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Read these 12 moving essays about life during coronavirus

Artists, novelists, critics, and essayists are writing the first draft of history.

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creative essay about pandemic

The world is grappling with an invisible, deadly enemy, trying to understand how to live with the threat posed by a virus . For some writers, the only way forward is to put pen to paper, trying to conceptualize and document what it feels like to continue living as countries are under lockdown and regular life seems to have ground to a halt.

So as the coronavirus pandemic has stretched around the world, it’s sparked a crop of diary entries and essays that describe how life has changed. Novelists, critics, artists, and journalists have put words to the feelings many are experiencing. The result is a first draft of how we’ll someday remember this time, filled with uncertainty and pain and fear as well as small moments of hope and humanity.

At the New York Review of Books, Ali Bhutto writes that in Karachi, Pakistan, the government-imposed curfew due to the virus is “eerily reminiscent of past military clampdowns”:

Beneath the quiet calm lies a sense that society has been unhinged and that the usual rules no longer apply. Small groups of pedestrians look on from the shadows, like an audience watching a spectacle slowly unfolding. People pause on street corners and in the shade of trees, under the watchful gaze of the paramilitary forces and the police.

His essay concludes with the sobering note that “in the minds of many, Covid-19 is just another life-threatening hazard in a city that stumbles from one crisis to another.”

Writing from Chattanooga, novelist Jamie Quatro documents the mixed ways her neighbors have been responding to the threat, and the frustration of conflicting direction, or no direction at all, from local, state, and federal leaders:

Whiplash, trying to keep up with who’s ordering what. We’re already experiencing enough chaos without this back-and-forth. Why didn’t the federal government issue a nationwide shelter-in-place at the get-go, the way other countries did? What happens when one state’s shelter-in-place ends, while others continue? Do states still under quarantine close their borders? We are still one nation, not fifty individual countries. Right?

Award-winning photojournalist Alessio Mamo, quarantined with his partner Marta in Sicily after she tested positive for the virus, accompanies his photographs in the Guardian of their confinement with a reflection on being confined :

The doctors asked me to take a second test, but again I tested negative. Perhaps I’m immune? The days dragged on in my apartment, in black and white, like my photos. Sometimes we tried to smile, imagining that I was asymptomatic, because I was the virus. Our smiles seemed to bring good news. My mother left hospital, but I won’t be able to see her for weeks. Marta started breathing well again, and so did I. I would have liked to photograph my country in the midst of this emergency, the battles that the doctors wage on the frontline, the hospitals pushed to their limits, Italy on its knees fighting an invisible enemy. That enemy, a day in March, knocked on my door instead.

In the New York Times Magazine, deputy editor Jessica Lustig writes with devastating clarity about her family’s life in Brooklyn while her husband battled the virus, weeks before most people began taking the threat seriously:

At the door of the clinic, we stand looking out at two older women chatting outside the doorway, oblivious. Do I wave them away? Call out that they should get far away, go home, wash their hands, stay inside? Instead we just stand there, awkwardly, until they move on. Only then do we step outside to begin the long three-block walk home. I point out the early magnolia, the forsythia. T says he is cold. The untrimmed hairs on his neck, under his beard, are white. The few people walking past us on the sidewalk don’t know that we are visitors from the future. A vision, a premonition, a walking visitation. This will be them: Either T, in the mask, or — if they’re lucky — me, tending to him.

Essayist Leslie Jamison writes in the New York Review of Books about being shut away alone in her New York City apartment with her 2-year-old daughter since she became sick:

The virus. Its sinewy, intimate name. What does it feel like in my body today? Shivering under blankets. A hot itch behind the eyes. Three sweatshirts in the middle of the day. My daughter trying to pull another blanket over my body with her tiny arms. An ache in the muscles that somehow makes it hard to lie still. This loss of taste has become a kind of sensory quarantine. It’s as if the quarantine keeps inching closer and closer to my insides. First I lost the touch of other bodies; then I lost the air; now I’ve lost the taste of bananas. Nothing about any of these losses is particularly unique. I’ve made a schedule so I won’t go insane with the toddler. Five days ago, I wrote Walk/Adventure! on it, next to a cut-out illustration of a tiger—as if we’d see tigers on our walks. It was good to keep possibility alive.

At Literary Hub, novelist Heidi Pitlor writes about the elastic nature of time during her family’s quarantine in Massachusetts:

During a shutdown, the things that mark our days—commuting to work, sending our kids to school, having a drink with friends—vanish and time takes on a flat, seamless quality. Without some self-imposed structure, it’s easy to feel a little untethered. A friend recently posted on Facebook: “For those who have lost track, today is Blursday the fortyteenth of Maprilay.” ... Giving shape to time is especially important now, when the future is so shapeless. We do not know whether the virus will continue to rage for weeks or months or, lord help us, on and off for years. We do not know when we will feel safe again. And so many of us, minus those who are gifted at compartmentalization or denial, remain largely captive to fear. We may stay this way if we do not create at least the illusion of movement in our lives, our long days spent with ourselves or partners or families.

Novelist Lauren Groff writes at the New York Review of Books about trying to escape the prison of her fears while sequestered at home in Gainesville, Florida:

Some people have imaginations sparked only by what they can see; I blame this blinkered empiricism for the parks overwhelmed with people, the bars, until a few nights ago, thickly thronged. My imagination is the opposite. I fear everything invisible to me. From the enclosure of my house, I am afraid of the suffering that isn’t present before me, the people running out of money and food or drowning in the fluid in their lungs, the deaths of health-care workers now growing ill while performing their duties. I fear the federal government, which the right wing has so—intentionally—weakened that not only is it insufficient to help its people, it is actively standing in help’s way. I fear we won’t sufficiently punish the right. I fear leaving the house and spreading the disease. I fear what this time of fear is doing to my children, their imaginations, and their souls.

At ArtForum , Berlin-based critic and writer Kristian Vistrup Madsen reflects on martinis, melancholia, and Finnish artist Jaakko Pallasvuo’s 2018 graphic novel Retreat , in which three young people exile themselves in the woods:

In melancholia, the shape of what is ending, and its temporality, is sprawling and incomprehensible. The ambivalence makes it hard to bear. The world of Retreat is rendered in lush pink and purple watercolors, which dissolve into wild and messy abstractions. In apocalypse, the divisions established in genesis bleed back out. My own Corona-retreat is similarly soft, color-field like, each day a blurred succession of quarantinis, YouTube–yoga, and televized press conferences. As restrictions mount, so does abstraction. For now, I’m still rooting for love to save the world.

At the Paris Review , Matt Levin writes about reading Virginia Woolf’s novel The Waves during quarantine:

A retreat, a quarantine, a sickness—they simultaneously distort and clarify, curtail and expand. It is an ideal state in which to read literature with a reputation for difficulty and inaccessibility, those hermetic books shorn of the handholds of conventional plot or characterization or description. A novel like Virginia Woolf’s The Waves is perfect for the state of interiority induced by quarantine—a story of three men and three women, meeting after the death of a mutual friend, told entirely in the overlapping internal monologues of the six, interspersed only with sections of pure, achingly beautiful descriptions of the natural world, a day’s procession and recession of light and waves. The novel is, in my mind’s eye, a perfectly spherical object. It is translucent and shimmering and infinitely fragile, prone to shatter at the slightest disturbance. It is not a book that can be read in snatches on the subway—it demands total absorption. Though it revels in a stark emotional nakedness, the book remains aloof, remote in its own deep self-absorption.

In an essay for the Financial Times, novelist Arundhati Roy writes with anger about Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s anemic response to the threat, but also offers a glimmer of hope for the future:

Historically, pandemics have forced humans to break with the past and imagine their world anew. This one is no different. It is a portal, a gateway between one world and the next. We can choose to walk through it, dragging the carcasses of our prejudice and hatred, our avarice, our data banks and dead ideas, our dead rivers and smoky skies behind us. Or we can walk through lightly, with little luggage, ready to imagine another world. And ready to fight for it.

From Boston, Nora Caplan-Bricker writes in The Point about the strange contraction of space under quarantine, in which a friend in Beirut is as close as the one around the corner in the same city:

It’s a nice illusion—nice to feel like we’re in it together, even if my real world has shrunk to one person, my husband, who sits with his laptop in the other room. It’s nice in the same way as reading those essays that reframe social distancing as solidarity. “We must begin to see the negative space as clearly as the positive, to know what we don’t do is also brilliant and full of love,” the poet Anne Boyer wrote on March 10th, the day that Massachusetts declared a state of emergency. If you squint, you could almost make sense of this quarantine as an effort to flatten, along with the curve, the distinctions we make between our bonds with others. Right now, I care for my neighbor in the same way I demonstrate love for my mother: in all instances, I stay away. And in moments this month, I have loved strangers with an intensity that is new to me. On March 14th, the Saturday night after the end of life as we knew it, I went out with my dog and found the street silent: no lines for restaurants, no children on bicycles, no couples strolling with little cups of ice cream. It had taken the combined will of thousands of people to deliver such a sudden and complete emptiness. I felt so grateful, and so bereft.

And on his own website, musician and artist David Byrne writes about rediscovering the value of working for collective good , saying that “what is happening now is an opportunity to learn how to change our behavior”:

In emergencies, citizens can suddenly cooperate and collaborate. Change can happen. We’re going to need to work together as the effects of climate change ramp up. In order for capitalism to survive in any form, we will have to be a little more socialist. Here is an opportunity for us to see things differently — to see that we really are all connected — and adjust our behavior accordingly. Are we willing to do this? Is this moment an opportunity to see how truly interdependent we all are? To live in a world that is different and better than the one we live in now? We might be too far down the road to test every asymptomatic person, but a change in our mindsets, in how we view our neighbors, could lay the groundwork for the collective action we’ll need to deal with other global crises. The time to see how connected we all are is now.

The portrait these writers paint of a world under quarantine is multifaceted. Our worlds have contracted to the confines of our homes, and yet in some ways we’re more connected than ever to one another. We feel fear and boredom, anger and gratitude, frustration and strange peace. Uncertainty drives us to find metaphors and images that will let us wrap our minds around what is happening.

Yet there’s no single “what” that is happening. Everyone is contending with the pandemic and its effects from different places and in different ways. Reading others’ experiences — even the most frightening ones — can help alleviate the loneliness and dread, a little, and remind us that what we’re going through is both unique and shared by all.

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How to Write About Coronavirus in a College Essay

Students can share how they navigated life during the coronavirus pandemic in a full-length essay or an optional supplement.

Writing About COVID-19 in College Essays

Serious disabled woman concentrating on her work she sitting at her workplace and working on computer at office

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Experts say students should be honest and not limit themselves to merely their experiences with the pandemic.

The global impact of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, means colleges and prospective students alike are in for an admissions cycle like no other. Both face unprecedented challenges and questions as they grapple with their respective futures amid the ongoing fallout of the pandemic.

Colleges must examine applicants without the aid of standardized test scores for many – a factor that prompted many schools to go test-optional for now . Even grades, a significant component of a college application, may be hard to interpret with some high schools adopting pass-fail classes last spring due to the pandemic. Major college admissions factors are suddenly skewed.

"I can't help but think other (admissions) factors are going to matter more," says Ethan Sawyer, founder of the College Essay Guy, a website that offers free and paid essay-writing resources.

College essays and letters of recommendation , Sawyer says, are likely to carry more weight than ever in this admissions cycle. And many essays will likely focus on how the pandemic shaped students' lives throughout an often tumultuous 2020.

But before writing a college essay focused on the coronavirus, students should explore whether it's the best topic for them.

Writing About COVID-19 for a College Application

Much of daily life has been colored by the coronavirus. Virtual learning is the norm at many colleges and high schools, many extracurriculars have vanished and social lives have stalled for students complying with measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.

"For some young people, the pandemic took away what they envisioned as their senior year," says Robert Alexander, dean of admissions, financial aid and enrollment management at the University of Rochester in New York. "Maybe that's a spot on a varsity athletic team or the lead role in the fall play. And it's OK for them to mourn what should have been and what they feel like they lost, but more important is how are they making the most of the opportunities they do have?"

That question, Alexander says, is what colleges want answered if students choose to address COVID-19 in their college essay.

But the question of whether a student should write about the coronavirus is tricky. The answer depends largely on the student.

"In general, I don't think students should write about COVID-19 in their main personal statement for their application," Robin Miller, master college admissions counselor at IvyWise, a college counseling company, wrote in an email.

"Certainly, there may be exceptions to this based on a student's individual experience, but since the personal essay is the main place in the application where the student can really allow their voice to be heard and share insight into who they are as an individual, there are likely many other topics they can choose to write about that are more distinctive and unique than COVID-19," Miller says.

Opinions among admissions experts vary on whether to write about the likely popular topic of the pandemic.

"If your essay communicates something positive, unique, and compelling about you in an interesting and eloquent way, go for it," Carolyn Pippen, principal college admissions counselor at IvyWise, wrote in an email. She adds that students shouldn't be dissuaded from writing about a topic merely because it's common, noting that "topics are bound to repeat, no matter how hard we try to avoid it."

Above all, she urges honesty.

"If your experience within the context of the pandemic has been truly unique, then write about that experience, and the standing out will take care of itself," Pippen says. "If your experience has been generally the same as most other students in your context, then trying to find a unique angle can easily cross the line into exploiting a tragedy, or at least appearing as though you have."

But focusing entirely on the pandemic can limit a student to a single story and narrow who they are in an application, Sawyer says. "There are so many wonderful possibilities for what you can say about yourself outside of your experience within the pandemic."

He notes that passions, strengths, career interests and personal identity are among the multitude of essay topic options available to applicants and encourages them to probe their values to help determine the topic that matters most to them – and write about it.

That doesn't mean the pandemic experience has to be ignored if applicants feel the need to write about it.

Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays

Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form.

To help students explain how the pandemic affected them, The Common App has added an optional section to address this topic. Applicants have 250 words to describe their pandemic experience and the personal and academic impact of COVID-19.

"That's not a trick question, and there's no right or wrong answer," Alexander says. Colleges want to know, he adds, how students navigated the pandemic, how they prioritized their time, what responsibilities they took on and what they learned along the way.

If students can distill all of the above information into 250 words, there's likely no need to write about it in a full-length college essay, experts say. And applicants whose lives were not heavily altered by the pandemic may even choose to skip the optional COVID-19 question.

"This space is best used to discuss hardship and/or significant challenges that the student and/or the student's family experienced as a result of COVID-19 and how they have responded to those difficulties," Miller notes. Using the section to acknowledge a lack of impact, she adds, "could be perceived as trite and lacking insight, despite the good intentions of the applicant."

To guard against this lack of awareness, Sawyer encourages students to tap someone they trust to review their writing , whether it's the 250-word Common App response or the full-length essay.

Experts tend to agree that the short-form approach to this as an essay topic works better, but there are exceptions. And if a student does have a coronavirus story that he or she feels must be told, Alexander encourages the writer to be authentic in the essay.

"My advice for an essay about COVID-19 is the same as my advice about an essay for any topic – and that is, don't write what you think we want to read or hear," Alexander says. "Write what really changed you and that story that now is yours and yours alone to tell."

Sawyer urges students to ask themselves, "What's the sentence that only I can write?" He also encourages students to remember that the pandemic is only a chapter of their lives and not the whole book.

Miller, who cautions against writing a full-length essay on the coronavirus, says that if students choose to do so they should have a conversation with their high school counselor about whether that's the right move. And if students choose to proceed with COVID-19 as a topic, she says they need to be clear, detailed and insightful about what they learned and how they adapted along the way.

"Approaching the essay in this manner will provide important balance while demonstrating personal growth and vulnerability," Miller says.

Pippen encourages students to remember that they are in an unprecedented time for college admissions.

"It is important to keep in mind with all of these (admission) factors that no colleges have ever had to consider them this way in the selection process, if at all," Pippen says. "They have had very little time to calibrate their evaluations of different application components within their offices, let alone across institutions. This means that colleges will all be handling the admissions process a little bit differently, and their approaches may even evolve over the course of the admissions cycle."

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Stuck in the middle: an illustrated essay on covid-19 and other past pandemics.

Amanda Pszczolkowski , Grand Valley State University

Covid-19, Coronavirus, Memoir, Illustrated, Creative Nonfiction


Creative Writing | Illustration | Nonfiction

Christopher Toth

The project is a visual essay, in a graphic novel-esque style, exploring how the coronavirus compares to other illness outbreaks of the past century and how the associated restrictions have impacted me at an individual level. The creative nonfiction essay intertwines historical perspectives as a way to inform, contextualize, and reflect my own experience with COVID-19. The project began with extensive research on illness outbreaks of the past century, current developments in the Coronavirus pandemic, and genre conventions of graphic novels and memoirs. The intent was to provide a cohesive whole that illuminates themes in the linguistic essay.

ScholarWorks Citation

Pszczolkowski, Amanda, "Stuck in the Middle: An Illustrated Essay on COVID-19 and Other Past Pandemics" (2020). Honors Projects . 798. https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/honorsprojects/798

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Quarantine Won’t Be Forever, but Pandemic Humor Is Timeless 

A century before tiktoks and memes, the 1918 flu inspired rhyming poetry and skeptical satire.

Quarantine Won’t Be Forever, but Pandemic Humor Is Timeless  | Zocalo Public Square • Arizona State University • Smithsonian

A typist wearing her influenza mask in 1918 New York. Courtesy of the U.S. National Archives .

by Katherine A. Foss | July 27, 2020

Early in the coronavirus pandemic, as society shut down and social distancing became the new norm, user-created media content about life during the pandemic exploded. Today’s technology makes it easy to produce and share such messages with the world. However, expressing what life is like in a pandemic through available media is nothing new. Writings about disease—poems, prose, songs, and quips—have long flourished during epidemics, as people have struggled to emotionally and physically adjust to isolation, sickness, and death. Sometimes such writings have been serious; just as often they reflect a darkly hopeful sense of humor. In the past this content was more difficult to distribute than uploading to Instagram or TikTok, but it too made its way into the media of its day—and the feelings it conveyed seem remarkably familiar.

Quarantine Won’t Be Forever, but Pandemic Humor Is Timeless  | Zocalo Public Square • Arizona State University • Smithsonian

Created by SusanKny. Courtesy of imgflip .

In 1918, a flu virus spread around the world in a matter of months and killed an estimated 50 million people before fizzling out in 1919. The few surviving photographs of the 1918-19 pandemic primarily feature rows of beds in makeshift hospitals and the masked faces of doctors, nurses, barbers and other workers. Documentaries, fictional films, stories, and images paint the Spanish Flu as a solemn crisis. But this collective memory of the Spanish Flu offers little insight into everyday life. We forget how people lived through the 1918 pandemic: through isolation, the temporary closure of schools and businesses, the proliferation of illness and death, the cancellation of sports. And we forget that levity can exist in even the most dire circumstances.

Take, as an example, poems everyday people wrote about the Spanish Flu, which were published widely in local and national newspapers. Media of the time labored under the close watch of World War I media censorship, which aimed to curb public dissent. However, newspapers did frequently publish poetry, providing an outlet for regular people to submit their work and vent their frustrations. Some papers contained specific pages for humorous pieces, “odd” facts, and anecdotes. Others placed poems in the midst of local or national news.

