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what does a conclusion have in an essay

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One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.

With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.  

Begin with the “what”  

In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.

So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”

In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Highlight the “so what”  

At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.

In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”

She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Leave your readers with the “now what”  

After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.

In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”

To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:

  • What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?  
  • What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?  
  • Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?  
  • What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?  
  • What larger context might my argument be a part of?  

What to avoid in your conclusion  

  • a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.  
  • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.  
  • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.  
  • fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
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Conclusions

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Conclusions

What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Learn about the elements of a successful essay conclusion.

The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn’t fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why your topic is important. A conclusion is more than just "the last paragraph"—it's a working part of the paper. This is the place to push your reader to think about the consequences of your topic for the wider world or for the reader's own life!

A good conclusion should do a few things:

Restate your thesis

Synthesize or summarize your major points

Make the context of your argument clear

Restating Your Thesis

You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis:

Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter." This example gives the reader not only the thesis of the paper, but a reminder of the most powerful point in the argument!

Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. For example, if you've written a paper that targets parents of young children, you can find a way to phrase your thesis to capitalize on that—maybe by beginning your thesis statement with, "As a parent of a young child…"

Don’t repeat your thesis word for word—make sure that your new statement is an independent, fresh sentence!

Summary or Synthesis

This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that:

Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis (usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay).

Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible.

One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important:

Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If so, remind the reader of what he/she should do. If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. (In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action.)

Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption.

Remind the readers of why the topic matters to them personally. For example, it doesn’t matter much if you believe in the mission of animal shelters, if you're not planning to get a dog; however, once you're looking for a dog, it is much more important. The conclusion of this essay might say, "Since you’re in the market for a dog, you have a major decision to make: where to get one." This will remind the reader that the argument is personally important!

Conclusion paragraphs

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How to write an essay: Conclusion

  • What's in this guide
  • Introduction
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The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments.  It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.

Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.

Conclusion example

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How to write a conclusion to an essay

Which do you think count more: first impressions or last impressions?

A conclusion is the last impression that a reader will have of your essay: make it count!

Introduction to writing a conclusion

A conclusion is the final idea left with the reader at the end of an essay. Without it, an essay would be unfinished and unfocused.

A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression.

A conclusion often includes a final thought or reflection to highlight the significance of the topic close topic The main focus of the essay. . It is usually a short paragraph.

Video about how to reflect on your main points in a conclusion

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Learn how to reflect on your main points in a conclusion to an essay

Reflecting on the argument

Before you write your conclusion, it is a good idea for you to look again at your ideas in the essay. It can be particularly useful to re-read your introduction and think about what you have realised and explored as you wrote the essay. Your conclusion can then sum up what you have understood more deeply about the literature text and the essay topic.

If you think of your essay as a type of argument, persuading the reader to a particular point of view, then the conclusion can be a powerful way of bringing together the most important aspects of your argument.

A group of students showing various emotions including happiness, confusion, worry and concentration. Caption reads 'test yourself'.

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Frequently asked questions

What goes in an essay conclusion.

Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

Frequently asked questions: Writing an essay

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The “hook” is the first sentence of your essay introduction . It should lead the reader into your essay, giving a sense of why it’s interesting.

To write a good hook, avoid overly broad statements or long, dense sentences. Try to start with something clear, concise and catchy that will spark your reader’s curiosity.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  • An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  • Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  • A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

Let’s say you’re writing a five-paragraph  essay about the environmental impacts of dietary choices. Here are three examples of topic sentences you could use for each of the three body paragraphs :

  • Research has shown that the meat industry has severe environmental impacts.
  • However, many plant-based foods are also produced in environmentally damaging ways.
  • It’s important to consider not only what type of diet we eat, but where our food comes from and how it is produced.

Each of these sentences expresses one main idea – by listing them in order, we can see the overall structure of the essay at a glance. Each paragraph will expand on the topic sentence with relevant detail, evidence, and arguments.

The topic sentence usually comes at the very start of the paragraph .

However, sometimes you might start with a transition sentence to summarize what was discussed in previous paragraphs, followed by the topic sentence that expresses the focus of the current paragraph.

Topic sentences help keep your writing focused and guide the reader through your argument.

In an essay or paper , each paragraph should focus on a single idea. By stating the main idea in the topic sentence, you clarify what the paragraph is about for both yourself and your reader.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

An essay isn’t just a loose collection of facts and ideas. Instead, it should be centered on an overarching argument (summarized in your thesis statement ) that every part of the essay relates to.

The way you structure your essay is crucial to presenting your argument coherently. A well-structured essay helps your reader follow the logic of your ideas and understand your overall point.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

The vast majority of essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Almost all academic writing involves building up an argument, though other types of essay might be assigned in composition classes.

Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example:

  • In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text
  • In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event
  • In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political theory

At high school and in composition classes at university, you’ll often be told to write a specific type of essay , but you might also just be given prompts.

Look for keywords in these prompts that suggest a certain approach: The word “explain” suggests you should write an expository essay , while the word “describe” implies a descriptive essay . An argumentative essay might be prompted with the word “assess” or “argue.”

In rhetorical analysis , a claim is something the author wants the audience to believe. A support is the evidence or appeal they use to convince the reader to believe the claim. A warrant is the (often implicit) assumption that links the support with the claim.

Logos appeals to the audience’s reason, building up logical arguments . Ethos appeals to the speaker’s status or authority, making the audience more likely to trust them. Pathos appeals to the emotions, trying to make the audience feel angry or sympathetic, for example.

Collectively, these three appeals are sometimes called the rhetorical triangle . They are central to rhetorical analysis , though a piece of rhetoric might not necessarily use all of them.

The term “text” in a rhetorical analysis essay refers to whatever object you’re analyzing. It’s frequently a piece of writing or a speech, but it doesn’t have to be. For example, you could also treat an advertisement or political cartoon as a text.

The goal of a rhetorical analysis is to explain the effect a piece of writing or oratory has on its audience, how successful it is, and the devices and appeals it uses to achieve its goals.

Unlike a standard argumentative essay , it’s less about taking a position on the arguments presented, and more about exploring how they are constructed.

You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay . However, if your ideas change or it becomes clear that your structure could be better, it’s okay to depart from your essay outline . Just make sure you know why you’re doing so.

If you have to hand in your essay outline , you may be given specific guidelines stating whether you have to use full sentences. If you’re not sure, ask your supervisor.

When writing an essay outline for yourself, the choice is yours. Some students find it helpful to write out their ideas in full sentences, while others prefer to summarize them in short phrases.

You will sometimes be asked to hand in an essay outline before you start writing your essay . Your supervisor wants to see that you have a clear idea of your structure so that writing will go smoothly.

Even when you do not have to hand it in, writing an essay outline is an important part of the writing process . It’s a good idea to write one (as informally as you like) to clarify your structure for yourself whenever you are working on an essay.

Comparisons in essays are generally structured in one of two ways:

  • The alternating method, where you compare your subjects side by side according to one specific aspect at a time.
  • The block method, where you cover each subject separately in its entirety.

It’s also possible to combine both methods, for example by writing a full paragraph on each of your topics and then a final paragraph contrasting the two according to a specific metric.

Your subjects might be very different or quite similar, but it’s important that there be meaningful grounds for comparison . You can probably describe many differences between a cat and a bicycle, but there isn’t really any connection between them to justify the comparison.

You’ll have to write a thesis statement explaining the central point you want to make in your essay , so be sure to know in advance what connects your subjects and makes them worth comparing.

Some essay prompts include the keywords “compare” and/or “contrast.” In these cases, an essay structured around comparing and contrasting is the appropriate response.

Comparing and contrasting is also a useful approach in all kinds of academic writing : You might compare different studies in a literature review , weigh up different arguments in an argumentative essay , or consider different theoretical approaches in a theoretical framework .

The key difference is that a narrative essay is designed to tell a complete story, while a descriptive essay is meant to convey an intense description of a particular place, object, or concept.

Narrative and descriptive essays both allow you to write more personally and creatively than other kinds of essays , and similar writing skills can apply to both.

If you’re not given a specific prompt for your descriptive essay , think about places and objects you know well, that you can think of interesting ways to describe, or that have strong personal significance for you.

The best kind of object for a descriptive essay is one specific enough that you can describe its particular features in detail—don’t choose something too vague or general.

If you’re not given much guidance on what your narrative essay should be about, consider the context and scope of the assignment. What kind of story is relevant, interesting, and possible to tell within the word count?

The best kind of story for a narrative essay is one you can use to reflect on a particular theme or lesson, or that takes a surprising turn somewhere along the way.

Don’t worry too much if your topic seems unoriginal. The point of a narrative essay is how you tell the story and the point you make with it, not the subject of the story itself.

Narrative essays are usually assigned as writing exercises at high school or in university composition classes. They may also form part of a university application.

When you are prompted to tell a story about your own life or experiences, a narrative essay is usually the right response.

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

An expository essay is a common assignment in high-school and university composition classes. It might be assigned as coursework, in class, or as part of an exam.

Sometimes you might not be told explicitly to write an expository essay. Look out for prompts containing keywords like “explain” and “define.” An expository essay is usually the right response to these prompts.

An expository essay is a broad form that varies in length according to the scope of the assignment.

Expository essays are often assigned as a writing exercise or as part of an exam, in which case a five-paragraph essay of around 800 words may be appropriate.

You’ll usually be given guidelines regarding length; if you’re not sure, ask.

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Essay writing: Conclusions

  • Introductions
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“Pay adequate attention to the conclusion.” Kathleen McMillan & Jonathan Weyers,  How to Write Essays & Assignments

Conclusions are often overlooked, cursory and written last minute. If this sounds familiar then it's time to change and give your conclusions some much needed attention. Your conclusion is the whole point of your essay. All the other parts of the essay should have been leading your reader on an inevitable journey towards your conclusion. So make it count and finish your essay in style.

Know where you are going

Too many students focus their essays on content rather than argument. This means they pay too much attention to the main body without considering where it is leading. It can be a good idea to write a draft conclusion before  you write your main body. It is a lot easier to plan a journey when you know your destination! 

It should only be a draft however, as quite often the writing process itself can help you develop your argument and you may feel your conclusion needs adapting accordingly.

What it should include

A great conclusion should include:

link icon

A clear link back to the question . This is usually the first thing you do in a conclusion and it shows that you have (hopefully) answered it.

icon - lightbulb in a point marker

A sentence or two that summarise(s) your main argument but in a bit more detail than you gave in your introduction.

idea with points leading to it

A series of supporting sentences that basically reiterate the main point of each of your paragraphs but show how they relate to each other and lead you to the position you have taken. Constantly ask yourself "So what?" "Why should anyone care?" and answer these questions for each of the points you make in your conclusion.

icon - exclamation mark

A final sentence that states why your ideas are important to the wider subject area . Where the introduction goes from general to specific, the conclusion needs to go from specific back out to general.

What it should not  include

Try to avoid including the following in your conclusion. Remember your conclusion should be entirely predictable. The reader wants no surprises.

icon - lightbulb crossed out

Any new ideas . If an idea is worth including, put it in the main body. You do not need to include citations in your conclusion if you have already used them earlier and are just reiterating your point.

sad face

A change of style i.e. being more emotional or sentimental than the rest of the essay. Keep it straightforward, explanatory and clear.

rubbish bin

Overused phrases like: “in conclusion”; “in summary”; “as shown in this essay”. Consign these to the rubbish bin!

Here are some alternatives, there are many more:

  • The x main points presented here emphasise the importance of...
  • The [insert something relevant] outlined above indicate that ...
  • By showing the connections between x, y and z, it has been argued here that ...

Maximise marks

Remember, your conclusion is the last thing your reader (marker!) will read. Spending a little care on it will leave her/him absolutely sure that you have answered the question and you will definitely receive a higher mark than if your conclusion was a quickly written afterthought.

Your conclusion should be around 10% of your word count. There is never a situation where sacrificing words in your conclusion will benefit your essay.

The 5Cs conclusion method: (spot the typo on this video)

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How to Conclude an Essay (with Examples)

Last Updated: April 3, 2023 Fact Checked

Writing a Strong Conclusion

What to avoid, brainstorming tricks.

This article was co-authored by Jake Adams and by wikiHow staff writer, Aly Rusciano . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,186,409 times.

So, you’ve written an outstanding essay and couldn’t be more proud. But now you have to write the final paragraph. The conclusion simply summarizes what you’ve already written, right? Well, not exactly. Your essay’s conclusion should be a bit more finessed than that. Luckily, you’ve come to the perfect place to learn how to write a conclusion. We’ve put together this guide to fill you in on everything you should and shouldn’t do when ending an essay. Follow our advice, and you’ll have a stellar conclusion worthy of an A+ in no time.

Things You Should Know

  • Rephrase your thesis to include in your final paragraph to bring the essay full circle.
  • End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful.
  • Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don’t lose a reader’s attention.
  • Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you’ve already made in your essay.

