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Descriptive Essay: The Industrial Revolution and its Effects

The Industrial Revolution was a time of great age throughout the world. It represented major change from 1760 to the period 1820-1840. The movement originated in Great Britain and affected everything from industrial manufacturing processes to the daily life of the average citizen. I will discuss the Industrial Revolution and the effects it had on the world as a whole.

The primary industry of the time was the textiles industry. It had the most employees, output value, and invested capital. It was the first to take on new modern production methods. The transition to machine power drastically increased productivity and efficiency. This extended to iron production and chemical production.

It started in Great Britain and soon expanded into Western Europe and to the United States. The actual effects of the revolution on different sections of society differed. They manifested themselves at different times. The ‘trickle down’ effect whereby the benefits of the revolution helped the lower classes didn’t happen until towards the 1830s and 1840s. Initially, machines like the Watt Steam Engine and the Spinning Jenny only benefited the rich industrialists.

The effects on the general population, when they did come, were major. Prior to the revolution, most cotton spinning was done with a wheel in the home. These advances allowed families to increase their productivity and output. It gave them more disposable income and enabled them to facilitate the growth of a larger consumer goods market. The lower classes were able to spend. For the first time in history, the masses had a sustained growth in living standards.

Social historians noted the change in where people lived. Industrialists wanted more workers and the new technology largely confined itself to large factories in the cities. Thousands of people who lived in the countryside migrated to the cities permanently. It led to the growth of cities across the world, including London, Manchester, and Boston. The permanent shift from rural living to city living has endured to the present day.

Trade between nations increased as they often had massive surpluses of consumer goods they couldn’t sell in the domestic market. The rate of trade increased and made nations like Great Britain and the United States richer than ever before. Naturally, this translated to military power and the ability to sustain worldwide trade networks and colonies.

On the other hand, the Industrial Revolution and migration led to the mass exploitation of workers and slums. To counter this, workers formed trade unions. They fought back against employers to win rights for themselves and their families. The formation of trade unions and the collective unity of workers across industries are still existent today. It was the first time workers could make demands of their employers. It enfranchised them and gave them rights to upset the status quo and force employers to view their workers as human beings like them.

Overall, the Industrial Revolution was one of the single biggest events in human history. It launched the modern age and drove industrial technology forward at a faster rate than ever before. Even contemporary economics experts failed to predict the extent of the revolution and its effects on world history. It shows why the Industrial Revolution played such a vital role in the building of the United States of today.

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Essay on Industrial Revolution

Students are often asked to write an essay on Industrial Revolution in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Industrial Revolution

What was the industrial revolution.

The Industrial Revolution was a big change in how things were made. Before, people made goods by hand at home. Then, machines in big buildings called factories started doing this work. This change began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other countries.

Changes in Technology

New machines could spin thread much faster than by hand. The steam engine was also invented. This could power machines and move trains and ships. These inventions made making things and moving them around quicker and cheaper.

Impact on People

Many people left farms to work in factories in cities. Life became hard for these workers. They worked long hours for little money. But, more goods were made, and over time, people’s lives improved as new jobs were created.

Global Effects

The Industrial Revolution changed the world. Countries with factories got rich and powerful. They used resources from other places to make goods. This led to big changes in trade and made some countries very wealthy.

The Industrial Revolution was a major event that changed how we make things, live, and work. It started over 200 years ago, and its effects are still felt today. It made life better for many, but also created new challenges.

Also check:

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Industrial Revolution

250 Words Essay on Industrial Revolution

What was the industrial revolution.

The Industrial Revolution was a big change in the way things were made. Before this time, people made goods by hand at home or in small shops. Around the late 18th century, this changed. Machines began to do the work in big factories. This started in Britain and then spread to other parts of the world.

Changes in Industry

Machines could make things faster and cheaper than humans could by hand. This meant more products could be made and more people could buy them. Steam engines powered these machines, and coal was the fuel. This led to a rise in coal mining and iron production.

Life During the Revolution

Because of factory work, cities grew as people moved there for jobs. This was a big shift from life on farms. Working in factories was hard, and many worked long hours for low pay. The air and water got dirty from the factories, too.

Impact on Society

The Industrial Revolution changed life a lot. Travel became easier with trains and steamships. Communication got better with inventions like the telegraph. People’s lives improved with new goods and technology. But, there were also bad parts, like child labor and pollution.

The Industrial Revolution was a time of big changes in the way we make and buy things. It made life better in many ways, but also brought challenges. Today, we still feel its effects in our daily lives and the way our world works.

500 Words Essay on Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a time of big change in how people worked and lived. It started in the late 1700s and went on until the early 1800s. Before this period, most goods were made by hand, and people lived in small villages and worked on farms. But during the Industrial Revolution, machines began to do the work that people and animals used to do. This change began in Britain and then spread to other countries, including the United States and parts of Europe.

New Inventions

One of the most important parts of the Industrial Revolution was the creation of new machines. These machines could make things faster and cheaper than before. For example, the spinning jenny allowed one worker to make several threads at the same time, and the steam engine could power different kinds of machines. Because of these inventions, factories were built where many machines could work together. This was much different from the old way of making things at home or in small workshops.

Life in Factories

With factories, the way people worked changed a lot. Instead of making goods at their own pace at home, workers had to follow a strict schedule in the factories. They worked long hours and often in tough conditions. Many workers moved from the countryside to cities to find work in these new factories. This led to cities growing very fast and becoming crowded.

Transportation Changes

The Industrial Revolution also changed how goods and people moved from place to place. The steam locomotive made it possible to build railways, which could transport goods and people much faster than horses and carts. Ships also got steam engines, which made travel across oceans quicker and easier. This meant that goods could be sold far away, and it was easier for people to move to new places.

The Industrial Revolution had a big impact on society. It made some people very rich, especially those who owned the factories. But many workers lived in poor conditions and did not get much money. Over time, this led to new laws to protect workers and improve their lives.

Children also worked in factories, and this led to laws about child labor. Education became more important, and more children went to school instead of working.

Changes in Agriculture

Farming also changed during the Industrial Revolution. New machines like the seed drill and the mechanical reaper made farming more efficient. This meant fewer people were needed to work on farms, so they went to work in the factories instead.

The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change. It made life different in many ways, from how people made things to how they lived and worked. It was not always easy or good for everyone, but it led to the modern world we know today. We still feel the effects of these changes in our daily lives, as the new ways of making and doing things that started back then continue to shape our world.