In 1918, like today, a lot of people thought the threat was overblown. A writer for the Vancouver Daily World , for example, published a poem that satirized widespread perceptions that influenza had been overhyped, interspersing lines such as “I think it is nothing but grippe—” and “But just a big scare” with onomatopoeic bouts of sneezing and coughing. During that pandemic, as today, health authorities asked people to combat the spread of the virus by wearing masks and avoiding crowds. And then, as now, people didn’t much like it.

As public health authorities encouraged, and sometimes required, people to cover their faces, mask humor emerged in print. Many of the jokes were highly gendered: The Bismarck Tribune printed , “Every woman secretly believes she would be fascinating in a harem veil. Wearing a flu mask is a good, safe way to try the effect.” Similarly, a writer for the Jasper Weekly Courier quipped , “‘Flu’ masks improve the appearance of many men, but when worn by women, they take much of the joy and beauty out of life.” While our collective memory of 1918’s Spanish Flu suggests that people universally cooperated with quarantines and mask-wearing, this poetry tells a different story.

“Social distancing” did not exist as a phrase, but manifested in concept as communities shut down public spaces. Many people writing about the flu took a personal approach, lamenting all the things they were missing. In “ Flu Bound ,” children’s author Edna Groff Diehl griped about this new reality:

The street crowd surged—but where to go? The bar? The concert? Movies? No! Old Influenza’s locked the door to Pleasure Land. Oh what a bore!

Similarly, Jesse Daniel Boone published his poem “ The Spanish Flu May Get You, Too ” in his own newspaper, the Carolina Mountaineer . He described the quarantine, “This old world is in the lurch; For we cannot go to church; And the children cannot roam, For they now are kept at home, And they’ve put a good, strong ban on the moving pictures, man,” In the Greenville News , the first stanza of the very relatable poem “ Spanish Flu ” read:

Oh, we are quarantined, I guess For ‘bout a million years But if we don’t get out of here We’ll burst right out in tears

One thing that the pandemic could alter, but not stop, was the First World War. As an October 23 “Wavelet” in the Evening Telegram stated, “The Kaiser and the Flu are running neck and neck in the world’s popularity contest.” The pandemic did not spare the military and many enlisted men became ill before ever leaving U.S. soil. A “local boy under quarantine at Naval Station” (John Culberson) began his poem, which also ran on October 25, in the Chattanooga News ,

There’s a war going on in Europe, So I’ve heard from newspaper talk; But the only one I’m having Is with influenza at the park

Culberson went on to contrast his expectation of combat with his reality of isolation at a naval training station in San Diego, concluding,

So, mother, take down the service flag— I’m quarantined at Balboa Park

In October 1918, the war and pandemic together had halted professional baseball and football. With nothing to report on for his “Looking ‘Em Over” column, Washington Times sportswriter Louis A. Dougher created a mock line-up, featuring disease-stopping tools as players: “Fresh Air” as “tackle” and “Quinine” as “quarterback,” with the team rounded out by Antiseptic, Ice Pack, Gargle, Alcohol Rub, Castor Oil, Mask, and Sleep. Dougher concluded, “It is not believed that any team would have stopped so many others as has Spanish ‘Flu’ within the past month … Its record will stand for years.”

Influenza impacted other social activities as well, including courtship and dating. Edgar Leslie, Bert Kalmar, and Pete Wendling’s song “Take Your Girlie to the Movies If You Can’t Make Love at Home” recommended the theater for courtship, that a couple should “Pick a cozy corner where it’s nice and dark. Don’t catch influenza kissing in the park.” In “ A Spanish Flu-Lay ,” a writer mourned for his lost romance when his desired woman became ill: “But soon perhaps the flu will go, And masks be put away, And all the bills Dan Cupid owes, On ruby lips he’ll pay.”

Like those of us who wonder if every throat tickle is COVID-19, individuals in 1918 always felt on the look-out for the first sign of disease. In “ The Last Wheeze ,” Edmund Vance Cooke laid out this paranoia in the Washington Herald : “When you have appendicitis, parenchymatous nephritis, laryngitis or gastritis, It’s the Flu.” Likewise, the Winnipeg Tribune printed this anonymous poem :

The toothpaste didn’t taste right— Spanish Flu! The bath soap burned my eyes— Spanish Flu! My beard seemed to have grown pretty fast and tough overnight— Spanish Flu!

“Everything’s Flu Now!” similarly concluded , “Have you stumped one of your toes? Have you just a bleeding nose? Or no matter what your woes—Spanish Flu.”

For those who did contract the virus, poetic prose conveyed the experience of having the disease, sometimes comically. Newspapers widely reprinted J. P. McEvoy’s “ The Flu ” from the Chicago Tribune , which began, “When your back is broke and your eyes are blurred, And your shin bones knock and your tongue is furred” and then wrapped up with “Some call it Flu—I call it hell.” Through couplets and various other rhyme schemes, people emphasized the painful persistent cough that “seems cutting like a knife,” as a September 11 Houston Post article “The Worst of It” detailed; a headache equal to “clamped screws on my cranium,” as C. Roy Miller wrote in the Miami Herald on October 24; as well as exhaustion, a lack of appetite, and the impact of fever—alternating between “burning” and “freezing,” according to one Walt Mason, writing in the Coffeyville Weekly Journal on November 21.

In December, when quarantines and mask requirements had been lifted, some people were still getting sick. “Lumberjack poet” Jack W. Yoes sorrowfully wrote in “Marooned,” which ran two days after Christmas in the Vancouver Sun , about missing out on the holiday festivities because he was hospitalized:

But our hearts are right, And on Christmas night We’ll jolly along with you, Despite the pains and aches that come In the trail of the gol-dinged “flu”

People were clever and creative in how they wrote about the pandemic. Plays on words were common: “What goes up the chimney? Flu!!!,” was published in the Evening Telegram on the October 23, while the Walnut Valley Times poem “Chop Suey,” which ran on November 26, read, “I flew from flu As you said to.” On October 23, the Evening Telegram also printed, “We are not wearing a flu mask, but now and then we meet a gent who makes us wish for a gas mask.”

Such jokes about the pandemic lightened the mood, much like today’s memes and tweets. Through the words influenza survivors left behind, we can relate our own conflicting feelings to theirs—demonstrating the transcending need for creative expression and taking permission to find the light during a dark time.

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Seven short essays about life during the pandemic

The boston book festival's at home community writing project invites area residents to describe their experiences during this unprecedented time..

creative essay about pandemic

My alarm sounds at 8:15 a.m. I open my eyes and take a deep breath. I wiggle my toes and move my legs. I do this religiously every morning. Today, marks day 74 of staying at home.

My mornings are filled with reading biblical scripture, meditation, breathing in the scents of a hanging eucalyptus branch in the shower, and making tea before I log into my computer to work. After an hour-and-a-half Zoom meeting, I decided to take a long walk to the post office and grab a fresh bouquet of burnt orange ranunculus flowers. I embrace the warm sun beaming on my face. I feel joy. I feel at peace.


I enter my apartment and excessively wash my hands and face. I pour a glass of iced kombucha. I sit at my table and look at the text message on my phone. My coworker writes that she is thinking of me during this difficult time. She must be referring to the Amy Cooper incident. I learn shortly that she is not.

I Google Minneapolis and see his name: George Floyd. And just like that a simple and beautiful day transitions into a day of sorrow.

Nakia Hill, Boston

It was a wobbly, yet solemn little procession: three masked mourners and a canine. Beginning in Kenmore Square, at David and Sue Horner’s condo, it proceeded up Commonwealth Avenue Mall.

S. Sue Horner died on Good Friday, April 10, in the Year of the Virus. Sue did not die of the virus but her parting was hemmed by it: no gatherings to mark the passing of this splendid human being.

David devised a send-off nevertheless. On April 23rd, accompanied by his daughter and son-in-law, he set out for Old South Church. David led, bearing the urn. His daughter came next, holding her phone aloft, speaker on, through which her brother in Illinois played the bagpipes for the length of the procession, its soaring thrum infusing the Mall. Her husband came last with Melon, their golden retriever.

I unlocked the empty church and led the procession into the columbarium. David drew the urn from its velvet cover, revealing a golden vessel inset with incandescent tiles. We lifted the urn into the niche, prayed, recited Psalm 23, and shared some words.

It was far too small for the luminous “Dr. Sue”, but what we could manage in the Year of the Virus.

Nancy S. Taylor, Boston

On April 26, 2020, our household was a bustling home for four people. Our two sons, ages 18 and 22, have a lot of energy. We are among the lucky ones. I can work remotely. Our food and shelter are not at risk.

As I write this a week later, it is much quieter here.

On April 27, our older son, an EMT, transported a COVID-19 patient to the ER. He left home to protect my delicate health and became ill with the virus a week later.

On April 29, my husband’s 95-year-old father had a stroke. My husband left immediately to be with his 90-year-old mother near New York City and is now preparing for his father’s discharge from the hospital. Rehab people will come to the house; going to a facility would be too dangerous.

My husband just called me to describe today’s hospital visit. The doctors had warned that although his father had regained the ability to speak, he could only repeat what was said to him.

“It’s me,” said my husband.

“It’s me,” said my father-in-law.

“I love you,” said my husband.

“I love you,” said my father-in-law.

“Sooooooooo much,” said my father-in-law.

Lucia Thompson, Wayland

Would racism exist if we were blind?

I felt his eyes bore into me as I walked through the grocery store. At first, I thought nothing of it. With the angst in the air attributable to COVID, I understood the anxiety-provoking nature of feeling as though your 6-foot bubble had burst. So, I ignored him and maintained my distance. But he persisted, glaring at my face, squinting to see who I was underneath the mask. This time I looked back, when he yelled, in my mother tongue, for me to go back to my country.

In shock, I just laughed. How could he tell what I was under my mask? Or see anything through the sunglasses he was wearing inside? It baffled me. I laughed at the irony that he would use my own language against me, that he knew enough to guess where I was from in some version of culturally competent racism. I laughed because dealing with the truth behind that comment generated a sadness in me that was too much to handle. If not now, then when will we be together?

So I ask again, would racism exist if we were blind?

Faizah Shareef, Boston

My Family is “Out” There

But I am “in” here. Life is different now “in” Assisted Living since the deadly COVID-19 arrived. Now the staff, employees, and all 100 residents have our temperatures taken daily. Everyone else, including my family, is “out” there. People like the hairdresser are really missed — with long straight hair and masks, we don’t even recognize ourselves.

Since mid-March we are in quarantine “in” our rooms with meals served. Activities are practically non-existent. We can sit on the back patio 6 feet apart, wearing masks, do exercises there, chat, and walk nearby. Nothing inside. Hopefully June will improve.

My family is “out” there — somewhere! Most are working from home (or Montana). Hopefully an August wedding will happen, but unfortunately, I may still be “in” here.

From my window I wave to my son “out” there. Recently, when my daughter visited, I opened the window “in” my second-floor room and could see and hear her perfectly “out” there. Next time she will bring a chair so we can have an “in” and “out” conversation all day, or until we run out of words.

Barbara Anderson, Raynham

My boyfriend Marcial lives in Boston, and I live in New York City. We had been doing the long-distance thing pretty successfully until coronavirus hit. In mid-March, I was furloughed from my temp job, Marcial began working remotely, and New York started shutting down. I went to Boston to stay with Marcial.

We are opposites in many ways, but we share a love of food. The kitchen has been the center of quarantine life —and also quarantine problems.

Marcial and I have gone from eating out and cooking/grocery shopping for each other during our periodic visits to cooking/grocery shopping with each other all the time. We’ve argued over things like the proper way to make rice and what greens to buy for salad. Our habits are deeply rooted in our upbringing and individual cultures (Filipino immigrant and American-born Chinese, hence the strong rice opinions).

On top of the mundane issues, we’ve also dealt with a flooded kitchen (resulting in cockroaches) and a mandoline accident leading to an ER visit. Marcial and I have spent quarantine navigating how to handle the unexpected and how to integrate our lifestyles. We’ve been eating well along the way.

Melissa Lee, Waltham

It’s 3 a.m. and my dog Rikki just gave me a worried look. Up again?

“I can’t sleep,” I say. I flick the light, pick up “Non-Zero Probabilities.” But the words lay pinned to the page like swatted flies. I watch new “Killing Eve” episodes, play old Nathaniel Rateliff and The Night Sweats songs. Still night.

We are — what? — 12 agitated weeks into lockdown, and now this. The thing that got me was Chauvin’s sunglasses. Perched nonchalantly on his head, undisturbed, as if he were at a backyard BBQ. Or anywhere other than kneeling on George Floyd’s neck, on his life. And Floyd was a father, as we all now know, having seen his daughter Gianna on Stephen Jackson’s shoulders saying “Daddy changed the world.”

Precious child. I pray, safeguard her.

Rikki has her own bed. But she won’t leave me. A Goddess of Protection. She does that thing dogs do, hovers increasingly closely the more agitated I get. “I’m losing it,” I say. I know. And like those weighted gravity blankets meant to encourage sleep, she drapes her 70 pounds over me, covering my restless heart with safety.

As if daybreak, or a prayer, could bring peace today.

Kirstan Barnett, Watertown

Until June 30, send your essay (200 words or less) about life during COVID-19 via bostonbookfest.org . Some essays will be published on the festival’s blog and some will appear in The Boston Globe.

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New Ways of Surviving: Writing Through a Global Pandemic

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while in the midst of horror we fed on beauty—and that, my love, is what sustained us.         —from “ Transit ” by Rita Dove
Because there is too much to say Because I have nothing to say Because I don’t know what to say Because everything has been said Because it hurts too much to say
This is where I’m supposed to acknowledge the pandemic. And how long it’s been since I’ve ridden the bus. Two friends have died in the last three weeks and neither one from COVID. What a stupid sounding word to cram into a poem.

creative essay about pandemic

creative essay about pandemic

MY COVID-19 Story: how young people overcome the covid-19 crisis

As part of UNESCO’s initiative “MY COVID-19 Story”,  young people have been invited to tell their stories and experiences: how they feel, how they act, what makes them feel worried and what future they envision, how the crisis has affected their lives, the challenges they face, new opportunities being explored, and their hopes for the future. This campaign was launched in April as part of UNESCO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to give the floor to young people worldwide, share their views and amplify their voices. While the world grapples with the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, many young people are taking on new roles, demonstrating leadership in their countries and communities, and sharing creative ideas and solutions. To this day, UNESCO has already received more than 150 written testimonials.

Self-isolation can be a difficult time… However, many young people worldwide decided to tackle this with productivity and positivity. Monty (17), a secondary school student from the United Kingdom, is developing new digital skills and has created his own mini radio station. Lockdown helped Öykü (25), a young filmmaker from Turkey, to concentrate on her creative projects. And for Joseph (30), a teacher from Nigeria, this time is a way to open up to lots of learning opportunities through webinars.

creative essay about pandemic

The crisis has changed not only the daily routine, but also perceptions of everyday life. For some young people rethinking the value of time and common moral principles appears to be key. 

“The biggest lesson for me is understanding … [the value of] time. During these last months I made more use of my time than in a past year.” - shares young tech entrepreneur Barbara (21), from Russia. Ravikumar (24), a civil engineer from India, believes  “This crisis makes us socialize more than ever. We are eating together, sharing our thoughts and playing together which happened rarely within my family before.”

Beyond the crisis

After massive upheavals in the lives of many people, the future for young people seems to be both a promising perspective to seize some new emerging opportunities, and a time filled with uncertainty about the crisis consequences and the future world order.

“It is giving us an opportunity to look into how we need to better support our vulnerable populations, in terms of food and educational resources”, says Anusha (19), from the United States of America. For Mahmoud (22), from Egypt, the COVID-19 crisis is a call to action: “After the pandemic, I will put a lot of efforts into helping people who have been affected by COVID-19. I am planning to improve their health by providing sports sessions, highlighting the importance of a healthy lifestyle.”

creative essay about pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic brings uncertainty and instability to young people across the world, making them feel worried about this new reality they’re living in and presenting several new challenges every day, as they find themselves at the front line of the crisis. That is why, more than ever, we need to put the spotlight on young women and men and let their voice be heard! 

Be part of the campaign!

Join the  “MY COVID-19 Story” campaign! Tell us your story!

We will share it on  UNESCO’s social media channels  (Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram), our  website,  and through our  networks  across the world. 

You can also share your testimonials by recording your own creative video! How? Sign up and create your video here:  https://zg8t9.app.goo.gl/Zw2i . 

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Remembering COVID-19 Community Archive

Community Reflections

My life experience during the covid-19 pandemic.

Melissa Blanco Follow

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Undergraduate, Class of 2024

My content explains what my life was like during the last seven months of the Covid-19 pandemic and how it affected my life both positively and negatively. It also explains what it was like when I graduated from High School and how I want the future generations to remember the Class of 2020.

Class assignment, Western Civilization (Dr. Marino).

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Blanco, Melissa, "My Life Experience During the Covid-19 Pandemic" (2020). Community Reflections . 21. https://digitalcommons.sacredheart.edu/covid19-reflections/21

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Writing about COVID-19 in a college admission essay

by: Venkates Swaminathan | Updated: September 14, 2020

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Writing about COVID-19 in your college admission essay

For students applying to college using the CommonApp, there are several different places where students and counselors can address the pandemic’s impact. The different sections have differing goals. You must understand how to use each section for its appropriate use.

The CommonApp COVID-19 question

First, the CommonApp this year has an additional question specifically about COVID-19 :

Community disruptions such as COVID-19 and natural disasters can have deep and long-lasting impacts. If you need it, this space is yours to describe those impacts. Colleges care about the effects on your health and well-being, safety, family circumstances, future plans, and education, including access to reliable technology and quiet study spaces. Please use this space to describe how these events have impacted you.

This question seeks to understand the adversity that students may have had to face due to the pandemic, the move to online education, or the shelter-in-place rules. You don’t have to answer this question if the impact on you wasn’t particularly severe. Some examples of things students should discuss include:

  • The student or a family member had COVID-19 or suffered other illnesses due to confinement during the pandemic.
  • The candidate had to deal with personal or family issues, such as abusive living situations or other safety concerns
  • The student suffered from a lack of internet access and other online learning challenges.
  • Students who dealt with problems registering for or taking standardized tests and AP exams.

Jeff Schiffman of the Tulane University admissions office has a blog about this section. He recommends students ask themselves several questions as they go about answering this section:

  • Are my experiences different from others’?
  • Are there noticeable changes on my transcript?
  • Am I aware of my privilege?
  • Am I specific? Am I explaining rather than complaining?
  • Is this information being included elsewhere on my application?

If you do answer this section, be brief and to-the-point.

Counselor recommendations and school profiles

Second, counselors will, in their counselor forms and school profiles on the CommonApp, address how the school handled the pandemic and how it might have affected students, specifically as it relates to:

  • Grading scales and policies
  • Graduation requirements
  • Instructional methods
  • Schedules and course offerings
  • Testing requirements
  • Your academic calendar
  • Other extenuating circumstances

Students don’t have to mention these matters in their application unless something unusual happened.

