case study example thesis

How to Write a Case Study - All You Wanted to Know

case study example thesis

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

Types of Case Studies

  • Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
  • Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
  • Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
  • Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
  • Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.

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Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

  • Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
  • Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
  • Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
  • Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
  • Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
  • Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
  • References. Provide all the citations.

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

How to Write a Case Study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:

  • Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
  • Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
  • Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
  • Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
  • Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.


Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

  • Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
  • Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
  • Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
  • Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
  • Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
  • Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
  • Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
  • Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.

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Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.


  • Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
  • Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
  • Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
  • Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
  • Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
  • Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
  • Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
  • Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
  • Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
  • Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
  • Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
  • Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.

Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

How to Write a Case Study

📝 Step 📌 Description
1. Draft Structure 🖋️ Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
2. Introduction 📚 In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
3. Research Process 🔍 Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
4. Quotes and Data 💬 Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
5. Offer Solutions 💡 At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

  • Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
  • Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
  • Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
  • Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?

Problems to avoid:

  • Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
  • Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
  • Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.

How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

  • A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
  • The title should have the words “case study” in it
  • The title should range between 5-9 words in length
  • Your name and contact information
  • Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length.With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

Get Help Form Qualified Writers

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What Is A Case Study?

How to cite a case study in apa, how to write a case study.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

case study example thesis

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

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How to Write a Case Study | Examples & Methods

case study example thesis

What is a case study?

A case study is a research approach that provides an in-depth examination of a particular phenomenon, event, organization, or individual. It involves analyzing and interpreting data to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject under investigation. 

Case studies can be used in various disciplines, including business, social sciences, medicine ( clinical case report ), engineering, and education. The aim of a case study is to provide an in-depth exploration of a specific subject, often with the goal of generating new insights into the phenomena being studied.

When to write a case study

Case studies are often written to present the findings of an empirical investigation or to illustrate a particular point or theory. They are useful when researchers want to gain an in-depth understanding of a specific phenomenon or when they are interested in exploring new areas of inquiry. 

Case studies are also useful when the subject of the research is rare or when the research question is complex and requires an in-depth examination. A case study can be a good fit for a thesis or dissertation as well.

Case study examples

Below are some examples of case studies with their research questions:

How do small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries manage risks?Risk management practices in SMEs in Ghana
What factors contribute to successful organizational change?A case study of a successful organizational change at Company X
How do teachers use technology to enhance student learning in the classroom?The impact of technology integration on student learning in a primary school in the United States
How do companies adapt to changing consumer preferences?Coca-Cola’s strategy to address the declining demand for sugary drinks
What are the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the hospitality industry?The impact of COVID-19 on the hotel industry in Europe
How do organizations use social media for branding and marketing?The role of Instagram in fashion brand promotion
How do businesses address ethical issues in their operations?A case study of Nike’s supply chain labor practices

These examples demonstrate the diversity of research questions and case studies that can be explored. From studying small businesses in Ghana to the ethical issues in supply chains, case studies can be used to explore a wide range of phenomena.

Outlying cases vs. representative cases

An outlying case stud y refers to a case that is unusual or deviates significantly from the norm. An example of an outlying case study could be a small, family-run bed and breakfast that was able to survive and even thrive during the COVID-19 pandemic, while other larger hotels struggled to stay afloat.

On the other hand, a representative case study refers to a case that is typical of the phenomenon being studied. An example of a representative case study could be a hotel chain that operates in multiple locations that faced significant challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as reduced demand for hotel rooms, increased safety and health protocols, and supply chain disruptions. The hotel chain case could be representative of the broader hospitality industry during the pandemic, and thus provides an insight into the typical challenges that businesses in the industry faced.

Steps for Writing a Case Study

As with any academic paper, writing a case study requires careful preparation and research before a single word of the document is ever written. Follow these basic steps to ensure that you don’t miss any crucial details when composing your case study.

Step 1: Select a case to analyze

After you have developed your statement of the problem and research question , the first step in writing a case study is to select a case that is representative of the phenomenon being investigated or that provides an outlier. For example, if a researcher wants to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry, they could select a representative case, such as a hotel chain that operates in multiple locations, or an outlying case, such as a small bed and breakfast that was able to pivot their business model to survive during the pandemic. Selecting the appropriate case is critical in ensuring the research question is adequately explored.

Step 2: Create a theoretical framework

Theoretical frameworks are used to guide the analysis and interpretation of data in a case study. The framework should provide a clear explanation of the key concepts, variables, and relationships that are relevant to the research question. The theoretical framework can be drawn from existing literature, or the researcher can develop their own framework based on the data collected. The theoretical framework should be developed early in the research process to guide the data collection and analysis.

To give your case analysis a strong theoretical grounding, be sure to include a literature review of references and sources relating to your topic and develop a clear theoretical framework. Your case study does not simply stand on its own but interacts with other studies related to your topic. Your case study can do one of the following: 

  • Demonstrate a theory by showing how it explains the case being investigated
  • Broaden a theory by identifying additional concepts and ideas that can be incorporated to strengthen it
  • Confront a theory via an outlier case that does not conform to established conclusions or assumptions

Step 3: Collect data for your case study

Data collection can involve a variety of research methods , including interviews, surveys, observations, and document analyses, and it can include both primary and secondary sources . It is essential to ensure that the data collected is relevant to the research question and that it is collected in a systematic and ethical manner. Data collection methods should be chosen based on the research question and the availability of data. It is essential to plan data collection carefully to ensure that the data collected is of high quality

Step 4: Describe the case and analyze the details

The final step is to describe the case in detail and analyze the data collected. This involves identifying patterns and themes that emerge from the data and drawing conclusions that are relevant to the research question. It is essential to ensure that the analysis is supported by the data and that any limitations or alternative explanations are acknowledged.

The manner in which you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard academic paper, with separate sections or chapters for the methods section , results section , and discussion section , while others are structured more like a standalone literature review.

Regardless of the topic you choose to pursue, writing a case study requires a systematic and rigorous approach to data collection and analysis. By following the steps outlined above and using examples from existing literature, researchers can create a comprehensive and insightful case study that contributes to the understanding of a particular phenomenon.

Preparing Your Case Study for Publication

After completing the draft of your case study, be sure to revise and edit your work for any mistakes, including grammatical errors , punctuation errors , spelling mistakes, and awkward sentence structure . Ensure that your case study is well-structured and that your arguments are well-supported with language that follows the conventions of academic writing .  To ensure your work is polished for style and free of errors, get English editing services from Wordvice, including our paper editing services and manuscript editing services . Let our academic subject experts enhance the style and flow of your academic work so you can submit your case study with confidence.

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A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

  • The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
  • The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
  • The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
  • The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
  • The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

  • What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
  • Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

  • Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
  • Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
  • Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

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Frequently asked questions.

Yes, in fact a case study is a very good option in your dissertation. There are multiple ways to implement a case study in your thesis. For instance, one main study which is in depth and complex or you could feature multiple case studies.

Case studies are a way to research a particular field, group, people and situation. The topic of research is studied deeply and thoroughly in order to solve a problem or uncover information. Case studies are a type of qualitative research.

If you are ready to find a masters course check out Masters Compare.

Prof Martyn Denscombe, author of “ The Good Research Guide, 6th edition ”, gives expert advice on how to use a case study in your masters dissertation. 

There are two main examples for how to use a case study in your masters dissertation, namely quantitative and qualitative case studies.

First, a case study provides a platform that allows you to study a situation in depth and produce the level of academic inquiry that is expected in a master’s degree. In the context of any master’s programme the dissertation operates as something of a showcase for a student’s abilities.

It can easily make the difference between getting a merit and a distinction in the final award of degree. It is important, therefore, to base the work on an approach that allows things to be explored in sufficient depth and detail to warrant a good grade.

Second, case studies can be useful in a practical sense. It is possible to complete a case study in a relatively short period of intense study and so it is the kind of research that is feasible in terms of the kind of time constraints that face master’s students as they enter the final stages of their programme of study.

Added to which a case study can also be a rather convenient form of research, avoiding the time and costs of travel to multiple research sites. The use of case studies, then, would appear to be an attractive proposition. But it is not an approach that should be used naively without consideration of its limitations or potential pitfalls.

To be a good case study the research needs to consider certain key issues. If they are not addressed it will considerably lower the value of the master’s degree. For instance, a good case study needs to:

  • Be crystal clear about the purpose for which the research is being conducted
  • Justify the selection of the particular case being studied
  • Describe how the chosen case compares with others of its type
  • Explain the basis on which any generalizations can be made from the findings

This is where The Good Research Guide, 6th edition becomes so valuable. It not only identifies the key points that need to be addressed in order to conduct a competent questionnaire survey.

It gets right to the heart of the matter with plenty of practical guidance on how to deal with issues. Using plain language, this bestselling book covers a range of alternative strategies and methods for conducting small-scale social research projects. It outlines some of the main ways in which the data can be analysed.

Read Prof Martyn Denscombe’s advice on using a questionnaire survey for your postgraduate dissertation

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What is case study research?

Last updated

8 February 2023

Reviewed by

Cathy Heath

Short on time? Get an AI generated summary of this article instead

Suppose a company receives a spike in the number of customer complaints, or medical experts discover an outbreak of illness affecting children but are not quite sure of the reason. In both cases, carrying out a case study could be the best way to get answers.


Case studies can be carried out across different disciplines, including education, medicine, sociology, and business.

Most case studies employ qualitative methods, but quantitative methods can also be used. Researchers can then describe, compare, evaluate, and identify patterns or cause-and-effect relationships between the various variables under study. They can then use this knowledge to decide what action to take. 

Another thing to note is that case studies are generally singular in their focus. This means they narrow focus to a particular area, making them highly subjective. You cannot always generalize the results of a case study and apply them to a larger population. However, they are valuable tools to illustrate a principle or develop a thesis.

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  • What are the different types of case study designs?

Researchers can choose from a variety of case study designs. The design they choose is dependent on what questions they need to answer, the context of the research environment, how much data they already have, and what resources are available.

Here are the common types of case study design:


An explanatory case study is an initial explanation of the how or why that is behind something. This design is commonly used when studying a real-life phenomenon or event. Once the organization understands the reasons behind a phenomenon, it can then make changes to enhance or eliminate the variables causing it. 

Here is an example: How is co-teaching implemented in elementary schools? The title for a case study of this subject could be “Case Study of the Implementation of Co-Teaching in Elementary Schools.”


An illustrative or descriptive case study helps researchers shed light on an unfamiliar object or subject after a period of time. The case study provides an in-depth review of the issue at hand and adds real-world examples in the area the researcher wants the audience to understand. 