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Industrial Revolution

By: History.com Editors

Updated: March 27, 2023 | Original: October 29, 2009

The Iron Rolling Mill (Modern Cyclopes), 1873-1875. Artist: Menzel, Adolph Friedrich, von (1815-1905) Berlin.

The Industrial Revolution was a period of scientific and technological development in the 18th century that transformed largely rural, agrarian societies—especially in Europe and North America—into industrialized, urban ones. Goods that had once been painstakingly crafted by hand started to be produced in mass quantities by machines in factories, thanks to the introduction of new machines and techniques in textiles, iron making and other industries.

When Was the Industrial Revolution?

Though a few innovations were developed as early as the 1700s, the Industrial Revolution began in earnest by the 1830s and 1840s in Britain, and soon spread to the rest of the world, including the United States.

Modern historians often refer to this period as the First Industrial Revolution, to set it apart from a second period of industrialization that took place from the late 19th to early 20th centuries and saw rapid advances in the steel, electric and automobile industries. 

Spinning Jenny

Thanks in part to its damp climate, ideal for raising sheep, Britain had a long history of producing textiles like wool, linen and cotton. But prior to the Industrial Revolution, the British textile business was a true “cottage industry,” with the work performed in small workshops or even homes by individual spinners, weavers and dyers.

Starting in the mid-18th century, innovations like the spinning jenny (a wooden frame with multiple spindles), the flying shuttle, the water frame and the power loom made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread much easier. Producing cloth became faster and required less time and far less human labor.

More efficient, mechanized production meant Britain’s new textile factories could meet the growing demand for cloth both at home and abroad, where the British Empire’s many overseas colonies provided a captive market for its goods. In addition to textiles, the British iron industry also adopted new innovations.

Chief among the new techniques was the smelting of iron ore with coke (a material made by heating coal) instead of the traditional charcoal. This method was both cheaper and produced higher-quality material, enabling Britain’s iron and steel production to expand in response to demand created by the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) and the later growth of the railroad industry. 

Impact of Steam Power 

An icon of the Industrial Revolution broke onto the scene in the early 1700s, when Thomas Newcomen designed the prototype for the first modern steam engine . Called the “atmospheric steam engine,” Newcomen’s invention was originally applied to power the machines used to pump water out of mine shafts.

In the 1760s, Scottish engineer James Watt began tinkering with one of Newcomen’s models, adding a separate water condenser that made it far more efficient. Watt later collaborated with Matthew Boulton to invent a steam engine with a rotary motion, a key innovation that would allow steam power to spread across British industries, including flour, paper, and cotton mills, iron works, distilleries, waterworks and canals.

Just as steam engines needed coal, steam power allowed miners to go deeper and extract more of this relatively cheap energy source. The demand for coal skyrocketed throughout the Industrial Revolution and beyond, as it would be needed to run not only the factories used to produce manufactured goods, but also the railroads and steamships used for transporting them.

Transportation During the Industrial Revolution

Britain’s road network, which had been relatively primitive prior to industrialization, soon saw substantial improvements, and more than 2,000 miles of canals were in use across Britain by 1815.

In the early 1800s, Richard Trevithick debuted a steam-powered locomotive, and in 1830 similar locomotives started transporting freight (and passengers) between the industrial hubs of Manchester and Liverpool. By that time, steam-powered boats and ships were already in wide use, carrying goods along Britain’s rivers and canals as well as across the Atlantic.

Banking and Communication in the Industrial Revolution

In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith , who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published The Wealth of Nations . In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference.

Banks and industrial financiers soon rose to new prominence during this period, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s; the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s.

The latter part of the Industrial Revolution also saw key advances in communication methods, as people increasingly saw the need to communicate efficiently over long distances. In 1837, British inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the first commercial telegraphy system, even as Samuel Morse and other inventors worked on their own versions in the United States.

Cooke and Wheatstone’s system would be used for railroad signaling, as the speed of the new steam-powered trains created a need for more sophisticated means of communication.

Labor Movement 

Though many people in Britain had begun moving to the cities from rural areas before the Industrial Revolution, this process accelerated dramatically with industrialization, as the rise of large factories turned smaller towns into major cities over the span of decades. This rapid urbanization brought significant challenges, as overcrowded cities suffered from pollution, inadequate sanitation, miserable housing conditions and a lack of safe drinking water.

Meanwhile, even as industrialization increased economic output overall and improved the standard of living for the middle and upper classes, poor and working class people continued to struggle. The mechanization of labor created by technological innovation had made working in factories increasingly tedious (and sometimes dangerous), and many workers—including children—were forced to work long hours for pitifully low wages.

Such dramatic changes and abuses fueled opposition to industrialization worldwide, including the “ Luddites ,” known for their violent resistance to changes in Britain’s textile industry.

Did you know? The word "luddite" refers to a person who is opposed to technological change. The term is derived from a group of early 19th century English workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery as a means of protest. They were supposedly led by a man named Ned Ludd, though he may have been an apocryphal figure.

In the decades to come, outrage over substandard working and living conditions would fuel the formation of labor unions , as well as the passage of new child labor laws and public health regulations in both Britain and the United States, all aimed at improving life for working class and poor citizens who had been negatively impacted by industrialization.

The Industrial Revolution in the United States

The beginning of industrialization in the United States is usually pegged to the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by the recent English immigrant Samuel Slater. Slater had worked at one of the mills opened by Richard Arkwright (inventor of the water frame) mills, and despite laws prohibiting the emigration of textile workers, he brought Arkwright’s designs across the Atlantic. He later built several other cotton mills in New England, and became known as the “Father of the American Industrial Revolution.”

The United States followed its own path to industrialization, spurred by innovations “borrowed” from Britain as well as by homegrown inventors like Eli Whitney . Whitney’s 1793 invention of the cotton gin (short for “engine”) revolutionized the nation’s cotton industry (and strengthened the hold of slavery over the cotton-producing South).

By the end of the 19th century, with the so-called Second Industrial Revolution underway, the United States would also transition from a largely agrarian society to an increasingly urbanized one, with all the attendant problems.

By the mid-19th century, industrialization was well-established throughout the western part of Europe and America’s northeastern region. By the early 20th century, the U.S. had become the world’s leading industrial nation.

Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Historians continue to debate many aspects of industrialization, including its exact timeline, why it began in Britain as opposed to other parts of the world and the idea that it was actually more of a gradual evolution than a revolution. The positives and negatives of the Industrial Revolution are complex.