Writing about COVID-19 in your main essay

Write about your experiences during the pandemic in your main college essay if your experience is personal, relevant, and the most important thing to discuss in your college admission essay. That you had to stay home and study online isn’t sufficient, as millions of other students faced the same situation. But sometimes, it can be appropriate and helpful to write about something related to the pandemic in your essay. For example:

  • One student developed a website for a local comic book store. The store might not have survived without the ability for people to order comic books online. The student had a long-standing relationship with the store, and it was an institution that created a community for students who otherwise felt left out.
  • One student started a YouTube channel to help other students with academic subjects he was very familiar with and began tutoring others.
  • Some students used their extra time that was the result of the stay-at-home orders to take online courses pursuing topics they are genuinely interested in or developing new interests, like a foreign language or music.

Experiences like this can be good topics for the CommonApp essay as long as they reflect something genuinely important about the student. For many students whose lives have been shaped by this pandemic, it can be a critical part of their college application.

Want more? Read 6 ways to improve a college essay , What the &%$! should I write about in my college essay , and Just how important is a college admissions essay? .

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How COVID-19 pandemic changed my life

creative essay about pandemic

Table of Contents


The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the biggest challenges that our world has ever faced. People around the globe were affected in some way by this terrible disease, whether personally or not. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, many people felt isolated and in a state of panic. They often found themselves lacking a sense of community, confidence, and trust. The health systems in many countries were able to successfully prevent and treat people with COVID-19-related diseases while providing early intervention services to those who may not be fully aware that they are infected (Rume & Islam, 2020). Personally, this pandemic has brought numerous changes and challenges to my life. The COVID-19 pandemic affected my social, academic, and economic lifestyle positively and negatively.

creative essay about pandemic

Social and Academic Changes

One of the changes brought by the pandemic was economic changes that occurred very drastically (Haleem, Javaid, & Vaishya, 2020). During the pandemic, food prices started to rise, affecting the amount of money my parents could spend on goods and services. We had to reduce the food we bought as our budgets were stretched. My family also had to eliminate unhealthy food bought in bulk, such as crisps and chocolate bars. Furthermore, the pandemic made us more aware of the importance of keeping our homes clean, especially regarding cooking food. Lastly, it also made us more aware of how we talked to other people when they were ill and stayed home with them rather than being out and getting on with other things.

Furthermore, COVID-19 had a significant effect on my academic life. Immediately, measures to curb the pandemic were announced, such as closing all learning institutions in the country; my school life changed. The change began when our school implemented the online education system to ensure that we continued with our education during the lockdown period. At first, this affected me negatively because when learning was not happening in a formal environment, I struggled academically since I was not getting the face-to-face interaction with the teachers I needed. Furthermore, forcing us to attend online caused my classmates and me to feel disconnected from the knowledge being taught because we were unable to have peer participation in class. However, as the pandemic subsided, we grew accustomed to this learning mode. We realized the effects on our performance and learning satisfaction were positive, as it seemed to promote emotional and behavioral changes necessary to function in a virtual world. Students who participated in e-learning during the pandemic developed more ownership of the course requirement, increased their emotional intelligence and self-awareness, improved their communication skills, and learned to work together as a community.

creative essay about pandemic

If there is an area that the pandemic affected was the mental health of my family and myself. The COVID-19 pandemic caused increased anxiety, depression, and other mental health concerns that were difficult for my family and me to manage alone. Our ability to learn social resilience skills, such as self-management, was tested numerous times. One of the most visible challenges we faced was social isolation and loneliness. The multiple lockdowns made it difficult to interact with my friends and family, leading to loneliness. The changes in communication exacerbated the problem as interactions moved from face-to-face to online communication using social media and text messages. Furthermore, having family members and loved ones separated from us due to distance, unavailability of phones, and the internet created a situation of fear among us, as we did not know whether they were all right. Moreover, some people within my circle found it more challenging to communicate with friends, family, and co-workers due to poor communication skills. This was mainly attributed to anxiety or a higher risk of spreading the disease. It was also related to a poor understanding of creating and maintaining relationships during this period.

Positive Changes

In addition, this pandemic has brought some positive changes with it. First, it had been a significant catalyst for strengthening relationships and neighborhood ties. It has encouraged a sense of community because family members, neighbors, friends, and community members within my area were all working together to help each other out. Before the pandemic, everybody focused on their business, the children going to school while the older people went to work. There was not enough time to bond with each other. Well, the pandemic changed that, something that has continued until now that everything is returning to normal. In our home, it strengthened the relationship between myself and my siblings and parents. This is because we started spending more time together as a family, which enhanced our sense of understanding of ourselves.

creative essay about pandemic

The pandemic has been a challenging time for many people. I can confidently state that it was a significant and potentially unprecedented change in our daily life. By changing how we do things and relate with our family and friends, the pandemic has shaped our future life experiences and shown that during crises, we can come together and make a difference in each other’s lives. Therefore, I embrace wholesomely the changes brought by the COVID-19 pandemic in my life.

  • Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life.  Current medicine research and practice ,  10 (2), 78.
  • Rume, T., & Islam, S. D. U. (2020). Environmental effects of COVID-19 pandemic and potential strategies of sustainability.  Heliyon ,  6 (9), e04965.
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creative essay about pandemic

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  • Covid 19 Essays

Covid 19 Essays (Examples)

195+ documents containing “covid 19” .


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Need assistance developing essay topics related to covid 19. can you offer any guidance.

Of course! Here are some essay topic ideas related to Covid-19: 1. The impact of Covid-19 on mental health: Discuss how the pandemic has affected individuals' mental well-being and explore potential solutions for addressing mental health challenges during this time. 2. The disparities in healthcare access during the Covid-19 pandemic: Analyze how different communities have been disproportionately affected by the virus and delve into the systemic inequalities that have exacerbated health disparities. 3. The economic consequences of Covid-19: Examine the economic fallout of the pandemic, including job losses, business closures, and financial strains on individuals and families. Consider potential strategies for economic recovery....

Essay Topics Related to COVID-19 Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on individuals, societies, and economies worldwide. Its multifaceted nature presents a wealth of topics suitable for academic exploration. This essay provides guidance on developing engaging and insightful essay topics related to COVID-19, offering a comprehensive range of perspectives to choose from. Health and Medical Impacts The Impact of COVID-19 on Public Health: Assessing the Global Response and Preparedness Long-Term Health Effects of COVID-19: Exploring Physical, Mental, and Social Consequences The Role of Vaccines in Combating COVID-19: Ethical, Scientific, and Policy Considerations The Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Systems: Resource....

COVID 19 and Healthcare Worker Burnout

Article Review: COVID-19 and the Mental Health Impact Upon Healthcare WorkersAmericans lauded healthcare workers as the nations heroes during the height of the pandemic. But, just like other Americans, healthcare workers too were also personally and intimately affected by the impact of COVID-19. They had to deal with the overwhelming experience of dealing with stress, sickness, and death daily, in a manner which many of them were unprepared for before the crisis. Hall & Powers (2022) remind the reader in their article Addressing the mental health impact of the COVID pandemic on healthcare workers, America is now facing three years of the pandemic, and years of medical misinformation, death, and frustrations with the seemingly endless waves of infection and reinfection.Healthcare workers face greater physical risk from infectious illness, and also a psychological toll from frustration and a sense of helplessness, both when patients pass away, and also resistance to accepting….

Hall, E.J. & Powers, R. E. (2022, June 23) Addressing the mental health impact of the COVID

pandemic on healthcare workers. Newswires.  https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/577854977/addressing-the-mental-health-impact-of-the-covid-pandemic-on-healthcare-workers 

Covid 19 Pandemic Midterm Project

Covid 19 Pandemic Continues To Threaten the Survival of Human Service OrganizationsCovid 19 has impacted the physical, mental, and social lives of human beings from all dimensions. Despite the growing needs of social services firms or community-based organizations (CBOs), they struggle to fulfill those needs (Tsega et al., 2020). They have dwindling resources to meet the requirements of such individuals. Government and funding agencies are also out of techniques and funds to meet the demands of these contracts or the costs of delivering pertinent services.There are three main challenges that CBOs are facing in times of crisis: long-term financial survival, staff availability for being active even on low salaries, and delivery concerns to meet the clients needs (Tsega et al., 2020). Some of the ethical challenges that the social work employees were not aware of or were not prepared for beforehand when Covid struck the world are building a relationship….

Banks, S., Cai, T., de Jonge, E., Shears, J., Shum, M., Sobocan, A.M., Strom, K., Truell, R., Uriz, M.J. & Weinberg, M. (2020, June 29). Ethical challenges for social workers during Covid 19: A global perspective. The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW).  https://www.ifsw.org/ethical-challenges-for-social-workers-during-covid-19-a-global-perspective/ 

Chadi, N., Ryan, N. C., & Geoffroy, M. C. (2022). COVID-19 and the impacts on youth mental health: emerging evidence from longitudinal studies. Les impacts de la pandémie de la COVID-19 sur la santé mentale des jeunes: données émergeantes des études longitudinales. Canadian Journal of Public Health= Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, 113(1), 44–52.  https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-021-00567-8 

Exner-Cortens, D., Baker, E., Gray, S., Fernandez Conde, C., Rivera, R. R., Van Bavel, M., Vezina, E., Ambrose, A., Pawluk, C., Schwartz, K. D., & Arnold, P. D. (2021). School-based suicide risk assessment using eHealth for youth: Systematic scoping review. JMIR Mental Health, 8(9), e29454.  https://doi.org/10.2196/29454

COVID 19 Pandemic and Interest Rates

COVID-19 Pandemic The coronavirus pandemic is a grave global health threat, significantly disrupting everyday life and the economy in Canada as well as everywhere else across the world. While all Canadian economic sectors have been adversely impacted, a few like the travel, hospitality, service, and energy industry have been especially hit hard. Necessary public health measures are taken for containing virus spread, including the closedown of educational institutions, social distancing, and lockdowns, and emergency states, themselves greatly and adversely affect economic activity. But a key point to note is that though the effect is huge, it will, nevertheless, pass soon. Experts worldwide have adopted major valiant steps to combat the virus and its spread and support individuals as well as organizations through this very tough time (CBC News, 2020). Impact of COVID-19 on Interest Rates The average Canadian interest rate between 1990 and 2020 was 5.86% - it attained an unprecedented high in….

COVID 19 Vaccinations

1) What is the name of the article? Where was it published? Who is the author and what are his or her credentials?a. Name: Public health officials are failing to communicate effectively about AstraZenecab. Published: May 12, 2021c. Author: Joel Abramsd. Author Credentials: Manager of Outreach at The Conversation US2) Post a link to the article or the actual article with your assignmenta. https://theconversation.com/public-health-officials-are-failing-to-communicate-effectively-about-astrazeneca-1603403) How did you search for or find it (search words, reading, etc)?I searched for the article using Google. I was particularly interested in vaccinations and their overall impact on society. This was compounded by the exception speed by which the vaccines were approved and administered to the public. Due to the speed and complexity of the virus I was interested in researching aspects that failed with the vaccine rollout and how it was being communicated to the public. I wanted to see how health officials would….

1. Abbasi J. COVID-19 and mRNA Vaccines-First Large Test for a New Approach. JAMA. 2020 Sep 3. PubMed:  https://pubmed.gov/32880613 . Full-text:

2. Alter G, Seder R: The Power of Antibody-Based Surveillance. N Engl J Med 2020, published 1 September. Full-text:  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2028079 .

3. Ball P. The lightning-fast quest for COVID vaccines — and what it means for other diseases. Nature 2020, published 18 December. Full-text:  https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03626-1 

Financial Corporates COVID 19 Pandemic

COVID-19 Pandemic on Financial CorporatesA dividend can be defined as the dispersion of some of the companys incomes to a group of eligible shareholders as the firms board of directors determines it. Familiar stakeholders of dividend-paying companies are typically qualified if they possess the merchandiser before the date of ex-dividend. The bonus may be reimbursed out as coinage or as an arrangement of added merchandise. Additionally, fringe benefits are expenditures carried out by publicly recorded businesses as a prize to depositors for depositing their cash into the project. The statements of dividend payouts are usually followed by a proportional rise or fall in a companys stock value. Most companies retain earnings to be invested back into the company rather than paying dividends. Examples of dividends are cash dividends and bonus shares. A cash dividend is a dividend rewarded in cash and will reduce the companys cash reserves.On the other hand,….

Allen, Franklin, and Roni Michaely. “Dividend policy.” Handbooks in operations research and management science 9 (1995): 793-837.

Barr, Michael S., Howell E. Jackson, and Margaret E. Tahyar. “The Financial Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Available at SSRN 3666461 (2020).

Beck, Thorsten. “Finance in the times of coronavirus.” Economics in the Time of COVID-19 73 (2020).

Beckman, Jayson, and Amanda M. Countryman. “The Importance of Agriculture in the Economy: Impacts from COVID?19.” American journal of agricultural economics (2021).

Impact of COVID 19 on Pregnant Couples Persuasive Speech

Conquering COVID – A Guide for a Pregnant Couple Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Conquering COVID – A Guide for a Pregnant Couple 1. Introduction a. Does COVID-19 hit harder when one is pregnant? If a pregnant woman is affected, will the virus damage the baby? b. Many of us have probably seen daily coronavirus updates and are aware of some of the measures we can take to prevent us from contracting the virus. We have received lots of information on wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene practices. We have also heard about some of the measures taken to help one recover/conquer the virus when infected. However, there is little information on the impact of COVID-19 on a pregnant couple and what they can do to conquer the virus during pregnancy. c. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pregnant women are vulnerable populations that are likely to be hospitalized, risk preterm birth,….

How Covid 19 has impacted'supply chains in American industry

Simon Property Group is one of the premier shopping center operators in the world. The firm looks to own, develop, and manage high quality shopping and entertainment destinations. The company is also looking to transition its high value real estate assets into mixed used destinations. Here, the company will not only provide shopping, dining, and entertainment options, but also residential and office experiences. As of its latest annual shareholder filing, Simon owns properties in 37 states and Puerto Rico. COVID-19 has had a disproportionate impact on the overall retail industry and Simon Property Group. The fear of contracting the virus along with nationwide closures have significantly reduced traffic to Simon’s properties. As a result, it supply chains have been dramatically altered throughout the 2020 fiscal year. In addition, COVID-19 has indirectly impacted Simon, through higher adoption rates and usage of online channels. As consumers are now forced to purchased discretionary goods….

Hate Crimes against Asians The Surge in COVID 19

Introduction In China, the city of Wuhan is believed to be ground zero of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which started in late December 2019. The virus has since spread globally, with cases of infection reported in almost all world countries. The United States, in particular, has been heavily affected by the spread of the virus, with the country's death toll in the hundreds of thousands and a still greater number of the infected. Amidst the worry and fear of the viral spread, several reports of harassment and even physical violence to Asian Americans have sprung up across the nation (Gover et al., 647). This paper uses a mix of media information and empirical sources to analyze the nature and effect of the hate crimes committed against Asian Americans in the nation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anti-Asian Hate Crime during the COVID-19 pandemic The fear created by the rising number of daily….

Sample COVID 19 Marketing Program

Introduction: As the holiday season approaches, it is imperative that standards related to social distancing and PPE are adhered to. This is particularly true as Americans enter a critical holiday season where family gathers are scheduled to occur over the next few months. Due to this occurrence, a community outreach program is needed to help mitigate the impacts of the virus on local communities. Through a concerted door to door campaign, we aim to help lower the threat of the virus, educated the community, and ultimately save lives. The campaign will first consist of door to door outreach, talking specifically about how to minimize the impacts of the virus during the holiday season. Here, we will look to share information with households will also provide resources for individuals to utilized during their own time. In conjunction with the door to door campaign we also are looking to use small radio….

How NHL Responded to COVID 19

The National Hockey League and their COVID-19 ResponseThe COVID-19 global pandemic has significantly impacted lives and livelihoods across the globe as the virus continues to spread worldwide and new variants emerge. COVID-19 has essentially affected every sector of the economy and society as governments are forced to adopt measures to contain its spread. One of the areas that have been affected by the spread of the virus is sports. National sports leagues such as the National Hockey League (NHL) have been affected. In the initial stages of the pandemic, NHL suspended all sporting activities just like other national sports leagues in effort to curb the spread of the virus. However, the pandemic still rages on, which implies that NHL has to find better ways of COVID-19 response amidst the emergence of new variants like the Delta variant. This segment provides suggestions for improving NHLs response to the pandemic based on….

Global CAD. (2020). Managing your organization successfully during COVID-19. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from  https://globalcad.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/GlobalCAD-CovidEnglish_April15v2.pdf 

Gregory, S. (2020). The NHL had 0 positive COVID-19 tests throughout postseason. We asked Commissioner Gary Bettman what we can learn from that. Time. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from  https://time.com/5894175/nhl-gary-bettman-stanley-cup-covid/ 

Guffey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2019). Essentials of business communication (11th ed.). Australia: Cengage.

Maguire, K. (2021). COVID-19 and football: Crisis creates opportunity. The Political Quarterly, 92(1), 132-138.

Effect of COVID 19 on Teacher Burnout

Findings and ResultsThe purpose of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on teacher burnout. The study identifies the COVID-19 global pandemic as an example of environmental factors that contribute to or influence teacher burnout. This research was conducted on grounds that teacher well-being remains one of the most critical issues in the United States educational sector. Teacher well-being has gained interest in the U.S. because of the increased diversity and demands across schools and classrooms. Moreover, given the nature of their work, teachers are predisposed to a series of stressors including lack of emotional support, student discipline problems, and poor working conditions (Ross, Romer, & Horner, 2012). To achieve the purpose of the study, four individual teachers were included in the survey. These participants provided significant insights into the issue of teacher burnout, environmental factors contributing to it, and the impact of COVID-19 on teacher burnout.ResultsAs previously….

Buchanan, J. (2012). Telling tales out of school: Exploring why former teachers are not returning to the classroom. Australian Journal of Education, 56(2), 205-217.

Chang, M.-L. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 193-218. doi:10.1007/s10648- 009-9106-y

Graber, B. D. (2018). From frantic to focused: The impact of environmental factors and personal factors on elementary teacher stress (dissertation). Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.

How Does COVID-19 Affect Healthcare Economically

Annotated Bibliography Cutler, D. (2020). How will COVID-19 Affect the health care economy? JAMA, 323(22), 2237-2238. DOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.7308 The author discusses the economic and healthcare crisis the COVID-19 pandemic created. The projections drawn in the paper predict a 10 to 25% contraction of the US economy in the second quarter. The writer asserts that the United States has entered a COVID-19 recession. The pandemic's economic effect is attributed to the federal government's failure to provide adequate testing facilities. Pak, A., Adegboye, O., Adekunle, A., Rahman, K., McBryde, E., & Eisen, D. (2020). Economic consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak: The need for epidemic preparedness. Public Health, 8(241). DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00241 The author highlights the effect of COVID-19 on the global economy and financial markets. The paper indicates the significant reduction in income, unemployment rise, disruptions in industrial operation, and service rendering due to the measures employed to deal with the pandemic in various countries. An underestimation….

Florida Hospital COVID 19 Crisis

Good Health Hospital: COVID-19 CrisisWith any disease, there are three basic levels of addressing the crisis, that of primary care (prevention), management during the early stages, and then more intensive tertiary-level treatment when the disease has become more advanced. With COVID-19, the healthcare system has been dealing with several critical factors regarding the pandemic. As well as the disease itself, there has been an evolution of new variants such as Omicron, which has been infecting already-vaccinated people, and resistance to the idea of vaccination at all. The speed with which the pandemic is intensifying is of particular concern.According to Salvador-Carulla (et al., 2019), hospitals must move from an evidence-based framework, with rigorous long-term testing of various epidemiological approaches. Instead, an evidence-informed framework must be adopted. Hospitals must make do with good enough information, given the rapidity with which the pandemic has spread. Good management has always been compromised of a….

