the citation and the reference list.

  12. How to Best Use References in a Dissertation

    "In a dissertation, references refer to the sources and citations used to support and validate the research." They provide evidence, scholarly context, and acknowledgment of the works consulted during the study. References typically include books, journal articles, websites, and other relevant publications cited in the dissertation.

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    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  14. Guides and databases: Harvard: Thesis or dissertation

    Harvard Thesis or dissertation To be made up of: Author. Year of submission (in round brackets). Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Available at: URL. (Accessed: date). In-text citation: (Smith, 2019) Reference List: Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D.

  15. How to Create or Generate APA Reference Entries (7th edition)

    Separate the names of multiple authors with commas. Before the last author's name, you should also insert an ampersand (&). A reference entry may contain up to 20 authors. If there are more than 20, list the first 19 authors, followed by an ellipsis (. . .) and the last author's name. Andreff, W., & Staudohar, P. D.

  16. How To Write References In A Thesis

    Citing references in a thesis is an essential aspect of academic writing and the main way of acknowledging the literature you used to ground your research and giving credit to the authors whose ideas you borrowed. The proper quotation also helps to avoid plagiarism, which can have severe consequences in academic settings.

  17. How to Cite Sources

    Knowledge Base Citing sources How to Cite Sources | Citation Generator & Quick Guide Citing your sources is essential in academic writing. Whenever you quote or paraphrase a source (such as a book, article, or webpage), you have to include a citation crediting the original author.

  18. References in Research

    Journal Articles. References to journal articles usually include the author's name, title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and publication date. Example: Johnson, T. (2021). The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health. Journal of Psychology, 32 (4), 87-94.

  19. Why is it important to add references to your thesis?

    Why should I reference my thesis? It's the first question every student attempting a thesis asks. Not at all surprising, given the amount of effort and endless list of referencing styles. But what is its importance, why do professors insist on citations? The obvious answer that comes to mind is to avoid plagiarism accusations.

  20. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

    How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA 3.5 ( 51) Citation Generator Source Type Search Citing a Thesis or Dissertation Thesis - A document submitted to earn a degree at a university. Dissertation - A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

  21. Citation Styles Guide

    Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles. Published on June 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.Revised on November 7, 2022. A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing.You always need a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism.How you present these citations depends on the style you follow.

  22. NWU Harvard Referencing Guide

    Doctoral theses and master's dissertations are widely available on institutional repositories. Include the permanent link ("handle") to the thesis / dissertation in the reference list. Note: when giving a permanent link, a date of access is not necessary. International theses / dissertations accessed from a commercial database e.g. ProQuest:

  23. [2402.10888] Explainability for Machine Learning Models: From Data

    This thesis explores the generation of local explanations for already deployed machine learning models, aiming to identify optimal conditions for producing meaningful explanations considering both data and user requirements. The primary goal is to develop methods for generating explanations for any model while ensuring that these explanations remain faithful to the underlying model and ...

  24. Cite a Thesis / Dissertation

    Cite a thesis or dissertation (unpublished, published online, or accessed through a database). Use other forms to cite books, journal articles, reports, and conference proceedings. Title Required Contributors Recommended Add organization Type of text Recommended Year of submission Recommended University Recommended DOI PDF Add annotation

  25. Frontiers

    Citation: Sun R-Q, Sun G-F and Ye J-H (2023) The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among Chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement. Front. Psychol. 14:1185353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185353. Received: 13 March 2023; Accepted: 08 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023.

  26. Filial cannibalism in the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra)

    Introduction. In the past, cannibalism (predation on conspecifics) was considered an aberrant behaviour in the animal kingdom (Dawkins Citation 1976; Dellatore et al. Citation 2009).However, this view has changed dramatically in zoology over the past few decades, and it is now recognized to be adaptive, phylogenetically widespread and relatively common in nature (Elgar & Crespi Citation 1992 ...