On one hand, unsafe working conditions were rife and environmental pollution from coal and gas are legacies we still struggle with today. On the other, the move to cities and ingenious inventions that made clothing, communication and transportation more affordable and accessible to the masses changed the course of world history.

Regardless of these questions, the Industrial Revolution had a transformative economic, social and cultural impact, and played an integral role in laying the foundations for modern society. 

Photo Galleries

Lewis Hine Child Labor Photos

Robert C. Allen, The Industrial Revolution: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007  Claire Hopley, “A History of the British Cotton Industry.” British Heritage Travel , July 29, 2006 William Rosen, The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention . New York: Random House, 2010 Gavin Weightman, The Industrial Revolutionaries: The Making of the Modern World, 1776-1914 . New York: Grove Press, 2007 Matthew White, “Georgian Britain: The Industrial Revolution.” British Library , October 14, 2009 

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Big History Project

Course: big history project   >   unit 9.

  • ACTIVITY: The Appetite for Energy
  • ACTIVITY: Unit 9 Vocab Tracking
  • ACTIVITY: DQ Notebook 9.1
  • WATCH: Coal, Steam, and the Industrial Revolution

READ: The Industrial Revolution

  • WATCH: How Did Change Accelerate?
  • READ: Acceleration
  • READ: George Washington Carver - Graphic Biography
  • ACTIVITY: Threshold Card — Threshold 8: The Modern Revolution
  • Quiz: Acceleration

Fossil Fuels, Steam Power, and the Rise of Manufacturing

The transformation of the world, early steam engines, why britain.

  • Shortage of wood and the abundance of convenient coal deposits
  • Commercial-minded aristocracy; limited monarchy
  • System of free enterprise; limited government involvement
  • Government support for commercial projects, for a strong navy to protect ships
  • Cheap cotton produced by slaves in North America
  • High literacy rates
  • Rule of law; protection of assets
  • Valuable immigrants (Dutch, Jews, Huguenots [French Protestants])
  • Location of China’s coal, which was in the north, while economic activity was centered in the south
  • Rapid growth of population in China, giving less incentive for machines and more for labor-intensive methods
  • Confucian ideals that valued stability and frowned upon experimentation and change
  • Lack of Chinese government support for maritime explorations, thinking its empire seemed large enough to provide everything needed
  • China’s focus on defending self from nomadic attacks from the north and west
  • Britain’s location on the Atlantic Ocean
  • British colonies in North America, which provided land, labor, and markets
  • Silver from the Americas, used in trade with China
  • Social and ideological conditions in Britain, and new thoughts about the economy, that encouraged an entrepreneurial spirit

The Spread of the Industrial Revolution

Consequences of the industrial revolution, for further discussion, want to join the conversation.

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  • Industrial Revolution

Essays on Industrial Revolution

Writing an industrial revolution essay will help you understand how the industrial revolution laid the foundation for modern civilization. This structural transformation of the economy first took place in England, and Great Britain was rightfully called the "first industrial nation". Many industrial revolution essays and essays about inventions in machinery which cover Brittan’s progress in this regard. The term "industrial revolution" was first used in the 1920s. A number of economists define this transformation as "the emergence of modern industry". One of the main differences between pre-industrial and industrial societies is the reduced role of the agricultural sector and the rise of manufacturing and construction. There are numerous samples of essays on industrial revolution that target developments of specific sectors. Review industrial revolution essay samples below to gain further understanding of the subject – it will be helpful for your essay.

Industrialization Industrialization refers to the period during which textile manufacturing, transportation, and agricultural activities were mechanized alongside a change of power which encompassed economic and cultural conditions, railroads and ships development (James-Chakraborty, 257). The industrial revolution began in Britain at the end of late 18th century providing a roadmap through which...

The Role of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain The industrial revolution played a major role in the establishment and expansion of various institutions in Great Britain. As more people migrated and settled in major towns, the health and education sectors were enhanced. An improvement in the average income for the...

The Industrial Revolution and Urbanization The industrial revolution started in Britain and occurred between 1750 and 1914, happening in three stages that were linked to dissimilar region and technology. The industrial revolution led to urbanization which also increased on the impacts of the industrial revolution itself. The impacts of urbanization and...

The Captains of Industry and the Robber Barons The presence of two groups of people—the captains of industry and the robber barons—was what defined the American economy in the late 19th century. Through the creation of large corporations that sparked contentious discussions about the role of government regulations and the authority...

The beginning of the American industrial revolution in the 19th century marked the beginning of the progressivism society. It gets its principles and foundation from the founding fathers of America's concept of a united front working toward a common objective. Great discoveries that propelled the American economy to a top-tier...

Prior to Industrialization The majority of British citizens were farmers who raised both crops and animals. Farming was done on small plots of land because production was, however, comparatively small. The country's population increased by 30 million as a result of industrialization, which got underway in the early 18th century (Jankovi,...

Words: 1184

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The Impact of Slavery on American Economy The author makes a case about how slaves were used by their owners and how that affected them in chapter five of the book. The author goes into great depth about how the slave trade benefited the American economy. Thus, the author attempts to...

Since the Industrial Revolution Since the industrial revolution began in Britain a century before it did in any other country, it is safe to say that it was the first country in the world to go through it. A number of social, economic, and natural factors contributed to the industrial revolution...

Words: 2319

Early Modern Europe Early modern Europe is the term used to describe the period of European history from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution. Early modern Europe is thought to have been defined by the development of the printing press with moveable type. The conclusion of the War of the...

The Industrial Revolution and its Impact The paper will address how changes in economics, immigration, as well as religion and culture, resulted from the industrial revolution in the United States. It also finds significant migration hubs and the causes of the population shift from rural to urban areas. The paper concludes...

The American West's Expansion The Gilded Age, the Industrial Revolution, and Modernization all occurred in the latter half of the nineteenth century almost simultaneously and were influenced by related forces. Traveling to the west required about two to three months in 1865 because there were no major railroads connecting the U.S....

The Gilded Age Economy The rapid development of new agricultural and industrial equipment fueled the Gilded Age economy. In order to increase agricultural output, farmers were able to use mechanical reapers, steam tractors, and combine harvesters. To boost output, steel manufacturing companies used the Bessemer blast furnace and the Siemens-Martin open...