Khaliq, A.A. (2018). Managerial epidemiology: Principles and applications. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Knowles, H. & Beachum, L (2022). Some GOP leaders are scornful or silent about booster shots seen as key to fighting omicron. The Washington Post.  https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2022/01/04/booster-shots-governors-republican/ 

Pilishvili, T., Gierke, R., Fleming-Dutra, K. E., Farrar, J. L., Mohr, N. M., Talan, D. A.,Krishnadasan, A., Harland, K. K., Smithline, H. A., Hou, P. C., Lee, L. C., Lim, S. C., Moran, G. J., Krebs, E., Steele, M. T., Beiser, D. G., Faine, B., Haran, J. P., Nandi, U., Schrading, W. A., … Vaccine effectiveness among healthcare personnel study team (2021). Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385(25), e90.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2106599

More Beds in the ICU Needed to Fight COVID 19

Mitigating the COVID Crisis in the ERWhat can be done to mitigate the COVID-19 type crisis in America's emergency rooms? To mitigate the COVID-19 crisis in America's emergency rooms, several actions can be taken. First, increasing the number of hospital beds and staffing levels can aid in managing the high demand for medical care. This can be done through the construction of temporary facilities and the recruitment of healthcare workers from outside the region (Berlinger, 2020). Second, strengthening the supply chain for personal protective equipment (PPE) and other medical supplies can ensure that healthcare workers have the resources they need to safely care for patients. This can involve partnerships with private industry to increase production and distribution of essential items. Third, improving access to COVID-19 testing can help to slow the spread of the virus and reduce the number of hospitalizations. This can be done through expanding the availability of….

Berlinger, N., Wynia, M., Powell, T., Hester, D. M., Milliken, A., Fabi, R., & Jenks, N. P. (2020). Ethical framework for health care institutions responding to novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) guidelines for institutional ethics services responding to COVID-19. The Hastings Center, 12.

Rockwell, K. L., & Gilroy, A. S. (2020). Incorporating telemedicine as part of COVID-19 outbreak response systems. Am J Manag Care, 26(4), 147-148.

How the Ethics Challenges Facing Accountants will Change Post Covid 19

AbstractBusinesses of all sizes and types have suffered from the adverse effects of the ongoing Covid-19 global pandemic, and the world is still facing a fundamental existential threat. Nevertheless, efficacious vaccines have been developed and increasing numbers of consumers are recognizing the need to be vaccinated against this deadly disease to the point where many observers can see the light at the end of the pandemic tunnel. Although no one can predict the future with absolute precision, an article written by the Working Group formed by the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA) and national ethics standard setters (NSS) from Australia, Canada, China, South Africa, the UK and the US provides a timely extrapolation of current economic trajectories to describe several ethics challenges that accountants can be reasonably expected to encounter in the years to come. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the….

Five ethics challenges that will intensify as the pandemic wanes. (2021, May 10). International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA) and National Standard Setters (NSS) from Australia, Canada, China, South Africa, the U.K., and the U.S. working group. Retrieved from  https://www.ethicsboard.org/news-events/2021-05/5-ethics-challenges-will-intensify-pandemic-wanes .


Creative Writing

Article Review: COVID-19 and the Mental Health Impact Upon Healthcare WorkersAmericans lauded healthcare workers as the nations heroes during the height of the pandemic. But, just like other Americans,…

Covid 19 Pandemic Continues To Threaten the Survival of Human Service OrganizationsCovid 19 has impacted the physical, mental, and social lives of human beings from all dimensions. Despite the…

COVID-19 Pandemic The coronavirus pandemic is a grave global health threat, significantly disrupting everyday life and the economy in Canada as well as everywhere else across the world. While all…

Article Review

1) What is the name of the article? Where was it published? Who is the author and what are his or her credentials?a. Name: Public health officials are failing…

COVID-19 Pandemic on Financial CorporatesA dividend can be defined as the dispersion of some of the companys incomes to a group of eligible shareholders as the firms board of…

Conquering COVID – A Guide for a Pregnant Couple Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Conquering COVID – A Guide for a Pregnant Couple 1. Introduction a. Does COVID-19 hit harder when one is…

Research Paper

Business - Case Studies

Simon Property Group is one of the premier shopping center operators in the world. The firm looks to own, develop, and manage high quality shopping and entertainment destinations. The…

Introduction In China, the city of Wuhan is believed to be ground zero of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which started in late December 2019. The virus has since…

Introduction: As the holiday season approaches, it is imperative that standards related to social distancing and PPE are adhered to. This is particularly true as Americans enter a critical…

The National Hockey League and their COVID-19 ResponseThe COVID-19 global pandemic has significantly impacted lives and livelihoods across the globe as the virus continues to spread worldwide and new…

Education - Administration

Findings and ResultsThe purpose of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on teacher burnout. The study identifies the COVID-19 global pandemic as an example of environmental…

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography Cutler, D. (2020). How will COVID-19 Affect the health care economy? JAMA, 323(22), 2237-2238. DOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.7308 The author discusses the economic and healthcare crisis the COVID-19 pandemic created. The…

Health - Public Health Issues

Good Health Hospital: COVID-19 CrisisWith any disease, there are three basic levels of addressing the crisis, that of primary care (prevention), management during the early stages, and then more…

Mitigating the COVID Crisis in the ERWhat can be done to mitigate the COVID-19 type crisis in America's emergency rooms? To mitigate the COVID-19 crisis in America's emergency rooms,…

Accounting - Economics

AbstractBusinesses of all sizes and types have suffered from the adverse effects of the ongoing Covid-19 global pandemic, and the world is still facing a fundamental existential threat. Nevertheless,…

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Covid 19 Essay in English

Essay on Covid -19: In a very short amount of time, coronavirus has spread globally. It has had an enormous impact on people's lives, economy, and societies all around the world, affecting every country. Governments have had to take severe measures to try and contain the pandemic. The virus has altered our way of life in many ways, including its effects on our health and our economy. Here are a few sample essays on ‘CoronaVirus’.

100 Words Essay on Covid 19

200 words essay on covid 19, 500 words essay on covid 19.

Covid 19 Essay in English

COVID-19 or Corona Virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified in 2019. It is similar to other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but it is more contagious and has caused more severe respiratory illness in people who have been infected. The novel coronavirus became a global pandemic in a very short period of time. It has affected lives, economies and societies across the world, leaving no country untouched. The virus has caused governments to take drastic measures to try and contain it. From health implications to economic and social ramifications, COVID-19 impacted every part of our lives. It has been more than 2 years since the pandemic hit and the world is still recovering from its effects.

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the world has been impacted in a number of ways. For one, the global economy has taken a hit as businesses have been forced to close their doors. This has led to widespread job losses and an increase in poverty levels around the world. Additionally, countries have had to impose strict travel restrictions in an attempt to contain the virus, which has resulted in a decrease in tourism and international trade. Furthermore, the pandemic has put immense pressure on healthcare systems globally, as hospitals have been overwhelmed with patients suffering from the virus. Lastly, the outbreak has led to a general feeling of anxiety and uncertainty, as people are fearful of contracting the disease.

My Experience of COVID-19

I still remember how abruptly colleges and schools shut down in March 2020. I was a college student at that time and I was under the impression that everything would go back to normal in a few weeks. I could not have been more wrong. The situation only got worse every week and the government had to impose a lockdown. There were so many restrictions in place. For example, we had to wear face masks whenever we left the house, and we could only go out for essential errands. Restaurants and shops were only allowed to operate at take-out capacity, and many businesses were shut down.

In the current scenario, coronavirus is dominating all aspects of our lives. The coronavirus pandemic has wreaked havoc upon people’s lives, altering the way we live and work in a very short amount of time. It has revolutionised how we think about health care, education, and even social interaction. This virus has had long-term implications on our society, including its impact on mental health, economic stability, and global politics. But we as individuals can help to mitigate these effects by taking personal responsibility to protect themselves and those around them from infection.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Education

The outbreak of coronavirus has had a significant impact on education systems around the world. In China, where the virus originated, all schools and universities were closed for several weeks in an effort to contain the spread of the disease. Many other countries have followed suit, either closing schools altogether or suspending classes for a period of time.

This has resulted in a major disruption to the education of millions of students. Some have been able to continue their studies online, but many have not had access to the internet or have not been able to afford the costs associated with it. This has led to a widening of the digital divide between those who can afford to continue their education online and those who cannot.

The closure of schools has also had a negative impact on the mental health of many students. With no face-to-face contact with friends and teachers, some students have felt isolated and anxious. This has been compounded by the worry and uncertainty surrounding the virus itself.

The situation with coronavirus has improved and schools have been reopened but students are still catching up with the gap of 2 years that the pandemic created. In the meantime, governments and educational institutions are working together to find ways to support students and ensure that they are able to continue their education despite these difficult circumstances.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Economy

The outbreak of the coronavirus has had a significant impact on the global economy. The virus, which originated in China, has spread to over two hundred countries, resulting in widespread panic and a decrease in global trade. As a result of the outbreak, many businesses have been forced to close their doors, leading to a rise in unemployment. In addition, the stock market has taken a severe hit.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Health

The effects that coronavirus has on one's health are still being studied and researched as the virus continues to spread throughout the world. However, some of the potential effects on health that have been observed thus far include respiratory problems, fever, and coughing. In severe cases, pneumonia, kidney failure, and death can occur. It is important for people who think they may have been exposed to the virus to seek medical attention immediately so that they can be treated properly and avoid any serious complications. There is no specific cure or treatment for coronavirus at this time, but there are ways to help ease symptoms and prevent the virus from spreading.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

Operations manager.

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

Investment director.

An investment director is a person who helps corporations and individuals manage their finances. They can help them develop a strategy to achieve their goals, including paying off debts and investing in the future. In addition, he or she can help individuals make informed decisions.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Hospital Administrator

The hospital Administrator is in charge of organising and supervising the daily operations of medical services and facilities. This organising includes managing of organisation’s staff and its members in service, budgets, service reports, departmental reporting and taking reminders of patient care and services.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Public Relation Executive

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager


A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Metallurgical Engineer

A metallurgical engineer is a professional who studies and produces materials that bring power to our world. He or she extracts metals from ores and rocks and transforms them into alloys, high-purity metals and other materials used in developing infrastructure, transportation and healthcare equipment. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

Information security manager.

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Business Intelligence Developer

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Are you looking to write a persuasive essay about the Covid-19 pandemic?

Writing a compelling and informative essay about this global crisis can be challenging. It requires researching the latest information, understanding the facts, and presenting your argument persuasively.

But don’t worry! with some guidance from experts, you’ll be able to write an effective and persuasive essay about Covid-19.

In this blog post, we’ll outline the basics of writing a persuasive essay . We’ll provide clear examples, helpful tips, and essential information for crafting your own persuasive piece on Covid-19.

Read on to get started on your essay.

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  • 1. Steps to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19
  • 2. Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid19
  • 3. Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Vaccine
  • 4. Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Integration
  • 5. Examples of Argumentative Essay About Covid 19
  • 6. Examples of Persuasive Speeches About Covid-19
  • 7. Tips to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19
  • 8. Common Topics for a Persuasive Essay on COVID-19 

Steps to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Here are the steps to help you write a persuasive essay on this topic, along with an example essay:

Step 1: Choose a Specific Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement should clearly state your position on a specific aspect of COVID-19. It should be debatable and clear. For example:

Step 2: Research and Gather Information

Collect reliable and up-to-date information from reputable sources to support your thesis statement. This may include statistics, expert opinions, and scientific studies. For instance:

  • COVID-19 vaccination effectiveness data
  • Information on vaccine mandates in different countries
  • Expert statements from health organizations like the WHO or CDC

Step 3: Outline Your Essay

Create a clear and organized outline to structure your essay. A persuasive essay typically follows this structure:

  • Introduction
  • Background Information
  • Body Paragraphs (with supporting evidence)
  • Counterarguments (addressing opposing views)

Step 4: Write the Introduction

In the introduction, grab your reader's attention and present your thesis statement. For example:

Step 5: Provide Background Information

Offer context and background information to help your readers understand the issue better. For instance:

Step 6: Develop Body Paragraphs

Each body paragraph should present a single point or piece of evidence that supports your thesis statement. Use clear topic sentences, evidence, and analysis. Here's an example:

Step 7: Address Counterarguments

Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and refute them with strong counterarguments. This demonstrates that you've considered different perspectives. For example:

Step 8: Write the Conclusion

Summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement in the conclusion. End with a strong call to action or thought-provoking statement. For instance:

Step 9: Revise and Proofread

Edit your essay for clarity, coherence, grammar, and spelling errors. Ensure that your argument flows logically.

Step 10: Cite Your Sources

Include proper citations and a bibliography page to give credit to your sources.

Remember to adjust your approach and arguments based on your target audience and the specific angle you want to take in your persuasive essay about COVID-19.

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Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid19

When writing a persuasive essay about the Covid-19 pandemic, it’s important to consider how you want to present your argument. To help you get started, here are some example essays for you to read:

Check out some more PDF examples below:

Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Pandemic

Sample Of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 In The Philippines - Example

If you're in search of a compelling persuasive essay on business, don't miss out on our “ persuasive essay about business ” blog!

Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Vaccine

Covid19 vaccines are one of the ways to prevent the spread of Covid-19, but they have been a source of controversy. Different sides argue about the benefits or dangers of the new vaccines. Whatever your point of view is, writing a persuasive essay about it is a good way of organizing your thoughts and persuading others.

A persuasive essay about the Covid-19 vaccine could consider the benefits of getting vaccinated as well as the potential side effects.

Below are some examples of persuasive essays on getting vaccinated for Covid-19.

Covid19 Vaccine Persuasive Essay

Persuasive Essay on Covid Vaccines

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Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Integration

Covid19 has drastically changed the way people interact in schools, markets, and workplaces. In short, it has affected all aspects of life. However, people have started to learn to live with Covid19.

Writing a persuasive essay about it shouldn't be stressful. Read the sample essay below to get idea for your own essay about Covid19 integration.

Persuasive Essay About Working From Home During Covid19

Searching for the topic of Online Education? Our persuasive essay about online education is a must-read.

Examples of Argumentative Essay About Covid 19

Covid-19 has been an ever-evolving issue, with new developments and discoveries being made on a daily basis.

Writing an argumentative essay about such an issue is both interesting and challenging. It allows you to evaluate different aspects of the pandemic, as well as consider potential solutions.

Here are some examples of argumentative essays on Covid19.

Argumentative Essay About Covid19 Sample

Argumentative Essay About Covid19 With Introduction Body and Conclusion

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Examples of Persuasive Speeches About Covid-19

Do you need to prepare a speech about Covid19 and need examples? We have them for you!

Persuasive speeches about Covid-19 can provide the audience with valuable insights on how to best handle the pandemic. They can be used to advocate for specific changes in policies or simply raise awareness about the virus.

Check out some examples of persuasive speeches on Covid-19:

Persuasive Speech About Covid-19 Example

Persuasive Speech About Vaccine For Covid-19

You can also read persuasive essay examples on other topics to master your persuasive techniques!

Tips to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Writing a persuasive essay about COVID-19 requires a thoughtful approach to present your arguments effectively. 

Here are some tips to help you craft a compelling persuasive essay on this topic:

Choose a Specific Angle

Start by narrowing down your focus. COVID-19 is a broad topic, so selecting a specific aspect or issue related to it will make your essay more persuasive and manageable. For example, you could focus on vaccination, public health measures, the economic impact, or misinformation.

Provide Credible Sources 

Support your arguments with credible sources such as scientific studies, government reports, and reputable news outlets. Reliable sources enhance the credibility of your essay.

Use Persuasive Language

Employ persuasive techniques, such as ethos (establishing credibility), pathos (appealing to emotions), and logos (using logic and evidence). Use vivid examples and anecdotes to make your points relatable.

Organize Your Essay

Structure your essay involves creating a persuasive essay outline and establishing a logical flow from one point to the next. Each paragraph should focus on a single point, and transitions between paragraphs should be smooth and logical.

Emphasize Benefits

Highlight the benefits of your proposed actions or viewpoints. Explain how your suggestions can improve public health, safety, or well-being. Make it clear why your audience should support your position.

Use Visuals -H3

Incorporate graphs, charts, and statistics when applicable. Visual aids can reinforce your arguments and make complex data more accessible to your readers.

Call to Action

End your essay with a strong call to action. Encourage your readers to take a specific step or consider your viewpoint. Make it clear what you want them to do or think after reading your essay.

Revise and Edit

Proofread your essay for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Make sure your arguments are well-structured and that your writing flows smoothly.

Seek Feedback 

Have someone else read your essay to get feedback. They may offer valuable insights and help you identify areas where your persuasive techniques can be improved.

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Common Topics for a Persuasive Essay on COVID-19 

Here are some persuasive essay topics on COVID-19:

  • The Importance of Vaccination Mandates for COVID-19 Control
  • Balancing Public Health and Personal Freedom During a Pandemic
  • The Economic Impact of Lockdowns vs. Public Health Benefits
  • The Role of Misinformation in Fueling Vaccine Hesitancy
  • Remote Learning vs. In-Person Education: What's Best for Students?
  • The Ethics of Vaccine Distribution: Prioritizing Vulnerable Populations
  • The Mental Health Crisis Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • The Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on Healthcare Systems
  • Global Cooperation vs. Vaccine Nationalism in Fighting the Pandemic
  • The Future of Telemedicine: Expanding Healthcare Access Post-COVID-19

In search of more inspiring topics for your next persuasive essay? Our persuasive essay topics blog has plenty of ideas!

To sum it up,

You have read good sample essays and got some helpful tips. You now have the tools you needed to write a persuasive essay about Covid-19. So don't let the doubts stop you, start writing!

If you need professional writing help, don't worry! We've got that for you as well.

MyPerfectWords.com is a professional essay writing service that can help you craft an excellent persuasive essay on Covid-19. Our experienced essay writer will create a well-structured, insightful paper in no time!

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Frequently Asked Questions

Are there any ethical considerations when writing a persuasive essay about covid-19.

FAQ Icon

Yes, there are ethical considerations when writing a persuasive essay about COVID-19. It's essential to ensure the information is accurate, not contribute to misinformation, and be sensitive to the pandemic's impact on individuals and communities. Additionally, respecting diverse viewpoints and emphasizing public health benefits can promote ethical communication.

What impact does COVID-19 have on society?

The impact of COVID-19 on society is far-reaching. It has led to job and economic losses, an increase in stress and mental health disorders, and changes in education systems. It has also had a negative effect on social interactions, as people have been asked to limit their contact with others.

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Persuasive Essay

Parent filming a girl dancing on her smartphone.

How creative use of technology may have helped save schooling during the pandemic

creative essay about pandemic

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It is estimated around half the world’s students’ schools remain shut down. All told, this has been a potentially damaging disruption to the education of a generation.

But one of the few positive outcomes from this experience is an opportunity to rethink how digital technologies can be used to support teaching and learning in schools.