Step 1 Start with a small transition.

  • “All in all”
  • “Ultimately”
  • “Furthermore”
  • “As a consequence”
  • “As a result”

Step 2 Briefly summarize your essay’s main points.

  • Make sure to write your main points in a new and unique way to avoid repetition.

Step 3 Rework your thesis statement into the conclusion.

  • Let’s say this is your original thesis statement: “Allowing students to visit the library during lunch improves campus life and supports academic achievement.”
  • Restating your thesis for your conclusion could look like this: “Evidence shows students who have access to their school’s library during lunch check out more books and are more likely to complete their homework.”
  • The restated thesis has the same sentiment as the original while also summarizing other points of the essay.

Step 4 End with something meaningful.

  • “When you use plastic water bottles, you pollute the ocean. Switch to using a glass or metal water bottle instead. The planet and sea turtles will thank you.”
  • “The average person spends roughly 7 hours on their phone a day, so there’s no wonder cybersickness is plaguing all generations.”
  • “Imagine walking on the beach, except the soft sand is made up of cigarette butts. They burn your feet but keep washing in with the tide. If we don’t clean up the ocean, this will be our reality.”
  • “ Lost is not only a show that changed the course of television, but it’s also a reflection of humanity as a whole.”
  • “If action isn’t taken to end climate change today, the global temperature will dangerously rise from 4.5 to 8 °F (−15.3 to −13.3 °C) by 2100.”

Step 5 Keep it short and sweet.

  • Focus on your essay's most prevalent or important parts. What key points do you want readers to take away or remember about your essay?

Step 1 Popular concluding statements

  • For instance, instead of writing, “That’s why I think that Abraham Lincoln was the best American President,” write, “That’s why Abraham Lincoln was the best American President.”
  • There’s no room for ifs, ands, or buts—your opinion matters and doesn’t need to be apologized for!

Step 6 Quotations

  • For instance, words like “firstly,” “secondly,” and “thirdly” may be great transition statements for body paragraphs but are unnecessary in a conclusion.

Step 1 Ask yourself, “So what?”

  • For instance, say you began your essay with the idea that humanity’s small sense of sense stems from space’s vast size. Try returning to this idea in the conclusion by emphasizing that as human knowledge grows, space becomes smaller.

Step 4 Think about your essay’s argument in a broader “big picture” context.

  • For example, you could extend an essay on the television show Orange is the New Black by bringing up the culture of imprisonment in America.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Always review your essay after writing it for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation, and don’t be afraid to revise. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 1
  • Ask a friend, family member, or teacher for help if you’re stuck. Sometimes a second opinion is all you need. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 1

what does a conclusion have in an essay

You Might Also Like

Put a Quote in an Essay

  • ↑ https://www.uts.edu.au/current-students/support/helps/self-help-resources/grammar/transition-signals
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/argument_papers/conclusions.html
  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
  • ↑ https://www.pittsfordschools.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=542&dataid=4677&FileName=conclusions1.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.cuyamaca.edu/student-support/tutoring-center/files/student-resources/how-to-write-a-good-conclusion.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185935

About This Article

Jake Adams

To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then, use a few sentences to briefly summarize the main points of your essay by rephrasing the topic sentences of your body paragraphs. Finally, end your conclusion with a call to action that encourages your readers to do something or learn more about your topic. In general, try to keep your conclusion between 5 and 7 sentences long. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing an essay conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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what does a conclusion have in an essay

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

what does a conclusion have in an essay

By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

Feeling Overwhelmed Writing Your Essay Conclusion?

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay _ 4 MAJOR OBJECTIVES THAT CONCLUSION MUST ACCOMPLISH

Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

  • “Wrap up” the entire paper;
  • Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
  • Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
  • Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
  • Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
  • Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

  • A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
  • It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
  • It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
  • An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

  • A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
  • A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
  • A call to action;
  • A rhetorical question;
  • An illustrative story or provocative example;
  • A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
  • A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby

strategies

Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

  • Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
  • Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
  • Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
  • Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
  • Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
  • Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion ouline

  • A conclusion starter:

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

  • Summary of the body paragraphs:

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

  • A concluding sentence:

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

  • Sentence 1: Starter
  • ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
  • ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
  • Sentences 2-4: Summary
  • ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
  • ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
  • ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
  • Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
  • ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

  • Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
  • Re-emphasize your ideas;
  • Discuss possible implications;
  • Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

  • Restate the goals of your experiment
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
  • End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

  • Restate the Topic

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

  • Revisit the Thesis

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

  • Summarise Your Key Ideas

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

  • Showcase the Significance of Your Work

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

  • Make Suggestions for Future Studies

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

  • Answer the Right Questions

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the goal of a research paper?
  • What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
  • How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
  • Why is this study important and relevant?

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

  • Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
  • Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.

Address to our term paper writers if you need to proofread or rewrite essay.

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So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

  • There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
  • There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
  • Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

  • Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
  • This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
  • There is no summary of the key benefits.
  • The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
  • Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
  • In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
  • To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
  • Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
  • Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

You might also be interested in reading nursing essay examples from our service.

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Traditional Academic Essays In Three Parts

Part i: the introduction.

An introduction is usually the first paragraph of your academic essay. If you’re writing a long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to introduce your topic to your reader. A good introduction does 2 things:

  • Gets the reader’s attention. You can get a reader’s attention by telling a story, providing a statistic, pointing out something strange or interesting, providing and discussing an interesting quote, etc. Be interesting and find some original angle via which to engage others in your topic.
  • Provides a specific and debatable thesis statement. The thesis statement is usually just one sentence long, but it might be longer—even a whole paragraph—if the essay you’re writing is long. A good thesis statement makes a debatable point, meaning a point someone might disagree with and argue against. It also serves as a roadmap for what you argue in your paper.

Part II: The Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs help you prove your thesis and move you along a compelling trajectory from your introduction to your conclusion. If your thesis is a simple one, you might not need a lot of body paragraphs to prove it. If it’s more complicated, you’ll need more body paragraphs. An easy way to remember the parts of a body paragraph is to think of them as the MEAT of your essay:

Main Idea. The part of a topic sentence that states the main idea of the body paragraph. All of the sentences in the paragraph connect to it. Keep in mind that main ideas are…

  • like labels. They appear in the first sentence of the paragraph and tell your reader what’s inside the paragraph.
  • arguable. They’re not statements of fact; they’re debatable points that you prove with evidence.
  • focused. Make a specific point in each paragraph and then prove that point.

Evidence. The parts of a paragraph that prove the main idea. You might include different types of evidence in different sentences. Keep in mind that different disciplines have different ideas about what counts as evidence and they adhere to different citation styles. Examples of evidence include…

  • quotations and/or paraphrases from sources.
  • facts , e.g. statistics or findings from studies you’ve conducted.
  • narratives and/or descriptions , e.g. of your own experiences.

Analysis. The parts of a paragraph that explain the evidence. Make sure you tie the evidence you provide back to the paragraph’s main idea. In other words, discuss the evidence.

Transition. The part of a paragraph that helps you move fluidly from the last paragraph. Transitions appear in topic sentences along with main ideas, and they look both backward and forward in order to help you connect your ideas for your reader. Don’t end paragraphs with transitions; start with them.

Keep in mind that MEAT does not occur in that order. The “ T ransition” and the “ M ain Idea” often combine to form the first sentence—the topic sentence—and then paragraphs contain multiple sentences of evidence and analysis. For example, a paragraph might look like this: TM. E. E. A. E. E. A. A.

Part III: The Conclusion

A conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay, or, if you’re writing a really long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to conclude. A conclusion typically does one of two things—or, of course, it can do both:

  • Summarizes the argument. Some instructors expect you not to say anything new in your conclusion. They just want you to restate your main points. Especially if you’ve made a long and complicated argument, it’s useful to restate your main points for your reader by the time you’ve gotten to your conclusion. If you opt to do so, keep in mind that you should use different language than you used in your introduction and your body paragraphs. The introduction and conclusion shouldn’t be the same.
  • For example, your argument might be significant to studies of a certain time period .
  • Alternately, it might be significant to a certain geographical region .
  • Alternately still, it might influence how your readers think about the future . You might even opt to speculate about the future and/or call your readers to action in your conclusion.

Handout by Dr. Liliana Naydan. Do not reproduce without permission.

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what does a conclusion have in an essay

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

what does a conclusion have in an essay

A well-structured conclusion is considered an important element of a strong essay and is often a part of the grading criteria.

Some instructors or grading rubrics might be more lenient on this aspect, while others might place a higher emphasis on it. To avoid potential point deductions, it's generally a good practice to include a well-structured conclusion, which usually takes 10-15% of your work (e.g., a 2,000-word essay should have a 250-word conclusion). In this article, you will find out how to write a concluding paragraph, what are the elements of an A-grade conclusion, as well as a couple of great examples.

How to Write a Conclusion Step by Step

Writing an effective conclusion paragraph involves several steps. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to write a conclusion for your essay:

how to write a conclusion for an essay

Restate the Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating the thesis statement. This reminds the reader of the overall argument or point of your essay. However, don't simply repeat things word for word; rephrase them to add a sense of closure.

Summarize Key Points

Summarize the main argument and the paper's main points. You don't need to go into great detail - simply repeat the main idea. Briefly touch upon the most important ideas discussed in the body of your essay.

Connect to the Introduction

Link your last sentence back to the introductory paragraph. Refer to something mentioned in the introduction or use similar language to create a sense of unity and closure in your essay.

Offer a Final Insight or Perspective

Provide a final perspective related to your topic. This can be a thought-provoking comment, a recommendation, a call to action, a broader implication of your argument, or even a provocative insight. Consider the "So What?" question – why should the reader care about your essay's topic?

Avoid Introducing New Information

Your final sentence is not the place to introduce new information or arguments. Stick to summarizing and tying up what you've already presented in the essay without any new ideas.

Keep It Concise

Essay conclusions should be concise and to the point. Maintain control by avoiding extensive detail or rehashing the entire essay. Aim for clarity and brevity.

Avoid Clichés

Avoid overused phrases and clichés. Instead, find more creative and engaging ways to write good conclusion sentences.

Consider the Tone

The tone of your conclusion should match the tone of your essay. If your essay is formal, keep the conclusion formal. If it's more casual or personal, maintain that tone. Always conclude essays on a positive note.

After writing your conclusion, take the time to proofread and edit it. Ensure there are no grammatical or spelling errors and that the language is clear and concise. This will leave a good final impression.

Think About the Reader

Put yourself in the reader's shoes. Consider what you would want to take away from the essay and what kind of conclusion would be most satisfying and impactful for them.

Remember that knowing how to start a conclusion paragraph can significantly impact the reader's overall impression of your essay. A well-crafted conclusion not only provides closure but also reinforces your main points and leaves a lasting impact.

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Why Conclusion Writing Is Important

Writing a conclusion is important because it provides closure and completeness to the essay, reinforcing the main points and giving the reader a final perspective on the topic.

Many students wonder if it's possible to turn in an essay without a closing sentence. Some see it as a creative choice; others - because they don't understand how to write a good conclusion.

Basically, the absence of a conclusion in an essay can affect the overall quality and coherence, so we always recommend finishing any academic article with a strong concluding paragraph.

Here are several reasons why a conclusion is a must-have in any essay:

  • Summarizes key points: A conclusion provides an opportunity to recap the main points and arguments made in the essay. It serves as a summary of the entire essay, reminding the reader of the most important information and ideas presented.
  • Reinforces the thesis statement: The conclusion should reiterate the thesis statement or the central argument of the essay. This reinforces the main message and helps the reader remember the purpose and focus of the essay.
  • Provides closure: A well-written conclusion gives the essay a sense of closure. It signals to the reader that the essay is ending and provides a satisfying wrap-up to the discussion.
  • Offers a final perspective: In the conclusion, you can provide your final thoughts and insights on the topic. This is an opportunity to express your perspective or offer suggestions for further research or action related to the subject matter.
  • Leaves a lasting impression: The conclusion is your last chance to leave a strong impression on the reader. A well-crafted conclusion can make your essay more memorable and impactful.
  • Connects to the introduction: A good conclusion should link back to the introduction, creating a sense of unity and coherence in the essay. It reminds the reader of the journey they've taken from the beginning to the end of the essay.
  • Encourages reflection: The conclusion invites the reader to reflect on the content of the essay and its significance. It can stimulate critical thinking and leave the reader with something to ponder.
  • Guides the reader: A conclusion can guide the reader on what to take away from the essay. It can suggest implications, applications, or further considerations related to the topic.

Knowing how to make a conclusion is important because it helps tie together the various elements of an essay, reinforces the main points, provides closure, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader. It is a critical component of effective essay writing that can enhance the overall impact and understanding of your work.

If you'd like to know more about how to write an essay , we've prepared some useful tips for you. In the meantime, we'd like to demonstrate a couple of great conclusion examples essay authors shared for your reference needs.