The researcher makes no inferences or causal statements about the object or subject under review. This type of design is often used to understand cultural shifts.

Here is an example: How did people cope with the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami? This case study could be titled "A Case Study of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and its Effect on the Indonesian Population."


Exploratory research is also called a pilot case study. It is usually the first step within a larger research project, often relying on questionnaires and surveys . Researchers use exploratory research to help narrow down their focus, define parameters, draft a specific research question , and/or identify variables in a larger study. This research design usually covers a wider area than others, and focuses on the ‘what’ and ‘who’ of a topic.

Here is an example: How do nutrition and socialization in early childhood affect learning in children? The title of the exploratory study may be “Case Study of the Effects of Nutrition and Socialization on Learning in Early Childhood.”

An intrinsic case study is specifically designed to look at a unique and special phenomenon. At the start of the study, the researcher defines the phenomenon and the uniqueness that differentiates it from others. 

In this case, researchers do not attempt to generalize, compare, or challenge the existing assumptions. Instead, they explore the unique variables to enhance understanding. Here is an example: “Case Study of Volcanic Lightning.”

This design can also be identified as a cumulative case study. It uses information from past studies or observations of groups of people in certain settings as the foundation of the new study. Given that it takes multiple areas into account, it allows for greater generalization than a single case study. 

The researchers also get an in-depth look at a particular subject from different viewpoints.  Here is an example: “Case Study of how PTSD affected Vietnam and Gulf War Veterans Differently Due to Advances in Military Technology.”

Critical instance

A critical case study incorporates both explanatory and intrinsic study designs. It does not have predetermined purposes beyond an investigation of the said subject. It can be used for a deeper explanation of the cause-and-effect relationship. It can also be used to question a common assumption or myth. 

The findings can then be used further to generalize whether they would also apply in a different environment.  Here is an example: “What Effect Does Prolonged Use of Social Media Have on the Mind of American Youth?”


Instrumental research attempts to achieve goals beyond understanding the object at hand. Researchers explore a larger subject through different, separate studies and use the findings to understand its relationship to another subject. This type of design also provides insight into an issue or helps refine a theory. 

For example, you may want to determine if violent behavior in children predisposes them to crime later in life. The focus is on the relationship between children and violent behavior, and why certain children do become violent. Here is an example: “Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Participation in Adult Crime.”

Evaluation case study design is employed to research the effects of a program, policy, or intervention, and assess its effectiveness and impact on future decision-making. 

For example, you might want to see whether children learn times tables quicker through an educational game on their iPad versus a more teacher-led intervention. Here is an example: “An Investigation of the Impact of an iPad Multiplication Game for Primary School Children.” 

  • When do you use case studies?

Case studies are ideal when you want to gain a contextual, concrete, or in-depth understanding of a particular subject. It helps you understand the characteristics, implications, and meanings of the subject.

They are also an excellent choice for those writing a thesis or dissertation, as they help keep the project focused on a particular area when resources or time may be too limited to cover a wider one. You may have to conduct several case studies to explore different aspects of the subject in question and understand the problem.

  • What are the steps to follow when conducting a case study?

1. Select a case

Once you identify the problem at hand and come up with questions, identify the case you will focus on. The study can provide insights into the subject at hand, challenge existing assumptions, propose a course of action, and/or open up new areas for further research.

2. Create a theoretical framework

While you will be focusing on a specific detail, the case study design you choose should be linked to existing knowledge on the topic. This prevents it from becoming an isolated description and allows for enhancing the existing information. 

It may expand the current theory by bringing up new ideas or concepts, challenge established assumptions, or exemplify a theory by exploring how it answers the problem at hand. A theoretical framework starts with a literature review of the sources relevant to the topic in focus. This helps in identifying key concepts to guide analysis and interpretation.

3. Collect the data

Case studies are frequently supplemented with qualitative data such as observations, interviews, and a review of both primary and secondary sources such as official records, news articles, and photographs. There may also be quantitative data —this data assists in understanding the case thoroughly.

4. Analyze your case

The results of the research depend on the research design. Most case studies are structured with chapters or topic headings for easy explanation and presentation. Others may be written as narratives to allow researchers to explore various angles of the topic and analyze its meanings and implications.

In all areas, always give a detailed contextual understanding of the case and connect it to the existing theory and literature before discussing how it fits into your problem area.

  • What are some case study examples?

What are the best approaches for introducing our product into the Kenyan market?

How does the change in marketing strategy aid in increasing the sales volumes of product Y?

How can teachers enhance student participation in classrooms?

How does poverty affect literacy levels in children?

Case study topics

Case study of product marketing strategies in the Kenyan market

Case study of the effects of a marketing strategy change on product Y sales volumes

Case study of X school teachers that encourage active student participation in the classroom

Case study of the effects of poverty on literacy levels in children

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  • Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on 5 May 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 30 January 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organisation, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyse the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park in the US
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race, and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

Unlike quantitative or experimental research, a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

If you find yourself aiming to simultaneously investigate and solve an issue, consider conducting action research . As its name suggests, action research conducts research and takes action at the same time, and is highly iterative and flexible. 

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience, or phenomenon.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data .

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis, with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results , and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyse its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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Qualitative Research Designs

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The field of qualitative research there are a number of research designs (also referred to as “traditions” or “genres”), including case study, phenomenology, narrative inquiry, action research, ethnography, grounded theory, as well as a number of critical genres including Feminist theory, indigenous research, critical race theory and cultural studies. The choice of research design is directly tied to and must be aligned with your research problem and purpose. As Bloomberg & Volpe (2019) explain:

Choice of research design is directly tied to research problem and purpose. As the researcher, you actively create the link among problem, purpose, and design through a process of reflecting on problem and purpose, focusing on researchable questions, and considering how to best address these questions. Thinking along these lines affords a research study methodological congruence (p. 38).

Case study is an in-depth exploration from multiple perspectives of a bounded social phenomenon, be this a social system such as a program, event, institution, organization, or community (Stake, 1995, 2005; Yin, 2018). Case study is employed across disciplines, including education, health care, social work, sociology, and organizational studies. The purpose is to generate understanding and deep insights to inform professional practice, policy development, and community or social action (Bloomberg 2018).

Yin (2018) and Stake (1995, 2005), two of the key proponents of case study methodology, use different terms to describe case studies. Yin categorizes case studies as exploratory or descriptive . The former is used to explore those situations in which the intervention being evaluated has no clear single set of outcomes. The latter is used to describe an intervention or phenomenon and the real-life context in which it occurred. Stake identifies case studies as intrinsic or instrumental , and he proposes that a primary distinction in designing case studies is between single and multiple (or collective) case study designs. A single case study may be an instrumental case study (research focuses on an issue or concern in one bounded case) or an intrinsic case study (the focus is on the case itself because the case presents a unique situation). A longitudinal case study design is chosen when the researcher seeks to examine the same single case at two or more different points in time or to capture trends over time. A multiple case study design is used when a researcher seeks to determine the prevalence or frequency of a particular phenomenon. This approach is useful when cases are used for purposes of a cross-case analysis in order to compare, contrast, and synthesize perspectives regarding the same issue. The focus is on the analysis of diverse cases to determine how these confirm the findings within or between cases, or call the findings into question.

Case study affords significant interaction with research participants, providing an in-depth picture of the phenomenon (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2019). Research is extensive, drawing on multiple methods of data collection, and involves multiple data sources. Triangulation is critical in attempting to obtain an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon under study and adds rigor, breadth, and depth to the study and provides corroborative evidence of the data obtained. Analysis of data can be holistic or embedded—that is, dealing with the whole or parts of the case (Yin, 2018). With multiple cases the typical analytic strategy is to provide detailed description of themes within each case (within-case analysis), followed by thematic analysis across cases (cross-case analysis), providing insights regarding how individual cases are comparable along important dimensions. Research culminates in the production of a detailed description of a setting and its participants, accompanied by an analysis of the data for themes or patterns (Stake, 1995, 2005; Yin, 2018). In addition to thick, rich description, the researcher’s interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations contribute to the reader’s overall understanding of the case study.

Analysis of findings should show that the researcher has attended to all the data, should address the most significant aspects of the case, and should demonstrate familiarity with the prevailing thinking and discourse about the topic. The goal of case study design (as with all qualitative designs) is not generalizability but rather transferability —that is, how (if at all) and in what ways understanding and knowledge can be applied in similar contexts and settings. The qualitative researcher attempts to address the issue of transferability by way of thick, rich description that will provide the basis for a case or cases to have relevance and potential application across a broader context.

Qualitative research methods ask the questions of "what" and "how" a phenomenon is understood in a real-life context (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2019). In the education field, qualitative research methods uncover educational experiences and practices because qualitative research allows the researcher to reveal new knowledge and understanding. Moreover, qualitative descriptive case studies describe, analyze and interpret events that explain the reasoning behind specific phenomena (Bloomberg, 2018). As such, case study design can be the foundation for a rigorous study within the Applied Doctoral Experience (ADE).

Case study design is an appropriate research design to consider when conceptualizing and conducting a dissertation research study that is based on an applied problem of practice with inherent real-life educational implications. Case study researchers study current, real-life cases that are in progress so that they can gather accurate information that is current. This fits well with the ADE program, as students are typically exploring a problem of practice. Because of the flexibility of the methods used, a descriptive design provides the researcher with the opportunity to choose data collection methods that are best suited to a practice-based research purpose, and can include individual interviews, focus groups, observation, surveys, and critical incident questionnaires. Methods are triangulated to contribute to the study’s trustworthiness. In selecting the set of data collection methods, it is important that the researcher carefully consider the alignment between research questions and the type of data that is needed to address these. Each data source is one piece of the “puzzle,” that contributes to the researcher’s holistic understanding of a phenomenon. The various strands of data are woven together holistically to promote a deeper understanding of the case and its application to an educationally-based problem of practice.

Research studies within the Applied Doctoral Experience (ADE) will be practical in nature and focus on problems and issues that inform educational practice.  Many of the types of studies that fall within the ADE framework are exploratory, and align with case study design. Case study design fits very well with applied problems related to educational practice, as the following set of examples illustrate:

Elementary Bilingual Education Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in Teaching English Language Learners: A Qualitative Case Study

The problem to be addressed in the proposed study is that some elementary bilingual education teachers’ beliefs about their lack of preparedness to teach the English language may negatively impact the language proficiency skills of Hispanic ELLs (Ernst-Slavit & Wenger, 2016; Fuchs et al., 2018; Hoque, 2016). The purpose of the proposed qualitative descriptive case study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of elementary bilingual education teachers regarding their perceived lack of preparedness to teach the English language and how this may impact the language proficiency of Hispanic ELLs.