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write an essay on industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution Essay: Example and Tips

write an essay on industrial revolution

  • 1 Introduction to industrial revolution essay example
  • 2.1 Pros and Cons of the Industrial Revolution
  • 2.2 The Road to Product Saturation or the Pros of Revolution
  • 2.3 Cons of the industrial revolution
  • 3 Conclusion of industrial revolution essay

Introduction to industrial revolution essay example

The road to the Industrial Revolution was opened by the rapid development of transport networks – for the first time since the Roman Empire. From the very beginning of the reign of George III, a network of channels developed in the country, which provided many places with those benefits that London had long enjoyed. The channels were conducted in all regions of the country, and for their time they meant a lot, although after the introduction of the railway communication the channel age ends. For the same reason, hard-surfaced roads with their regular carriages are also rapidly becoming obsolete.

The industrial revolution is a rather lengthy process for setting up a modern industrial scale for the production and marketing of goods. This process begins with the invention of the first looms and the establishment of the production of cotton fabrics back in the 18th century. Soon in Lancashire there is an industry – for the moment on a small scale – in small factories (mills), on which machines for water traction are installed. A similar kind of production occurs in Liverpool. During the XIX century, an increasing proportion of the population is connected to mass production of goods, and factories are displacing more and more home and agricultural productions from the market. Fortunately, when factories became the usual place of work for the majority of the population, some of its worst aspects were corrected: from 1833 the state conducted inspections and regulates the activities of producers, which could only be envied by workers employed in small manufactories at an old-style home.

 Example of main part of industrial revolution essay example

The next big step was the invention of the steam engine by James Watt in 1764 (patented in 1769.) After that, together with his assistants, he continued to work on the engine, perfecting it for all sorts of tasks. Soon, the most diverse industries – coal mines, Cornwall tin mines, New River Company – all began to use steam traction, and thus the steam tract gradually began to replace the traditional less powerful water.

Another important step was the use of coal in the smelting of iron ore. Previously, wood was used for this, but by that time there was little forest in the country, and the use of pure coal made the iron fragile. The output was found when the first time coal was obtained from coke. In 1740, the Yorkshire watchmaker, Huntsman, opened the recipe for steelmaking, smelting iron with a small admixture of coal. As a result, over forty years, iron production is growing 10-fold. Throughout the island, there are new plants, each with its own version of the steam boiler. Together with these plants a new class is developing in the country – a modern mechanic.

Modern industry has produced a new class – a class of well-educated and well paid engineers, to whose advice hundreds of producers throughout the country listened with reverence. To this very class belonged the family of Stevenson from Tyneside, the inventor of the railway communication. The inventor of the locomotive did not belong to the bourgeois class – he was from among the workers, and he learned to read only at the age of 17. The slogan of the new time was “help yourself,” and the emerging mechanical institutions were a new model of higher education.

For the first time since Anglo-Saxon times, the north-western part of the country, the ancient Northumbria and Mercia, were no less important than the agricultural south, or London with its suburbs. The old textile centers in East Anglia were in the shadows because of the stubborn competition with the new centers. Until the end of the Napoleonic wars, these new centers did not require political influence, but subsequently this shift of power, finance and political influence to the north and west was the reason for the forthcoming reform of the parliament.

The industrial revolution caused a turning point in the centuries – this was the time of mass migration of the population. Men and women were gradually moving to the industrial regions of the country, and on the lands around these areas, the incredibly low price of labor of an agricultural wage worker has become blatantly evident. But the living conditions of the new working class were extremely difficult, and became even more severe because of high prices, lack of goods and unemployment, which were the consequence of the Napoleonic wars.

The perversions were more than sufficient for the first period of the formation of the new economic formation, but they were in many ways a consequence and augmentation of the evils of old industries, rather than new vices. Coal mines existed for centuries, in them miners were always paid little, provided them with terrible housing and were forced to work incredibly much. Until 1815 in Northumberland or Durham, it was not customary to investigate the circumstances of the death of miners. Women and children also worked in the mines, and they worked in horrific conditions in the damp darkness of the mine. The industrial age has simply shown these unpleasant aspects of people’s lives more sharply.

Pros and Cons of the Industrial Revolution

The essence of the industrial revolution lies in the transition to mechanized labor. During this process, a significant part of the production operations was transferred from the person to the machine, and the worker was assigned the role of the machine operator.

Until the beginning of the last century, the mechanization of production was carried out in all countries, which are now among the world’s economic leaders (except China). The change in the mode of production entailed a mass breaking of the established life stereotypes, radically changing the basic principles of people’s existence (that is why the term “revolution” is used for this phenomenon). Despite the talk about the emergence of a “post-industrial society,” humanity lives on these principles today, and a retreat from them for the time being threatens it with serious economic troubles, which was clearly demonstrated by the last global financial crisis.

But, if the industrial revolution brought certain benefits to humanity, today we would live in an ideal world. As in any case, a global reorganization has spawned both its own problems and its victims.

The Road to Product Saturation or the Pros of Revolution

The main and most obvious advantage of mechanized production is a sharp increase in its volume and a reduction in the cost of production. Improvement of the quality should also be mentioned – the machine works more accurately than a person, avoiding random flaws. Statistical data on the volume of production in the leading industries in those countries where the industrial revolution was actively going on, shows an increase in the output of goods at times for 20-30 years. Thus, there was a saturation of the market with goods with a simultaneous decrease in prices for them. Thanks to mechanization, a very large number of people were able to take advantage of industrial production.

The industrial revolution facilitated communication between people living at a considerable distance from each other. Mechanization came in transport and communications, because accelerated production required accelerated delivery of raw materials, accelerated shipment of finished products and timely information on various manufacturing nuances. But as a result, everything was available by the use the railway, telegraph and telephone.

Mechanization contributed to the growth of education and awareness of people. The profession of an engineer appeared and became very popular. The workers were also forced to study: they had to get acquainted with the instructions to the machine, study the drawings of standardized parts. Only representatives of unskilled professions could remain uneducated, but they also tried to learn at least something if they understood that without this they would never receive any decent work.

In turn, mechanical printing machines could produce many cheap newspapers and inexpensive books. The telegraph instantly delivered information about events in remote countries. A small price for printed products made it accessible to the poor, and their horizons expanded.

Also, the industrial revolution has forever put an end to the monopoly of the church in the affairs of spiritual life and education. Future engineers needed to be taught mathematics, physics and chemistry. The restriction of church intervention in secular life can not be considered positive – it was a great step towards true free-thinking.

Finally, mechanization simply eased the labor of the workers. Machines were used on the most labor-intensive production processes.