Three Essentials of a Perfect Final Paragraph

We want to share some practical tips regarding how to write a conclusion for an essay. First and foremost, a concluding passage should start with restating a thesis statement.

It involves rephrasing or summarizing the key arguments of your essay while maintaining the original intent and meaning.

Don't forget to use different wording, parallel structure, and link back to the introduction. E.g.:

Original: "The advancement of technology has had both positive and negative effects on society."
Restated: "Society has experienced a range of consequences, both beneficial and detrimental, due to technological progress."

Secondly, summarize key points and prioritize the main ideas. Focus on the most significant and relevant key points that support your thesis.

You don't need to mention every detail, only the most crucial elements. Be concise and to the point in your summaries. Avoid using lengthy sentences or providing too much context.

Get straight to the core of each key point. Present the key points in a logical order that follows the structure of your essay.

This helps the reader follow your thought process. If your key points in the body of your essay were related to the benefits and drawbacks of technology, this is how you summarize them:

"In summary, this essay has explored the multifaceted impact of technology on society. We have discussed its positive contributions, such as increased efficiency and connectivity, but also examined the negative aspects, including privacy concerns and overreliance on screens. These key points underscore the complexity of our relationship with technology and the need for balanced, informed decision-making."

Thirdly, it's hard to imagine how to conclude an essay without connecting the conclusion to the introduction. Try to use similar or parallel language in your conclusion that was used in the introduction.

This could be in the form of specific words, phrases, or even sentence structures. Such a linguistic connection will reinforce the relationship between the two sections.

If your introduction posed a question, hypothesis, or series of questions, use the conclusion to provide an answer, reflect on the evolution of thought, or address how these questions have been explored and answered in the essay.

Discuss the significance of the introduction's ideas or themes in light of the discussion that has unfolded in the body of the essay. E.g.:

Introduction: "In a world driven by technological advancements, the impact of our digital age on interpersonal relationships remains a topic of great interest."
Conclusion: "As we navigate the ever-changing landscape of the digital age, the significance of maintaining authentic and meaningful connections in our interpersonal relationships becomes even more apparent. The insights gained in this essay reaffirm the importance of striking a balance between the virtual and the real, ensuring that technology enhances rather than hinders our connections."

Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion

Writing essay conclusions can be challenging, so students should know how to write a conclusion correctly. Here are ten hints to help you prepare excellent concluding paragraphs:

mistakes to avoid while writing conclusion

  • Repetition of introduction.
  • Introducing new information.
  • Being too vague.
  • Lack of clarity.
  • Overlength.
  • Failure to address the "So What?" question.
  • Inconsistency with the essay's tone.
  • Lack of connection to the introduction.
  • Neglecting to revisit the thesis.
  • Not leaving a lasting impression. ‍

Don't repeat these mistakes, and you'll know how to make a conclusion in an essay perfectly well. It's essential to plan your conclusion carefully, review your essay thoroughly, and consider the reader's perspective.

Practice and feedback from instructors can also help. However, if it isn't sufficient, buy essay online in a few clicks to get the upper hand.

How Much Time Does It Take to Start Writing Proper Essay Conclusions

Practice makes perfect. To master the art of writing conclusions, you'll have to demonstrate patience, skill, and experience.

The time it takes to learn to write great conclusions for essays varies from person to person and depends on several factors, including your starting point, your dedication to improvement, and the quality of feedback and guidance you receive.

There is no fixed timeline for writing great essay conclusions. It doesn't happen overnight.

However, with consistent effort and a willingness to learn from your experiences, you can steadily improve your ability to craft effective concluding paragraphs.

It's also worth noting that writing is a continuous learning process, and even experienced writers continue to refine their skills over time.

How an Effective Conclusion Paragraph Should End

Good conclusions should always end with concluding phrases that can provide a strong, memorable finish to your essay. Remember that the effectiveness of these phrases depends on the context and the specific message you want to convey in your conclusion.

Choose the one that best suits the tone and content of your essay while providing a clear and impactful ending:

  • In conclusion.
  • In summary.
  • To wrap it up.
  • In a nutshell.
  • To put it simply.
  • Ultimately.
  • In the final analysis.
  • As a result.
  • To conclude.
  • In essence.
  • For these reasons.
  • In light of this.
  • With all factors considered.
  • Taking everything into account.
  • Given these points.
  • In the grand scheme of things.
  • To bring it all together.

Knowing how to end a conclusion will help you convey the overall purpose and message of your essay to readers.

It will provide closure and give the reader a sense of completeness while reinforcing the main points and leaving them with a final thought.

Since we speak a lot about conclusions and connecting them to introductions, you might also like to brush up on how to write an outline for an essay .

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Conclusion Paragraph Examples

"In essence, mastering the craft of how to write conclusion of essay is essential for creating impactful and well-structured essays. By reiterating the thesis, summarizing key points, and leaving a lasting impression, we are writing conclusions that not only provide closure but also reinforce the central message of our essays. As we continue to hone this skill, our ability to communicate effectively through our writing will undoubtedly improve, making our essays more persuasive and memorable."
"In summary, learning how to write a conclusion paragraph requires careful consideration and practice. By reiterating the main point, summarizing key arguments, leaving the reader with a thought-provoking final message, and keeping the conclusion format in mind, we can create conclusions that not only provide closure to our essays but also leave a lasting impact on our readers. As we continue to refine this skill, our ability to write compelling conclusions will enhance the overall quality of our essays and make our writing more engaging and persuasive. As writers, we should continually refine our knowledge of how to end a conclusion paragraph to make our essays more memorable and impactful."
"To sum up, producing an effective conclusion is vital for any writer. Understanding how to write a good conclusion ensures that our essays have the power to resonate with readers, leaving a lasting impression and reinforcing the central message of our work. By following these principles, we can elevate our experience with how to make a good conclusion and engage our audience effectively. It's a skill that, once honed, can distinguish our essays and make them truly memorable, leaving a lasting impact on those who read them."

In this article, we've demonstrated how to write a conclusion - a vital skill for crafting effective college articles.

This knowledge will prove highly beneficial to your educational progress.

By guiding you in restating the thesis, summarizing key points, offering closure, reflecting on significance, and avoiding introducing new information in conclusions, we've equipped you with the tools to leave a lasting impression on your academic work.

This newfound expertise regarding how to end a conclusion in an essay will undoubtedly enhance your college success and contribute to your overall academic achievement.

Why Writing a Conclusion Is Important?

Writing a conclusion paragraph is important because it provides closure, summarizes key points, reinforces the thesis, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader, ensuring that your message is effectively communicated and your work is well-rounded and impactful. Knowing how to write a conclusion sentence allows you to tie together the main ideas presented in your writing. It offers an opportunity to reflect on the broader implications of your work. It allows your audience to leave with a clear understanding of the significance of your argument or findings. Moreover, a strong conclusion can leave a memorable mark on your reader, making it a critical element in effective communication and achieving the desired impact with your writing. That's why every student should know how to write a good conclusion for an essay.

What Is an Essay Conclusions Outline?

A conclusion paragraph outline is a structured plan that helps writers summarize key points, restate the thesis, provide closure, and reflect on the broader significance of their essay. It serves as a roadmap for crafting a well-organized and impactful conclusion. This outline typically includes a section summarizing the main arguments or findings, followed by a restatement of the thesis to reinforce the central message. It also guides writers in discussing the broader implications or significance of their topic. Writing a conclusion for an essay ensures that you effectively encapsulate the essay's core ideas and leave a strong and lasting impression on the reader.

How to Write a Good Conclusion?

Demonstrate that you know how to write a conclusion by restating your thesis, summarizing key points, providing closure, and reflecting on the broader significance of your work. Avoid introducing new information, and aim to leave a strong and memorable final impression on the reader. A good conclusion should tie back to the introduction and the main body of your work, creating a sense of completeness. While learning how to end a essay, it's essential to maintain a consistent tone and style with the rest of the piece, ensuring a harmonious flow. Engage the reader by highlighting the relevance and real-world implications of your topic, leaving them with a clear understanding of why your argument or findings matter. According to MBA essay writing service experts, a good conclusion is an integral part of grading criteria and should be featured in the article.

Any Tips on How to Write a Concluding Paragraph?

The concluding paragraph is a critical component of effective writing, serving as the last opportunity to make a compelling impression on your audience. If you'd like to learn how to write a good conclusion paragraph, start by reiterating your thesis or central argument, reinforcing the core message. Summarize the key points and arguments presented in the body of your work, providing a concise overview of your main ideas. Next, offer closure by crafting a conclusion that brings your narrative or argument to a logical and satisfying end. Lastly, refrain from introducing new information, as this can disrupt the flow and purpose of your conclusion. When practicing how to write conclusion in essay, focus on reinforcing the existing content and leaving a memorable final impression on your readers.

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17 Essay Conclusion Examples (Copy and Paste)

essay conclusion examples and definition, explained below

Essay conclusions are not just extra filler. They are important because they tie together your arguments, then give you the chance to forcefully drive your point home.

In an argumentative essay, it’s important to restate the thesis statement and key for and against arguments. For a descriptive essay, restate your key points to demonstrate your depth of knowledge and understanding, and capacity to deeply analyze a topic.

Below are a range of copy-and-paste essay conclusions with gaps for you to fill-in your topic and key arguments. Browse through for one you like (there are 17 for argumentative, expository, compare and contrast, and critical essays). Once you’ve found one you like, copy it and add-in the key points to make it your own.

P.S If you don’t know the difference between the types of essays, start with my article on the differences between argumentative and expository essays .

Video: How to Write a Conclusion

I’ve previously produced this video (below) on how to write a conclusion. It follows the 5 C’s method ( you can read about it in this post ), which doesn’t perfectly match each of the below copy-and-paste conclusion examples, but the principles are similar, and can help you to write your own strong conclusion:

Essay Conclusion Examples

1. argumentative essay conclusions.

The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of _____________. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as ____________, it remains clear that the benefits/merits of _____________ far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support _____________. In the coming years, _____________ will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for _____________.

Version 1 Filled-In

The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of fighting climate change. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as the claim that it is too late to stop catastrophic change, it remains clear that the merits of taking drastic action far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support the claim that we can at least mitigate the worst effects. In the coming years, intergovernmental worldwide agreements will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for humankind.

chris

As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding _____________ is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that _____________, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that _____________. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that _____________ not only leads to ____________, but it may also be a necessity for _____________. Moving forward, _____________ should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for _____________. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate _____________ more effectively into society.

Version 2 Filled-In

As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding climate change is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that we should fight climate change, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that action can mitigate the worst effects. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that strong action not only leads to better economic outcomes in the long term, but it may also be a necessity for preventing climate-related deaths. Moving forward, carbon emission mitigation should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for all. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate smart climate policies more effectively into society.

Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that _____________ holds the potential to significantly alter/improve _____________. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for _____________. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that _____________ presents the most effective solution/approach to _____________. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of _____________ for developing a better  _____________. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including _____________.

Version 3 Filled-In

Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that addressing climate change holds the potential to significantly improve the future of society. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for immediate climate action. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that widespread and urgent social action presents the most effective solution to this pressing problem. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of taking immediate action for developing a better environment for future generations. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including more extreme climate events and greater economic externalities.

See Also: Examples of Counterarguments

On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for _____________. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that _____________. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that _____________ is the most sufficient option for  _____________. The implications of embracing _____________ do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more _____________. Therefore, the solution of _____________ should be actively pursued by _____________.

Version 4 Filled-In

On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for immediate tax-based action to mitigate the effects of climate change. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that action is urgently necessary. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that taking societal-wide action is the most sufficient option for  achieving the best results. The implications of embracing a society-wide approach like a carbon tax do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more healthy future. Therefore, the solution of a carbon tax or equivalent policy should be actively pursued by governments.

2. Expository Essay Conclusions

Overall, it is evident that _____________ plays a crucial role in _____________. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of _____________ on _____________. By understanding the key facts about _____________, practitioners/society are better equipped to navigate _____________. Moving forward, further exploration of _____________ will yield additional insights and information about _____________. As such, _____________ should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on _____________.

Overall, it is evident that social media plays a crucial role in harming teenagers’ mental health. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of social media on young people. By understanding the key facts about the ways social media cause young people to experience body dysmorphia, teachers and parents are better equipped to help young people navigate online spaces. Moving forward, further exploration of the ways social media cause harm will yield additional insights and information about how it can be more sufficiently regulated. As such, the effects of social media on youth should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on youth mental health.

To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of _____________. Through a careful examination of _____________, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on _____________. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that _____________. As research continues to emerge, the importance of _____________ will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of _____________ is not merely desirable, but imperative for _____________.

To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of globalization. Through a careful examination of globalization, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on the economy, cultures, and society. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that globalization has both positive and negative effects. As research continues to emerge, the importance of studying globalization will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of globalization’s effects is not merely desirable, but imperative for judging whether it is good or bad.

Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that _____________ serves a pivotal role in _____________. By delving into the intricacies of _____________, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in _____________. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on _____________. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of _____________ can only deepen and expand.

Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that mass media serves a pivotal role in shaping public opinion. By delving into the intricacies of mass media, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in shaping the media landscape. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on how mass media impacts society. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of mass media’s impacts can only deepen and expand.

In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of _____________ in the context of _____________. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect _____________ has on _____________. The knowledge gained from exploring _____________ will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in _____________. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding _____________ will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of _____________ to better navigate and influence _____________.

In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of bedside manner in the context of nursing. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect compassionate bedside manner has on patient outcome. The knowledge gained from exploring nurses’ bedside manner will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in nursing practice. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding nurses’ bedside manner will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of this topic to better navigate and influence patient outcomes.

3. Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion

While both _____________ and _____________ have similarities such as _____________, they also have some very important differences in areas like _____________. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of _____________ and _____________ has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on _____________. For example, as highlighted in the essay, ____________. Despite their differences, both _____________ and _____________ have value in different situations.

While both macrosociology and microsociology have similarities such as their foci on how society is structured, they also have some very important differences in areas like their differing approaches to research methodologies. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of macrosociology and microsociology has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on the researcher’s perspective on how society works. For example, as highlighted in the essay, microsociology is much more concerned with individuals’ experiences while macrosociology is more concerned with social structures. Despite their differences, both macrosociology and microsociology have value in different situations.

It is clear that _____________ and _____________, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in _____________. On the other hand, their contrasts in _____________ shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to _____________. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to _____________.

It is clear that behaviorism and consructivism, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in their foci on knowledge acquisition over time. On the other hand, their contrasts in ideas about the role of experience in learning shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to which approach works best in which situation. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to student education.

Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that _____________ and _____________ share similarities such as _____________, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in _____________. The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as _____________. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both _____________ and _____________ play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to _____________.

Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that red and orange share similarities such as the fact they are both ‘hot colors’, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in their social meaning (red meaning danger and orange warmth). The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as personal taste. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both red and orange play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to color theory.

Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of _____________ and _____________ have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as _____________ give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, _____________ will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both _____________ and _____________ hold significant value within the context of _____________, and each contributes to _____________ in its own unique way.

Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of driving and flying have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as their differing speed to destination give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, urgency to arrive at the destination will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both driving and flying hold significant value within the context of air transit, and each contributes to facilitating movement in its own unique way.

See Here for More Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

4. Critical Essay Conclusion

In conclusion, the analysis of _____________ has unveiled critical aspects related to _____________. While there are strengths in _____________, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on _____________, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of _____________ should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.

In conclusion, the analysis of flow theory has unveiled critical aspects related to motivation and focus. While there are strengths in achieving a flow state, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on how humans achieve motivation, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of flow theory of motivation should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.

To conclude, this critical examination of _____________ sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While _____________ presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of _____________. Therefore, future engagements with _____________ should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.

To conclude, this critical examination of postmodern art sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While postmodernism presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of how it has contributed to the arts over the past 50 years. Therefore, future engagements with postmodern art should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.

Upon reflection, the critique of _____________ uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as ________, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of _____________, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of _____________ should be taken into account when considering ____________.

Upon reflection, the critique of marxism uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as its ability to critique exploitation of labor, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of marxism’s harmful effects when used as an economic theory, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of marxism should be taken into account when considering the use of its ideas in real life.

Ultimately, this critique of _____________ offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of _____________ such as __________ are significant, yet its limitations such as _________ are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of _____________ but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around _____________ continue to embrace this balanced approach.

Ultimately, this critique of artificial intelligence offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of artificial intelligence, such as its ability to improve productivity are significant, yet its limitations such as the possibility of mass job losses are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of artificial intelligence but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around the regulation of artificial intelligence continue to embrace this balanced approach.

This article promised 17 essay conclusions, and this one you are reading now is the twenty-first. This last conclusion demonstrates that the very best essay conclusions are written uniquely, from scratch, in order to perfectly cater the conclusion to the topic. A good conclusion will tie together all the key points you made in your essay and forcefully drive home the importance or relevance of your argument, thesis statement, or simply your topic so the reader is left with one strong final point to ponder.

Chris

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 31 Great Teachable Moment Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ SOLO Taxonomy - 5 Levels of Learning Complexity
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ Remedial Education - Advantages, Disadvantages & Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ What is Hidden Curriculum? - Examples, Pros & Cons

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Make Your Essay Structure Rock-Solid with These Tips

Lindsay Kramer

So you’ve been assigned an essay. Or, probably more realistically, two, three, or four essays  . . . and they’re all due the same week. 

We’ve all been there: overwhelmed, staring down that blank screen, and not sure which essay to start with or how to get it started. 

In high school and college, it’s not enough to just write strong essays. One of the most important skills to develop is writing strong essays efficiently . And the foundation of that skill is knowing how to structure an essay. With a template for the basic essay structure in hand, you can focus on what really matters when you’re writing essays: your arguments and the evidence you’re using to support them. Take a look at the basic essay structure below and see how the parts of an essay work together to present a coherent, well-reasoned position, no matter what topic you’re writing about. 

Make your essays shine. Polish your writing with Grammarly Write with Grammarly

Basic essay structure: the 3 main parts of an essay

Almost every single essay that’s ever been written follows the same basic structure: 

Introduction

Body paragraphs.

This structure has stood the test of time for one simple reason: It works. It clearly presents the writer’s position, supports that position with relevant examples, and neatly ties their supporting arguments together in a way that makes their position evident. 

It all starts here. This is where you introduce the topic you’re discussing in your essay and briefly summarize the points you’ll make in the paragraphs that follow. 

This is also where you state your thesis. Your thesis is the most important part of your essay because it’s the point you’re making . It needs to take a clear stance and shouldn’t include hedging language that undermines that stance like “seems to” or “possibly could.”

Here are a few examples of thesis statements:

  • In the final scene of The Awakening , Edna Pontellier’s decision demonstrates that it was impossible for her to have the lifestyle she truly wanted in the society in which she lived.
  • Due to its volatility and lack of government regulation, Bitcoin cannot become a viable currency for everyday purchases.
  • While the habitability of Mars has not yet been proven, evidence suggests that it was once possible due to bacteria samples found on the Red Planet.

An easy way to write your thesis statement is to think of it as a summary of your essay. Your thesis makes and supports your essay’s point in one concise sentence. 

When you proofread your finished essay, make sure your thesis is clearly stated in your introduction paragraph. If it’s not clear, go back and write a definitive thesis statement. 

>>Read More: How to Write a Persuasive Essay

Your essay’s body paragraphs are where you support your thesis statement with facts and evidence. Each body paragraph should focus on one supporting argument for your thesis by discussing related data, content, or events. 

If you’re not sure whether you should include a specific point or detail in your body paragraphs, refer back to your thesis statement. If the detail supports your thesis, it should be in your essay. If it doesn’t, leave it out. Your thesis statement is the core of your basic essay structure, so everything else in the essay needs to relate to it in some way. 

In your essay’s conclusion paragraph , you summarize the points you made and bring your argument to its logical conclusion. Because your reader is now familiar with your thesis, the summary in your conclusion paragraph can be more direct and conclusive than the one in your intro paragraph.

>>Read More: 7 Writing Tips from Professors to Help you Crush your First Essays

How many paragraphs are in an essay?

There’s no hard-and-fast requirement for college essays. In high school, you were probably taught to write five-paragraph essays. This is a solid essay structure to work with, but in college, you generally have more flexibility with assignment lengths and formats. 

Now, consider five the minimum—not the standard—number of paragraphs you should include in your essays. 

Essay structure examples

There are a few different ways to present information in an essay. Often, your assignment will tell you what kind of essay to write, such as a chronological, compare and contrast, or problems-methods-solution essay. If you’re not sure which is best for your assignment, ask your instructor. 

Chronological

A chronological essay guides the reader through a series of events. This essay structure is ideal if you’re writing about:

  • A current or historical event
  • A book or article you read for class
  • A process or procedure

With this kind of essay, you first introduce your topic and summarize the series of events in your introduction paragraph. Then, each body paragraph takes the reader through a key stage in that series, which might be a decisive battle in history, a pivotal scene in a novel, or a critical stage in a judicial process. In your conclusion, you present the end result of the series you discussed, underscoring your thesis with this result. 

Compare and contrast

A compare-and-contrast essay has a structure that discusses multiple subjects, like several novels, concepts, or essays you’ve been assigned to read.

There are a few different ways to structure a compare-and-contrast essay. The most obvious is to spend one paragraph discussing the similarities between the topics you’re covering (comparing), then one paragraph detailing their differences (contrasting), followed by a paragraph that explores whether they’re more alike or more different from each other. 

Another method is to only compare, where each of your body paragraphs discusses a similarity between the topics at hand. Or you can go the only-contrast route, where your body paragraphs explore the differences. Whichever you decide on, make sure each paragraph is focused on one topic sentence . Every new comparison or contrast should occupy its own paragraph.

Problems-methods-solution

As its name implies, this kind of essay structure presents the writer’s position in three segments:

  • Ways to resolve the problem 
  • The solution achieved by using these strategies to resolve the problem 

This kind of essay works great if you’re discussing methods for resolving a problem, like knowing how to distinguish between credible and non-credible sources when you’re doing research for assignments. It can also work when you’re tasked with explaining why certain solutions haven’t worked to fix the problems they were created for. 

With this kind of essay, begin by introducing the problem at hand. In the subsequent body paragraphs, cover possible methods for resolving the problem, discussing how each is suited to fixing the problem, and potential challenges that can arise with each. You can certainly state which you think is the best choice—that could even be your thesis statement. In your conclusion paragraph, summarize the problem again and the desired resolution, endorsing your method of choice (if you have one). 

In this kind of essay, you can also include a call to action in your final paragraph. A call to action is a direct order for the reader to take a specific action, like “call your congressperson today and tell them to vote no” or “visit grammarly.com today to add Grammarly browser extension for free.”

>>Read More: How to Write Better Essays: 5 Concepts you Must Master

With the basic essay structure down, you can get to writing

For a lot of students, getting started is the hardest part of writing an essay. Knowing how to structure an essay can get you past this seemingly insurmountable first step because it gives you a clear skeleton upon which to flesh out your thoughts. With that step conquered, you’re on your way to crushing your assignment.

what does a conclusion have in an essay

Conclusions

Choose a sign-in option, citation and embed code.

Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your conclusion sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement.  

Restate your thesis

The first sentence of your concluding paragraph should restate your thesis.  

Example: Restated thesis

Thesis: It is obvious that COVID-19 changed everything. Mainly, this virus affects people in terms of schools, economy, and mental health.

Restated Thesis: In conclusion, people had gotten significant damages in terms of schools, economy, and mental health by coronavirus.

The thesis changed by implying the main points, instead of stating them directly. Even though the words were changed, the overall meaning did not change. Other ways to restate a thesis include reversing the order of the clauses or using different word forms (e.g., adjective to noun: essential > the importance).  

How to Paraphrase a Thesis Statement

A restated thesis statement says the ideas from the thesis statement again but in different words. It is a paraphrase of the original thesis statement.

An Effective Paraphrase

  • explains the most important parts of the original
  • is written in your own words. 
  • keeps the original meaning. 
  • does not merely cut and copy from the original

How to Make a Paraphrase

  • Determine your purpose. 
  • Read or listen to what you will paraphrase
  • Make a list of the main points
  • Write the paraphrase. 
  • Compare the paraphrase to the original 

(Adapted from Stephen, n.d.)

Apply your thesis to general contexts

There are a few options for the supporting sentences of a conclusion paragraph. All of these options build off the main idea from the restated thesis. 

  • This is done by paraphrasing your topic sentences effectively.
  • This polishes off the essay in a refined way. Including the same ideas in the first paragraph and the last paragraph bookends the essay the same way the covers of a book contain a story. 
  • This is usually done with a large scope in mind. How does your idea impact a larger community or the world? What impact will it have in the future?

Give a closing statement

Your concluding statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at   the very end of your paper. Your closing statement can be a prediction, suggestion, or opinion.

A conclusion's role in an essay

The primary role, job, of a conclusion in an essay is to finish off the essay in a logical way. Just like if you listened to a song that stopped halfway through if you read an essay without a conclusion, it feels unfinished.

A conclusion is an idea that is reached after someone considers evidence about a topic. All the ideas, details, explanations, and reasonings build up to the conclusion.

Usually, this conclusion is stated in the restated thesis statement. The sentences after the restated thesis statement can either summarize the main reasons that support that conclusion or they can show the impact of that conclusion on the real world. The last sentence, the concluding sentence, should be memorable so that people remember the conclusion from the restated thesis statement. It is like the grand finale in a song that leaves a lasting impression.