Our collective experiences of remote schooling offer a fleeting opportunity for schools to think more imaginatively about what “digital education” might look like in the future.

This is not to echo the hype (currently being pushed by many education reformers and IT industry actors) that COVID will prove a tipping-point after which schools will be pushed fully into digital education.

On the contrary, the past six months of hastily implemented emergency remote schooling tell us little about how school systems might go fully virtual, or operate on a “blended” (part online, part face-to-face) basis. Any expectations of profiting from the complete digital reform of education is well wide of the mark.

Instead, the most compelling technology-related lessons to take from the pandemic involve the informal, improvised, scrappy digital practices that have helped teachers, students and parents get through school at home.

Technology during the pandemic

All over the world, school shutdowns have seen teachers, students and families get together to achieve great things with relatively simple technologies. This includes the surprising rise of TikTok as a source of informal learning content . Previously the domain of young content creators, remote schooling saw teachers of all ages turn to the video platform to share bite-size (up to one minute) chunks of teaching, give inspirational feedback, set learning challenges or simply show students and parents how they were coping.

TikTok also been used as a place for educational organisations, public figures and celebrity scientists to produce bespoke learning content , as well as allowing teachers to put together materials for a wider audience.

Even principals have used it to keep in contact with their school — making 60-second video addresses, motivational speeches and other alternatives to the traditional school assembly speech.

Classes in some countries have been run through WhatsApp , primarily because this was one platform most students and families had access to, and were used to using in their everyday lives.

Elsewhere, teachers have set up virtual BitMoji classrooms featuring colourful backdrops and cartoon avatars of themselves. These spaces act as a friendly online version of their familiar classroom space for students to check in and find out what they should be learning, access resources and temporarily feel they were back at school.

Read more: TikTok can be good for your kids if you follow a few tips to stay safe

Some teachers have worked out creative ways of Zoom-based teaching . These stretch beyond the streamed lecture format and include live demonstrations, experiments, and live music and pottery workshops.

Social media, apps and games have proven convenient places for teachers to share insights into their classroom practice, while students can quickly show teachers and classmates what they have been working on.

These informal uses of digital media have played an important role in boosting students, teachers and parents with a bit of human contact, and additional motivation to connect and learn.

So, what now?

All this will come as little surprise to long-term advocates of popular forms of digital media in education. There is a sound evidence base for the educational benefits of such technology.

For example, a decade’s worth of studies has developed a robust framework (and many examples) of how students and educators can make the most of personal digital media inside and outside the classroom. These include allowing students to participate in online fan-fiction writing communities, digital journalism, music production and podcasting.

The past ten years has also seen a rise in e-sports — where teams of young people compete in video games.

This stresses the interplay between digital media, learning driven by students’ interests and passions, and online communities of peers. Informal digital media can be a boon for otherwise marginalised and disadvantaged youth and allowing students to find supportive communities of like-minded peers regardless of their local circumstances.

Australia continues to be one of the few countries in the world where classroom use of smartphones is banned by some governments. Some of the most popular social media platforms, content creation apps, and open sites such as YouTube remain filtered and blocked in many schools too.

Read more: Banning mobile phones in schools: beneficial or risky? Here's what the evidence says

At the same time, official forms of school technology are increasingly criticised for being boring, overly-standardised, and largely serving institutional imperatives, rather than pitched toward the interests of students and teachers.

Concerns are growing over the limited educational benefits of personalised learning systems, as well as the data and privacy implications of school platforms and systems such as Google Classroom.

The past six months have seen many schools forced to make the best of whatever technologies were immediately to hand. Previously reticent teachers now have first-hand experience of making use of unfamiliar technologies. Many parents are now on board with the educational potential of social media and games. Most importantly, students have been given a taste of what they can achieve with “their” own technology.

With US schools now exploring the benefits of establishing official TikTok creation clubs to enhance their video-making skills, it might be time for Australian educators to follow suit. Let’s take the opportunity to re-establish schools as places where teachers, students and families can work together to creatively learn with the devices and apps most familiar to their everyday lives.

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries: A literature review and future research agenda

Olena khlystova.

a Henley Business School, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UD, United Kingdom

Yelena Kalyuzhnova

c The Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, Henley Business School, University of Reading, RG6 6AA, United Kingdom

Maksim Belitski

b ICD Business School, Groupe-IGS, rue Alexandre Parodi 12, Paris, France

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has affected countless businesses, leading to serious disruptions for many industries. Drawing on the resilience literature, this study offers an understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries and their response to the challenges they have encountered. This study reviews 59 papers following the systematic literature review approach and reveals several positive implications of the COVID-19 pandemic within the creative industries (e.g., IT and software) as well as the negative (the music industry, festivals, cultural events). Identifying six themes related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries, we develop a response matrix based on the discussion of firms’ digital capabilities and their ability to adapt to the COVID-19 crisis. We outline future research directions using a Theory-Context-Characteristics-Methodology (TCCM) framework.

1. Introduction

Since November 2019 the world has been battling the pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as ‘Coronavirus Disease 2019’ (COVID-19) ( Barrero, Bloom, & Davis, 2020 ). This ongoing pandemic has brought significant losses for countless businesses, leading to serious disruptions for many industries ( Leite et al., 2020 , Ivanov, 2020 , Prentice et al., 2020 , Mehrolia et al., 2021 ). Along with the travelling, hospitality and retail trade sectors, the creative industries have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic ( Banks and O’Connor, 2020 , Harper, 2020 , Pacella et al., 2020 , Ratten, 2020a , Serafini and Novosel, 2020 ). Gaining a better understanding of the social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as formulating potential responses to this crisis, is part of the current research agenda ( Banks and O’Connor, 2020 , Ratten, 2020a , Ratten, 2020b , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 ).

The business and management literature related to the economic and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic is growing rapidly ( Nayal et al., 2021 , Donthu and Gustafsson, 2020 , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 , George et al., 2020 , Fairlie and Fossen, 2021 ). However, little is known about how the creative industries are handling the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact ( Ratten, 2020a , Banks and O’Connor, 2020 , He and Harris, 2020 , Meyrick and Barnett, 2021 , Joffe, 2020 ). The dynamics of the impact vary significantly across creative subsectors and countries ( OECD, 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 , Florida and Seman, 2020 ), with the Information Technologies sector experiencing positive effects ( Kim, Parboteeah, & Cullen, 2020 ) while libraries, museums, the arts and entertainment industries have experienced negative effects ( Agostino et al., 2020 , Machovec, 2020 ).

The creative industries overall have faced many short and long-term challenges as a result of the pandemic, such as redundancies, bankruptcy, event cancellations, and so on ( OECD 2020 ). Different countries introduced many different governmental and private support measures (e.g., job retention schemes, one-off grants and funding) to leverage the long-term economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic ( Dümcke, 2021 , Joffe, 2020 , Betzler et al., 2020 ). An analysis of the way different countries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic could assist in developing further measures to offset the loss of income in the creative industries.

Recent studies have examined the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on small businesses and the self-employed ( Fairlie and Fossen, 2021 , Barrero et al., 2020 , Donthu and Gustafsson, 2020 ). These studies have focused on either the transformation of traditional business models or on the mechanisms underlying changes in employment patterns and customer engagement ( Sheth, 2020 , Donthu and Gustafsson, 2020 ). However, despite the socio-economic significance of the creative industries in terms of their economic and social footprints and their employment contribution ( OECD, 2020 ), research into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this sector is rather scarce ( Majdúchová, 2021 ).

Situated within the literature on the creative industries and organisational resilience ( Vogus and Sutcliffe, 2007 , Williams and Vorley, 2017 , Linnenluecke, 2017 , Sawalha, 2020 ) this paper offers an understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries and their response to this crisis ( Eikhof, 2020 ). Our study is guided by the following research question: What is the topical focus and trend direction of publications exploring the socioeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries?

In order to answer this question, we have undertaken a systematic literature review. We conducted an overview of existing research on COVID-19’s impact on the creative industries, drawing on recent studies discussing the pandemic’s social and economic effects and how it has affected businesses ( Barrero et al., 2020 , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 ). We chose this approach for the following reasons. Firstly, we aimed to collect, critically analyse, and synthesize the existing and newly-emerged literature on the creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondly, a systemic literature review enables us to investigate research gaps and identify areas which require further research. In doing so, we have applied the Theory Context Characteristics Methodology (TCCM) framework ( Paul and Rosado-Serrano, 2019 , Rosado-Serrano et al., 2018 ). This will help us identify COVID-19’s social and economic effects as well as potential directions for future research into the creative industries – the COVID-19 pandemic research domain. Thirdly, the systematic literature review allows us to identify the state of knowledge regarding the creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Snyder, 2019 ). Our review focuses on organizations of all sizes (small, medium and large organisations, individual entrepreneurs and freelancers) in the creative industries. Out of the 578,560 papers published between November 2019 and April 2021, we retained 59 peer-reviewed papers pertaining to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries.

This paper contributes to the business research and management literature by providing a systematic review of how the creative industries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by developing a response matrix for firms in creative industries based on six themes that were derived from the review. It also extends the COVID-19 pandemic research to the creative industries ( Ammirato et al., 2020 , Eikhof, 2020 ) by adopting the TCCM framework to suggest future research directions ( Paul & Rosado-Serrano, 2019 ). Finally, this study provides insights for policymakers working to support the creative industries during the pandemic, as well as for scholars wishing to address the gaps in research ( Mays, Pope, & Popay, 2005 ).

This study is structured as follows. In Section 2 , we briefly introduce the literature on pre-COVID-19 cultural entrepreneurs and creative industries. Section 3 discusses the organisational resilience theory, while Section 4 outlines the methodology of the study. In Section 5 we synthesise the results of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries, then go on to define six key themes related to this research. We discuss our findings and future research directions using the TCCM framework in Section 6 . Section 7 concludes.

2. Cultural entrepreneurs and the creative industries pre-COVID-19

2.1. the role of creative industries in global economy.

The creative industries have been widely acknowledged as an important conduit for economic growth and development ( Henry, 2007 , UNCTAD, 2018 , Landoni et al., 2020 , Cooke and De Propris, 2011 ). The creative industries concept has been developing since the 1990s as governments have introduced policies to systematically develop and promote culture, the technology-intensive sectors, entertainment, and so on ( Caves, 2000 , Lampel and Germain, 2016 ). The creative industries are of particular interest to business and management scholars because of their inclusiveness and post-industrial characteristics, such as their flexible organisation, extensive use of technologies, and the employment of creative and technical talents ( Lampel and Germain, 2016 , Lampel et al., 2000 ). In addition, the creative industries cover a full range of organisational characteristics and activities, from large multinationals to micro-businesses and cultural entrepreneurs ( Li, 2020 ).

Over the past decade, the creative industries have also become an important sector of the global economy ( Li, 2020 , Rodríguez-Gulías et al., 2020 ). This sector has a profound impact on the social and cultural aspects of people's lives ( Santoro et al., 2020 , Pratt and Jeffcutt, 2009 ). The creative industries were estimated to make up over 7% of the world’s GDP ( UNCTAD, 2004 ). According to The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2017) the creative industries generated annually an estimated US$2,250 billion of revenues globally and were projected to represent over 10% of global GDP in the years to come. “With export growth rates of over 7% over 13 years, global trade in creative goods was an expanding and resilient sector. During the period 2002–2015, the value of the global market for creative goods doubled from $208 billion in 2002 to $509 billion in 2015” ( UNCTAD, 2018, p.9 ). According to the World Bank (2020) , the UK and US significantly increased the values and shares of exports of goods related to the creative industries, with a year-on-year average growth rate of 1.02% for the US and 29.28% for the UK between 2002 and 2015. While the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2018) highlighted that the global market value of the creative industries was estimated at $1.3 trillion, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) pointed to annual growth rates of between 5 and 20% in OECD countries. In the European Union (EU), the creative industries contributed 3.3% of the EU’s GDP and represented 3% of the EU’s total employment ( European Commission, 2012 ).

2.2. Defining the creative industries and their taxonomy

The literature contains a number of classifications and definitions for the creative industries ( Galloway and Dunlop, 2007 , Cruz and Teixeira, 2015 , UNCTAD, 2018 , Li, 2020 , Council, 2010 , NESTA, 2008 ). This paper adopted the UK’s Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) definition of the creative industries as “those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill, and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property” ( DCMS 2019, p. 7 ).

Taking into account the diverse nature of the creative industries, which cover a wide range of activities such as creativity and intellectual activity ( WIPO, 2017 , Cruz and Teixeira, 2021 ), we apply the industrial perspective of classifying the creative industries based on DCMS (2013, p. 13) . This includes advertising and marketing; architecture; design and designer fashion; film, TV, video, radio and photography; IT, software and computer service; music, performing and visual arts; publishing.

Cultural entrepreneurship is important for the success of the creative industries. It is broadly defined as “the process by which actors draw upon cultural resources (e.g., discourse, language, categories, logics, and other symbolic elements) to advance entrepreneurship or to facilitate organizational or institutional innovation” ( Lounsbury and Glynn, 2019 , Park and Zhang, 2020 ). Cultural entrepreneurship enables the creative industries’ stakeholders to generate revenue from cultural activities ( Konrad, 2013 , Hausmann, 2010 , Enhuber, 2014 ). Cultural entrepreneurs can also be referred to as freelancers, the self-employed, and owner managers ( Ellmeier, 2003 , Konrad, 2013 , Johnson, 2007 , Smit, 2011 , Wilson and Stokes, 2005 ). The role of key stakeholders in the development and evolution of the creative industries cannot be overstated. They form the sector’s strategies and policies, support the community, and control the quality of goods and services ( Quero and Ventura, 2009 , Voss and Voss, 2000 , OECD, 2018 ). Strong stakeholder networks can help the creative industries’ workers to enhance cooperation within the industry’s sub-sectors ( Bazalgette, 2017 ).

3. Developments in the research on resilience theory

Resilience theory provides a framework which allows scholars to examine how individuals, organisations and even countries recover from the impact of unexpected events such as crises, economic shocks and other forms of adversity ( Kitsos & Bishop, 2018 ). Resilience can be considered from different perspectives, such as organisational responses to external threats, organisational reliability, employee strengths, the adaptability of business models, or design principles that reduce supply-chain vulnerabilities and disruptions ( Linnenluecke, 2017 , Vogus and Sutcliffe, 2007 ). From an organisational perspective, ‘resilience’ can be defined as the “inherent characteristics of those organizations that are able to respond quicker, recover faster, or develop more unusual ways of doing business under duress than others” ( Linnenluecke, 2017, p. 4 ).

3.1. The conceptual origins of the resilience theory

The genesis of resilience as a concept can be traced back to Meyer (1982) , who investigated how organisations respond to external shocks. He suggested that organisations can implement new strategies and practices in responding to external threats, namely retention. It is also necessary to learn from the impact of environmental jolts by adopting first-order changes and one-off learning trainings, namely resiliency. Another important work in the development of resilience theory is Staw, Sandelands, and Dutton (1981) , who suggested that resilience is applied to avoid risks and adapt to external threats.

During the 1990s and early 2000s, scholars shifted towards investigating how organizations can prepare for future unknown challenges ( Sitkin, 1992 ) and how organizational systems can learn from crises by introducing and scaling experimentation. Sitkin (1992) suggested that organisations should not be afraid of failure, and should develop “intelligent failure” as a part of their learning process. The further research continued to explore how organizations cope with crises and adversity ( Weick et al., 1999 , Weick and Sutcliffe, 2011 ). Weick et al. (1999) remarked that high-reliability organizations often have a component of inertia in their activities. The authors moved from conceptualizing resilience as an outcome variable to resilience as a measure of reliability.

3.2. The implications of resilience theory post 9/11

Resilience theory was challenged by the events of 9/11 ( Linnenluecke, 2017 ), shifting attention to coping mechanisms and response strategies to external shocks and crises. With growing global climate change, environmental uncertainty has also influenced research on resilience. The concept of resilience was first used as a regulatory framework by the Governors of the Federal Reserve System during this period ( Hiles, 2008 ) as a response to the global financial crisis. In addition, Juettner and Maklan (2011) provided evidence regarding supply chain resilience during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. They also developed resilience capabilities such as reaction speed, access to information, collaborations and flexibility.

In the 2000s, the research on resilience emphasized the role of individuals with the capability and ability to manage psychological pressures, creating workplace resilience ( Coutu, 2002 , Luthans, 2002 ). The research shifted to the importance of individual resilience, which was defined as ‘the capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk’ ( Luthans, 2002, p. 702 ).

Further developments of resilience literature investigated the role of adaptation and the adjustment and reconfiguration of business models in organizations affected by hostile environments ( Sutcliffe, Vogus, Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003 ). Sutcliffe et al. (2003) demonstrated that organisations are more likely to be resilient if enabling conditions related to information processing, slack availability and capability development are reinforced.

Since the 2000s, research on organisational resilience has clustered on the impact of exogenous shocks on organizations and individuals, such as natural disasters, terrorism, supply chain development and so on. It has focused mainly on the influence of pre-existing conditions and the role of organisational capabilities in responding to such shocks ( Chang and Falit-Baiamonte, 2002 , Powley, 2009 , Burnard and Bhamra, 2011 , Pettit et al., 2010 , Doern et al., 2019 , Williams et al., 2017 , Linnenluecke, 2017 ).

3.3. Recent developments of resilience literature

The recent research on organisational resilience focuses on the response to shocks by industries represented by small organisations (e.g., creative industries, retail trade, agriculture) ( Herbane, 2019 , Barrero et al., 2020 ). Building on work associating organizational resilience with crisis recovery, Herbane (2019) examined how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) could grow and pursue their activities to enhance resilience against operational interruptions. Barrero et al. (2020) examined how enterprises within constantly-changing dynamic environments implement strategic choices to respond to such environments and grow. The authors found that in order to grow, enterprises need to develop a robust structure of inter-connection between elements and organisational control systems during major macroeconomic shocks (e.g., global financial crises, the COVID-19 pandemic).

Earlier studies also highlighted the role of adaptation and adjustment as a strategic response to crises ( Barrios, 2016 , Olsson et al., 2015 ). Flexibility and agility are crucial to organisations during crises ( Herbane, 2019 ). Resilience has become an essential part of addressing the crisis caused by COVID-19. Sawalha (2020) conclude that lessons learned from past crises must be reviewed in order to gain an awareness of how to adapt systems to new events and take advantage of them.

The literature that describes customer experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the change in customer attitudes and preferences triggered by lifestyle change and uncertainty ( Sheth, 2020 , Donthu and Gustafsson, 2020 , Mehrolia et al., 2021

; Prentice et al., 2020 ). One immediate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has been irrational consumer behaviour, where customers simultaneously experienced panic-buying behaviour and a pent-up demand for postponed purchases and services such as art, music and theatrical performances, etc ( Billore & Anisimova, 2021 ).

In addition, customers had to adapt to the “new normal” by modifying their customer behaviour. Such behaviour (e.g., face coverings, social distancing) is likely to be adopted for those attending museums, concerts, theatres and other social events ( Sheth, 2020 , Donthu and Gustafsson, 2020 ). Sheth (2020) demonstrated that changes in customer behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with hoarding (stockpiling products), improvisation due to financial constraints and restrictions, learning digital skills, and other. A new trend for customers has been the delivery of online services (e.g., online concerts, performances, exhibitions) by the creative industries ( Davies, 2020 ).