Cons of the industrial revolution

But here’s the paradox: at the dawn of the industrial revolution, Europe was swept by the Luddite mass labor movement (after the half-legendary founder, the English weaver Ned Ludd). Luddites demanded the destruction of machines and a return to heavy manual labor! They were enemies themselves, or what? Of course not. Enemies were the entrepreneurs who conducted the mechanization of production. Because it was not done to improve the life of mankind. There was only one goal there. It is the banal greed of entrepreneurs, their complete indifference to the destinies of others, created the “shadow” side of the industrial revolution. And terrible things appearing there:

  • Significant increase in unemployment, lower wages.
  • Increase the working day (sometimes up to 16 hours!).
  • The use of female and child labor (as early as the beginning of the twentieth century no one in the United States could be surprised by the 6-year-old workers).
  • Complete ignoring of labor safety standards (with the usual lack of compensation for the injured).
  • The aggravation of social conflict (the defeat of the Paris Commune of 1871 deprived the capital of France of 100,000 inhabitants, the civil war in Russia was even more expensive).
  • Emergence of crises of overproduction, among which – the famous “great depression” (the goods were not sold out, because those who needed them did not have money to buy).

Greed also explains another dangerous consequence of the industrial revolution – environmental problems. No one thought about limiting the extraction of raw materials or cleaning emissions – this does not bring profit. The consequences of the non-standardized extraction of raw materials and uncontrolled emissions into the atmosphere are “hoarded” by mankind to this day.

But practice has shown that these negative manifestations sharply decreased when the state realized its responsibility for the destinies of all its citizens, and not just the business elite. At the moment, it is rational state power that saves us from the dark sides of mechanization (and now automation) by:

  • Creation and maintenance of a system of social guarantees (minimum wages, pensions, assistance in case of disability).
  • Formation of environmental legislation and control over its implementation.
  • Restrictions on superprofits (for example, introducing a progressive tax).

Similar methods are applied in all countries and give results. Of course, for this, the government must be effective. But this in the current reality largely depends on ordinary citizens.

Conclusion of industrial revolution essay

The industrial revolution, introducing machines into the production process and concentrating it in factories and urban areas, has gradually brought to naught two types of rural production. First, it destroyed the production of tissue at home by women and children in rural-economic areas, and secondly, such handicrafts for men as watchmaking, weaving baskets, the production of carts and carriages, milling, brewing, dressing of shoes, etc., have disappeared. Because of this, the village remained only an agricultural link in production, as a result, villagers lost their independence.

The largest landowners and large farmers used actively fencing policies for intensive land use, but this invariably hit the most vulnerable segments of the population, who had to withdraw from the land and join the growing class of the workers.

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Positive and Negative Effects of The Industrial Revolution

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Positive effects: technological advancements and economic growth, negative effects: harsh working conditions and exploitation, positive effects: urbanization and social mobility, negative effects: environmental degradation, positive effects: advances in education and medicine, negative effects: social inequalities and class struggles.

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The Industrial Revolution in Europe

European industrial revolution: essay introduction, european industrial revolution essay: main body, small units, the origin of industrial revolution, innovation and industrialization, transportation and industrial revolution, continental progress, european industrial revolution: essay conclusion, works cited.

The European industrial revolution occurred between the eighteenth century and nineteenth centuries. During this time, the European and American pastoral populations that appeared to be mainly agricultural turned into urbanized and industrialized populations.

However, in the late 1700s, British communities were the first to experience the Industrial Revolution, but before this period, industrial production took place in individual homesteads. In fact, manufacturing was done through basic machineries or hand-crafted tools.

With the advent of this revolution, industrial development marked the period of shift from the application of handmade tools to mass production, insurgence of modernized factories, and the use of unique drive and well powered machineries. Factories were built for mass production of various products that were initially handcrafted. The iron and textile industries emerged.

There was development of the vapor engine. These industries played an essential role in the Industrial Revolution. Transport systems improved significantly. Communication and banking were enhanced by the revolution. The industrialization that took place in Europe saw the increase in volume.

New manufactured goods were developed. Some individuals benefitted from these developments as their lifestyles improved. However, employment opportunities reduced for the unskilled and living conditions worsened (Wyatt 20).

Typically, the industrialization of Europe is often viewed as a sequence of separate ‘industrial revolutions. Every country is treated as an economy with the progress of each being compared distinctly with some kind of implied model. Actually, many issues of direct significance to European industrialization functioned within political boundaries.

When this was not the case, the issues were affected by political choices. In recent years, another reason has arisen for looking at industrialization in national terms.

Most countries desiring to industrialize modernly are forced to mobilize the entire national power apparatus to push industrial revolution forward. Consequently, such a move is meant to appear as a political will. By extension, this is applied to the European industrial revolution in the 19 th century.

Prior to proceeding to look at the entire Europe which is a much bigger area than a country, as an appropriate model for studying industrialization, it is meaningful to digress to a unit smaller than a country. It is evident that in the pioneer, Great Britain, there were smaller divisions where the actual industrial revolution took place before spreading to the rest of the country and consequently to the entire Europe.

Actually, industrial revolution came much earlier than documented. South Lancashire and the Black Country were the places where industrialization begun. This was followed by development of industries in Lincolnshire and Kent.

Concentrated industrial areas including Sheffield, Hallamshire and the West Country wool regions were revolutionized areas after the cotton regions. Some of the regions that were in the first phase of industrialization including North Wales, the Derbyshire uplands and Cornwall actually emerged as manufacturing concentrations in later phases (Wyatt 11).

Besides the temporal sequences identified in early industrialization lay functional relationships contributing to industrialization. Agrarian developments in some regions may have stirred in other less-advantaged ones. On the other hand, industrial or urban development in regions such as Lancashire impacted agrarian growth in neighboring counties.

Britain is the birthplace of industrial revolution. Prior to the beginning of Industrial Revolution, majority of people in Britain lived in unimportant, rural communities. The daily existence of these populations depended on farming. Survival for the regular individual was difficult.

There was meager income. Hunger and diseases were unvarying. The population produced most of their food, clothes, home fittings and equipment. The production was conducted in homesteads or small, countryside shops. Hand tools and uncomplicated machines were used.

A variety of aspects contributed to the country’s role as the origin of Industrial evolution. The most important was the great deposit of coal and iron ore. These were fundamental for industrialization. Furthermore, the country was politically stable. It was the world’s first colonial power. This meant that it could source raw materials from the colonies. The colonies also acted as the marketplace for the finished goods (West 6).