All of these pieces build on the ideas from the previous paragraphs, so the reader understands at the end of the essay what the essay was all about, the main idea. 

*Note: Conclusion vs. Concluding

"Conclusion" and "Concluding" are based on the word "Conclude" which has two different dictionary definitions: one about deciding based on evidence and another about ending something.

Conclusion means "something that you decide when you have thought about all the information connected with the situation". 

Concluding means "[coming] to an end; [bringing] something to an end"

Sources for definitions:

  • https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/conclusion?q=conclusion+  
  • https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/conclude?q=concluding

Exercise 1: Paraphrasing Practice

Pretend you are writing an essay to answer the prompt below. You have already written your thesis statement. You are now writing the restated thesis statement. To practice your paraphrasing skills, write three versions of the same restated thesis statement on the lines below. A completed example done with a different prompt has been given. 

Prompt: What are the similarities and differences between e-books and textbooks?

Thesis: Although e-books and textbooks have the same purpose, they are significantly different in cost, usability, and visual presentation.

Completed Example:

Prompt:  Should schools teach foreign languages?

Thesis:   Schools need to teach different languages because it helps the youth to be better prepared for the future, having more opportunities and developing their skills.

Restated Thesis Versions:

 1. In conclusion, students are benefited in schools that teach a foreign language because they are not only better prepared for future opportunities but also they develop skills. 

2. In closing, the preparation for future opportunities and skill development available to students in schools that teach a foreign language are two of the main reasons schools need to teach foreign languages.

3.  In fine, there are many benefits for students learning a foreign language which is why schools should include these courses.

Exercise 2: Concluding Paragraph Analysis

Read the example student's thesis statement and concluding paragraph. 

  • Does the paragraph appropriately restate the thesis?
  • Does the author apply the main idea to general topics?
  • Does the writer include a closing statement?
  • Do you think this is effective as a concluding paragraph? Why or why not?

Thesis Statement: Electronic devices are bad for children because they affect kid’s brains, their use is unsafe and it reduces children’s interaction with the real world.

Conclusion:

       The use of electronic devices in children leads to negative effects in their brains as it exposes infants to improper content and reduces their interaction with people and sensorial experiences. Screen time should be only necessary for specific and educational reasons, its use needs to be tracked by parents and teachers in order to only have its benefits for the kids. Once they grow up and are aware of the risks of them and the benefits of giving them adequate utilization, it should be fine to allow them more screen time. Smartphones or tablets will not disappear, contrary to this, they use will increment and their tools and characteristics will as well, that is why people should learn how to take advantage of them and provide children only the parts that are necessary in the correct designed time.

Exercise 3: Consider the Cohesion

Analyze the conclusion paragraph from the example essay at the end of this chapter:

Example Essay

Consider these questions:

  • Are all the parts of the conclusion paragraph included?
  • How does this conclusion connect with the rest of the essay?
  • What specific language does the author use that you could use in any conclusion?

what does a conclusion have in an essay

This content is provided to you freely by BYU Open Learning Network.

Access it online or download it at https://open.byu.edu/up_writing_summer/conclusion_paragraph .

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How to Write a Clear and Strong Conclusion for Argumentative Essay: A Simple Step-by-Step Guide

Stefani Holloway

Table of contents

So, you've made it to the end of your argumentative essay. After pouring your efforts into researching and crafting compelling arguments in your introductory and body paragraphs, you're now left wondering, "What on earth do I write in the conclusion paragraph?"

Sound familiar? Well, you're not alone.

Writing conclusion paragraphs often feels like a daunting task. You might find yourself thinking, "What can I say that hasn’t already been said?" However, don't let this uncertainty trick you into undermining the value of a well-written conclusion.

Writing conclusions shouldn't be taken lightly. In fact, the conclusion paragraph is the finishing touch that packages your essay neatly, communicating to the reader that you have provided the closure your argument deserves.

Think about it: you wouldn't gift someone a present without wrapping it, right? Similarly, no matter how strong the arguments you've raised in your essay are, without a solid conclusion, your essay may seem incomplete or lackluster.

In this guide, we'll explore how to write a strong conclusion paragraph in an argumentative essay, ensuring your essay is wrapped up just as beautifully as it was crafted.

The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph in an Argumentative Essay

A conclusion paragraph is like the final bow in a performance—it's your last opportunity to impress the audience and leave a lasting impression. In an argumentative essay, this "final bow" serves a few critical roles.

Firstly , the conclusion reaffirms your thesis statement. It brings the reader back to your main argument and reminds them of the stance you've taken. It's not about introducing new ideas, but rather solidifying the ones you've already presented.

Secondly , it's a summary of your main points or arguments. It offers the reader a concise overview of the ground you've covered, tying together all the threads of your argument into a cohesive narrative.

Lastly , it presents a final statement—an impactful sentence or two that leaves the reader with something to ponder. This could be a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a prediction about the future. It serves to cement your argument in the reader's mind and ensure your essay is memorable.

Now that we've established the critical roles of a conclusion, let's take a closer look at the structure of an argumentative essay, and specifically, how to build a strong conclusion paragraph.

Components of a Strong Conclusion Paragraph

KEY POINTS : " In writing your conclusion, remember to restate your thesis in a fresh and interesting way. Then, summarize your main arguments concisely, ensuring they tie back to your thesis. Consider discussing broader implications or impact of your argument if relevant, to give your conclusion a strong finish. "

A powerful conclusion to an argumentative essay contains several key elements. Let's break them down:

Restating the Thesis Statement : start by revisiting your thesis statement. This doesn't mean copying it word for word from your introduction, but rather, paraphrasing it in a new light. Given the evidence and arguments you've presented, this reaffirms your position and reminds your reader of the claim you've defended.

Summarizing Main Points/Arguments : next, offer a brief recap of the main points or arguments you've made in the body of your essay. This should be succinct and help tie everything together. Remember, it's a summary—avoid going into too much detail or bringing up any new information.

Presenting the Final Statement : the final statement is your last chance to leave a lasting impression or provoke thought in your reader. This could be a call to action, a quotation, or a forward-looking statement about the implications of your argument. Make sure it reinforces your thesis and wraps up your essay well.

Discussing Broader Implications or Significance : lastly, if appropriate, discuss the broader implications of your topic. How does your argument fit into the larger context? What impact might it have on the future? This helps your reader understand the relevance and potential influence of your argument.

Now that we understand the components, let's move on to how to put them together to form an effective conclusion paragraph.

Writing a Strong Conclusion: Step-by-Step Approach

Crafting a strong conclusion isn't rocket science, but it does require some thoughtful effort. Follow this step-by-step approach to ensure your conclusion effectively wraps up your argument.

Step 1: Begin by Transitioning Smoothly

First and foremost, don’t abruptly jump into your conclusion. Use transitional phrases such as "in conclusion," "to sum up," or "finally" to signal to the reader that you are wrapping up your argument.

Step 2: Restate Your Thesis

Revisit your thesis statement in the light of the arguments you've made. Remember to paraphrase it—simply copy-pasting the statement won't do. Make it clear that the evidence and points you've presented support your thesis statement .

Step 3: Summarize Your Main Arguments

Next, briefly summarize the main points or arguments you've made in your essay. This is your opportunity to reinforce these points and remind the reader of their importance. Be succinct and avoid introducing any new information.

Step 4: Make Your Final Statement

Your final statement should leave a lasting impression. This could be a provocative question, a prediction, or a call to action—something that will resonate with your reader and encourage further thought or action.

Step 5: Discuss Broader Implications

If it fits your topic, consider discussing the broader implications or significance of your argument. This helps connect your argument to a larger context and can show your reader why your topic matters.

Step 6: Review and Polish

Finally, review your conclusion. Does it flow well? Does it provide a compelling and concise wrap-up of your argument? Make sure to polish your language and check for any errors.

Remember, the conclusion is your last opportunity to leave a lasting impression on your reader, so make it count. If you'd like to see how these steps look in practice, stay tuned for our examples of well-written conclusion paragraphs coming up next.

Examples of Well-Written Conclusion Paragraphs

There's nothing like good examples to illustrate a point. Here are a few well-written conclusion paragraphs from argumentative essays to help you better understand the process we just outlined.

Example 1 : Let's say our thesis statement was, "Despite some drawbacks, the benefits of online learning—such as flexibility and accessibility—make it a viable alternative to traditional education."

Conclusion paragraph : "In conclusion, the rise of online learning is not without its challenges. Technical glitches, lack of interpersonal communication, and the requirement for self-motivation can make it seem less appealing to some. However, when we consider the unmatched flexibility and accessibility it offers to learners worldwide, it's clear that online education is a powerful tool in our educational arsenal. It may not replace traditional education entirely, but it undoubtedly provides a viable alternative for many. As technology continues to advance, we can only anticipate the further enhancement of online learning experiences."

Example 2 : Suppose our thesis statement was, "Even though it is a source of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs of large-scale hydroelectric dams often outweigh their benefits."

Conclusion paragraph : "To sum up, while large-scale hydroelectric dams have long been hailed for their ability to generate renewable energy, we must also consider the significant environmental and social costs associated with them. The destruction of habitats, displacement of local communities, and the risk of catastrophic failure present serious challenges to their continued development. Though the quest for sustainable energy solutions is more critical than ever, it is essential that we weigh these concerns carefully and explore more environmentally and socially responsible alternatives."

These examples should give you a clear picture of how a well-crafted conclusion ties an argumentative essay together. Up next, we'll discuss some common pitfalls to avoid when writing your conclusion.

Common Pitfalls to Avoid When Writing Your Conclusion

As important as it is to know what to include in your conclusion, it's equally crucial to understand what to avoid. Below are some common pitfalls that can weaken your conclusion:

Introducing New Information : your conclusion is not the place to introduce new arguments or information. It should synthesize what you've already discussed, not open up new lines of debate.

Simply Restating the Introduction : while your conclusion should revisit your thesis statement and main points, avoid merely restating your introduction. Your conclusion should add value by providing a fresh perspective or highlighting the implications of your argument.

Making Unsupported Claims : your conclusion should be based on the evidence and arguments you've presented in your essay. Avoid making sweeping claims or statements that aren't backed by your essay's content.

Being Vague or Unclear : your conclusion should be clear and concise. Avoid using vague language or unclear statements that could confuse your reader.

Neglecting the Broader Significance : if it's relevant to your topic, your conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader significance or implications of your argument. Avoid missing this opportunity to show your reader why your argument matters.

By being aware of these common pitfalls, you can ensure your conclusion is strong, compelling, and effective. Now, you should be well-equipped to write a strong conclusion for your argumentative essay. But remember, practice makes perfect!

Conclusion and Final Thoughts

Writing a strong conclusion for your argumentative essay is crucial. It provides closure and drives home the main points of your argument one last time. Remember, your conclusion is your last chance to persuade your reader and leave a lasting impression.

Restate your thesis, summarize your main points, make a memorable final statement, and, if applicable, discuss the broader implications of your argument. Avoid common pitfalls like introducing new information or merely restating your introduction.

Take the time to practice this skill and consider utilizing the resources provided above for further learning and improvement. With persistence and patience, you will master the art of writing compelling conclusions.

However, if you find yourself struggling, remember that help is just a click away. At our US essay writing service , we have a team of skilled writers who can deliver top-notch argumentative essays tailored to your specific needs. We're here to help you succeed.

Additional Resources

To further strengthen your conclusion writing skills, here are some additional resources worth exploring:

Posts from Writers Per Hour Blog

  • How Significant Are Opposing Points of View in an Argument
  • How to Write a Hook for an Argumentative Essay
  • Good Argumentative Essay Topics
  • How to Write an Introduction for an Argumentative Essay
  • Rebuttal in Argumentative Essay

External Resources

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab: Argumentative Essays
  • University of North Carolina Writing Center: Conclusions

Remember, mastering the art of argumentative essay writing doesn't happen overnight. It takes practice and patience. If you ever need help, our professional essay writing service is here to assist you. Our experienced writers are well-versed in crafting compelling argumentative essays and can help you achieve your academic goals.

Last edit at Nov 24 2023

Stefani Holloway

Stefani Holloway

Stefani is a professional writer and blogger at Writers Per Hour . She primarily contributes articles about careers, leadership, business, and writing. Her educational background in family science and journalism has given her a broad base from which to approach many topics. She especially enjoys preparing resumes for individuals who are changing careers.

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How to write a Good Conclusion?

What is the conclusion.

Conclusions are frequently viewed as the most challenging section of an essay to write. They are, nevertheless, one of the most critical components of work because they bring clarity and insight into the subject. We’ll guide you on how to write a conclusion and offer you an outline to utilize in your next essay in this article.

The conclusion section is your last chance to convince your readers to agree with you and to make an impression on them as an expert writer. And the impression you leave with your readers after they’ve finished the essay will be shaped by the impression you leave with them in the conclusion. As a result, the conclusion of an essay should express a sense of completion and end for the subject.