3.4. The creative industries in the context of resilience theory

Resilience theory was applied more widely during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Hynes, Trump, Love, & Linkov, 2020 ), particularly in the creative industries. As an important component of the knowledge economy, the creative industries can be characterised as entrepreneurial, innovative, sustainable, and flexible. Such industries are particularly resilient to external crises ( OECD, 2014 , Herbane, 2019 ) and their flexibility is a key to this ( Felton, Gibson, Flew, Graham, & Daniel, 2010 ). The creative industries are considered as a sector which contributes considerably to sustainability and inclusive growth because of the diversity of its activities (e.g., IT, painting, crafts) ( UNESCO, 2021 , UNCTAD, 2010 , OECD, 2006 ). Having considered the unique characteristics of this sector, Archer (2009) developed a resilience model for creative workers, which for the first time introduced two main characteristics describing creative workers and the context they work in: a) sustainability and b) challenging the current system in order to satisfy customer demand without major disruption. The resilience model introduced by Archer (2009) was in this respect distinct from frameworks applied to other industries.

The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed many businesses, including those within the creative industries, to operate rapidly and develop new, more resilient ways of functioning ( Eggers, 2020 , Ivanov, 2020 ). In order for businesses and organisations to survive in times of crisis, the main component of every system should be resilience ( Hynes et al., 2020 ). The recent events of the COVID-19 pandemic have demonstrated that the creative industries adopted new business models to operate during this crisis. For example, some museums started to offer online exhibitions, while musicians delivered concerts via online streams or recorded their performances ( Agostino et al., 2020 , Gu et al., 2020 ), changing the customers’ experience, demand and consumption. The literature has also demonstrated that the majority of small businesses, freelancers, and self-employed in the creative industries struggled to adapt to new changes and be resilient ( UNESCO, 2021 , Florida and Seman, 2020 ).

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way social capital is created and maintained, because it significantly restricted the traditional forms of networking between the creative workers and the communities ( Dahles and Susilowati, 2015 , Torres et al., 2019 ) and created the demand for new business models for creative industries. To overcome this issue, additional investments needed to be made in social capital; new forms of engagement with external collaborative partners and community were adopted by creative industries in order to enhance their resilience during and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The analysed literature on resilience theory enabled us to identify potential data limitations, as a significant number of cultural entrepreneurs are freelances working as a gig-economy, project by project. These data limitations create a gap between the contribution of creative workers who are formally employed, and the part-time self-employed, freelance and gig-workers in the economy. This data limitation may lead to underestimating the potential threat to national economies and the extent of possible spillover from the creative industries to other industries. Yet little research has been conducted examining the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on entrepreneurs and small businesses ( Belitski, Guenther, Kritikos, & Thurik, 2021 ), particularly on those in creative industries. Ammirato et al. (2020) encourage the exploration of a variety of approaches to organizational resilience in the creative industries. Researchers need to consider the difference between the socioeconomic effects on the creative industries of COVID-19 specifically and of recession generally, and distinguish the differing socioeconomic effects of COVID-19 on creative industries and creative industries, including freelancers and gig-economy ( Burtch, Carnahan, & Greenwood, 2018 ).

4. Methodology

4.1. generic considerations.

Systematic reviews can be approached in many different ways ( Paul & Criado, 2020 ), including theory-based reviews (e.g., Gilal et al., 2019 , Hassan et al., 2016 ), theme-based reviews (e.g., Canabal and White, 2008 , Hao et al., 2019 , Kahiya, 2018 , Mishra, 2020 , Paul et al., 2017 , Rana and Paul, 2017 , Rosado-Serrano et al., 2018 ), framework-based reviews (e.g., Paul and Benito, 2018 , Lim et al., 2021 ), theory-context-characteristics-methodology (TCCM)-based reviews (e.g., Canabal and White, 2008 , Paul and Rosado-Serrano, 2019 , Paul and Singh, 2017 ), theory development reviews (e.g., Paul, 2019 , Paul and Mas, 2020 , Pansari and Kumar, 2017 ), hybrid reviews (e.g., Dabić et al., 2020 ), bibliometric analysis (e.g., Ruggeri, Orsi, & Corsi, 2019 ), and meta -analysis (e.g., Rana and Paul, 2020 , Barari et al., 2021 ). In this study, we were guided by the TCCM-based review protocol ( Paul and Rosado-Serrano, 2019 , Rosado-Serrano et al., 2018 ) in order to develop an agenda for future research, thus narrowing down the literature review approach ( Chen, Mandler, & Meyer-Waarden, 2021 ).

Our objective is to identify the literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries and to suggest directions for future research. We consider a systematic literature review to be an effective tool in achieving this objective ( Tranfield et al., 2003 , Cassell et al., 2006 , Denyer et al., 2008 , Snyder, 2019 ) as it is widely used in business research ( Witell et al., 2016 , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 ). A systematic review is the most reliable and efficient method of identifying and evaluating a sizeable volume of literature ( Grant and Booth, 2009 , Macpherson and Jones, 2010 ).

4.2. Literature collection, synthesis and analysis

We used the Web of Science database for this study and Scopus as a robustness check ( Verma & Gustafsson, 2020 ). Taking our lead from Rousseau et al., 2008 , Denyer et al., 2008 , we followed a five-stage process to collect, analyse, and synthesise the literature. In the first stage we established the rationale, scope and aim of the review. The search terms were developed in the light of the concepts/theories underpinning resilience literature, which were then used to comprehend the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries. In order to ensure a coherent search ( Snyder, 2019 ), we used all possible synonyms of the keywords used in previous academic studies ( Ammirato et al., 2020 , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 ). We focused on a combination of the keywords “creative industry”, “COVID-19”, and “impact”. The words “state support” and “government support” were also included in order to capture more papers that could be associated with governmental policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In the second stage we developed our search strings and a set of inclusion criteria to ensure the robustness of the literature review sample. We identified core and additional inclusion criteria for our study. In the third stage, we applied the core inclusion criteria, which are: the timeframe of the publications, document type, language, research area, and the methodology used in the publication. The period from November 2019 to April 2021 covered by the review was chosen because it covers the period from the beginning of the pandemic to the time of writing. We included all articles, data sets, early-access publications and data studies in English, yielding 123,825 articles published in the specified period. We then used the second- and third-level inclusion criteria with the aim of retaining publications from relevant fields: business economics, computer science, telecommunications, film, radio, television and others. We searched for studies that used all types of methodologies, namely qualitative, quantitative, and mixed approaches.

We excluded the BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Medline, Zoological Record, and FSTA, yielding 2,671 articles. The third-level exclusion criteria were applied to include only papers from the fields of business, economics, other social sciences topics, etc. yielding 1,318 articles ( Fig. 1 ).

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Web of Science Research Design. Source: Authors.

In the fourth stage, we applied additional inclusion criteria, such as the paper’s keywords and the reputation of the journals. With regards to the keywords, we were guided by the keywords used in our search when choosing potential papers for the final sample ( Paul & Rosado-Serrano, 2019 ). The lead reviewer initially conducted a review of all potentially relevant articles before cutting them down. The other two reviewers examined a small sample of discarded articles to ensure that inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied correctly and consistently. At this stage, no inconsistencies were detected. The final decision on inclusion/exclusion was made by the two reviewers, who each independently applied the criteria to the sample ( Denyer et al., 2008 ).

In order to ensure that the papers in our final sample were of an appropriate quality, we selected articles published in journals featuring on the approved list of the Association of Business Schools (ABS) in the United Kingdom, which is widely considered to be a benchmark database of journals of international standard ( Paul & Benito, 2018 ). However if a journal was not in the ABS list, the impact-factor criteria (at least 1.0 score) was used ( Paul & Rosado-Serrano, 2019 ).

In addition to the Web of Science search results, we repeated the procedure as a robustness check using the Scopus database. We applied the same criteria to Scopus while using the different options available in the Scopus search engine. At the third stage, we applied inclusion criteria such as computer science, social sciences, arts and humanities, business, management and accounting, economics, econometrics, and finance. Three levels of search were available in Scopus, and we initially identified 578,560 papers. By the end of the search, we retained 82 papers. This search provided us with four fewer papers than the Web of Science search ( Fig. 2 ).

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Scopus Research Design. Source: Authors.

The final stage was concerned with literature extraction. Both Tranfield et al., 2003 , Rousseau et al., 2008 suggest that reliable and valid reviews use standardized pre-determined categories for abstracting data from papers. We analysed the abstracts and excluded papers that did not focus on activity within the creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of the disease. In order to identify existing areas of scholarly interest as well as gaps and potential future research areas, the papers on literature reviews and editorial publications were also included.

The screening process enabled us to select a unique sample of 59 papers published within November 2019 – April 2021 from 28 different journals and 22 different countries. The list of journals is presented in Table A1 in the Appendix. In terms of countries used in the papers included in our literature review, most researchers examined Australia, the UK and China, or conducted multinational studies ( Table 1 ). Many papers were concerned with the general trends or impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative economy or certain creative sub-sectors (e.g., IT and software industry, libraries, museums, social media).

Countries investigated in the literature review.

Source: Authors.

4.3. The limitations identified during the literature review process

Our literature review enabled us to examine the relevant research and identify its limitations. Four specific limitations were in evidence in the recent systematic literature reviews examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The first limitation is that research has been conducted broadly and across different research fields (e.g., Ammirato et al., 2020 , Queiroz et al., 2020 , Xiong et al., 2020 ), with little or no evidence of a specific research design for the creative industries.

The second limitation is the presence of selection bias. For instance, Ammirato et al. (2020) examined only studies in recognised international journals or selected conference proceedings, while other authors used selected research from the Scopus database and Google Scholar. This creates a bias towards a specific community of scholars, privileging studies which are made available on these two platforms.

The third limitation is that the new keywords which have appeared during the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully representative, as more work is needed for a full understanding of the situation. For example, Queiroz et al. (2020) presented a limited research protocol together with the query they used when searching for keywords on the databases, a procedure that significantly limits research scale and scope related directly to COVID-19 and impacts our ability to gauge the effects of the pandemic on the creative industries. Finally, prior systematic literature reviews focus on a restricted geographical area when applying qualitative and narrative reviews in order to understand the impact of COVID-19 ( Xiong et al., 2020 ).

5. The creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic

A science mapping approach was applied to the systematic literature review ( Singh et al., 2020 , Donthu et al., 2021 ) which combines both the Scopus and Web of Science research designs ( Fig. 3 ). This technique is used for the literature analysis and helps identify the relationship (interactions, connections) between research constituents ( Donthu et al., 2021 , Donthu et al., 2020 , Ramos-Rodríguez and Ruíz-Navarro, 2004 , Baker et al., 2021 ). One of the widely used techniques for science mapping is a co-word analysis, which aims to examine the relationships between different themes by analysing the content of the selected publications in a research field.

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Science map of the systematic literature review. Source: Authors.

The co-word analysis identifies words that most frequently appear together and have a thematic relationship. This technique was used in this study to extend our understanding of the themes (topics or categories) thus derived, elaborate on the content of each theme, and develop future research directions ( Donthu et al., 2021 ). Based on the keywords and abstracts from 59 papers, we used a software tool VOSviewer to create a visualization network to identify the themes related to the impact of COVID-19 on the creative industries. Co-word analysis was used to apply text-mining techniques to the papers’ titles, abstracts, and keywords. Co-word connections allowed us to identify and combine multiple keywords in the same paper, as well as determine the relationship between different keywords ( Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 , Van Eck and Waltman, 2010 , Donthu et al., 2021 ) ( Fig. 4 ).

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The keyword network visualisation of the COVID-19 pandemic – creative industries relations. Source: Authors.

The results of the network were divided into themes based on the classification of the creative industries. This allows us to improve the rationale of the discussion and develop more specific future-research directions for each sector. Six distinctive themes are comparable to the creative sub-sectors, namely cultural entrepreneurs and economy; museums and libraries; IT and software businesses; social media; the music industry and festivals; and publishing and journalism. These themes provide a clear understanding of the boundaries of the creative sub-sectors and their potential response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, Table 2 presents a summary of the final sample with the distribution of the papers across the six themes. with country of research and methodology used, key findings and research gaps.

The distribution of reviewed papers among themes with the key findings and research gaps.

5.1. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative economy and cultural entrepreneurs

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a significant challenge for different stakeholders across the creative industries, and especially for cultural entrepreneurs ( Barrero et al., 2020 , Betzler et al., 2020 , Ratten, 2020a , Ratten, 2020b , Ratten, 2020c ). Recent publications on this theme have focused on the disruptive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries ( He and Harris, 2020 , Meyrick and Barnett, 2021 , Joffe, 2020 , Banks and O’Connor, 2021 ). The cancellation of cultural events, exhibitions, concerts, performances and festivals, along with the restrictions on social distancing and limited economic activity in many countries, have negatively affected cultural workers, freelancers, the self-employed and other stakeholders in the creative sector ( Joffe, 2020 , Ratten, 2020a , Ratten, 2020b , Ratten, 2020c , Pacella et al., 2020 ).

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were felt first by creative workers, and especially freelancers ( Dümcke, 2021 ). In addition, Bailey et al. (2020) considered the long-term changes in the creative industries caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be more visible at the firm and individual levels. The creative industries’ workers could not continue to perform their regular business activities due to social distancing rules and the closure of all creative and cultural venues, and had to switch to virtual live performances instead ( Banks and O’Connor, 2020 , Ratten, 2020a , Ratten, 2020b ).

The existing literature identified a significant number of individual entrepreneurs and firms which had gone bankrupt or just surviving with the governmental support, e.g., introduced in the UK, Germany and Africa ( Comunian and England, 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 , Joffe, 2020 ). A number of studies have been very critical of the public policies (e.g., limited government support, narrow focus of the support packages, one-off support) intended to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries ( Betzler et al., 2020 , Joffe, 2020 ). For example, Comunian and England (2020) stressed the importance of factoring in the geographical dimension of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as this information could assist in the development of specific policies.

In terms of the recovery measures introduced by governments and other organisations, the industry is very fragmented, and includes freelancers along with casual, temporary and part-time workers who are often ineligible for governmental support packages ( Audretsch et al., 2021 , Florida and Seman, 2020 ). For example, a number of European policy-makers in both the public and private sectors have developed measures to manage the negative economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as tax measures, employment-related measures, and stimulus measures ( Betzler et al., 2020 ). Germany and the UK can also be used as examples of an immediate policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the German government announced it would provide financial support of 130 billion euros for cultural organisations, struggling businesses, and others (e.g., NGOs, cultural organisations) ( Desson et al., 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 ). The UK’s approach was offer job retention schemes (80% of salary), self-employment income support schemes for those negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic ( HM Government (2020), 2020 ).

Many authors stated that policymakers should reconsider their approach when designing policies and change their strategies with regard to the creative industries ( Banks and O’Connor, 2020 , Joffe, 2020 , Pacella et al., 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 ). It has also been argued that in order to maintain the productivity of the sector, greater inclusiveness of stakeholders in the creative industries should be promoted ( Eikhof, 2020 ).

5.2. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cultural organizations – Museums and libraries

The COVID-19 pandemic is very different from other forms of crisis (e.g., financial, political) because it has had a significant overall impact on all business models, organisations, creative workers and amateurs ( OECD, 2020 ). For example, in many countries social distancing requirements and national lockdowns have caused serious difficulties to libraries that provided face-to-face services ( Agostino et al., 2020 ). Museums have also faced significant constraints during lockdown. In other words, cultural organisations have had to reorganise their interactions with their customers in a more dynamic way in order to survive during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

Researchers investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cultural organisations have considered the resilience strategies used to overcome the crisis ( Agostino et al., 2020 , Koulouris et al., 2020 , Mehta and Wang, 2020 , Samaroudi et al., 2020 ). Some cultural organizations (e.g., museums, galleries) were able to adopt digital technologies and develop their digital infrastructure ( Li, Nucciarelli, Roden, & Graham, 2016 ), which enabled them to survive and mitigate the impact of the pandemic.

In terms of the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis, museums and libraries have demonstrated their resilience by developing different approaches and responses to overcome the challenges they have experienced. For instance, Mehta and Wang (2020) considered the digital response by libraries. The most recent examples include the creation of library consortia, which allow all consortia members to access and share digital technologies (e.g., cloud technology, big data, websites, marketing) in order to reduce costs and provide broader access to digital infrastructure. This type of digital library model attempts to replace traditional library services during lockdown ( Machovec, 2020 ). The readiness of libraries for this crisis has also been examined ( Botherway, 2020 , Carbery et al., 2020 , Guo et al., 2021 , Harris, 2021 , Koulouris et al., 2020 , Machovec, 2020 , Ocholla, 2021 , Peruginelli et al., 2021 , Pokorná et al., 2020 ). Libraries have demonstrated strong resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic along with the potential to grow by attracting more readers. In this respect, the development of a digital safety net is crucial for creative and cultural organizations in different world regions ( Pokorná et al., 2020 , Council, 2020 , Council, 2021 , Raimo et al., 2021 ).

In order to attract more visitors, museums have begun to adopt more digital technologies. These enable museums to reduce costs and improve the visitor experience during lockdown. More specifically, the digital transformation has led museums to reconsider their social role with respects to the new positioning on the market and how they can attract a new target audience digitally ( Raimo et al., 2021 ). Museums have revealed the importance of using digital technologies as their survival instrument. For example, during the lockdown Italian state museums facilitated online activities and changed their communication strategies to make better use of social media ( Agostino et al., 2020 ).

These activities considerably improved the relations between museums and customers, and were effective in creating the new concept of the participatory museum and promoting post-visit learning. This means that digital technologies allowed museums to explore new ways of involving visitors by increasing their social media activity and providing online access options to attend the museum, as well as online tours ( Raimo et al., 2021 ). Heritage organisations, memory institutions and museums in the US and UK also considered using similar approaches to digitalisation as a resilient response to the COVID-19 pandemic ( Samaroudi et al., 2020 ).

5.3. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the information technology and software sectors

Despite COVID-19′s negative effects on businesses, industries, and human beings, the pandemic has had a strong positive impact on the products and services provided by the IT industry ( Bartik et al., 2020 , George et al., 2020 , Panigutti et al., 2020 ). Companies selling digital technologies experienced a surge in demand for their products and services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Many businesses have introduced digitalisation processes as a mitigation tool to deal with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic ( Fletcher and Griffiths, 2020 , Hantrais et al., 2021 , Kamal, 2020 , Lee and Trimi, 2020 , Klein and Todesco, 2021 ). At the same time, the continuing use of digital tools could negatively affect the public’s mental health, with potential to cause internet addiction, psychological problems, and so on ( Marabelli, Vaast, & Li, 2021 ).

Indeed, work, education, medicine and social lives have moved online, and an increase in digital tools and services is considered the only safe way to keep businesses operating and growing ( Naidoo, 2020 , Yost, 2020 , Saide and Sheng, 2021 ). By implementing and adopting IT in their business models, organisations wanted to demonstrate to employees and customers their capacity to survive, adapt and operate during the crisis ( Carugati, Mola, Plé, Lauwers, & Giangreco, 2020 ).