Exploring Minority Teachers Experiences Pertaining to their Value in Education: A Single Case Study of Teachers in New York City

The problem is that minority K-12 teachers are underrepresented in the United States, with research indicating that school leaders and teachers in schools that are populated mainly by black students, staffed mostly by white teachers who may be unprepared to deal with biases and stereotypes that are ingrained in schools (Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015; Milligan & Howley, 2015). The purpose of this qualitative exploratory single case study was to develop a clearer understanding of minority teachers’ experiences concerning the under-representation of minority K-12 teachers in urban school districts in the United States since there are so few of them.

Exploring the Impact of an Urban Teacher Residency Program on Teachers’ Cultural Intelligence: A Qualitative Case Study

The problem to be addressed by this case study is that teacher candidates often report being unprepared and ill-equipped to effectively educate culturally diverse students (Skepple, 2015; Beutel, 2018). The purpose of this study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the perceived impact of an urban teacher residency program in urban Iowa on teachers’ cultural competence using the cultural intelligence (CQ) framework (Earley & Ang, 2003).

Qualitative Case Study that Explores Self-Efficacy and Mentorship on Women in Academic Administrative Leadership Roles

The problem was that female school-level administrators might be less likely to experience mentorship, thereby potentially decreasing their self-efficacy (Bing & Smith, 2019; Brown, 2020; Grant, 2021). The purpose of this case study was to determine to what extent female school-level administrators in the United States who had a mentor have a sense of self-efficacy and to examine the relationship between mentorship and self-efficacy.

Suburban Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Culturally Responsive Teaching to Promote Connectedness in Students of Color: A Qualitative Case Study

The problem to be addressed in this study is the racial discrimination experienced by students of color in suburban schools and the resulting negative school experience (Jara & Bloomsbury, 2020; Jones, 2019; Kohli et al., 2017; Wandix-White, 2020). The purpose of this case study is to explore how culturally responsive practices can counteract systemic racism and discrimination in suburban schools thereby meeting the needs of students of color by creating positive learning experiences. 

As you can see, all of these studies were well suited to qualitative case study design. In each of these studies, the applied research problem and research purpose were clearly grounded in educational practice as well as directly aligned with qualitative case study methodology. In the Applied Doctoral Experience (ADE), you will be focused on addressing or resolving an educationally relevant research problem of practice. As such, your case study, with clear boundaries, will be one that centers on a real-life authentic problem in your field of practice that you believe is in need of resolution or improvement, and that the outcome thereof will be educationally valuable.

Bloomberg, L. D. (2018). Case study method. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 237–239). SAGE.

Bloomberg, L. D. & Volpe, M. (2019). Completing your qualitative dissertation: A road map from beginning to end . (4th Ed.). SAGE.

Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. SAGE.

Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 443–466). SAGE.

Yin, R. (2018). Case study research and applications: Designs and methods. SAGE.

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Managing school behavior: a qualitative case study

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The purposes of this dissertation research were to understand the methods by which building-level school administrators collect office discipline referral data, and to understand the ways they make decisions based on that data. In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this study:

1. To what extent do administrators have access to behavior data that inform their decisions on how to improve student success in school and society?

2. To what extent do administrators use behavior data to improve student success in school and in society?

3. What do administrators perceive it would take to enhance the effectiveness of their current efforts to improve students' success in school and society?

One mid-sized suburban school district from the Midwest was selected for this case study research. Eleven school building administrators were interviewed to provide insight into the research questions. Participants in the study self-selected pseudonyms to preserve anonymity. Interviews were conducted face to face, and then transcribed.

The themes that emerged from the interviews include: (1) participants' perceptions of and experiences with collecting and analyzing student behavior data, (2) participants' perceptions of and experiences with using behavior data to improve student success in school and in society, and (3) participants' perceptions of necessary steps to take to enhance the effectiveness of their current efforts to improve students' success in school and society. The findings from this study describe practices used for collecting student attendance data, office referral data, and suspension and expulsion data. Building-level school leaders recognize that data collection and analysis of building- and school district-level conduct and/or behavior data would help them establish patterns of behavior for individual students, as well as students throughout the building. The aim for school administrators should be to use research-based strategies, practices, and programs that have proven successful when they plan interventions and programmatic changes for students.

Based on its findings, this study recommends that further investigation into data collection processes that lead to improved behavioral outcomes for students be conducted. Consistent data collection, supported by a systemic procedure to analyze that data, is paramount to increase the effectiveness of any behavior support program. As schools continue to face challenges associated with providing adequate behavioral supports for students, building capacity with teaching and administrative staff is recommended, so that a continuum of behavioral supports could be provided to meet the diverse behavioral needs of buildings, schools, and districts.


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Change Management Case Study Examples: Lessons from Industry Giants

Explore some transformative journeys with efficient Change Management Case Study examples. Delve into case studies from Coca-Cola, Heinz, Intuit, and many more. Dive in to unearth the strategic wisdom and pivotal lessons gleaned from the experiences of these titans in the industry. Read to learn about and grasp the Change Management art!


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In the fast-paced world of business, staying ahead means being able to adapt. Have you ever wondered how some brands manage to thrive despite huge challenges? This blog dives into a collection of Change Management Case Studies, sharing wisdom from top companies that have faced and conquered adversity. These aren’t just stories; they’re success strategies.  

Each Change Management Case Study reveals the smart choices and creative fixes that helped companies navigate rough waters. How did they turn crises into chances to grow? What can we take away from their successes and mistakes? Keep reading to discover these inspiring stories and learn how they can reshape your approach to change in your own business. 

Table of Contents  

1) What is Change Management in Business? 

2) Top Examples of Case Studies on Change Management 

    a) Coca-Cola 

    b) Adobe 

    c) Heinz  

    d) Intuit  

    e) Kodak 

    f) Barclays Bank 

3) Conclusion

What is Change Management in Business?  

Change management in business refers to the structured process of planning, implementing, and managing changes within an organisation. It involves anticipating, navigating, and adapting to shifts in strategy, technology, processes, or culture to achieve desired outcomes and sustain competitiveness.  

Effective Change Management entails identifying the need for change, engaging stakeholders, communicating effectively, and mitigating resistance to ensure smooth transitions. By embracing Change Management principles, businesses can enhance agility, resilience, and innovation, driving growth and success in dynamic environments. 

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Top Examples of Case Studies on Change Management  

Let's explore some transformative journeys of industry leaders through compelling case studies on Change Management: 

1) Coca-Cola  

Coca-Cola, the beverage titan, acknowledged the necessity to evolve with consumer tastes, market shifts, and regulatory changes. The rise of health-conscious consumers prompted Coca-Cola to revamp its offerings and business approach. The company’s proactive Change Management centred on innovation and diversification, leading to the launch of healthier options like Coca-Cola Zero Sugar.  

Coca-Cola Zero Sugar 

Strategic alliances and acquisitions broadened Coca-Cola’s market reach and variety. Notably, Coca-Cola introduced eco-friendly packaging like the PlantBottle and championed sustainability in its marketing, bolstering its brand image. 

Acquire the expertise to facilitate smooth changes and propel your success forward – join our Change Management Practitioner Course now!  

2) Adobe  

Adobe, with its global workforce and significant revenue, faced a shift due to technological advancements and competitive pressures. In 2011, Adobe transitioned from physical software sales to cloud-based services, offering free downloads or subscriptions.  

This shift necessitated a transformation in Adobe’s HR practices, moving from traditional roles to a more human-centric approach, aligning with the company’s innovative and millennial-driven culture. 

3) Heinz  

Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital’s acquisition of Heinz led to immediate, sweeping changes. The new management implemented cost-cutting measures and altered executive perks.  

Products by Heinz

Additionally, it introduced a more insular leadership style, contrasting with 3G’s young, mobile, and bonus-driven executive team. 

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4) Intuit  

Steve Bennett’s leadership at Intuit marked a significant shift. Adopting the McKinsey 7S Model, he restructured the organisation to enhance decision-making, align rewards with strategy, and foster a performance-driven culture. His changes resulted in a notable increase in operating profits. 

5) Kodak  

Kodak, the pioneer of the first digital and megapixel cameras in 1975 and 1986, faced bankruptcy in 2012. Initially, digital technology was costly and had subpar image quality, leading Kodak to predict a decade before it threatened their traditional business. Despite this accurate forecast, Kodak focused on enhancing film quality rather than digital innovation.  

Kodak Megapixel Cameras

Dominating the market in 1976 and peaking with £12,52,16 billion in sales in 1999, Kodak’s reluctance to adopt new technology led to a decline, with revenues falling to £4,85,11,90 billion in 2011.  

Fujifilm Camera 

In contrast, Fuji, Kodak’s competitor, embraced digital transformation and diversified into new ventures. 

Empower your team to manage change effectively through our Managing Change With Agile Methodology Training – sign up now!  

6) Barclays Bank  

The financial sector, particularly hit by the 2008 mortgage crisis, saw Barclays Capital aiming for global leadership under Bob Diamond. However, the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) scandal led to fines and resignations, prompting a strategic overhaul by new CEO Antony Jenkins in 2012.  

Changes included rebranding, refocusing on core markets, altering the business model away from high-risk lending, fostering a customer-centric culture, downsizing, and embracing technology for efficiency. These reforms aimed to strengthen Barclays, improve shareholder returns, and restore trust. 


The discussed Change Management Case Study examples serve as a testament to the transformative power of adept Change Management. Let these insights from industry leaders motivate and direct you as you navigate your organisation towards a path of continuous innovation and enduring prosperity. 

Enhance your team’s ability to manage uncertainty and achieve impactful results – sign up for our comprehensive Risk Management For Change Training now!  

Frequently Asked Questions

The five key elements of Change Management typically include communication, leadership, stakeholder engagement, training and development, and measurement and evaluation. These elements form the foundation for successfully navigating organisational change and ensuring its effectiveness. 

The seven steps of Change Management involve identifying the need for change, developing a Change Management plan, communicating the change vision, empowering employees, implementing change initiatives, celebrating milestones, and sustaining change through ongoing evaluation and adaptation. 

The Knowledge Academy takes global learning to new heights, offering over 30,000 online courses across 490+ locations in 220 countries. This expansive reach ensures accessibility and convenience for learners worldwide.  

Alongside our diverse Online Course Catalogue, encompassing 17 major categories, we go the extra mile by providing a plethora of free educational Online Resources like News updates, Blogs , videos, webinars, and interview questions. Tailoring learning experiences further, professionals can maximise value with customisable Course Bundles of TKA .