The demand for finished goods increased rapidly. The traders of these products required more economical methods of producing the goods. Consequently, mechanization and the large-scale production system emerged. The fabric industry was significantly impacted by industrialization. Prior to mechanization and the emergence of the factory system, fabrics were produced mostly in homes.

The production of fabric in homes resulted in the term cottage industry. Traders would provide the raw materials to individual homes. They also provided uncomplicated equipment. They would then collect the finished goods. The homes would set their own timetable under this system. This was challenging for the traders as they could not regulate the production.

Inefficiencies were common. During the 1700s, a sequence of improvements resulted in ever-growing manufacturing yet required reduced manpower. In 1764, James Hargreaves developed the spinning jenny.

The invention allowed a single person to produce several reels of thread simultaneously. During his demise, more than twenty thousand whirling Jennies athwart the country had been crafted. In 1780s, the power loom was developed by Edmund Cartwright (Long and Shleifer 8).

Innovations in the iron industry contributed significantly to Industrial Revolution. In the early eighteenth century, a better way of manufacturing cast iron was developed by Abraham Darby. The method utilized coke-fired furnace instead of the earlier version that used charcoal.

During the 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented the initial cost-effective process for producing steel in bulk. Both metals (iron and steel) emerged as fundamental materials for the production of a wide range of products. These products included machines, infrastructure, houses, vessels and appliances.

The steam engine was essential to industrialization. The initial useful steam engine was invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. The engine was mainly utilized for pumping water from mines. Half a century later, James Watt upgraded the steam engine. His machine would be used in power machinery, trains and marine vessels. This significantly contributed to Industrial Revolution (Long and Shleifer 14).

The discovery of waterways, better roads and railways facilitated the expansion of trade across Britain and beyond. The steam engine, use of water wheels and power-driven machines reinforced production volume. The availability of completely-metal machines enabled the production of more production equipment. The equipment would be used in other industries.

They hence required to be transported to the appropriate locations either in parts or as a complete machine. This required the traders to develop transportation systems. Previously, raw materials and finished products were transported using horse-drawn wagons or boats.

The discovery of the steam engine was essential in furthering Industrial Revolution. During the 1800s, Robert Fulton developed the initial viable steamboat for commercial purposes. By 1850s, steamships were ferrying goods across the Atlantic (Deane 21).

The steam rail car was coming to the rescue of commercial activities by 1830s. The initial railroad steam train was developed by Richard Trevithick. By 1830s, Liverpool and Manchester debuted in offering consistent, scheduled commuter service. During the financial year 1850s, there was over six thousand kilometers of railway lane athwart the country.

During the 1820s, McAdam John invented a novel process for constructing roads. His method generated roads that were flatter, more resilient and less murky. The method was known as macadam. Eventually, tar was added to his method resulting in the contemporary tarmac roads (Deane 26).

These inventions in transportation were critical in spreading industrialization to the rest of Europe. The local market was becoming saturated with the goods produced. It became imperative for traders to move across the borders where industrialization had not taken place. The spread of industrialization across Europe was necessitated and reinforced by blockade and non-blockade as well as Napoleonic dream to make the continent a single economic area.

However, the war had interrupted the spread of industrialization to the entire continent. Initially, traders did not establish manufacturing industries outside Britain for fear of the frequent wars. They only sold manufactured goods to the neighboring countries.

Additionally, Britain was setting itself up to be a colonizer hence did not intend to let other countries grow industrially. Economic power was necessary for the country to be a powerhouse in the region. Britain positioned itself to meet the needs of the people in other countries. They used the strategy of producing fabrics and finished metal products at all ranges of prices with regard to the level of poverty of the target market (Hoppit 10).

Britain ratified a law banning the exportation of its know-how and experienced workforces to other countries. However, there was limited success in this move. Parts of Europe were becoming de-industrialized no matter how minimal they had progressed owing to separation of producers in these countries from Britain.

The British West Riding industry was detrimental to emerging industrialization in other countries including Austria and Germany (Henderson 64). In France, textile industry was effectively driven out by British traders who dumped the market with cheaper fabric and clothes.

The emerging French textile and metal industries were forced to fit into a business world that Britain had established a strong dominance. Britain was determined to retain a strong hold on industrialization. The movement of British traders to new markets in European countries facilitated the diffusion of industrialization into other countries.

The entrepreneurs established factories in these countries and produced competitive products. Traders in these markets borrowed leaf and established their own industries. After the 19 th century, the United States had become the most industrialized nation globally (Hoppit 30).

The industrialization of Europe started in Britain. The country was hell-bent to retain the industrialization for its own political and economic benefit. However, the saturation of the country with its own products forced traders to move beyond its borders to establish new markets in the neighboring countries.

Many factors contributed to Industrial Revolution in Britain that spread to other European countries. These included the availability of raw materials such as iron ore and coal locally and fabric in its colonies. Despite the effort by Britain to restrain industrialization in its borders, many factors contributed to the spread to the entire continent.

The invention of transportation systems meant that Britain would not effectively restrict the spread of industrialization to other countries. Industrial Revolution started an era of economic growth for the entire humanity after the domestication of animals and crops.

Wyatt, Lee. The Industrial Revolution, Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Greenwood Press, 2009. Print.

West, Gerald. Education and the Industrial, New York City, NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 1975. Print.

Deane, Phyllis. The First Industrial Revolution, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1965. Print.

Henderson, William. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent, Germany, France Russia, 1800-1914, London, UK: Cass, 1967. Print.

Long, Bradford and Andrei Shleifer. “Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution.” Journal of Law and Economics 2.2 (1993): 1-25. Print.

Hoppit, Julian. “Counting the Industrial Revolution.” The Economic History Review 43.2 (1990): 1-34. Print.

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The Industrial Revolution in England

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Industrial Revolution Essay

500+ words industrial revolution essay it’s history, the impact and pros and cons of industrial revolution.

The Industrial revolution was a period of major changes, which transformed the largely handicraft and agriculture based economy to machine manufacturing. European and American society was completely dependent on agriculture, hand production methods, which meant lower production. But in the latter half of the 18th century, the introduction of mass producing machines and industrialization changed this. This modern method of production led to mass production, which brought about major changes in the economy.

The industrial revolution brought about several social changes too. It led to new job opportunities, lowered prices, better quality of life and communication. But it wasn’t all good, the industrial revolution had its disadvantages too. While it did improve the quality of life with a better economy, it also led to harsh working conditions. Industrialization also led to pollution, lower pay and in some cases, unemployment too.