A resilient response was created by using digital services ( Panigutti et al., 2020 ), termed the digital safety net. This is often low-cost or free to small businesses services, and includes communications, digital marketing and advertising, websites and social media, back-office tools, and e-commerce and online payment tools. The small and large businesses which use more digital tools, technologies, and online marketplaces have operated better during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Connected Commerce Council, 2020 ).

The IT and software industries have expanded significantly due to increased demand for IT and software products, including MS Teams, Zoom, and other online communication digital platforms ( Dwivedi et al., 2020 , Marabelli et al., 2021 ). In addition, the IT industry has facilitated the complementarity effect within other creative industries, and served as a digital spillover for firm resilience and better performance (e.g., online delivery, online teaching and learning, online mentoring sessions and meetings) ( Soni, 2020 ). Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of technology for both work and leisure through digital transformation ( Dey et al., 2020 , Marabelli et al., 2021 ).

5.4. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social media

Websites and social media played an important role in the digital safety net while lockdown restrictions were in place and physical contact between people was limited (Connected Commerce Council, 2020 , Landi et al., 2021 , Marabelli et al., 2021 ). Businesses increased their use of remote services via social media tools and platforms (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Tik-Tok) ( Bae et al., 2021 , Cifuentes-Faura, 2021 , Ferrara et al., 2020 , Marabelli et al., 2021 ).

Recent studies have investigated the “infodemics” which appeared during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic ( Apuke and Omar, 2021 , Bae et al., 2021 , Cifuentes-Faura, 2021 , Ferrara et al., 2020 , Greenspan and Loftus, 2021 , Kumar and Sharma, 2021 , Zeng and Chan, 2021 ). “Infodemics” refers here to the dissemination of fake news, especially via social media. During the COVID-19 pandemic social media has been widely used by many people, and fake information has started to disseminate very rapidly ( Apuke and Omar, 2021 , Hou et al., ).

In some cases, “infodemics” could lead individuals to make decisions based on false assumptions, the consequences of which could become counterproductive for their interests and those of society as a whole ( Kumar & Sharma, 2021 ). Apuke and Omar (2021) stressed that an increase in COVID-19 cases worldwide would facilitate the spread of fake news and stories. It has been argued that individuals search for new information on how to protect themselves from the virus, which will eventually lead them to access fake information. Filtering information and avoiding fraudulent activities thus becomes a priority when forming a resilient response to the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside the development of new communication strategies between businesses and customers ( Verma & Gustafsson, 2020 ).

Another new trend which arose during the COVID-19 pandemic was the emergence of a new group of influencers on social media who promoted various brands and trademarks ( Casaló, Flavián, & Ibáñez-Sánchez, 2020 ). These influencers, also known as “digital first personalities”, promote a variety of products to their followers on social media (e.g., Instagram, Facebook, Twitter) ( Hutchinson, 2020 ). An example of using the social media platforms is introduced by the company Stella, which communicated with their customers through “the adoption of digital tools and operations across the business” (Connected Commerce Council, 2020, p. 88 ).

5.5. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music industry and festivals

The music industry is of paramount importance for the creative economy ( Anderton, 2011 , Robinson, 2015 ). The cancelation of concerts, festivals, tours, and solo performances due to COVID-19 has had a profound negative effect on the music industry ( Gu et al., 2020 ). In addition, musical events have been at risk of suffering from low attendance because of the increasing costs and restrictions on travelling, accommodation and social distancing.

Like other industries, small businesses in the music and entertainment sectors have been forced to develop creative ways to deliver their services in a socially-distanced world. Challenging their traditional model of in–person delivery of services, the COVID-19 pandemic has pushed these firms towards a greater use of digital tools, especially video conferencing ( Connected Commerce Council, 2020, p. 116 ).

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, musicians usually interacted with their audiences face-to-face ( Vandenberg, Berghman, & Schaap, 2020 ). The literature examined the impact of social media (e.g., Facebook, Instagram) on the music industry, for example the increase in the number of people attending online music events ( Bartholomew and Mason, 2020 , Burroughs, 2014 , Gibbs et al., 2015 , Gu et al., 2020 ). In terms of the COVID-19 pandemic, one initial response of musicians and bands was to move their performances online, as well as record them in advance and share them as screencasts. This has enabled these musicians to keep in touch with their fans and audience, as well as to evolve their activity beyond the crisis ( Gu et al., 2020 ). Online streaming has been considered as a technologically easy way ( Keane & Chen, 2017 ) to carry on their activity with respects to the national lockdowns and social distancing rules.

There is significant uncertainty about the long-term impact of the pandemic on the music industry, particularly in respect of the format of such events, as further restrictions may be placed on the number of attendees. It is unclear whether music festivals might become more ‘exclusive’ due to space limitations and a corresponding increase in ticket prices ( Davies, 2020 ). This could restrict access to some music events and make face-to-face performances less affordable to the general public. More affordable events using digital tools, such as augmented and virtual realities or immersive technologies, could thus have more potential in the future ( Dashper and Finkel, 2020 , Bossey, 2020 , Davies, 2020 ).

5.6. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on publishing and journalism

Journalism has always been an essential public service. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on journalism has been mixed ( Cifuentes-Faura, 2021 , Davies, 2020 , Hess and Waller, 2021 ). On the one hand, publishing houses have limited access to information at a time when press freedoms are under attack and journalists are working in dangerous conditions that could affect their physical health and well-being ( Bernadas & Ilagan, 2020 ).

On the other hand, there has been an increasing demand for up-to-date information and news related to the COVID-19 pandemic ( Park, Fisher, Lee, Mcguinness, Sang, O'Neil, & Fuller, 2020 ), and for the latest updates on restrictions to business activities, education and so on. While local newspapers have been negatively affected (with many closing down or moving online), larger outlets and news channels have been more resilient with more people visiting their websites on a regular basis. In addition, users have become more digitally active, frequently commenting on and reacting to news stories. In order to reach customers quickly, newspapers and publishers have been promoting information about the COVID-19 pandemic on their websites and on social media and using digital newsletters ( Hess & Waller, 2021 ). Digital technologies were instrumental in allowing journalists to continue working during the lockdowns ( Gu et al., 2020 ).

Certainly, digitalisation is not the only answer to most of the challenges across different sub sectors. Many digital technologies such as Kindle and audio books, Facebook and Whatsapp were the lifeline during the COVID-19, while the COVID-19 pandemic further articulated the importance of using digital tools and embedding them in a business model of organizations, integrating them along to generate synergies.

6. Discussion and avenues for future research

The analysis of the literature discussed in the paper clearly demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the creative industries worldwide ( Dümcke, 2021 , Betzler et al., 2020 , Comunian and England, 2020 ). Two dimensions emerged during our systematic literature review: firstly, the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries, and secondly, their responses to the crisis. With regard to the immediate impact of the COVID-19 we identified a number of challenges, such as cash flow issues, revenue loss, and increase in demand for IT and software services ( Klein and Todesco, 2021 , Ratten, 2020a , Raimo et al., 2021 , Carugati et al., 2020 , Yeganeh, 2021 ). In order to overcome these challenges, it is essential for policy-makers to design long-term employment support schemes for the creative industries ( Williams & Oz-Yalaman, 2021 ) as well as to improve their digital capabilities and resource capacity.

Our systemic literature review demonstrated that the digital capabilities of firms and their ability to adapt were crucial components of resilience strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have claimed that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) has enabled the survival and economic growth of some sub-sectors within the creative industries ( Koulouris et al., 2020 , Samaroudi et al., 2020 ). Several studies evidenced that organisations which enhanced their digital capabilities would create new boundaries and opportunities for growth (Batra, 2020; Gabryelczyk, 2020 ).

Businesses have had to adapt their business models in response to the new challenges posed by the crisis, especially in areas such as real-time decision-making, digital nets, business continuity and testing business resilience ( Donthu & Gustafsson, 2020 ). There are a number of opportunities which might be derived from the resilience strategies of some creative industries, e.g., using digital tools to engage with customers. Museums, musicians, artists and other cultural organisations have adopted digital tools to interact with their customers and audiences, and to deliver their services online (e.g., online exhibitions, recorded tours, concerts, lectures, etc.) ( Agostino et al., 2020 , Mehta and Wang, 2020 , Gu et al., 2020 , Botherway, 2020 , Carbery et al., 2020 , Guo et al., 2021 ).

However, the visual arts, publishing, and social media sectors faced considerable challenges and have demonstrated a lack of ability to cope with the current crisis ( Cifuentes-Faura, 2021 , Davies, 2020 ). By contrast, IT and software companies have benefited from the COVID-19 pandemic and experienced a surge in demand for their products and services ( Kamal, 2020 , Gabryelczyk, 2020 , Sheng et al., 2020 ).

Our systematic literature review has identified a number of research gaps which could be addressed to further understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (see Table A2 in Appendix) on the creative industries. Taking a lead from prior reviews ( Paul and Rosado-Serrano, 2019 , Chen et al., 2021 , Rosado-Serrano et al., 2018 ) we follow the TCCM framework to develop the future research agenda. Accordingly, the following sections investigate future research directions in terms of theory development, context, characteristics, and methodology ( Paul & Rosado-Serrano, 2019 ).

6.1. Theory development (T)

Since the early 1980s researchers ( Staw et al., 1981 , Meyer, 1982 ) investigated how organisations respond to external shocks using resilience theory. More recent studies on resilience used crisis management ( Ratten, 2020a , Ratten, 2020b , Ratten, 2020c ), disaster management ( Ocholla, 2021 ) and knowledge management ( Saide & Sheng, 2021 ) theories to explain how firms deal with crises and environmental shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we noticed the limited use of organisational resilience theory with regard to the creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, small businesses and self-employed individuals in the creative industries have remained under-researched fields in the resilience literature ( Doern et al., 2019 ). While recent literature has focused on organisational resilience ( Williams et al., 2017 , Barrios, 2016 , Herbane, 2019 ), few studies (5% of the reviewed sample) have examined the individual characteristics of cultural entrepreneurs ( Newsinger and Serafini, 2021 , Apuke and Omar, 2021 ; Brunt, 2021) and how they are overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic, including their engagement with external stakeholders and how the relationship with stakeholders have changed over time ( Friedman & Miles, 2002 ). In particular, highly conflicting relations between organizations and external stakeholders have been ignored, with few attempts to integrate the separate strands of stakeholder theory to organizational resilience theory. Friedman and Miles (2002) developed a model that combines stakeholder theory with a realist theory of social change and distinguishes between different types of stakeholders. Their model may expand the discussion on what other factors, apart from organisations own and internal attempts, can provide organization resilience.

Altogether, the insights from the organisational resilience theory and stakeholder’s theory could be applied as a basis for future empirical studies to investigate the internal and external factors that drive resilience during of the COVID-19 pandemic across the creative industries. We need new theoretical approaches that can explain the resilience strategies used in the creative industries, such as the mechanisms the self-employed or SMEs in the creative industries used in order to survive the COVID-19 pandemic ( Newsinger & Serafini, 2021 ).

In addition, Cooke and DePropris (2011) mentioned that creative industries located in agglomeration economies have higher demand for their products and services. However, the rapid implementation of digital tools in business models during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Fletcher and Griffiths, 2020 , Hantrais et al., 2021 ) has demonstrated that the location of creative enterprises no longer matters. This has implications for future research in business management, economic geography, and industrial economics, as new business models in the COVID-19 era need to be developed towards digitization ( Yost, 2020 , Saide and Sheng, 2021 ). In addition, future research would benefit from empirically testing and comparing cross-national differences in resilience settings ( Cellini & Cuccia, 2019 ) of the creative industries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.2. Context (C)

In this review, we identified that a significant portion of research into COVID-19′s impact on the creative industries is related to the creative economy, or to specific industries such as social media, publishing, journalism, IT, software, music, museums and libraries (e.g., Apuke and Omar, 2021 , Betzler et al., 2020 , Desson et al., 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 ). Table A2 in the Appendix introduces the suggestions for future research into the creative subsectors under review and the overall creative economy. However, within the limits of our inclusion criteria, we did not find any studies examining the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 on the fashion, architecture, crafts, advertising and marketing, film, TV, radio, video, and photography industries.

In terms of country of research, our literature review revealed that most studies in this field were conducted in the UK, Central Europe, China and Australia (e.g., Chau et al., 2021 , Cowell, 2020 , Botherway, 2020 ). Future research should examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries beyond North America and European countries going to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. For example, the experience of Korea, Singapore and Japan could offer a model providing appropriate settings to test the role of local context (e.g., IT infrastructure in Republic of Korea) in overcoming the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic ( Kim et al., 2020 ). In addition, future research could also focus on emerging and transitional economies to generalize prior results and test the organisational resilience theory. Finally, it would be useful to investigate the role of the local context (economic conditions, cultural differences, IT infrastructure, other settings) as a moderating factor to overcome the crisis ( Chen et al., 2021 ).

We argue that the COVID-19 pandemic created a series of inherent constraints for the creative industries. Many sub-sectors in the creative industries require governmental support due to the nature of their activities (e.g., freelancers, the self-employed and those on zero-hours contracts) ( Chandler and Cuneo, 2021 , Burger and Easton, 2020 ). For these categories, their income streams disappeared in the space of a few days following the introduction of restrictions. Governmental support is thus required in order to protect these categories of workers. Subsequent research should pay more attention to the heterogeneity of creative industry workers needs further investigation, in particular in order to understand how the most vulnerable categories of creative workers have been affected.

Research requires the development of the long-term policy responses needed to support the creative industries ( Ratten, 2020a ). Building on the strengths of the creative industries, there is a call for greater investment in the digital technologies needed to support the 'remote' delivery of products and services required to make the creative economy work ( Harper, 2020 ). Future research should also consider the digital maturity of the countries and organisations combatting the negative impact of the pandemic ( Dwivedi et al., 2020 ). In addition, it would be useful to investigate the attitudes and motivation of customers using new IT solutions to access the creative industries’ activities online and offline. Synergy and complementarity effects across the creative industries may thus become an important avenue for future research ( Williams et al., 2017 ).

6.3. Characteristics (C)

Our literature review has addressed this phenomenon of constructs from various perspectives, units of analysis, explanatory variables and case studies, and so on. Many studies considered digital technologies to be an important conduit for resilience and survival during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Kim et al., 2020 , Raimo et al., 2021 , Klein and Todesco, 2021 , Peruginelli et al., 2021 ). Indeed, digital technologies have been considered a determinant to foster business model innovation, as well as a new way of creating and capturing value ( Al-Debei and Avison, 2010 , Gordijn and Akkermans, 2001 ), in particular in the creative industries ( Li, 2020 ).

The COVID-19 pandemic has a number of lessons for decision-makers, including the importance of adapting to highly-volatile business environments, digital technology adoption strategies, and the digital maturity of organisations ( Dwivedi et al., 2020 , Fletcher and Griffiths, 2020 , Kim et al., 2020 ). It is therefore important to further understand the relationship between digital technologies and organisational capabilities in creative industries during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

For organisational resilience during the pandemic, digital capabilities have become one of the most important elements of organisational capabilities. We consider digital capabilities (DCs) to be a crucial element of the dynamic capabilities framework ( Teece, 2012 ), which is important for business performance ( Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000 , Arend, 2014 , Teece and Leih, 2016 , Rashid and Ratten, 2021 ). Digital capabilities could be operationalized in order to respond and adapt to rapid changes in the environment ( Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000 ), e.g., as in the case of the changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Furthermore, the ability of businesses to respond to changes in their external environment ( Marshall et al., 2015 , Dahles and Susilowati, 2015 ) - in other words, their adaptive capacity - could further assist firms and individuals in the creative industries to cope with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We refer here to the “capacity for an enterprise to survive, adapt, and grow in the face of turbulent change” ( Fiksel, 2006, p. 16 ). Drawing on the resilience literature ( Archer, 2009 , Williams and Vorley, 2017 , Heeks and Ospina, 2019 , Eikhof, 2020 ) we developed a response matrix to the COVID-19 pandemic for the creative industries.

This matrix explains how digital capabilities and the ability to adapt to changes using organizational resource capacity can influence the creative industries’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is different from prior research on digital capabilities ( Li et al., 2016 , Herbane, 2013 , Khalil and Belitski, 2020 ) which did not show how these capabilities can be used to respond to exogenous shocks. We identified four potential strategic responses, namely constancy (low digital capabilities and low ability to adapt), adaptation to survive (high digital capabilities and low ability to adapt), adaptation to growth (high digital capabilities and high ability to adapt), and strategic stability (low digital capabilities and high ability to adapt) ( Fig. 5 ).

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Response matrix of the creative industries to the COVID-19 pandemic. Source: Authors.

The creative subsectors with low digital capabilities and low ability to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic are part of the “Constancy” response matrix quadrant (e.g., music industry, festivals, cultural events, theatres, supporting services to cultural venues). These types of creative industries are particularly ill-equipped to face the pandemic. Workers in these sectors were forced to suspend their business activities temporarily or indefinitely, and/or had to seek temporary employment to replace the loss of income. Many creative workers have lost their jobs and left the market due to low levels of digital readiness, an inability to adapt and lack of resource capacity, and because of the nature of the industry employment model (e.g., labour market regulation, part-time employment and self-employment) ( Patrick & Elsden, 2020 ).

The creative subsectors (e.g., social media, publishing and journalism) with low development of digital capabilities but a high ability to adapt to the new conditions appear in the “Adaptation to survive” response matrix quadrant. They are operating and seeking to implement digital solutions in order to create small revenue streams that can sustain their businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic ( Connected Commerce Council, 2020 ).

The creative subsectors that combine high digital capabilities, capacity to adapt and advanced digital tools (e.g., digital competences, skills, expertise and platform-based business) continue to operate, meeting the parameters of the “Adaptation to growth” response matrix quadrant. Subsectors such as IT and software have demonstrated that they are well-equipped to develop digital technologies which the other creative subsectors could use to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, creative subsectors which were able to continue to (fully or partially) operate (e.g., museums, libraries, exhibitions) are placed in the “Strategic stability” response matrix quadrant. Some of them closed down their operations and used a combination of government support and cost reductions to endure the restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic until they were allowed to reopen. Future studies may extend the research towards the response matrix on how the COVID-19 pandemic affected businesses and the self-employed in the creative industries. It is also important to understand how the measures imposed by governments (e.g., job retention schemes) affected firms in the creative industries.

6.4. Methodology (M)

The reviewed literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries included both qualitative (e.g., Agostino et al., 2020 , Davies, 2020 , Temiz and Salelkar, 2020 ) and quantitative methods (regression analysis, Monte Carlo simulation). However, there are too few quantitative papers to examine this area for research ( Bae et al., 2021 , Apuke and Omar, 2021 , Koulouris et al., 2020 , Urbaczewski and Lee, 2020 ). Future studies could consider developing more sophisticated quantitative-based and mixed-method approaches when examining the social and economic impact of the pandemic on the creative industries. We developed several recommendations regarding research methods, data collection techniques and sample selection methods in order to improve the methodological rigor of the COVID-19 pandemic – creative industries research.