The Knowledge Academy’s Knowledge Pass , a prepaid voucher, adds another layer of flexibility, allowing course bookings over a 12-month period. Join us on a journey where education knows no bounds.  

The Knowledge Academy offers various Change Management Courses , including the Change Management Practitioner Course, Change Management Foundation Training, and Risk Management for Change Training. These courses cater to different skill levels, providing comprehensive insights into Change Management Metrics .   

Our Project Management Blogs cover a range of topics related to Change Management, offering valuable resources, best practices, and industry insights. Whether you are a beginner or looking to advance your Project Management skills, The Knowledge Academy's diverse courses and informative blogs have got you covered.  

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case study example thesis

A thesis is a comprehensive research paper that presents a central argument or claim supported by evidence. Typically written by students pursuing advanced degrees, a thesis demonstrates a deep understanding of a subject. It includes a clear research question, literature review, methodology, analysis, and conclusions. The process enhances critical thinking, research skills , and subject expertise, culminating in a significant academic contribution.

Thesis paper . Many students tend to fear this word and there is a good reason as to why they do.  You may already have tried making a thesis before and at some point, you would also realize the trial and error stage of making one. 

What Is a Thesis?

A thesis a research paper writing that is made for a purpose. Thesis papers consists of a research statement , a kind of statement , a theory, a purpose. The thesis is made in order to prove your theory and make it into a fact. There are a lot of kinds of thesis, but the most common thesis kinds are analytical thesis, an argumentative thesis and an explanatory thesis.

Types of Thesis

Analytical thesis.

An analytical thesis breaks down an issue or idea into its component parts, evaluates the topic, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. It is often used in literature, history, and social sciences.

Expository Thesis

An expository thesis explains a topic to the audience. It provides a comprehensive overview of a subject, presenting facts and analysis without personal opinion. This type is common in science and technical writing.

Argumentative Thesis

An argumentative thesis makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The goal is to persuade the reader of a particular viewpoint. This type is prevalent in fields like philosophy, political science, and law.

Narrative Thesis

A narrative thesis tells a story or recounts an event. It includes personal experiences or detailed descriptions of events to support the main argument. This type is often used in creative writing and autobiographies.

Comparative Thesis

A comparative thesis compares and contrasts two or more subjects, evaluating their similarities and differences. It is commonly used in literature, history, and social sciences to draw meaningful conclusions.

Descriptive Thesis

A descriptive thesis provides a detailed description of a topic without arguing a specific point. It paints a vivid picture of the subject, often used in fields like anthropology and sociology to explore cultural phenomena.

Empirical Thesis

An empirical thesis is based on original research and data collection. It involves experiments, surveys, or observations to answer a specific research question. This type is typical in natural and social sciences.

Examples of Thesis

Thesis examples in literature, 1: analysis of a single work.

Title: “The Use of Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby,’ the use of symbolism, particularly through the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, and the Valley of Ashes, serves to illustrate the overarching themes of the American Dream, moral decay, and the quest for identity.

2: Comparative Analysis

Title: “The Role of Women in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen and ‘Jane Eyre’ by Charlotte Brontë”

Thesis Statement: While both Jane Austen’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Jane Eyre’ critique the limited roles and expectations of women in 19th-century British society, Austen’s Elizabeth Bennet and Brontë’s Jane Eyre embody different forms of rebellion against societal norms, highlighting the evolving perception of women’s independence and self-worth.

3: Thematic Analysis

Title: “Exploring the Theme of Isolation in ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley”

Thesis Statement: Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ explores the theme of isolation through the experiences of Victor Frankenstein and his creation, the monster, demonstrating how isolation leads to destructive consequences for both individuals and society.

4: Character Analysis

Title: “The Evolution of Hamlet’s Character in William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet'”

Thesis Statement: In William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet,’ the protagonist undergoes a significant transformation from a grief-stricken and indecisive prince to a determined and introspective avenger, reflecting the complexities of human nature and the impact of existential contemplation.

5: Genre Analysis

Title: “Gothic Elements in ‘Wuthering Heights’ by Emily Brontë”

Thesis Statement: Emily Brontë’s ‘Wuthering Heights’ employs key elements of Gothic literature, including a brooding atmosphere, supernatural occurrences, and the exploration of human psychology, to create a haunting and timeless tale of passion and revenge.

6: Symbolic Analysis

Title: “The Symbolism of the Green Light in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: The green light in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’ symbolizes Gatsby’s unattainable dreams and the elusive nature of the American Dream, reflecting the broader themes of hope, disillusionment, and the pursuit of an idealized future.

7: Historical Context

Title: “Historical Influences on George Orwell’s ‘1984’”

Thesis Statement: George Orwell’s ‘1984’ draws heavily on the political climate of the early 20th century, particularly the rise of totalitarian regimes and the impact of World War II, to present a dystopian vision of a future where government surveillance and propaganda control every aspect of life.

8: Feminist Critique

Title: “Feminist Perspectives in ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ by Margaret Atwood”

Thesis Statement: Margaret Atwood’s ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ critiques the patriarchal structures of contemporary society by depicting a dystopian world where women’s rights are stripped away, illustrating the extreme consequences of gender oppression and the resilience of female solidarity.

9: Psychoanalytic Criticism

Title: “Freudian Elements in ‘The Turn of the Screw’ by Henry James”

Thesis Statement: Henry James’s ‘The Turn of the Screw’ can be interpreted through a Freudian lens, where the governess’s experiences and the ambiguous nature of the ghosts reflect deep-seated psychological conflicts and repressed desires, highlighting the novella’s exploration of the human psyche.

10: Postcolonial Analysis

Title: “Postcolonial Themes in ‘Things Fall Apart’ by Chinua Achebe”

Thesis Statement: Chinua Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ addresses postcolonial themes by portraying the clash between traditional Igbo society and British colonial forces, illustrating the devastating effects of colonialism on indigenous cultures and the struggle for cultural identity and autonomy.

Thesis Examples for Essays

1: persuasive essay.

Topic: “The Importance of Renewable Energy”

Thesis Statement: Governments around the world should invest heavily in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, combat climate change, and create sustainable job opportunities.

2: Analytical Essay

Topic: “The Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In ‘The Great Gatsby,’ F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the symbols of the green light, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, and the Valley of Ashes to illustrate the moral and social decay of America during the Roaring Twenties.

3: Expository Essay

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Teenagers”

Thesis Statement: Social media has significantly impacted teenagers’ mental health, social skills, and academic performance, both positively and negatively, necessitating a balanced approach to its usage.

4: Compare and Contrast Essay

Topic: “Public vs. Private School Education”

Thesis Statement: While public schools offer a more diverse social environment and extracurricular opportunities, private schools provide smaller class sizes and specialized curriculums, making the choice dependent on individual student needs and family priorities.

5: Cause and Effect Essay

Topic: “The Causes and Effects of the Rise in Obesity Rates”

Thesis Statement: The rise in obesity rates can be attributed to poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyles, and genetic factors, leading to serious health issues such as diabetes, heart disease, and decreased life expectancy.

6: Narrative Essay

Topic: “A Life-Changing Experience”

Thesis Statement: My trip to volunteer at a rural school in Kenya was a life-changing experience that taught me the value of education, the importance of cultural exchange, and the power of empathy and compassion.

7: Argumentative Essay

Topic: “The Necessity of Free College Education”

Thesis Statement: Free college education is essential for ensuring equal opportunities for all, reducing student debt burdens, and fostering a more educated and productive workforce.

8: Descriptive Essay

Topic: “The Beauty of a Sunset”

Thesis Statement: A sunset, with its vibrant hues and serene ambiance, evokes a sense of peace and reflection, illustrating nature’s ability to inspire awe and tranquility in our daily lives.

9: Definition Essay

Topic: “What is Happiness?”

Thesis Statement: Happiness is a complex and multifaceted emotion characterized by feelings of contentment, fulfillment, and joy, influenced by both internal factors like mindset and external factors such as relationships and achievements.

10: Process Essay

Topic: “How to Bake the Perfect Chocolate Cake”

Thesis Statement: Baking the perfect chocolate cake involves selecting high-quality ingredients, precisely following the recipe, and understanding the nuances of baking techniques, from mixing to temperature control.

Thesis Examples for Argumentative Essay

1: gun control.

Topic: “Stricter Gun Control Laws”

Thesis Statement: Stricter gun control laws are necessary to reduce gun violence in the United States, as evidenced by lower rates of gun-related deaths in countries with stringent regulations.

2: Climate Change

Topic: “Addressing Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: To effectively combat climate change, governments worldwide must implement aggressive policies to reduce carbon emissions, invest in renewable energy, and promote sustainable practices.

3: Animal Testing

Topic: “Ban on Animal Testing”

Thesis Statement: Animal testing for cosmetics should be banned globally due to its ethical implications, the availability of alternative testing methods, and the questionable reliability of animal-based results for human safety.

4: Education Reform

Topic: “Standardized Testing in Schools”

Thesis Statement: Standardized testing should be eliminated in schools as it narrows the curriculum, causes undue stress to students, and fails to accurately measure a student’s potential and abilities.

5: Universal Basic Income

Topic: “Implementing Universal Basic Income”

Thesis Statement: Implementing a universal basic income would help alleviate poverty, reduce income inequality, and provide financial stability in an increasingly automated and unpredictable job market.

6: Health Care

Topic: “Universal Health Care”

Thesis Statement: Universal health care should be adopted in the United States to ensure that all citizens have access to essential medical services, reduce overall healthcare costs, and improve public health outcomes.

7: Immigration Policy

Topic: “Reforming Immigration Policies”

Thesis Statement: Comprehensive immigration reform is essential to address undocumented immigration, protect human rights, and contribute to economic growth by recognizing the contributions of immigrants to society.

8: Death Penalty

Topic: “Abolishing the Death Penalty”

Thesis Statement: The death penalty should be abolished as it is an inhumane practice, prone to judicial errors, and has not been proven to deter crime more effectively than life imprisonment.

9: Social Media Regulation

Topic: “Regulating Social Media Platforms”

Thesis Statement: Social media platforms should be regulated to prevent the spread of misinformation, protect user privacy, and reduce the negative impact on mental health, particularly among adolescents.

10: College Tuition

Topic: “Free College Tuition”

Thesis Statement: Providing free college tuition at public universities would increase access to higher education, reduce student debt, and help create a more educated and skilled workforce to meet future economic demands.

Thesis Examples for Research Papers

1: environmental science.