Learn more about the history, the impact and the pros and cons of the industrial revolution in this industrial revolution essay.

Industrial Revolution Essay: History Of Industrial Revolution

Before the industrial revolution, the economy was completely dependent on agriculture and handmade products. This meant fewer products were produced and the cost of production and the goods were higher too. But all this changed with the introduction of machines and factories in the late 1700s and mid 1800s. The industrial revolution transformed the largely rural and agriculture based society into urban, machine-powered factories. It began in Britain and soon spread to America, Japan and other European countries.

The industrial revolution brought about several economic and social changes across the world. Learn more about how the industrial revolution impacted society and its advantages and disadvantages. 

Also explore: Read more essays on related topics like technology essay and pollution essay .

Industrial Revolution Essay: The Impact Of The Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution led to several important developments. First, the textile industry was changed. Machines were invented to make the cleaning, gathering, spinning and weaving processes easy. With modern methods of production, large amounts of cloth could be produced at once. The invention of the steam engine further improved the production. Gradually, industrialization spread to all kinds of industries like farming, transportation, communication, banking etc.

The Advantages Of The Industrial Revolution

  • Ease Of Production: Industrialization made way for cheaper and more efficient production. Additionally, it made production quicker and easier.
  • Innovation and development: The industrial revolution made way for innovation and development in several fields like communication, transportation, farming etc.
  • Better job opportunities: The advent of machines and factories made way for jobs with specialized skills, which created new job opportunities. With better economic opportunities, the quality of life also improved. 
  • Improved healthcare: The industrial revolution also helped make several advancements in the field of healthcare. Medical equipment and medicines could be manufactured easily and innovated, which resulted in better healthcare.

But while it had several advantages, the industrial revolution had several disadvantages too. Learn more about the cons in this industrial revolution essay.

The Disadvantages Of The Industrial Revolution

  • Unemployment: With the advent of machines, several particular jobs became obsolete. People and families that performed these jobs were left without jobs or income. This led to unemployment and poverty.
  • Overcrowding of cities: With more and more people from rural areas moving to the cities hoping for better wages, cities became overcrowded. The sudden influx of migrants in poorly planned cities and towns led to unsanitary living conditions and spread diseases.
  • Harsh working conditions: With factories churning out products in mass quantities, factory owners prized profit over everything else. The workers were underpaid and forced to overwork with no concern for their safety. The dirt, the soot, smoke and chemicals expelled from the factories made working conditions in the factories unsanitary and hazardous to the workers’ health too. This resulted in accidents, the workers getting injured and even death in certain cases. 
  • Pollution: One of the greatest ills that the industrial revolution brought about is the pollution and environmental ills that it caused. The factories also used natural resources endlessly, which led to global warming and other ecological problems. 
  • Economic gap:  The factory and industry owners looked at their gain above all else. So, the workers were exploited and forced to overwork in unsanitary conditions for low wages. As a result, the factory owners got richer, while the workers stayed poor. This unequal distribution of wealth created an economic gap. 

The industrial revolution has its advantages and disadvantages, but our society wouldn’t be the same without it. Nonetheless, we can continue to enjoy the benefits by focusing on innovation without compromising on safety and equality.

We hope you found this industrial revolution essay helpful. Osmo has several essays on a wide variety of topics. For more information, check essays for kids .

Frequently Asked Questions On Industrial Revolution

What is the industrial revolution.

Industrial revolution was a period during which the largely rural, agricultural and hand produced economy shifted to modern, machine based manufacturing.

What are some advantages of the industrial revolution?

Industrialization and urbanization made way for mass production, innovation and development, better job opportunities and improved quality of life, cheaper products etc.

What are some cons of the industrial revolution?

Industrialization led to unemployment, depletion of natural resources, pollution, harsh working conditions, overpopulation and unequal distribution of wealth.

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How to Write an Essay About Industrial Revolution

How to write an essay about the industrial revolution .

When writing an essay about the industrial revolution, one should begin by telling the readers what the event was. The first paragraph should give a short description and summary to enable people to understand the question that needs to be answered in the research paper. The next paragraphs, which make up the body of the paper should focus on analyzing the issue that was identified at the onset of the essay. When writing a custom research paper about the industrial revolution, there are important research paper writing tips that should be followed. For instance, the second paragraph is the best place to give a brief history or background of the industrial revolution. The next paragraphs should give a brief analysis of the causes, participants, consequences, and the results of the event.


An appropriate way of focusing on the argumentative topic of the industrial revolution is to abide by research paper help tips which enables an individual to determine the purpose of each sentence and each paragraph. The topic sentence of each of the paragraphs should be used to present the information that is apparently analyzed in the paragraph. A person can focus on each issue by being brief to ensure that each paragraph only analyzes a single aspect of the industrial revolution. The sentences that follow the first sentence of each paragraph should explain the topic sentence in relation to the general topic of the paper. It is important for the writer to familiarize himself with essay help trips so that he can learn ways of connecting the topic-question about the information contained in each paragraph of the research paper.

Being a general topic about the industrial revolution, the most important tip, which can be followed by essay writers is dividing the research paper into argumentative sections. For instance, a certain paragraph can analyze the main industry where industrial revolution took place. This can be followed by analyzing the attributes of the industry and the reasons that influenced industrial revolution to take place in that area. It is important to note that the whole essay should be divided into sections of paragraphs analyzing distinct issues of the industrial revolution. For instance, one section can talk about the causes of industrial revolution such as increased resources, inventions, migration, and labor force. The next section of paragraphs can analyze the results of the industrial revolution which include infrastructural development, creation of jobs, and improved livelihood.

write an essay on industrial revolution

Since each paragraph of the essay tends to analyze a specific issue, it would be inappropriate to mix different issues in the same paragraph. For instance, a paragraph that discusses the causes of industrial revolution should not at the same time analyze the significance, consequences or results in the same paragraph. Developing a clear topic sentence, which is usually the first sentence of each paragraph, is essential in enabling a person to avoid mixing different ideas. A custom research paper tends to have uniquely divided sections that address specific issues to enhance the flow of information. The topic sentence provides the reader with the general idea or statement that is analyzed in that paragraph.