In a research paper, essay, or article, the conclusion is the closing piece of writing that summarizes the entire topic’s efforts. The conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis statement, review the major supporting concepts covered throughout the paper, and give your last thoughts on the central idea. The main idea of your topic should also be included in this final summary. The “so what” is addressed in the conclusion by emphasizing the essay’s argument and providing the reader with a solution and query into the subject matter that supports why they should care.

Outline of the conclusion

  • The first sentence

                                            The Thesis statement is rephrased with an original topic sentence.

  • Supporting sentences

                                            Summarize the important arguments in the body of the essay

                                            Explain how the concepts fit together.

  • Closing sentence

                                           Returns to the beginning

                                           Brings the story to a close

Conclusion

How to write a Conclusion Paragraph?

Every type of writing ends with a conclusion. When a reader reaches the end of your work, a good conclusion paragraph can change their minds, and knowing how to create a complete, interesting conclusion can improve the effectiveness of your writing.

  • You’ll leave your reader with a concluding paragraph that “wraps up” your essay.
  • It displays to the reader that you have completed what you set out to do
  • It explains how you have proven your thesis statement
  • It’s the total opposite of the first paragraph of your essay.
  • Keep in mind that the starting of your conclusion begins generic and finishes specifically.

How to write a Conclusion for An Essay?

The final paragraph of your paper is the conclusion. A good conclusion tries to tie together the essay’s main ideas, demonstrate why your argument is important, and make a lasting impact on the reader. Your conclusion should provide your argument a sense of closure and completion while simultaneously demonstrating what new issues or possibilities it has raised.

So, if we utilize shapes to show the content of the essay, it would look like this:

Conclusion for An Essay

  • Your thesis statement should be summarized in your topic sentence.
  • Rephrase the thesis statement to reflect a new and deeper understanding.
  • Your concluding sentences should restate what you’ve already expressed in your essay’s body.
  • In the conclusion paragraph, summarize the theme of each body paragraph.

Knowing how to write a good conclusion is relatively apparent, depending on the length of your essay—you don’t want to simply summarize everything you wrote. Rather, the ending should provide a sense of conclusiveness while also addressing the topic’s meaning and potential. 

Here are five crucial points to consider when creating a good conclusion that will stay with the reader:

  • Start with a topic sentence . The first sentence in a conclusion should always be a topic sentence. Restating your opening paragraph’s thesis in the first line of your conclusion is a good method to remind the reader of the main topic.
  • As a starting point, refer to your introduction paragraph . The thesis statement from your introduction, as well as supporting points, emotional request, and final impression, should all be included in the conclusion paragraph. When writing your conclusion, use the introduction as a guide, but don’t rewrite it with different wording.
  • Write a summary of the important points . Effective conclusions will repeat the most appropriate material in order to summarize the paper’s main point. Because academic essays and research papers can be extensive, a quick overview of all your supporting points should be included in your final paragraph to keep the reader up to date. It’s best not to use new facts, future research, or fresh concepts, as this may cause the reader to become confused.
  • Attracts the emotions of the reader . A good conclusion will use emotional language to inspire the reader with a powerful, long-lasting image. Using an emotional attraction to reinforce your main ideas is also a good idea.
  • Finish with a sentence . Your concluding line should wrap up your entire work with a synthesis of important details. Write your concluding argument concisely and clearly, giving the reader closure while also leaving them with a strong feeling of its significance in a greater perspective.

How to write a Research Paper Conclusion?

The conclusion of a research paper is the section that links everything together in a logical manner. A conclusion, as the final section of a research paper, gives a clear explanation of your research’s findings in a way that emphasizes the value of your research.

You can use the stages below to help you start drafting your conclusion:

  • Instead of summarizing, synthesize

Restating the Introduction

Changing the reader’s focus.

  • Explain the importance of the findings.

Posing Questions

Bring your ideas to a close..

what does a conclusion have in an essay

Instead of summarizing, Synthesize

Your research paper’s conclusion is not a summary. While a summary can be included in this part, the conclusion is more than just a restatement of your arguments and analysis. Rather than repeating what you discussed in the abstract, introduction, and body of your study, show the reader how the important arguments of your research paper fit together in a logical way.

The way to write the conclusion brings your reader full idea by including the same components you used in your introduction. Retelling the main idea you mentioned in your introduction while establishing a fresh understanding of the issue based on the outcomes of your study that validates your arguments and/or assumptions is an example of how you can restate your introduction.

After bringing readers into your study through your introduction and immersing them in your techniques, analysis, and results, your conclusion serves as a bridge back to the real world. Changing your reader’s focus is a technique to encourage them to implement what they’ve learned from your research study in real life. This approach can also be used to propose a path of action for additional research on a current problem.

Explain the importance of the findings

You might consider the significance of these ideas after presenting the key arguments for your topic. After expressing your key points in your argument, you might discuss how the effects of your topic influence a given result. Similarly, you could provide the conclusions of research or other findings that can help you emphasize the importance of your knowledge.

The motivation for the research is a set of questions. Posing questions to your readers or to the public can assist them in obtaining a new perspective on the topic that they might not have had before reading your conclusion. It could also bring your major points together to form or develop a new idea based on your research.

As you near the end of your conclusion, consider including a call to action or a suggestion that encourages your readers to think about your argument further. This line can also be used to answer any questions that were left unanswered in your paper’s body paragraphs.

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"What Affects One Affects All': Read Milwaukee students' powerful essays on war, loss and building a better future

"What Affects One Affects All."

This was the theme for the 41st annual Martin Luther King Jr. essay contest, which began in 1981 as a way to celebrate, remember and continue King's legacy.

The 2023 theme comes from King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail:

"I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly."

The winning essays reflect the resilience of those who have faced loss, the compassion of those concerned about societal challenges, and above all, the determination of these young people to create a better world.

The contest is sponsored by the Milwaukee Teachers' Education Association and the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Student winners in art, speech and writing will be honored at a free celebration at the Marcus Performing Arts Center, Jan. 15 at 4 p.m.  

First place: Khalise Warren, third grade, Kluge School

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was an innocent man that went to jail trying to change the laws more than once even though the law did not directly affect. He wanted everyone to have equal rights. He believed what affects one ... affects all . This means that if someone sees or does something that is not right and nothing is done about it, it can happen to someone else. For example if someone sees someone getting bullied and doesn't say anything or tell anyone, then the bully can continue bullying. If I ever saw someone getting bullied, I would help them. I would tell the bully to treat people how you want to be treated. I would also say that isn't something that helps the community. If that didn’t work, I would tell an adult around me. When Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was still living, he spoke out for many communities to change unfair laws. If he never did this we would still have injustice in the community. I agree with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. that what affects one...affects all. I wish he had never died. 

Second place: Lore'al Douglas, third grade, Kluge School

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said, what affects one ... affects all . I agree with Dr King because at recess someone got bullied and other people jumped in. I think the other people jumped in because the girl couldn’t stand up for herself. I think her friends felt that it was wrong, and didn’t like it. I would feel mad, too, and I would tell the teacher so the bully could stop. Another problem is when people vandalize the park in my neighborhood, it not only affects me and other kids who go to the park but can’t play. To stop vandalism, I would set up cameras and ask the police to patrol the park. In conclusion, helping each other is important because what affects one ... affects all . 

Third place: Gianna Rivera, second grade, Honey Creek Elementary School

Wednesday, April 21, 2021, on the 3700 block of North 5th Street at 25 years young, gun violence took my father’s life. Roberto Velez Jr. was a son, father, brother, husband, and best friend. At just 5 years old, I got the news my dad was murdered. I became angry. I became confused. Why him? Why me? I asked myself.

Dr. Martin Luther King’s strong words, “What affects one ... affects all” highlights my story. Dr. King championed using wise words and nonviolence to withstand hatred. The cold-hearted actions of one person affected my dream, the priceless memories that were to come, such as TV time on the couch, loud laughs, warm hugs, and of him walking me down the aisle on my wedding day. Mr. Gunman I ask you, “Why did you take away the one person I loved the most?” Did I cross your mind when you raised that gun? No I do NOT think so! What if the roles were reversed ? Who would you leave behind?

It took ONE GUN, taking ONE son, father, brother, husband, and best friend. Our cries won’t bring him back. Our hurt won’t just go away ALL of us are hurting. So I say to you Mr.Gunman, “GUNS DOWN!” Think of your loved ones, think of mine. You could be someone’s “Someone” like you took mine. But I still have a dream. “GUNS DOWN I SAY GUNS DOWN!”, cries that 5 year old little girl.

First: Journee Grandberry, fifth grade, Samuel Clemens School

U - n - i - t - y ……… Do you know that the first three letters of unity sound like “you and I”? You and I …… this means that we are not alone, we are a community! We know what “unity” means. We talk about it, but I think we have forgotten what it truly means! Dr. King says, “We’ve learned to swim the seas like fish and to fly the air like birds, and yet we have not learned the simple art of walking the Earth as brothers and sisters. This is the great dilemma facing America!” In 2023, this doesn’t have to be our dilemma. “What affects one, affects all!" Let our empathy as a human family be what affects us all and let’s walk in each other’s shoes!

As students, it starts with us. Bullying, fighting, and disrespect spreads negativity to everyone. Instead, I challenge us to spread love and understanding.

Criticizing people for who they are because we don’t agree, is wrong. If one person feels bad because they can’t express themselves, it says something about us all.

Violence, shootings, and war costs us billions of dollars and lives lost. One person’s safety is not more important than someone else’s. We must walk together for peace and nonviolence!

I challenge us to organize food drives for people who don’t have enough food. We can’t ignore people who are homeless. We have to make sure everyone has jobs to support their families.

I have rights in this country as a young woman. However, that does not mean that I ignore other women who need me to stand up for their rights!

As future leaders, I call us to come together and change our world for everyone, not just some. Let what affects us all, be our positive mindset to change our world. Let what affects us all, be our empathy and integrity. Let’s unite, so that we have the power to help everyone. I challenge us to be stronger together. Then, we will be the family that Dr. King had a dream for us to be!

Second place: Amere Brewer, fifth grade, Samuel Clemens School

What affects one, affects all. We know this to be true because the modern day Emmett Till is today’s Trayvon Martin and George Floyd. This is what I call a negative chain reaction that is spreading in our society, and it must be stopped. Dr. King stated that “The chain reaction of evil, hate begetting hate, wars producing more wars must be broken.” My goal is to stop the chain reaction of gun violence and global wars because what affects one, affects all.

Gun violence in our society is spreading like wildfire. What we need to do as a community is work peacefully together and protest in our neighborhoods. When I hear on the news of someone my age having possession of a gun, it’s frightening! In class, my teacher teaches us about Growth Mindset. One of the things that she says is that my fifth grade brain has not fully developed yet. That part of the brain helps me deal with my thoughts and decision making skills. So a child with a gun whose brain is still maturing is not good! We must stop the chain reaction of gun violence because what affects one, affects all.

The issue of war is heart wrenching. Innocent lives are being lost due to the war between Israel and Hamas every day. War brings about a chain reaction of destruction to families, homes, and our natural environment. I believe that if I am taught as a child how to solve problems peacefully, then shouldn’t adults have to do the same? Dr. King stated that “A true leader is not a searcher for consensus but a molder of consensus.” Adults must be positive role models. 

What affects one, affects all in any issues that arise in our world today. Therefore, I am spreading a chain reaction of positivity throughout my community to fight against gun violence and war. If these things can happen to any of us in the world, it can definitely happen to me. Your issues are my issues and together we can work them out to make this world a better place.

Third place: Renad Kabashi, fifth grade, Golda Meir School

As we reflect on the profound words of Martin Luther King Jr., we are reminded of a timeless truth: "What affects one, affects all." Similar to Martin Luther King's visionary dream, I too, have a dream. My dream is that we can live in a world where people understand that one change sets off a chain reaction of possibilities.

Think of it like a science experiment. When you mix different compounds, typically a reaction occurs. In life, our actions are like that too. Imagine having a special ingredient that starts a reaction. In our world, that could be a person standing up against something unfair. Martin Luther King Jr. was that special ingredient that started a big positive change.

However, let's not forget that discrimination in our communities can set off a negative chain reaction, impacting everyone. Like the ozone layer, the release of gas started a destructive chain reaction impacting the entire world! We must be responsible for our actions to prevent the rise of this negative chain reaction.

For the younger generation to be great and change the world, they need to be led by example. To multiply the impact of positivity, the younger generation must be taught responsibility, respect, and kindness. We need justice! Just as Dr. King advocated for unity and justice, we must acknowledge that the struggles in Sudan, Palestine, and Ukraine are interconnected threads of a larger tapestry of human rights.

Did you know that in the last five months, over 1,500 children lost their lives in a conflict that wrecked Sudan? In Gaza, more than 5,500 kids have died, and 30 kids in Israel. Additionally, in the past 18 months, more than 540 children died in Ukraine.