Topic: “Impact of Plastic Pollution on Marine Life”

Thesis Statement: Plastic pollution in the oceans is causing significant harm to marine life, leading to ingestion and entanglement of plastic debris, disruption of ecosystems, and bioaccumulation of toxic substances in the food chain.

2: Psychology

Topic: “Effects of Social Media on Adolescent Mental Health”

Thesis Statement: Excessive use of social media negatively impacts adolescent mental health by increasing the risk of anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality, while also contributing to body image issues and cyberbullying.

3: Education

Topic: “Benefits of Bilingual Education Programs”

Thesis Statement: Bilingual education programs enhance cognitive abilities, improve academic performance, and promote cultural awareness, making them a valuable approach in the increasingly globalized and multicultural society.

4: Public Health

Topic: “Addressing the Obesity Epidemic”

Thesis Statement: Addressing the obesity epidemic requires a multifaceted approach that includes implementing public health campaigns, promoting healthy eating habits, increasing physical activity, and regulating food advertising targeted at children.

5: Economics

Topic: “Universal Basic Income and Economic Stability”

Thesis Statement: Implementing a universal basic income can provide economic stability by reducing poverty, ensuring a safety net during economic downturns, and stimulating consumer spending, thereby supporting overall economic growth.

6: Political Science

Topic: “Impact of Voter ID Laws on Voter Turnout”

Thesis Statement: Voter ID laws disproportionately reduce voter turnout among minority and low-income populations, undermining the democratic process and exacerbating existing inequalities in political participation.

7: Sociology

Topic: “Gender Stereotypes in Media Representation”

Thesis Statement: Media representation perpetuates gender stereotypes by consistently portraying men and women in traditional roles, which reinforces societal norms and limits the opportunities for gender equality.

8: Technology

Topic: “Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare”

Thesis Statement: The integration of artificial intelligence in healthcare can improve patient outcomes, enhance diagnostic accuracy, and streamline administrative processes, but it also raises ethical concerns regarding data privacy and the potential for job displacement.

Topic: “Causes and Consequences of the American Civil War”

Thesis Statement: The American Civil War was primarily caused by deep-seated economic, social, and political differences between the North and South, particularly over the issue of slavery, and it resulted in significant social and political changes, including the abolition of slavery and the reconstruction of the South.

10: Environmental Policy

Topic: “Renewable Energy Policies and Their Effectiveness”

Thesis Statement: Renewable energy policies, such as subsidies for solar and wind power and carbon pricing, are effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable energy sources, but their success depends on comprehensive implementation and international cooperation.

Thesis Examples for Informative Essay

Topic: “The Water Cycle”

Thesis Statement: The water cycle, which includes processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and infiltration, is essential for distributing water across the Earth’s surface and maintaining ecological balance.

2: Health and Wellness

Topic: “The Benefits of Regular Exercise”

Thesis Statement: Regular exercise is crucial for maintaining physical health, improving mental well-being, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions.

3: Technology

Topic: “The Development of Artificial Intelligence”

Thesis Statement: The development of artificial intelligence has progressed from simple machine learning algorithms to complex neural networks capable of performing tasks such as natural language processing, image recognition, and autonomous driving.

Topic: “The Causes and Effects of the American Civil Rights Movement”

Thesis Statement: The American Civil Rights Movement was driven by factors such as racial segregation, economic disparity, and political disenfranchisement, leading to significant legislative and social changes that improved the rights and freedoms of African Americans.

5: Education

Topic: “The Montessori Method of Education”

Thesis Statement: The Montessori method of education, developed by Dr. Maria Montessori, emphasizes self-directed learning, hands-on activities, and collaborative play, fostering independence and critical thinking skills in young children.

6: Sociology

Topic: “The Impact of Urbanization on Community Life”

Thesis Statement: Urbanization significantly impacts community life by altering social structures, increasing economic opportunities, and presenting challenges such as overcrowding, pollution, and loss of green spaces.

7: Environmental Policy

Topic: “The Role of Renewable Energy in Combating Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, play a critical role in combating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and providing sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels.

8: Business

Topic: “The Rise of Gig Economy”

Thesis Statement: The rise of the gig economy has transformed the labor market by offering flexible work opportunities, fostering entrepreneurship, and posing challenges such as job insecurity and lack of benefits for workers.

9: Psychology

Topic: “The Importance of Sleep for Cognitive Function”

Thesis Statement: Adequate sleep is essential for cognitive function, memory consolidation, and emotional regulation, with chronic sleep deprivation leading to impaired mental performance and increased risk of mental health disorders.

10: Cultural Studies

Topic: “The Influence of Japanese Anime on Global Pop Culture”

Thesis Statement: Japanese anime has significantly influenced global pop culture by shaping trends in fashion, art, and storytelling, and fostering a dedicated international fanbase that celebrates its unique aesthetic and thematic elements.

Thesis Examples for Synthesis Essay

1: climate change.

Topic: “Combating Climate Change through Policy and Innovation”

Thesis Statement: Combating climate change requires a multifaceted approach that includes stringent environmental policies, investment in renewable energy technologies, and community-based initiatives to reduce carbon footprints, integrating efforts from government, industry, and society.

2: Education

Topic: “Balancing Technology and Traditional Teaching Methods in Education”

Thesis Statement: A balanced approach to education that combines the benefits of technology, such as interactive learning tools and online resources, with traditional teaching methods, like face-to-face instruction and hands-on activities, can enhance student engagement and academic achievement.

Topic: “Addressing the Opioid Crisis through Comprehensive Strategies”

Thesis Statement: Addressing the opioid crisis requires comprehensive strategies that include better access to addiction treatment programs, stricter regulations on prescription opioids, and increased public awareness campaigns to educate communities about the risks of opioid misuse.

4: Technology

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Political Mobilization”

Thesis Statement: Social media has revolutionized political mobilization by providing platforms for grassroots campaigns, enabling real-time communication, and fostering civic engagement, but it also poses challenges such as the spread of misinformation and echo chambers.

5: Business

Topic: “Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Brand Loyalty”

Thesis Statement: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, when genuinely implemented, can significantly enhance brand loyalty by aligning company values with consumer expectations, fostering trust, and contributing positively to societal well-being.

Topic: “The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Media Representation”

Thesis Statement: Media representation perpetuates gender stereotypes by consistently depicting men and women in traditional roles, which influences societal perceptions and expectations, but progressive portrayals are gradually challenging these norms and promoting gender equality.

Topic: “Sustainable Urban Development and Green Infrastructure”

Thesis Statement: Sustainable urban development that incorporates green infrastructure, such as green roofs, urban gardens, and eco-friendly public transportation, is essential for mitigating environmental impacts, improving public health, and enhancing the quality of urban life.

8: Psychology

Topic: “The Effects of Mindfulness Practices on Mental Health”

Thesis Statement: Mindfulness practices, including meditation, yoga, and mindful breathing, have been shown to significantly improve mental health by reducing stress, enhancing emotional regulation, and promoting overall well-being, supported by a growing body of scientific research.

9: Economics

Topic: “Universal Basic Income as a Solution to Economic Inequality”

Thesis Statement: Universal Basic Income (UBI) presents a viable solution to economic inequality by providing financial security, reducing poverty, and supporting economic stability, though it requires careful consideration of funding mechanisms and potential societal impacts.

10: Public Health

Topic: “The Importance of Vaccination Programs in Preventing Epidemics”

Thesis Statement: Vaccination programs are crucial for preventing epidemics, protecting public health, and achieving herd immunity, as evidenced by the successful eradication of diseases like smallpox and the control of outbreaks such as measles and influenza.

Thesis Examples for Persuasive Essays

Thesis Statement: Stricter gun control laws are essential to reduce gun violence in the United States, as they will help prevent firearms from falling into the wrong hands, decrease the number of mass shootings, and enhance public safety.

Topic: “Urgent Action on Climate Change”

Thesis Statement: Immediate and robust action is needed to combat climate change, including reducing carbon emissions, transitioning to renewable energy sources, and implementing sustainable practices to mitigate the devastating effects on our planet.

3: Animal Rights

Topic: “Ban on Animal Testing for Cosmetics”

Thesis Statement: Animal testing for cosmetics should be banned worldwide due to its ethical implications, the availability of alternative testing methods, and the questionable reliability of animal-based results for human safety.

Topic: “Abolishing Standardized Testing in Schools”

Thesis Statement: Standardized testing should be abolished in schools as it narrows the curriculum, places undue stress on students, and fails to accurately measure a student’s potential and abilities, thereby hindering educational growth.

5: Universal Health Care

Topic: “Adopting Universal Health Care in the United States”

Thesis Statement: The United States should adopt a universal health care system to ensure that all citizens have access to essential medical services, reduce overall healthcare costs, and improve public health outcomes.

6: Immigration Policy

Thesis Statement: Comprehensive immigration reform is essential to address undocumented immigration, protect human rights, and contribute to economic growth by recognizing the contributions of immigrants to society and ensuring a fair, efficient legal process.

7: Death Penalty

Thesis Statement: The death penalty should be abolished as it is an inhumane practice, prone to judicial errors, and has not been proven to deter crime more effectively than life imprisonment, while also being more costly to taxpayers.

8: Social Media Regulation

Thesis Statement: Social media platforms should be regulated to prevent the spread of misinformation, protect user privacy, and reduce the negative impact on mental health, particularly among adolescents, to create a safer online environment.

9: College Tuition

Topic: “Providing Free College Tuition”

10: Renewable Energy

Topic: “Investing in Renewable Energy Sources”

Thesis Statement: Governments should invest heavily in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, combat climate change, and create sustainable job opportunities, ensuring a cleaner and healthier future.

Thesis Examples for Analysis Essays

1: literary analysis.

Topic: “Symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ by F. Scott Fitzgerald”

Thesis Statement: In ‘The Great Gatsby,’ F. Scott Fitzgerald uses symbols such as the green light, the Valley of Ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg to critique the American Dream and explore themes of ambition, disillusionment, and moral decay.

2: Film Analysis

Topic: “Themes of Redemption in ‘The Shawshank Redemption'”

Thesis Statement: ‘The Shawshank Redemption’ explores themes of hope, friendship, and the human spirit’s resilience, using the character arcs of Andy Dufresne and Red to highlight the transformative power of hope and redemption within the confines of a corrupt prison system.

3: Rhetorical Analysis

Topic: “Martin Luther King Jr.’s ‘I Have a Dream’ Speech”

Thesis Statement: In his ‘I Have a Dream’ speech, Martin Luther King Jr. employs rhetorical strategies such as repetition, parallelism, and powerful imagery to effectively convey his vision of racial equality and galvanize the civil rights movement.