The kind of question that needs to be covered should be addressed in a specific format. Since the topic on industrial revolution examines an event that took place over a period of time, the information contained in the research paper can be arranged in a chronological order. Events that took place in specific periods would be analyzed together, thus enabling the reader to understand how activities changed from one period to another. This would be essential in isolating distinct events and grouping them in sections that bring out the occurrences of the entire industrialization period. Write my essay tips provides the author with skills of arranging paragraphs in less complicated and more understandable formats. Broad topics such as industrial revolution tend to analyze events that lead to a significant transformation of human history. Therefore, the research paper can use tips from write my essay websites that describe ways of connecting together different historic periods. For instance, the initial sections of the paragraphs can concentrate on the challenges which people went through during the early years of the revolution. The paper can then end by examining the transformations that were witnessed as a result of the revolution

The last section of the research paper should contain a summary of the main ideas that have been discussed in the essay. This enables the reader to understand what the topic was talking about and the materials that were covered by the author. The concluding paragraph of the essay on the topic of the industrial revolution would give the details in a summary form and enable people to connect events as they occurred. This section should only contain the summary of the discussed materials and it should not add new information that was not analyzed in the body of the paper. This is because the concluding paragraph is not intended to add new insights, but to simply provide the summary of the details contained in the research paper.

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Britain’s Industrial Revolution Essay

Introduction, factors that led to britain’s industrialization in the eighteenth century, works cited.

“ Industrial revolution refers to dramatic change in the main sectors of economy such as agriculture, transportation and manufacturing. Industrialization was associated with major benefits such as rise in people’s living standards, increased job opportunities and economic growth, among others.

According to historians, Great Britain was the first nation in the entire globe to industrialize. Industrialization in Britain started in the late eighteenth century. The following essay examines the factors that led to Britain’s industrialization in the late eighteenth century.

By the second part of the eighteenth century, Great Britain was regarded as one of the wealthiest nation across the globe due to industrial revolution. The following factors explain why Industrial revolution occurred in Britain;

Agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century was one of the factors. According to historians, agricultural revolution was characterized by a change in stock breeding and farming methods which in turn enhanced food production in Great Britain. Framers adopted a commercial approach as opposed to the past where they produced food for domestic use.

The large demand of food commodity from London motivated workers to increase their production. Landlordism, which refers to the act of owning large estates, was also a main factor that enhances commercialization of British agriculture. Agricultural revolution helped to lower the food commodity prices in Great Britain.

The cost of labor also lowered as a result of agricultural revolution. British government was therefore in a position to feed its citizens. British families thus, used their disposal incomes to buy manufactured products. Increased food production in Great Britain caused the population to increase. Population growth played a major role in providing the required labor in the new factories.

The other factor which led to Britain’s industrialization in the eighteenth century is the availability of capital for investment. Financial reforms which included introduction of derivatives such as swaps and options also enhanced the industrial revolution in Great Britain. Additionally, the revolution was boosted by the presence of effective central namely Bank of England.

The financial system in the Great Britain was highly effective compared to other European nations like Spain and Italy. The introduction of financial instruments such as bill of exchange made it possible for people to make payments. Political powers in Great Britain were based on economic and technological matters. Thus, the country had a large number of individuals whose main objective was innovation for development (Arnstein 72).

A study which was done by Arnstein (20) suggested that the presence of huge mineral deposits also enhanced industrialization in Great Britain. Britain is a country which is rich in mineral deposits such as iron ore and carbon fuel. Mineral resources played an important role in the manufacturing process. Iron was used in the production of new machineries. The country’s size was relatively smaller and this enhanced transportation of minerals.

The availability of ready market for manufactured goods led to Britain’s industrialization. Availability of ready market ensured that goods from Great Britain were absorbed as fast as they were produced. The country’s exports increased significantly during the late part of the eighteenth century.

During the colonial times, the nation had created an immense colonial empire. The colonial empire made the country to export goods to many parts of the world, compared to its key rivals such as Holland and France. The development of merchant marine made it possible for the country to transport goods throughout the world. Also, Britain’s railroad created a faster and cheaper means of transportation for the manufactured goods.

This had major impacts on the markets as it increased demand for goods and services. Britain’s railroad connected the major towns such as London, Manchester and Liverpool and this helped to spur trade. As a prerequisite to create conducive atmosphere for vibrant economic growth, the British government heavily invested in infrastructural developments.

Among the infrastructural developments that were made include the invention of steam engine. The invention of steam engine also played an important role in enhancing productivity of goods in Great Britain. It facilitated trade in the European region through easier market access by linking Britain with neighboring countries like Spain and Germany. Construction of infrastructural facilities was also enhanced by plenty supply of water from rivers (Arnstein 18).

According to Arnstein (56), Industrialization in Great Britain was also enhanced by the country’s ability to produce goods cheaply. The adoption of machinery in production of goods led to mass production and reduced the cost of production. The invention of flying shuttle led to mass production of yard goods.

In addition, factories were located near rivers and sources of power, which in turn enabled manufacturers to double their output. Great Britain also protected its key industries such as textile by discouraging imports.

The newly created factories provided jobs to thousands of families in Great Britain. In order to ensure that factory machines run at a steady rate, employees were required to work in shifts. Factory managers mainly employed workers from rural areas as they were regarded as hard working. This made people to live near factories and this in turn helped to create new towns.

Arnstein (36) in his study suggested that, the British government made substantial efforts in enhancing industrialization in the late eighteenth century. The government provided investors with a stable business environment. The parliament passed laws which safeguarded private property.

Additionally, Great Britain adopted capitalism form of economy which advocates for private ownership of resources. There were thus, no restrictions on private ownership of resources in England. The government did not intervene with regard to tariffs and taxes. The government also ensured that the credit system was flexible for private investors. The free market economy ensured that individuals’ had rights to own property and dispose off natural resources and man-made resources as they wished.

It also provided the owners of property with the right income, generated from the resources. Workers were also free to enter into any occupation for which they were specialized in. There was the aspect of self interest in pursuit of personal goals. Factories aimed at maximizing production and profits, land owners aimed at achieving maximum rent, workers shifted to occupation which offered the highest rewards and buyers spent their incomes in the way that satisfied the people most.

Industrial revolution in Great Britain in the late part of eighteenth-century was facilitated by factors such as the availability of resources for production, geographical advantages, such as the presence of streams and rivers which provided factories with water, financial reforms which resulted in extra capital for investment, among others. Industrial revolution in Great Britain brought about changes such as technological advancements, mass production, creation of new urban centers and efficient transport systems, among others.

Arnstein, Walter. Britain yesterday and today: 1830 to the present, Edition5 . London: D.C. Health, 1988.

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