6.4.1. Methods to analyse the data and data collection

There are many opportunities to undertake research based on survey and multiple case study methods using primary data. Previous studies used mostly case-study analysis with small groups ( Gu et al., 2020 , Temiz and Salelkar, 2020 , Raimo et al., 2021 ), content analysis ( Young, 2020 , Ocholla, 2021 ), or review of the literature or government programmes ( Gabryelczyk, 2020 , Dümcke, 2021 , Verma and Gustafsson, 2020 ). The samples used in the reviewed literature were small, which restricted the generalisation of the results. In terms of the quantitative pathway, scholars could use the Eurostat database, in particular The Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor, IBISWorld, D&B Hoovers, and Crunchbase databases to access the firms or country data to investigate the similarities, differences, etc. The research would benefit from longitudinal studies to examine the dynamics of responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the scholars could develop new frameworks and test the theoretical lenses using the collected data ( Paul & Rosado-Serrano, 2019 ).

6.4.2. Sample selection

There are several challenges related to sample selection. First, the vast majority of research investigated the companies in the creative industries, cultural organisations, or specific countries. Therefore, more research is needed towards the self-employed entrepreneurs, freelancers, multinational companies. With regards to the country selection reported in Table 1 , it will be beneficial to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic towards the creative industries in developed, developing, emerging and transitional economies as the research towards countries was rather sporadic. In addition, the research would benefit from the comparative studies with multi-countries selection. This would enable scholars to generalise the results of the research and provide policy implications.

7. Conclusions

In this paper, we presented a systematic literature review in order to understand the ways the creative industries have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic so far. This work provides a comprehensive and detailed overview. We argue that different creative subsectors encountered both positive and negative effects as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we identified areas within the creative subsectors which have responded differently to the COVID-19 pandemic. This enabled us to create the response matrix.

We demonstrated that the creative industries have not shown a sufficient resilience to the COVID-19 pandemic overall. The impact was particularly severe for self-employed and part-time creative workers, with the exception in the publishing, social media, IT and software subsectors. The subsectors, such as museums and libraries have been unable to fully exploit the digital technologies and infrastructure made available for online delivery of their products. Through our literature review, it became evident that the creative industries have been one of the most overlooked in economic recovery efforts in many countries ( Joffe, 2020 , Pacella et al., 2020 , Comunian and England, 2020 , Ratten, 2020a ).

In many cases, the creative industries were supported by government measures in the form of business grants and job retention schemes. However, in the longer run, if the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic persist, it is plausible that only the most resilient creative subsectors will survive. In order to prosper and grow, the creative industries would require an increase in their financial and human capital capacity. They will also need to employ digital safety nets and develop their digital skills further.

We argue that the resilience of the creative industries is important for their ability to survive, sustain their level of operations or workforce, and adapt in order to grow. Through our analysis we have identified essential conditions for survival and adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic, namely the adaptation and use of digital capabilities by the creative subsectors.

As one of the policy implications, we suggest the creation of a more centralised source of aid for the creative industries through professional associations and stakeholders ( Bazalgette, 2017 ). Such a centralised structure might have a range of advantages, namely lower overhead costs, access to a broader network of artists and opportunities, a centralised database of host organisations, a network of partners, and a mechanism to provide better overall support to the sector based on feedback ( OECD, 2018 ).

In addition, the bodies who make decisions on grants and funds need to provide clarity regarding uncertainty over COVID-19′s impact on grants and awards ( Chandler & Cuneo, 2021 ). Since artists were unable to take advantage of face-to-face networking opportunities, the role of the sector in supporting organisations and facilitating virtual connections will be vital. Other concerns (e.g., restrictions in accessing contacts and networks, community engagement) in the creative subsectors vary, so professional associations need to pay particular attention to supporting the needs of different subsectors ( Burger & Easton, 2020 ). Financial support is required for all these activities, e.g., longer-term commitments from major funders for the sector, funding to recover lost revenue, the creation of new approaches to income generation (partnerships with commercial sponsors, development of new commercial models, new forms of philanthropy, etc.).

We acknowledged that Table A2 , which covers future research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries, is limited to the scope of this study’s research question. This is understandable given the bibliometric review method. This literature review does not provide insights into the legitimacy of the organisational resilience theory, research method or measures used to undertake this study. In this research, we considered only peer-reviewed papers in recognised international journals which were published in English. The results of our study could be extended by taking into consideration books, abstracts and reports ( Ammirato et al., 2020 ). In addition, the themes developed as a result of this review may focus on the different units of analysis within each theme. While this does not allow the generalizability of findings across the themes, our interest in generating the six themes was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the responses of different representative stakeholders within each theme. Taking into account that a solid systematic literature review covers at least a 10-year time period ( Paul & Criado, 2020 ), and up to 50 years ( Paul & Feliciano-Cestero, 2021 ), our literature review is limited to the events of the COVID-19 pandemic from November 2019 to April 2021. This research observed publications immediately after the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is still uncertainty about how long the pandemic will last, and there is a time-lag in publications exploring the consequences of the crisis.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


We are grateful to the British Council Creative Spark Project for Kazakhstan (project number EV16040X) that enabled us to conduct this research.


Olena Khlystova is a Henley Business School PhD student in the department of Leadership, Organisations and Behaviour. Her research interests that range across the creative sector, entrepreneurial ecosystems, entrepreneurship, economic growth and emerging economies. Olena gained her MA in International Business from the Kyiv National Economic University, Ukraine, in 2019. She leads the Research Project “Creative spark Kazakhstan” in creative industries funded by the British Council.

Professor Yelena Kalyuzhnova is a Professor and Director of The Centre for Euro-Asian studies at the University of Reading. She has a wide knowledge of the transition and emerging economies, was an economic adviser on Caspian issues to the Rt. Hon. Lord Fraser of Carmyllie, Q.C., House of Lords and an economic adviser to All-Party Parliamentary Group on Kazakhstan (2006-2010). Yelena is currently a Senior Visiting Research Fellow of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. She received a prestigious Bergson Prize for her paper “Corruption and Economic Development in Energy-Rich Economies”.

Professor Maksim Belitski is a Professor in Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the Henley Business School, University of Reading, United Kingdom. He is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Development Strategies, Indiana University Bloomington (US). He has worked for University of Bolzano (Italy), Loughborough University, University College London (UK), University of Leicester, University of Economics Bratislava, Belarusian State University. His research interests lie in the area of Entrepreneurship, innovation and regional economics, with a particular focus on Entrepreneurship as a spillover of knowledge and creativity. He is an Editor of Small Business Economics: An Entrepreneurship Journal.

Appendix A. 

See Table A1 , Table A2 .

Journals included in the literature review and the impact factor.

Future research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative industries.

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Student Opinion

How Did the Covid-19 Pandemic Affect You, Your Family and Your Community?

This week is the fourth anniversary of the pandemic. What are your most lasting memories? How did it reshape your life — and the world?

A movie theater marquee with a message saying that events in March are postponed.

By Jeremy Engle

It has been four years since the World Health Organization declared Covid-19 a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The New York Times writes of the anniversary:

Four years ago today, society began to shut down. Shortly after noon Eastern on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared Covid — or “the coronavirus,” then the more popular term — to be a global pandemic. Stocks plummeted in the afternoon. In the span of a single hour that night, President Donald Trump delivered an Oval Office address about Covid, Tom Hanks posted on Instagram that he had the virus and the N.B.A. announced it had canceled the rest of its season. It was a Wednesday, and thousands of schools would shut by the end of the week. Workplaces closed, too. People washed their hands frequently and touched elbows instead of shaking hands (although the C.D.C. continued to discourage widespread mask wearing for several more weeks). The worst pandemic in a century had begun.

For some people, the earliest days of the pandemic may feel like a lifetime ago; for others, it may feel like just yesterday. But for all of us Covid has indelibly changed our lives and the world. What do you remember about the earliest days of the pandemic? When did it first hit home for you? How did it affect you, your family and your community? What lessons did you learn about yourself and the world?

In “ Four Years On, Covid Has Reshaped Life for Many Americans ,” Julie Bosman writes that while the threat of severe illness and death has faded for many people, the pandemic’s effects still linger:

Jessie Thompson, a 36-year-old mother of two in Chicago, is reminded of the Covid-19 pandemic every day. Sometimes it happens when she picks up her children from day care and then lets them romp around at a neighborhood park on the way home. Other times, it’s when she gets out the shower at 7 a.m. after a weekday workout. “I always think: In my past life, I’d have to be on the train in 15 minutes,” said Ms. Thompson, a manager at United Airlines. A hybrid work schedule has replaced her daily commute to the company headquarters in downtown Chicago, giving Ms. Thompson more time with her children and a deeper connection to her neighbors. “The pandemic is such a negative memory,” she said. “But I have this bright spot of goodness from it.” For much of the United States, the pandemic is now firmly in the past, four years to the day that the Trump administration declared a national emergency as the virus spread uncontrollably. But for many Americans, the pandemic’s effects are still a prominent part of their daily lives. In interviews, some people said that the changes are subtle but unmistakable: Their world feels a little smaller, with less socializing and fewer crowds. Parents who began to home-school their children never stopped. Many people are continuing to mourn relatives and spouses who died of Covid or of complications from the coronavirus. The World Health Organization dropped its global health emergency designation in May 2023, but millions of people who survived the virus are suffering from long Covid, a mysterious and frequently debilitating condition that causes fatigue, muscle pain and cognitive decline . One common sentiment has emerged. The changes brought on by the pandemic now feel lasting, a shift that may have permanently reshaped American life.

As part of our coverage of the pandemic’s anniversary, The Times asked readers how Covid has changed their attitudes toward life. Here is what they said:

“I’m a much more grateful person. Life is precious, and I see the beauty in all the little miracles that happen all around me. I’m a humbled human being now. I have more empathy and compassion towards everyone.” — Gil Gallegos, 59, Las Vegas, N.M. “The pandemic has completely changed my approach to educating my child. My spouse and I had never seriously considered home-schooling until March 2020. Now, we wouldn’t have it any other way.” — Kim Harper, 47, Clinton, Md. “I had contamination O.C.D. before the pandemic began. The last four years have been a steady string of my worst fears coming true. I never feel safe anymore. I know very well now that my body can betray me at any time.” — Adelia Brown, 23, Madison, Wis. “I don’t take for granted the pleasure of being around people. Going to a show, a road trip, a restaurant, people watching at the opera. I love it.” — Philip Gunnels, 66, Sugar Land, Texas “My remaining years are limited. On the one hand, I feel cheated out of many experiences I was looking forward to; on the other hand, I do not want to live my remaining years with long Covid. It’s hard.” — Sandra Wulach, 77, Edison, N.J.

Students, read one or both of the articles and then tell us:

How did the Covid-19 pandemic affect you, your family and your community? How did it reshape your life and the world? What are your most lasting memories of this difficult period? What do you want to remember most? What do you want to forget?

How did you change during this time? What did you learn about yourself and about life? What do you wish you knew then that you know now?

Ms. Bosman writes that some of the people she interviewed revealed that four years after the global pandemic began, “Their world feels a little smaller, with less socializing and fewer crowds.” However, Gil Gallegos told The Times: “I’m a much more grateful person. Life is precious, and I see the beauty in all the little miracles that happen all around me. I’m a humbled human being now. I have more empathy and compassion towards everyone.” Which of the experiences shared in the two articles reminded you the most of your own during and after the pandemic and why? How did Covid change your overall outlook on life?

“The last normal day of school.” “The nursing home shut its doors.” “The bride wore Lululemon.” These are just a few quotes from “ When the Pandemic Hit Home ,” an article in which The Times asked readers to share their memories of the world shutting down. Read the article and then tell us about a time when the pandemic hit home for you.

In the last four years, scientists have unraveled some of the biggest mysteries about Covid. In another article , The Times explores many remaining questions about the coronavirus: Are superdodgers real? Is Covid seasonal? And what’s behind its strangest symptoms? Read the article and then tell us what questions you still have about the virus and its effects.

How do you think history books will tell the story of the pandemic? If you were to put together a time capsule of artifacts from this era to show people 100 years from now, what would you include and why? What will you tell your grandchildren about what it was like to live during this time?

Students 13 and older in the United States and Britain, and 16 and older elsewhere, are invited to comment. All comments are moderated by the Learning Network staff, but please keep in mind that once your comment is accepted, it will be made public and may appear in print.

Find more Student Opinion questions here. Teachers, check out this guide to learn how you can incorporate these prompts into your classroom.

Jeremy Engle joined The Learning Network as a staff editor in 2018 after spending more than 20 years as a classroom humanities and documentary-making teacher, professional developer and curriculum designer working with students and teachers across the country. More about Jeremy Engle

Essay on COVID-19 Pandemic

As a result of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) outbreak, daily life has been negatively affected, impacting the worldwide economy. Thousands of individuals have been sickened or died as a result of the outbreak of this disease. When you have the flu or a viral infection, the most common symptoms include fever, cold, coughing up bone fragments, and difficulty breathing, which may progress to pneumonia. It’s important to take major steps like keeping a strict cleaning routine, keeping social distance, and wearing masks, among other things. This virus’s geographic spread is accelerating (Daniel Pg 93). Governments restricted public meetings during the start of the pandemic to prevent the disease from spreading and breaking the exponential distribution curve. In order to avoid the damage caused by this extremely contagious disease, several countries quarantined their citizens. However, this scenario had drastically altered with the discovery of the vaccinations. The research aims to investigate the effect of the Covid-19 epidemic and its impact on the population’s well-being.

There is growing interest in the relationship between social determinants of health and health outcomes. Still, many health care providers and academics have been hesitant to recognize racism as a contributing factor to racial health disparities. Only a few research have examined the health effects of institutional racism, with the majority focusing on interpersonal racial and ethnic prejudice Ciotti et al., Pg 370. The latter comprises historically and culturally connected institutions that are interconnected. Prejudice is being practiced in a variety of contexts as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. In some ways, the outbreak has exposed pre-existing bias and inequity.

Thousands of businesses are in danger of failure. Around 2.3 billion of the world’s 3.3 billion employees are out of work. These workers are especially susceptible since they lack access to social security and adequate health care, and they’ve also given up ownership of productive assets, which makes them highly vulnerable. Many individuals lose their employment as a result of lockdowns, leaving them unable to support their families. People strapped for cash are often forced to reduce their caloric intake while also eating less nutritiously (Fraser et al, Pg 3). The epidemic has had an impact on the whole food chain, revealing vulnerabilities that were previously hidden. Border closures, trade restrictions, and confinement measures have limited farmer access to markets, while agricultural workers have not gathered crops. As a result, the local and global food supply chain has been disrupted, and people now have less access to healthy foods. As a consequence of the epidemic, many individuals have lost their employment, and millions more are now in danger. When breadwinners lose their jobs, become sick, or die, the food and nutrition of millions of people are endangered. Particularly severely hit are the world’s poorest small farmers and indigenous peoples.

Infectious illness outbreaks and epidemics have become worldwide threats due to globalization, urbanization, and environmental change. In developed countries like Europe and North America, surveillance and health systems monitor and manage the spread of infectious illnesses in real-time. Both low- and high-income countries need to improve their public health capacities (Omer et al., Pg 1767). These improvements should be financed using a mix of national and foreign donor money. In order to speed up research and reaction for new illnesses with pandemic potential, a global collaborative effort including governments and commercial companies has been proposed. When working on a vaccine-like COVID-19, cooperation is critical.

The epidemic has had an impact on the whole food chain, revealing vulnerabilities that were previously hidden. Border closures, trade restrictions, and confinement measures have limited farmer access to markets, while agricultural workers have been unable to gather crops. As a result, the local and global food supply chain has been disrupted, and people now have less access to healthy foods (Daniel et al.,Pg 95) . As a consequence of the epidemic, many individuals have lost their employment, and millions more are now in danger. When breadwinners lose their jobs, the food and nutrition of millions of people are endangered. Particularly severely hit are the world’s poorest small farmers and indigenous peoples.

While helping to feed the world’s population, millions of paid and unpaid agricultural laborers suffer from high levels of poverty, hunger, and bad health, as well as a lack of safety and labor safeguards, as well as other kinds of abuse at work. Poor people, who have no recourse to social assistance, must work longer and harder, sometimes in hazardous occupations, endangering their families in the process (Daniel Pg 96). When faced with a lack of income, people may turn to hazardous financial activities, including asset liquidation, predatory lending, or child labor, to make ends meet. Because of the dangers they encounter while traveling, working, and living abroad; migrant agricultural laborers are especially vulnerable. They also have a difficult time taking advantage of government assistance programs.

The pandemic also has a significant impact on education. Although many educational institutions across the globe have already made the switch to online learning, the extent to which technology is utilized to improve the quality of distance or online learning varies. This level is dependent on several variables, including the different parties engaged in the execution of this learning format and the incorporation of technology into educational institutions before the time of school closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. For many years, researchers from all around the globe have worked to determine what variables contribute to effective technology integration in the classroom Ciotti et al., Pg 371. The amount of technology usage and the quality of learning when moving from a classroom to a distant or online format are presumed to be influenced by the same set of variables. Findings from previous research, which sought to determine what affects educational systems ability to integrate technology into teaching, suggest understanding how teachers, students, and technology interact positively in order to achieve positive results in the integration of teaching technology (Honey et al., 2000). Teachers’ views on teaching may affect the chances of successfully incorporating technology into the classroom and making it a part of the learning process.

In conclusion, indeed, Covid 19 pandemic have affected the well being of the people in a significant manner. The economy operation across the globe have been destabilized as most of the people have been rendered jobless while the job operation has been stopped. As most of the people have been rendered jobless the living conditions of the people have also been significantly affected. Besides, the education sector has also been affected as most of the learning institutions prefer the use of online learning which is not effective as compared to the traditional method. With the invention of the vaccines, most of the developed countries have been noted to stabilize slowly, while the developing countries have not been able to vaccinate most of its citizens. However, despite the challenge caused by the pandemic, organizations have been able to adapt the new mode of online trading to be promoted.

Ciotti, Marco, et al. “The COVID-19 pandemic.”  Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences  57.6 (2020): 365-388.

Daniel, John. “Education and the COVID-19 pandemic.”  Prospects  49.1 (2020): 91-96.

Fraser, Nicholas, et al. “Preprinting the COVID-19 pandemic.”  BioRxiv  (2021): 2020-05.

Omer, Saad B., Preeti Malani, and Carlos Del Rio. “The COVID-19 pandemic in the US: a clinical update.”  Jama  323.18 (2020): 1767-1768.

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County and state officials brought their expertise and credibility as trusted community leaders, while officials at Personic, who operate the largest testing center in the region and have administered more than 100,000 COVID-19 tests since the beginning of the pandemic, brought the experience in health care and operations needed to reach patients quickly and safely. And because Personic owns its own testing lab, residents are able to have PCR test results back within 24 hours.

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It’s essential that residents have access to free, easy, and rapid testing in order to slow the spread of omicron.  Our public-private partnership provided an innovative solution to address a critical health care gap in our community and works together to close gaps in our health care system and meet the critical needs of our community.

We need all stakeholders working together with the common goal of keeping our communities safe and DELCO STRONG.

Sen. Tim Kearney represents the 26th Senatorial District, which includes portions of Delaware County. Dr. Monica Taylor is chair of the Delaware County Council. Dr. Azmat Husain is an emergency medicine physician and founder of Personic Health Care.

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