4: Historical Analysis

Topic: “Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire”

Thesis Statement: The fall of the Roman Empire was the result of a complex interplay of factors, including political corruption, economic instability, military defeats, and the gradual erosion of civic virtue, which collectively undermined the empire’s ability to sustain itself.

5: Character Analysis

Topic: “The Complexity of Hamlet in William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet'”

Thesis Statement: In William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet,’ the titular character’s complexity is revealed through his introspective nature, moral ambiguity, and fluctuating resolve, which collectively illustrate the play’s exploration of existential themes and the human condition.

6: Social Analysis

Topic: “The Impact of Social Media on Modern Communication”

Thesis Statement: Social media has significantly altered modern communication by enabling instantaneous sharing of information and fostering global connectivity, while also contributing to issues such as reduced face-to-face interactions, cyberbullying, and the spread of misinformation.

7: Cultural Analysis

Topic: “Cultural Significance of Traditional Festivals”

Thesis Statement: Traditional festivals play a crucial role in preserving cultural heritage, fostering community identity, and promoting social cohesion, as they provide a platform for the transmission of customs, values, and shared history across generations.

8: Economic Analysis

Topic: “The Effects of Globalization on Local Economies”

Thesis Statement: Globalization has profoundly impacted local economies by enhancing market access, fostering economic growth, and encouraging cultural exchange, but it has also led to job displacement, wage suppression, and the erosion of local industries in some regions.

9: Psychological Analysis

Topic: “Freudian Themes in ‘The Turn of the Screw’ by Henry James”

Thesis Statement: Henry James’s ‘The Turn of the Screw’ can be analyzed through a Freudian lens, where the governess’s experiences and the ambiguous nature of the ghosts reflect deep-seated psychological conflicts, repressed desires, and the complexities of the human psyche.

10: Political Analysis

Topic: “The Effectiveness of the New Deal Programs”

Thesis Statement: The New Deal programs implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt were effective in providing immediate relief during the Great Depression, spurring economic recovery, and implementing long-term reforms that reshaped the American social and economic landscape.

Thesis Examples for Compare and Contrast Essay

1: literature.

Topic: “Comparing ‘1984’ by George Orwell and ‘Brave New World’ by Aldous Huxley”

Thesis Statement: While George Orwell’s ‘1984’ presents a dystopian future of totalitarian control through fear and oppression, Aldous Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ explores a similar theme through a society controlled by pleasure and conditioning, highlighting different methods of societal control and their implications.

Topic: “Public School vs. Private School Education”

Thesis Statement: Public schools offer a diverse social environment and a broad curriculum, whereas private schools provide smaller class sizes and specialized programs, making the choice between the two dependent on individual educational goals and personal preferences.

Topic: “E-books vs. Printed Books”

Thesis Statement: While e-books offer convenience, portability, and interactive features, printed books provide a tactile experience, lack of screen strain, and a sense of nostalgia, demonstrating how each format caters to different reader preferences and needs.

Topic: “Traditional Medicine vs. Modern Medicine”

Thesis Statement: Traditional medicine emphasizes holistic and natural treatments based on centuries-old practices, while modern medicine focuses on scientific research and technological advancements, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each approach in addressing health issues.

5: Social Media

Topic: “Facebook vs. Instagram”

Thesis Statement: Facebook facilitates in-depth social interaction and a wide range of features for communication and information sharing, whereas Instagram focuses on visual content and a streamlined user experience, catering to different user preferences and social engagement styles.

Topic: “Traveling by Plane vs. Traveling by Train”

Thesis Statement: Traveling by plane offers speed and efficiency for long distances, while traveling by train provides scenic views and a more relaxed experience, highlighting the trade-offs between convenience and leisure in different modes of transportation.

7: Economics

Topic: “Capitalism vs. Socialism”

Thesis Statement: Capitalism promotes economic growth and individual entrepreneurship through market competition, whereas socialism emphasizes social welfare and equitable distribution of resources, reflecting contrasting ideologies on economic management and social equity.

8: Literature

Topic: “Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ vs. Sophocles’ ‘Oedipus Rex'”

Thesis Statement: While Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ delves into themes of indecision, revenge, and existential angst, Sophocles’ ‘Oedipus Rex’ explores fate, self-discovery, and the inevitability of destiny, illustrating different approaches to tragedy in Western literature.

9: Lifestyle

Topic: “Urban Living vs. Rural Living”

Thesis Statement: Urban living offers convenience, diverse cultural experiences, and numerous job opportunities, while rural living provides a peaceful environment, close-knit communities, and a connection to nature, demonstrating the contrasting lifestyles and priorities of each setting.

10: History

Topic: “The American Revolution vs. The French Revolution”

Thesis Statement: The American Revolution focused on independence from colonial rule and the establishment of a democratic republic, whereas the French Revolution aimed to overthrow the monarchy and address social inequalities, highlighting different motivations, outcomes, and impacts on world history.

More Thesis Samples & Examples:

1. thesis statements.

Thesis Statements

2. University Thesis Research

University Thesis Research

3. Working Thesis

Working Thesis

4. Master Thesis

Master Thesis

5. Basics About Thesis Statements

Basics About Thesis Statements

6. Thesis Sample


7. Thesis Format

Thesis Format

8. Thesis PDF

Thesis PDF

9. Graduate Students Thesis

Graduate Students Thesis

10. Thesis Example

Thesis Example

Tips for Writing Your Thesis

Tips for Writing Your Thesis

Start Early

  • Begin your thesis process early to allow ample time for research , writing , and revisions.

Choose a Relevant Topic

  • Select a topic that interests you and has sufficient research material available. Ensure it is specific enough to be manageable but broad enough to find sources.

Develop a Strong Thesis Statement

  • Craft a clear, concise thesis statement that outlines the main argument or focus of your paper. This will guide your research and writing.

Create an Outline

  • Plan your thesis structure with a detailed outline. Include sections for the introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.

Conduct Thorough Research

  • Use a variety of sources, such as books, journal articles, and credible websites. Take detailed notes and organize your research to support your thesis statement.

Write in Stages

  • Break down the writing process into manageable stages. Start with the introduction, move to the literature review, then the methodology, and so on.

Maintain Consistent Formatting

  • Follow the required formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) consistently throughout your thesis. Pay attention to citation rules and references.

Seek Feedback

  • Regularly consult with your advisor and seek feedback from peers. Incorporate their suggestions to improve your work.

Edit and Revise

  • Set aside time for multiple rounds of editing and revising. Check for clarity, coherence, grammar, and spelling errors.

Stay Organized

  • Keep all your research materials, notes, and drafts well-organized. Use tools like folders, labels, and reference management software.

Stay Motivated

  • Set small, achievable goals and reward yourself for meeting them. Stay positive and remember that writing a thesis is a marathon, not a sprint.

Proofread Thoroughly

  • Conduct a final proofread to catch any remaining errors. Consider using grammar checking tools or hiring a professional proofreader.

What to include in a Thesis

Writing a thesis involves several critical sections that contribute to the overall structure and argumentation of the research. Here’s a guide on what to include in a thesis:

1. Title Page

  • Title: Clear, concise, and descriptive.
  • Author’s Name
  • Institutional Affiliation
  • Date of Submission
  • Advisor’s Name

2. Abstract

  • Summary: Brief overview of the research.
  • Key Points: Main objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Word Limit: Typically 150-300 words.

3. Table of Contents

  • Sections and Subsections: With corresponding page numbers.

4. List of Figures and Tables

  • Figures/Tables: Numbered and titled with page numbers.

5. Introduction

  • Background: Context of the study.
  • Problem Statement: The issue being addressed.
  • Objectives: What the research aims to achieve.
  • Research Questions/Hypotheses: Specific questions or hypotheses the study will test.
  • Significance: Importance of the study.

6. Literature Review

  • Overview of Existing Research: Summarize previous studies.
  • Theoretical Framework: The theories guiding the research.
  • Gaps in Literature: Identify what has not been addressed.

7. Methodology

  • Research Design: Type of study (e.g., qualitative, quantitative).
  • Participants: Who was involved in the study.
  • Data Collection: How data was gathered (e.g., surveys, experiments).
  • Data Analysis: Methods used to analyze the data.
  • Ethical Considerations: How ethical issues were handled.
  • Findings: Present data and key results.
  • Visuals: Use tables, graphs, and charts for clarity.
  • Statistical Analysis: Include relevant statistical tests.

9. Discussion

  • Interpretation of Results: What the findings mean.
  • Comparison with Existing Literature: How results align or contrast with previous research.
  • Implications: Practical or theoretical implications.
  • Limitations: Discuss limitations of the study.
  • Future Research: Suggestions for future studies.

10. Conclusion

  • Summary of Findings: Recap main findings.
  • Restate Importance: Reiterate the study’s significance.
  • Final Thoughts: Concluding remarks.

11. References

  • Citations: Complete list of all sources cited in the thesis.
  • Formatting: Follow a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA).

12. Appendices

  • Supplementary Material: Additional data, questionnaires, or detailed descriptions.

Thesis vs. Dissertation

Demonstrates mastery of a subjectContributes new knowledge to the field
Typically for Master’s degreeTypically for Doctoral (PhD) degree
Generally shorter (50-100 pages)Generally longer (100-300+ pages)
Focuses on existing research and literatureInvolves original research and data
May involve original research or analysisPrimarily involves original research
Structured around existing knowledgeStructured around original findings
Show understanding and ability to analyzeShow ability to conduct independent research
Typically 1-2 yearsTypically 2-5 years
Usually reviewed by a smaller committeeReviewed by a larger committee and public defense
Demonstrates competency in the fieldAdvances knowledge in the field

How do I know if my Thesis is strong?

Clear and specific thesis statement.

  • Precision : Your thesis statement should be clear, specific, and concise. It should articulate the main argument or focus of your thesis.
  • Focus : Ensure it directly addresses the research question without being too broad or vague.

Well-Defined Research Question

  • Relevance : The research question should be significant to your field of study.
  • Feasibility : Make sure it is practical and manageable within the scope of your resources and time frame.

Comprehensive Literature Review

  • Depth : Your literature review should cover relevant research and show an understanding of key theories and findings.
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Associations between deep venous thrombosis and thyroid diseases: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study

  • Lifeng Zhang 1   na1 ,
  • Kaibei Li 2   na1 ,
  • Qifan Yang 1 ,
  • Yao Lin 1 ,
  • Caijuan Geng 1 ,
  • Wei Huang 1 &
  • Wei Zeng 1  

European Journal of Medical Research volume  29 , Article number:  327 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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Some previous observational studies have linked deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to thyroid diseases; however, the findings were contradictory. This study aimed to investigate whether some common thyroid diseases can cause DVT using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach.