Imagine how much this will impact our future. So, let's be like Dr. King. Let's be the special ingredient that starts a positive chain reaction in our homes, schools, neighborhoods, and around the world.

Let us collectively embrace the motto:

One by one, we make a change! Together, strong, we rearrange!

First place: Meadow Mertes, Fernwood Montessori School

The health of the children in Milwaukee affects their education and affects their ability to become successful adult community members. Free lunches for all Milwaukee Public School (MPS) students helps these children to have academic success. If free lunch was not available, then kids may not have any food for lunch. Their success in life may be forever changed by providing lunches. The kids learning at MPS schools are the kids that are going to run the community in the future. What affects kids in MPS will affect the city. 

Last year some people told the governor they wanted MPS students to pay for their lunches. They thought that it was unfair that the surrounding city’s students had to pay for lunch, but not in Milwaukee. There is a reason that Milwaukee does not have to pay. Unfortunately, in Milwaukee there are many families that can not afford food. The families in neighboring areas don’t have that need. One-fourth of the people in Milwaukee live in poverty. This means that a fourth of our city can't afford to pay for their house, proper food and clothing. Children who have their basic needs met are more likely to learn better and to live better lives. 

My family, fortunately, does have the money to pay for school lunch. So, if they were to shut down free lunch, I would be able to pay for it. I am lucky. Knowing that other families may not have money to pay for food makes the free school lunches more important. Last year, to prevent students having to pay for lunches, we wrote letters to the school board. Every letter said why MPS should keep free school lunches. The school board contacted the governor. He realized that, not only were there good reasons for keeping free lunch, but also, he got to hear the ideas and needs from children who are in MPS. As I said, I have the money to pay for school lunches but other kids all around the city do not. I’m glad we wrote those letters so all kids can have access to free lunch. 

Kids deserve free school lunches if their families are low-income. Kids all over Milwaukee have this kind of poverty. Giving kids free school lunches is playing a small part in a big puzzle that will build a strong community. 

Second place: June Rickman, Fernwood Montessori School

After Columbus came to the Americas, many Europeans took indigenous kids from their homes and put them in residential schools. Residential schools were harsh boarding schools. The teachers cut their long braids, refused to let them speak their language or do anything associated with their culture. This harshly affected the kids in the schools and their families. The situation affected lots of other people indirectly, because the native kids helped their families trade and do other important tasks that other people needed.

From 1973 to 1974 a little girl named Phyllis went to a residential school. Phyllis's grandmother bought her a new outfit. On Phyllis's first day she wore a bright orange shirt. The schoolteachers did not like the shirt, so they took it away. Sadly, Phyllis says "the color orange has always reminded me of that and how my feelings didn't matter, how no one cared and how I felt like I was worth nothing." She was just six years old when this happened. Her mother and grandmother both attended residential schools, as well. That feeling of worthlessness played a huge part in all of their lives and so many others.

Phyllis decided nobody deserves to feel like their feelings don't matter, like nobody cares, like they are worth nothing, so she created Orange Shirt Day. The official meaning of Orange Shirt Day is truth and reconciliation day. To me, it's more than that, it's a day to remember, to remember all the terrible things people have done to Native Americans, to remember all the deaths and the survivors that came of residential schools. I believe that all Natives, including myself, are indirectly affected by this event. Maybe it's because you had a family member who attended a residential school, or maybe you know, personally, what dismissal feels like.

To summarize, Orange Shirt Day is so important, well it's not that simple. It's not just important, it's necessary. Orange Shirt Day is a day to remember that people weren't always treated as equals. It is a day to remember that we still aren't. How would you feel if you didn't get to wear something or keep your culture because someone said they didn't like it. You would probably feel like you didn't matter, like you were just a waste of space. That's how tons of Native Kids grew up feeling.

Third place: Layla Parker, Fernwood Montessori School

Car crashes happen all of the time and some of them lead to death. These accidents don’t just hurt the people in the car, they hurt the driver’s families, friends and the communities around them. I live on a very dangerous street, and car accidents happen very often. Because of that, it’s not safe for the kids on my street and I to play outside. Some drivers don't even realize how fast they’re going, and that can really damage communities. 

In 2019, 39,723 people were injured in car accidents and 551 people were killed in them. During that year, the number of car accidents increased over 21 percent. Because of that, the road isn't as safe as it used to be, but neither are the sidewalks. Drivers can’t only injure themselves, but the people on sidewalks can get harmed as well. People on sidewalks are most likely to get hurt because they don't have as much protection as the people in cars. They are more exposed in a collision. Sometimes fast drivers on streets can harm people crossing the road.

People on sidewalks aren't safe, people in the car of the driver aren't safe, but what about other drivers? Other drivers aren’t safe either. Their bank accounts aren’t safe either. Because of inflation, car repair bills are higher and being stuck with a major car repair bill and hospital bills can be really expensive. This can be very hard for people, especially people with money problems. Car crashes can also cause brain damage and PTSD. A lot of the time people get PTSD over car crashes after witnessing one, being in one or seeing the aftermath on the news or on social media. 

Speeding and drunk driving are two very illegal things, yet people do it every day. Law enforcement officers are trying to stop the amount of car crashes each year. This is not only to keep the people around the driver safe, but to keep the drivers safe as well. To solve this issue, we need to act by driving safely and paying attention to your surroundings. Stay off your phone while driving and while walking down the sidewalk.

First place: Mylah Monk, eighth grade, Congress School

What affects one, affects all,School shootings, there’s children's bodies in the hall.We are trained to hide during a code red,Because if we don’t, we’ll end up dead.We beg and beg for laws to change,And yet they never do, how strange.So many excuses, “He’s sad,” or “He’s sick,”But deep down we all know that’s really not it.The real issue is his need,His need to be heard or to be seen.He thinks that if he shoots up the school he’ll get help,But all he gets is a little welp.At this point we’re all used to it,Getting used to feeling that our school might be the next to get hit. It’s never too late to take this opportunity,To come together as a community.We can fight this issue until we fall,And maybe we’ll be okay after all. 

Second place: GuZa Nar, eighth grade, Victory School

Martin Luther King Jr. once eloquently articulated the interwoven fabric of humanity when he said, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” This powerful statement encapsulates that what affects one individual or group ultimately impacts the entire community. In our interconnected world, the actions and experiences of one person reverberate throughout society, creating a collective tapestry of shared victories and struggles. 

Dr. King’s notion of interconnectedness is a poignant reminder that a common destiny binds us. He emphasized the profound reality of the well-being of all. This interconnectedness is not limited to a particular race, nationality, or social class, but transcends all boundaries, embracing every member of the human family. 

When we examine the impact of systemic racism, economic inequality, or social injustice, it becomes evident that the repercussions are far-reaching, affecting every corner of society. These issues undermine the dignity and rights of individuals, leading to societal unrest and division. Dr. King recognized the dangers of such division, emphasizing, “We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools.” 

Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the interconnectedness of our global community. What began as a health crisis in one part of the world swiftly cascaded into a global economic downturn, affecting livelihoods and well-being on a planetary scale. The pandemic has vividly demonstrated that the health and prosperity of any community will impact the health and prosperity of all. 

In the same vein, environmental degradation and climate change are profound illustrations of the interconnectedness of humanity. As Dr. King emphasized, “We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.” The environmental challenges we face, from air and water pollution to deforestation and climate instability, do not discriminate; they affect all living beings, regardless of borders or backgrounds. 

Moreover, the belief in the interconnectedness of humanity serves as a powerful catalyst for positive change. When we recognize that the struggles of one group mirror the struggles of all, we are compelled to work toward a fairer, more just world. Dr. King’s words resonate with this sentiment: “We must all learn to live together as brothers or we will perish together as fools.” Through collective action and solidarity, we can advocate for equality, justice, and human rights, knowing that our efforts will benefit society. 

In conclusion, Martin Luther King Jr.’s profound wisdom illuminates the fundamental truth that “What affects one, affects all.” From civil rights to economic justice, and global health to environmental stewardship, the interconnectedness of humanity underscores the imperative of working together for the betterment of all.

Third place: Michael Tempesta, eighth grade, Burdick School

“Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly” was the famous quote Dr. Martin  Luther King Jr wrote as he was arrested and placed in a jail in Birmingham, Alabama. Although he had already been an influential figure in the civil rights movement, this quote pushed his movement further into the public eye. It provided a more thought-provoking point of view on the civil rights movement for white people who never thought of how their actions of injustice to one person had affected all people of color.

At the heart of the quote, it describes how these actions do not happen in darkness. Even if they seem insignificant, they have a ripple effect that passes through communities and society, touching lives and creating meaning from those seemingly insignificant actions. In the eyes of the civil rights movement, Dr. King used this idea to show how interconnected people and their emotions are.

In a less general sense, the quote brings up ideas of how humans have an almost domino effect on each other. It shows how when people are happy, it usually makes people around them happy. However, it usually works in the opposite as well. When someone is angry, it brings the mood down all around them. It shows, once again, how humans and their emotions are interconnected.

This idea of human connection is most relevant in social and political movements. Even though a problem may not affect you directly, human connection feels obliged to help in the movement against the issue. Focusing on that ripple effect, one person affected by an injustice would cause many people to feel emotionally connected and boost the movement to right that wrong, which Dr. King used many years ago.

In conclusion, Dr. Martin Luther King’s statement that “what affects one directly, affects all indirectly” is a reminder of the connection between humans and how one action or injustice can cause a ripple effect on others. Taking this connection and applying it to life is how people show compassion, make relationships, and work toward making the world a more equality-based society. 

Grades 9-10

First grade: isaiah washington, ninth grade, riverside university high school.

In this quote “I cannot sit idly by” Dr.King means that he can't sit around and do nothing while there are people suffering and struggling. He is tired of people struggling and seeing it all around him. Injustice to me is the act in which someone or something is not being treated justly. Many people go through injustice. Injustice can be anything like biased thinking, segregation, cheating and many others. It can make people feel worthless and sad.[ It can make them feel like they are not worthy of their rights or needs.

An issue I see in the world is extreme poverty. Single parent families are mostly affected by not making enough money. A big chunk of the world's population is making below 2.15 a day or under only 784.75 a year. According to the World Bank website there are over 700 million people who get less than 2.15 a day. The poverty rate of the world is 9.3 percent and it’s up 0.9 percent from 2019. This means the global poverty rate is going up and it seems that we have no plans to stop it. Many kids don’t even know when their next meal is. According to Feeding America out of 13 million kids, 1 in 5 kids don’t know when their next meal is. What's worse, 33% of households with single moms are food insecure.

The poverty issue is connected to many other things like increased crime rate. Because people might not have enough money to buy necessities and/or needs they might not have another option but to steal. It doesn’t make anything better though because the homeless will stay poor but be in jail without being able to afford bail so they’ll be stuck in the system with no help. Another issue that is connected with poverty is drug and alcohol abuse. A homeless person might feel like they are at rock bottom and feel like they have nothing to lose so any little money they do get, they waste it all on drugs and alcohol. According to addictionhelp.com 38% of homeless are addicted to alcohol and 26% abuse drugs.

Since all of these issues are connected I think we should provide more resources for the homeless. To move forward to a better future we must provide change. We can build more shelters and rehab centers. We can provide more jobs and volunteer opportunities. We can also build donation centers for the kids. These will help people with poverty start somewhere and ensure that once they get to where they want to be, they don’t go back down. Poverty may always be a problem, I fully understand that. But that doesn’t mean we can’t try to cut it out of the world. In the end, these steps may help people with extreme poverty get back on their feet. 

Second place: Abdul Sarip Kurban Ali, ninth grade, Riverside University High School

Dr. King said he couldn’t “sit idly by” and he was saying that he can’t watch his people get hurt without doing something. He is saying that I cannot sit around while my community is suffering and losing loved ones. A serious issue of injustice that I see in the world is individuals suffering from mental health and committing suicide. Suicide is preventable. We need to help the people that are suffering.

According to American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, it is not only at Wisconsin that we deal with suicide is all around the world. The biggest root causes of suicide I found from my research are mental health problems, loneliness, losing a loved one, and postnatal depression. Mental health causes an endless amount of pain and thinking ending their lives early they could get away from the torture they were put through. Suicide can affect people's mental health at all ages, but if we started to help kids at a young age we could have had less suicides every year. If we start funding programs that focus on the mental health of our young people in our society then we can start to have less people committing suicide each year. We cannot continue to lose valuable members of our society, on average there are 132 suicides a day in the U.S. Imagine what we have lost as a society, if these people had gotten the help they needed, the goals they could have achieved.