This two-sample MR study used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by the FinnGen genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to be highly associated with some common thyroid diseases, including autoimmune hyperthyroidism (962 cases and 172,976 controls), subacute thyroiditis (418 cases and 187,684 controls), hypothyroidism (26,342 cases and 59,827 controls), and malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland (989 cases and 217,803 controls. These SNPs were used as instruments. Outcome datasets for the GWAS on DVT (6,767 cases and 330,392 controls) were selected from the UK Biobank data, which was obtained from the Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) open GWAS project. The inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger and weighted median methods were used to estimate the causal association between DVT and thyroid diseases. The Cochran’s Q test was used to quantify the heterogeneity of the instrumental variables (IVs). MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier test (MR-PRESSO) was used to detect horizontal pleiotropy. When the causal relationship was significant, bidirectional MR analysis was performed to determine any reverse causal relationships between exposures and outcomes.

This MR study illustrated that autoimmune hyperthyroidism slightly increased the risk of DVT according to the IVW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.0009; p  = 0.024] and weighted median methods [OR = 1.001; p  = 0.028]. According to Cochran’s Q test, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in IVs. Additionally, MR-PRESSO did not detect horizontal pleiotropy ( p  = 0.972). However, no association was observed between other thyroid diseases and DVT using the IVW, weighted median, and MR-Egger regression methods.


This study revealed that autoimmune hyperthyroidism may cause DVT; however, more evidence and larger sample sizes are required to draw more precise conclusions.


Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common type of disease that occurs in 1–2 individuals per 1000 each year [ 1 ]. In the post-COVID-19 era, DVT showed a higher incidence rate [ 2 ]. Among hospitalized patients, the incidence rate of this disease was as high as 2.7% [ 3 ], increasing the risk of adverse events during hospitalization. According to the Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Tromboembolica (RIETE) registry, which included data from ~ 100,000 patients from 26 countries, the 30-day mortality rate was 2.6% for distal DVT and 3.3% for proximal DVT [ 4 ]. Other studies have shown that the one-year mortality rate of DVT is 19.6% [ 5 ]. DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE), constitute a major global burden of disease [ 6 ].

Thyroid diseases are common in the real world. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between DVT and thyroid diseases, including thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer. Some case reports [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] have demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is often associated with DVT and indicates a worse prognosis [ 10 ]. The relationship between thyroid tumors and venous thrombosis has troubled researchers for many years. In 1989, the first case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with axillary vein thrombosis as the initial symptom was reported [ 11 ]. In 1995, researchers began to notice the relationship between thyroid tumors and hypercoagulability [ 12 ], laying the foundation for subsequent extensive research. However, the aforementioned observational studies had limitations, such as small sample sizes, selection bias, reverse causality, and confounding factors, which may have led to unreliable conclusions [ 13 ].

Previous studies have explored the relationship of thyroid disease and DVT and revealed that high levels of thyroid hormones may increase the risk of DVT. Hyperthyroidism promotes a procoagulant and hypofibrinolytic state by affecting the von Willebrand factor, factors VIII, IV, and X, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [ 14 , 15 ]. At the molecular level, researchers believe that thyroid hormones affect coagulation levels through an important nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR), TRβ [ 16 ], and participate in pathological coagulation through endothelial dysfunction. Thyroid hormones may have non-genetic effects on the behavior of endothelial cells [ 17 , 18 ]. In a study regarding tumor thrombosis, Lou [ 19 ] found that 303 circular RNAs were differentially expressed in DVT using microarray. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the most significantly enriched pathways included thyroid hormone-signaling pathway and endocytosis, and also increased level of proteoglycans in cancer. This indicated that tumor cells and thyroid hormones might interact to promote thrombosis. Based on these studies, we speculated that thyroid diseases, including thyroid dysfunction and thyroid tumors, may cause DVT.

Mendelian randomization (MR) research is a causal inference technique that can be used to assess the causal relationship and reverse causation between specific exposure and outcome factors. If certain assumptions [ 20 ] are fulfilled, genetic variants can be employed as instrumental variables (IVs) to establish causal relationships. Bidirectional MR analysis can clarify the presence of reverse causal relationships [ 21 ], making the conclusions more comprehensive. Accordingly, we aimed to apply a two-sample MR strategy to investigate whether DVT is related to four thyroid diseases, including autoimmune hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer.

Study design

MR relies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as IVs. The IVs should fulfill the following three criteria [ 22 ]: (1) IVs should be strongly associated with exposure. (2) Genetic variants must be independent of unmeasured confounding factors that may affect the exposure–outcome association. (3) IVs are presumed to affect the outcome only through their associations with exposure (Fig.  1 ). IVs that met the above requirements were used to estimate the relationship between exposure and outcome. Our study protocol conformed to the STROBE-MR Statement [ 23 ], and all methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.

figure 1

The relationship between instrumental variables, exposure, outcome, and confounding factors

Data sources and instruments

Datasets (Table  1 ) in this study were obtained from a publicly available database (the IEU open genome-wide association studies (GWAS) project [ 24 ] ( )). There was no overlap in samples between the data sources of outcome and exposures. Using de-identified summary-level data, privacy information such as overall age and gender were hidden. Ethical approval was obtained for all original work. This study complied with the terms of use of the database.

MR analysis was performed using the R package “TwoSampleMR”. SNPs associated with each thyroid disease at the genome-wide significance threshold of p  < 5.0 × 10 –8 were selected as potential IVs. To ensure independence between the genetic variants used as IVs, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) threshold for grouping was set to r 2  < 0.001 with a window size of 10,000 kb. The SNP with the lowest p -value at each locus was retained for analyses.

Statistical analysis

Multiple MR methods were used to infer causal relationships between thyroid diseases and DVT, including the inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, and MR-Egger tests, after harmonizing the SNPs across the GWASs of exposures and outcomes. The main analysis was conducted using the IVW method. Heterogeneity and pleiotropy were also performed in each MR analysis. Meanwhile, the MR-PRESSO Global test [ 25 ] was utilized to detect horizontal pleiotropy. The effect trend of SNP was observed through a scatter plot, and the forest plot was used to observe the overall effects. When a significant causal relationship was confirmed by two-sample MR analysis, bidirectional MR analysis was performed to assess reverse causal relationships by swapping exposure and outcome factors. Parameters were set the same as before. All abovementioned statistical analyses were performed using the package TwoSampleMR (version 0.5.7) in the R program (version 4.2.1).

After harmonizing the SNPs across the GWASs for exposures and outcomes, the IVW (OR = 1.0009, p  = 0.024, Table  2 ) and weighted median analyses (OR = 1.001, p  = 0.028) revealed significant causal effects between autoimmune hyperthyroidism and DVT risk. Similar results were observed using the weighted median approach Cochran’s Q test, MR-Egger intercept, and MR-PRESSO tests suggested that the results were not influenced by pleiotropy and heterogeneity (Table  2 ). However, the leave-one-out analysis revealed a significant difference after removing some SNPs (rs179247, rs6679677, rs72891915, and rs942495, p  < 0.05, Figure S2a), indicating that MR results were dependent on these SNPs (Figure S2, Table S1). No significant effects were observed in other thyroid diseases (Table  2 ). The estimated scatter plot of the association between thyroid diseases and DVT is presented in Fig.  2 , indicating a positive causal relationship between autoimmune hyperthyroidism and DVT (Fig.  2 a). The forest plots of single SNPs affecting the risk of DVT are displayed in Figure S1.

figure 2

The estimated scatter plot of the association between thyroid diseases and DVT. MR-analyses are derived using IVW, MR-Egger, weighted median and mode. By fitting different models, the scatter plot showed the relationship between SNP and exposure factors, predicting the association between SNP and outcomes

Bidirectional MR analysis was performed to further determine the relationship between autoimmune hyperthyroidism and DVT. The reverse causal relationship was not observed (Table S2), which indicated that autoimmune hyperthyroidism can cause DVT from a mechanism perspective.

This study used MR to assess whether thyroid diseases affect the incidence of DVT. The results showed that autoimmune hyperthyroidism can increase the risk of DVT occurrence, but a reverse causal relationship was not observed between them using bidirectional MR analysis. However, other thyroid diseases, such as subacute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer, did not show a similar effect.

Recently, several studies have suggested that thyroid-related diseases may be associated with the occurrence of DVT in the lower extremities, which provided etiological clues leading to the occurrence of DVT in our subsequent research. In 2006, a review mentioned the association between thyroid dysfunction and coagulation disorders [ 26 ], indicating a hypercoagulable state in patients with hyperthyroidism. In 2011, a review further suggested a clear association between hypothyroidism and bleeding tendency, while hyperthyroidism appeared to increase the risk of thrombotic events, particularly cerebral venous thrombosis [ 27 ]. A retrospective cohort study [ 28 ] supported this conclusion, but this study only observed a higher proportion of concurrent thyroid dysfunction in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. The relationship between thyroid function and venous thromboembolism remains controversial. Krieg VJ et al. [ 29 ] found that hypothyroidism has a higher incidence rate in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and may be associated with more severe disease, which seemed to be different from previous views that hyperthyroidism may be associated with venous thrombosis. Alsaidan [ 30 ] also revealed that the risk of developing venous thrombosis was almost increased onefold for cases with a mild-to-moderate elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone and Free thyroxine 4(FT4). In contrast, it increased twofold for cases with a severe elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone and FT4. Raised thyroid hormones may increase the synthesis or secretion of coagulation factors or may decrease fibrinolysis, which may lead to the occurrence of coagulation abnormality.

Other thyroid diseases are also reported to be associated with DVT. In a large prospective cohort study [ 31 ], the incidence of venous thromboembolism was observed to increase in patients with thyroid cancer over the age of 60. However, other retrospective studies did not find any difference compared with the general population [ 32 ]. In the post-COVID-19 era, subacute thyroiditis has received considerable attention from researchers. New evidence suggests that COVID-19 may be associated with subacute thyroiditis [ 33 , 34 ]. Mondal et al. [ 35 ] found that out of 670 COVID-19 patients, 11 presented with post-COVID-19 subacute thyroiditis. Among them, painless subacute thyroiditis appeared earlier and exhibited symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Another case report also indicated the same result, that is, subacute thyroiditis occurred after COVID-19 infection, accompanied by thyroid function changes [ 36 ]. This led us to hypothesize that subacute thyroiditis may cause DVT through alterations in thyroid function.

This study confirmed a significant causal relationship between autoimmune hyperthyroidism and DVT ( p  = 0.02). The data were tested for heterogeneity and gene pleiotropy using MR-Egger, Cochran’s Q, and MR-PRESSO tests. There was no evidence that the results were influenced by pleiotropy or heterogeneity. In the leave-one-out analysis, four of the five selected SNPs showed significant effects of autoimmune hyperthyroidism on DVT, suggesting an impact of these SNPs on DVT outcome. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between hyperthyroidism and its secondary arrhythmias and arterial thromboembolism [ 37 , 38 ]. This study emphasized the risk of DVT in patients with hyperthyroidism, which has certain clinical implications. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy was observed to help prevent DVT in patients with hyperthyroidism. Unfortunately, the results of this study did not reveal any evidence that suggests a relationship between other thyroid diseases and DVT occurrence. This may be due to the limited database, as this study only included the GWAS data from a subset of European populations. Large-scale multiracial studies are needed in the future.

There are some limitations to this study. First, it was limited to participants of European descent. Consequently, further investigation is required to confirm these findings in other ethnicities. Second, this study did not reveal the relationship between complications of hyperthyroidism and DVT. Additionally, this study selected IVs from the database using statistical methods rather than selecting them from the real population. This may result in weaker effects of the screened IVs and reduce the clinical significance of MR analysis. Moreover, the definitions of some diseases in this study were not clear in the original database, and some of the diseases were self-reported, which may reduce the accuracy of diagnosis. Further research is still needed to clarify the causal relationship between DVT and thyroid diseases based on prospective cohort and randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

This study analyzed large-scale genetic data and provided evidence of a causal relationship between autoimmune hyperthyroidism and the risk of DVT, Compared with the other thyroid diseases investigated. Prospective RCTs or MR studies with larger sample sizes are still needed to draw more precise conclusions.

Availability of data and materials

The IEU open gwas project,

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Lifeng Zhang and Kaibei Li have contributed equally to this work and share the first authorship.

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Department of Vascular Surgery, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 39, Shierqiao Road, Jinniu District, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

Lifeng Zhang, Qifan Yang, Yao Lin, Caijuan Geng, Wei Huang & Wei Zeng

Disinfection Supply Center, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 39, Shierqiao Road, Jin Niu District, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

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Conception and design: LFZ and WZ. Analysis and interpretation: LFZ, KBL and WZ. Data collection: LFZ, QFY, YL, CJG and WH. Writing the article: LFZ, KBL. Critical revision of the article: LFZ, GFY and WZ. Final approval of the article: LFZ, KBL, YL, CJG, WH, QFY and WZ. Statistical analysis: YL, QFY.

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Correspondence to Wei Zeng .

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Type 2 Diabetes: Case Study Of A 65 Year Old Male Suffers From Long Term Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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My patient, a 65-year-old male suffers from long term Type 2 diabetes mellitus. He currently has no symptoms and no recent triggering events suggesting that his diabetes are controlled for now. The patient explained how certain food types containing high levels of sugar increases his blood glucose and causes hyperglycaemia.

Upon triggering hyperglycaemia, the patient generates many symptoms such as:

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The patient was first diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at the age of 40. Diagnosis was first made after a blood glucose test was done while fasting the night before. The patient experienced many symptoms before his diagnosis such as dizzy spells, polyuria and felt very lethargic. Due to this long term illness, the patient now suffers from many complications such as:

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The patient’s development of chronic kidney disease and loss of sight was previously due to poorly controlled diabetes. Recently the patient also was referred to hospital as he suffered from a diabetic foot ulcer and had a cast for many months due to impaired wound healing. This had a major impact as the patient struggled to walk.

Drug History:

At first when the patient was diagnosed, he was initially prescribed Metformin.

  • Metformin: The first line of medication given to Type 2 diabetes patients. It decreases blood sugar levels by increasing peripheral usage of glucose to help the body handle insulin better. The patient was advised to take 500mg once daily of this medication preferably with breakfast.1

Metformin was no longer suitable for the patient as other complications arose form this. He is now prescribed Gliclazide and Linigliptin.

  • Gliclazide: It is a sulfonylurea2 drug that increases the amount of insulin that your body makes.3 It is mainly effective when only residual pancreatic beta cell activity present2. Gliclazide occasionally causes hypoglycaemia so it is always advised for the patient to carry some sugar related products with them3. The patient takes one tablet once daily after breakfast.
  • Linigliptin: This drug is usually taken if metformin is inappropriate to take for the patient. It inhibits dipeptidylpeptidase-4 to increase insulin secretion and lower glucagon secretion. The patient takes this once daily (5mg).4
Read also: Struggling with your assignments? Get expert case study help and ace your projects effortlessly.

Social History:

The patient has never smoked and stopped drinking alcohol many years ago.

Family History:

Many of the patient’s family members had a history of diabetes mellitus. The patients mother and father and wife suffered from Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

Main Complaint:

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic condition caused by insulin resistance. This occurs when the body fails to use insulin effectively and pancreatic insulin production becomes deficient. There are many risk factors associated with Type 2 diabetes such as obesity, high blood pressure, lack of exercise and disturbance in blood lipid levels.5 Due to these factors the risk of cardiovascular conditions can also increase. There are many cardinal signs associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These symptoms are polyuria (particularly at night), excessive thirst, very lethargic, poor wound healing when there are cuts and wound on skin and blurred vision. 6

Diagnosis and Testing:

Diagnosis is based on thorough history taking by an experienced clinician. This should include assessing glycemic control, patient’s recent blood glucose and levels of frequency hypoglycaemic episodes. The patient should also be asked about their medications type, dosage and times of administration.10 There are many investigations that can be done for diabetes diagnosis such as blood glucose test and refer the patient to the GP to check their urine.7

Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

NICE guidelines states the type of responsibility and support that should be provided for an adult with Type 2 diabetes at the age of 18 years onwards. These are,8

  • Ensure that an individually care plan is set up for all adults with Type 2 diabetes
  • Offer a structured group education programme e.g. DESMOND (Diabetes Education for Self- Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed)
  • Ensure that the person or members of the family know how to contact the diabetes team
  • Provide information on government disability benefits (if needed)
  • Manage lifestyle issues such as diet and exercise
  • Screen for complications such as retinopathy to minimise the risks
  • Provide up-to-date information on diabetes support groups

Dental Management: Dental clinicians need to consider certain factors before initiating dental treatment to prevent the risk of a medical emergency. One of the medical emergencies that can happen with Type 2 diabetes is hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar). Hypoglycaemia is treated in many ways:11

  • Treat with a sugary snack and test your blood sugar after 10-15 mins if patient is conscious
  • Put patient in recovery position and don’t put anything in their mouth. Give a glucagon injection middle third off the thigh if patient is unconscious or very drowsy

Patients undergoing major surgical treatment may require an adjustment to their insulin dosage or medications. 1

Oral Manifestations: Diabetic dental patients can be at threat for dental disease. High blood glucose levels can have an impact on periodontal health as it is a risk factor for periodontitis. There are many oral complications associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. These are:9

  • Burning sensation
  • Gingivitis periodontitis
  • Dental caries
  • Bacterial, viral And fungal infections
  • Periapical Abscess

It is very important to regularly monitor blood glucose levels to prevent these risks.

  • NICE Guidelines (2018 ) Metformin Hydrochloride - Indication and Dose, Available at: (Accessed: 12th February 2019)
  • NICE Guidelines (2018 ) Gliclazide , Available at: (Accessed: 12th February 2019 ).
  • NHS (2016) Gliclazide , Available at: 10th February 2019 ).
  • NICE Guidelines (2018) Lingliptin - Indication and Dose , Available at: (Accessed: 13th February 2019 ).
  • NICE Guidelines (May 2017 ) Type 2 diabetes in adults: management, Available at: (Accessed: 13th February 2019 ).
  • NHS (2016) Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms , Available at: (Accessed: 13th February 2019 ).
  • NHS (2016) Type 2 Diabetes - Getting Diagnosed , Available at: (Accessed: 13th February 2019 ).
  • NICE Guidelines, CKS (2017) Diabetes - Type 2 Scenario: Managment - adults , Available at:!scenario (Accessed: 13th February 2019 ).
  • Marwat M., Begum S. () Dental Managment of a Diabetic Patient , Available at: (Accessed: 14th February 2019 ).
  • Rajesh V., Lalla, Joseph A., D’Ambrosio. (October 2001 ) 'Dentistry & Medicine ', Dental managment considerations for the patient with diabetes mellitus , 132(), pp. 1425-1431 [Online]. Available at: 14th February 2019 ).
  • NHS (2016 ) Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) , Available at: (Accessed: 14th February 2019 ).

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Food Delivery & Takeout: New UX Benchmark with 3,000+ Performance Scores and 2,000+ Best Practice Examples self.__wrap_n!=1&&self.__wrap_b(":R95lb396:",1)

case study example thesis

At Baymard we’ve just released a new UX benchmark of food delivery and takeout mobile sites and mobile apps.

This follows from our large-scale user testing research on Food Delivery & Takeout UX , and adds to our existing e-commerce UX benchmark.

8 Food Delivery & Takeout UX Case Studies

The 8 mobile sites and apps have been manually assessed across 400+ research-based UX parameters relevant to Food Delivery & Takeout, resulting in 3,000+ weighted UX performance scores and 2,000+ best practice examples from food delivery and takeout sites and apps.

You can explore our 8 in-depth Food Delivery & Takeout UX case studies using the below links:

39 page designs: mobile, app

49 page designs: mobile, app

44 page designs: mobile, app

43 page designs: mobile, app

30 page designs: mobile, app

53 page designs: mobile, app

55 page designs: app, mobile

31 page designs: mobile, app

Food Delivery & Takeout UX Performance

The 8 food delivery and takeout mobile sites’ and mobile apps’ 3,000+ UX performance scores are summarized in the interactive scatterplot below — showing you how they perform collectively and individually:

A publicly available overview of the research and benchmark can be found on our Food Delivery & Takeout research overview page.

Getting access: all 3,000+ UX performance scores, 2,000+ best practice examples, and the UX insights from researching the Food Delivery & Takeout industry are available immediately and in full within Baymard Premium . (If you already have an account open the Food Delivery & Takeout study.)

If you want to know how your food delivery and takeout desktop site, mobile site, or app performs and compares, then learn more about getting Baymard to conduct a Food Delivery & Takeout UX Audit of your site or app.

Authored by Anders Nielsen on June 19, 2024

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