If Dr. King was still alive today, he would say as a society that we need to improve our health care systems, because close to a million people die every year because of suicide. The best thing we can do for them is to get help for them early. Obviously starting with teaching our young people about mental health is important, we need to make sure all ages are getting the help they need. Everyone in society needs to start looking out for each other. This issue is important because as a society we are supposed to work together, be connected as a family, and help each other. This could mean a grandmother receiving consoling after the loss of her husband, or a mother who had a child die during birth. Many soldiers return from war and suffer PTSD, they don’t know how to cope with the trauma of war. We need to care for all because we are united together and we can overcome anything. 

Third place: Bruce Harris, ninth grade, Riverside University High School

“[We are] tied in a single garment of destiny” is significant because it explains that we are all connected no matter what race or culture we’re from. It also shows that the world will be a better place if we work together. An older example of this is the Civil War. White and black people came together to give freedom to former black slaves. Injustice to me is something not fair or right that has little to no consequence. A big issue of injustice is racism. In the Innocence Project by Daniele Selby, he states Black people are 7x more likely to be wrongfully convicted of murder than White people. This is proof of the justice system failing Black people.

People mainly affected by racism are people of color. People have been killed, turned into slaves, segregated all because of the color of their skin. Others receive racism, but I believe they haven’t experienced it on the same level as people of color. Symptoms of this injustice are hate crimes, death, riots, police, and people being falsely jailed. According to Daniele Selby of the Innocence Project about one-third of unarmed people killed by police are black and less than half were convicted . These statistics further show how low the justice rate for black people is.

The root cause of racism is parents further perpetuating old racist ideas continuing the cycle of racism. Segregation can cause a disconnect between the two groups leading to racism based on untrue negative stereotypes. Another community that faces racism is the Asian Americans. Ever since the big pandemic, racism, fear, and hate towards Asian-Americans have skyrocketed. They've been used as a scapegoat, meaning they're being used as a vessel of all the emotion COVID has brought us, which isn't fair to them at all. This can also be connected to Muslims being blamed for 9/11.

There’s no easy fix to this, but ways to potentially solve this issue would be being more serious about hate crimes by extending jail time, especially with police. Right now you will only get 6 months to a year for hate crimes. Being less stereotypical of each other so we don’t have negative ideas about people before meeting them. We can do this by properly educating schools about different cultures. Once we look at Dr. King's most popular speech “I Have a Dream”, I think he would be very disappointed that people are still being judged based on the color of their skin and their cultures instead of their actions and personalities. It's important to be mindful of the issues we face today because it's like Dr. King said: “Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly.” If we ignore the other issues in the world, it will only grow and spread into other issues that affect us down the road. 

Grades 11-12

First place: anuar begum, eleventh grade, milwaukee high school of the arts.

Dr. Martin Luther King fought for equality and justice for all. He was a courageous leader who stood up against racial discrimination and fought for civil rights. Dr. King fought against segregation, inequality, and injustice. One of his famous quotes, “whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly,” speaks to the interconnectedness of our society. I personally resonate with his words because as a member of my community, I have witnessed unfairness and inequality. I understand that these issues not only impact me but also have ripple effects on those around me.

In my community, I have seen how discrimination and inequality can divide us. Whether it’s unequal access to education, job opportunities, or basic rights, these issues create a sense of injustice. However, Dr. King's message reminds us that we are all connected. When one person is denied their rights, it affects the entire community. To solve these problems, we must come together, use our voices, and fight for justice. We can advocate for policies that promote equality, support organizations that work towards social change, and engage in conversations that challenge discriminatory beliefs. 

As a young person, I believe in the power of using our rights to create positive change. Dr. King's legacy teaches us that we have the power to challenge injustice and make a difference. We can participate in peaceful protests, vote for leaders who prioritize equality, and support movements that aim to dismantle systemic discrimination. By taking action, we can create a more inclusive and fair community for everyone. Dr. King's words serve as a reminder that our fight for justice is not just for ourselves, but for the betterment of society as a whole. 

Second place: Saleem Kahahda, eleventh grade, Salam School

You look up into the night sky. You stare in awe at the stars, twinkling ever so slightly.

The moon; keeping us company at night, lighting a way, when the sun abandons us. All of a sudden, you see a shooting star. “Wow, that’s pretty,” you express out loud. Only after you see the shooting star, your ear catches screaming in the distance. “Everyone, run! Maybe we can live through it this time!” You’re left in a daze. “What are they talking about?” You look up into the sky and realize that the shooting star is much closer than it was before, and by the second, you gaze at the star getting nearer and nearer. You realize ... it’s not a shooting star. It’s one of those days again. A rocket has been launched from our land. At least, it used to be our land. It used to be our home.

This isn’t reality for us living in the States, but this is the everyday reality of the Palestinian people. What I described to you is the life of millions living in Gaza and the West Bank. Every day, gunfire is directed towards the Palestinians, missiles of every variant launched towards the people and their infrastructure. Hospitals, homes, you name it; all of it, now a pile of rubble. All of it labeled as a means to eliminate the resistance off the face of the Earth. This is what is described as collective punishment. Numerous are being punished for the actions of a few, except this is on a scale never seen before. An entire culture – my culture – is on the brink of extinction. My pedigree fled from Palestine after Al-Nakba – translating to the Catastrophe – in the mid-1900s. We haven’t been able to return since. The disaster occurring today is identical to what happened then, a continuation of what occurred. 1.9 million Palestinians displaced, over twenty-thousand massacred. The only variation from then is that these Palestinians have no way out.

In response to what is occurring, the United States has let the Palestinians down, funding the genocide that the Zionist regime is inflicting on the Palestinians. “What happens to one, affects us all.” Dr. King uttered these words in a time where African Americans were persecuted for being just that: African Americans. The occurrence of today is interchangeable with the Jim Crow Era. The animosity of one can extend to others. His words echo in cadence today, with the contempt of one country able to extend all over. In spite of this, millions across the globe stand with us, in order to prevent history from repeating itself. Despite how much the media is attempting to keep what is going on to a hush; individuals of every culture are making their voices heard. From Mexico to Turkey, they are clamoring, “Free Palestine.” Our suffering led to them uniting under one cause. Tears fall from my eyes knowing that finally our voices are being heard. Finally, after over eighty years, we have attained global attention. Keep going. Stay persistent. These people – my people – are relying on your outrage for their chance of salvation. Dr. King achieved his goal of equality for all after numerous decades of persistent action against the oppressive regime. His singular voice led to the voice of many in unison for change. Let us be the voices that clamor in unison for change with the Palestinians. 

Third place: Kimberly Martinez-Sierra, eleventh grade, Golda Meir School

Humanity is ridden with disease; so many that naming just the ones starting with ‘A’ will flood the word limit. It is practically limitless as to how many different issues exist in the world, but they all share one key feature: They all exist in the world. Our world, planet Earth, the only body of life that we’re familiar with and probably one of the only ones we will ever know, at the pace of technological advance and global deterioration in which it is doing. How will we ever surpass the threat of extinction at the hands of global climate change when there is still an alarming amount of people who still do not agree with King’s ideals? Fortunately, there exist two concepts that share the same ideals and that allow advancement on the road outlined by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., one of love, compassion, justice for all: Earth jurisprudence and veganism.

The wellbeing of humanity is dependent on the wellbeing of Earth as a whole, the one planet where life is able to thrive in theory. Humanity is not the only group of individuals who live on this humble abode in this corner of the universe, in fact, it is a minority in the grand scale of the history of the planet as well as its current state. And to be able to say that people should be treated with respect and compassion regardless of superficial differences is to be able to say the same for those to non-human beings. How can one choose to treat one living being with compassion and respect, such as a person, yet support the slaughtering and unnecessary abuse of fellow living beings, such as cows?

The comparison of humans to non-humans should not be taken as something that is subjugating or even demeaning, to people, as all beings are deserving of respect and compassion. Why is comparing humans to non-humans considered demeaning or even dehumanizing in the first place? Is it because there is more arbitrary value assigned to humans compared to non-human beings? The same reasoning where one is superior to another based on arbitraries such as those white supremacists use to justify the subjugation of people of color?

Racism is interconnected with speciesism, where philosopher Peter Singer regards it as “discrimination on the basis of species membership ...”; one cannot exist without the other. They both use the exact same reasoning, except one is solely anthropogenic, while the other extends beyond humans. How is it that humanity can declare itself superior compared to the rest of the residents that inhabit this Earth, those in which they are outnumbered by outstanding numbers?

How is it possible to achieve the vision that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wishes when the very people who support this vision most likely support the subjugation of fellow neighbors who are only treated as such because they are not human? Such as that animal husbandry, the one main method of regression of justice for all?

To be able to follow King’s ideals is to have the ability to extend this compassion beyond humanity, and to understand the intersectionality of these issues.. It is when one is morally consistent where true change for the better can be achieved, for all. After all, "What affects one directly, affects all indirectly." 

Zacks.com

What Does CES 2024's Automotive Tech Spectacle Have in Store?

Posted: January 9, 2024 | Last updated: January 9, 2024

The Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2024 is officially underway in Las Vegas, showcasing the latest technological innovations across various industries. As the automotive industry is undergoing a transformative period, CES has emerged as a crucial platform for unveiling groundbreaking technological advancements. Even as traditional auto shows decline, CES stands out as the premier event for automotive announcements, attracting major brands from around the world.

For automotive enthusiasts, this event is a window into the future, revealing the cutting-edge developments that major car manufacturers have in store. This year, the focus is not much on flashy vehicle debuts but on in-cabin tech innovation, reflecting the industry's shift toward connected, electric and autonomous vehicles.

Notably, the Detroit Big 3 automakers — including General Motors, Ford and Stellantis — won’t be participating at the CES this year following disruptions caused by the historic UAW strike in late 2023. Despite notable absences, including major U.S. automakers and industry disruptors like Tesla, the stage is set for an exciting showcase from global giants like Honda HMC, Hyundai, Kia, Volkswagen VWAGY, BMW AG BMWYY and Mercedes-Benz MBGAF.

Honda's Leap Into the EV Future

Among the automakers, Honda is expected to take center stage at CES 2024 with the debut of its all-new global electric vehicle (EV) series. Aligned with its ambitious goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, Honda plans to introduce 30 EVs globally, targeting a sales volume of 2 million units by 2030. This move is part of Honda's broader strategy to achieve 100% zero-emission automobile sales by 2040, a mix of battery and fuel cell electric models.

The CES debut of this new series marks a significant transformation in Honda's approach to sustainable mobility. Honda's CES showcase will not only feature the new EV series but also highlight key technologies shaping the brand's transformation.

Kia's Visionary Mobility Platform

Kia’s showcase at CES 2024 revolves around its groundbreaking modular EV platform, the Platform Beyond Vehicle (PBV). This platform underpins three all-electric concept cars — PV1, PV5 and PV7, each catering to different segments of personal and B2B mobility. PV5, set to be launched in 2025, is a three-row van combining futuristic design and practicality. Kia's partnership with Uber and the announcement of a robotaxi version by 2028 underscores its commitment to revolutionizing mobility.

Hyundai's Software-Defined Vision

Hyundai stands out as a prominent player at CES 2024, showcasing its vision for a technologically advanced, environmentally friendly future. Its concept of "software-defined everything" illustrates a future where technology seamlessly integrates into our lives. At CES 2024, Hyundai is set to unveil its new E/E architecture for software-defined vehicles (SDV), a testament to its innovation in vehicle technology.

The company's vision extends beyond cars, with a focus on hydrogen-powered transformations and the potential of AI in advancing mobility solutions.Hyundai will present its waste-to-hydrogen production and hydrogen value chain, emphasizing a comprehensive approach to future mobility concepts. Hyundai Mobis, a subsidiary, is contributing to the display with 20 new mobility technology concepts, highlighting innovations ready for immediate mass production.

BMW's Digital Inward Focus

BMW is turning its attention inward at CES 2024, spotlighting interior technologies such as gaming, streaming, augmented reality (AR) and AI-powered features. Demonstrations include remote driving experiences, AR glasses for passengers and an Intelligent Personal Assistant enhanced with generative AI. The German auto giant’s focus on the digital customer experience emphasizes the integration of cutting-edge technology in everyday vehicle use.

Mercedes-Benz's AI-Powered MBUX Virtual Assistant

Mercedes-Benz is set to impress with the unveiling of its new MBUX Virtual Assistant at CES 2024, aiming to redefine the digital passenger experience. This AI-powered feature represents a leap in personalization and human-like interaction between driver and car. The MBUX Virtual Assistant, part of Mercedes-Benz's vision for connected driving, promises an empathetic and responsive in-car experience.

Ola Källenius, CEO of Mercedes-Benz, emphasizes the empathetic qualities of the MBUX Virtual Assistant, stating that it complements the driver's style and mood. This technology is set to gradually appear in passenger vehicles over the coming years, marking a significant leap toward connected and personalized driving experiences.

Volkswagen's ChatGPT Integration

Volkswagen will take a leap into artificial intelligence by integrating OpenAI's ChatGPT into its IDA voice assistant. This move makes Volkswagen the first volume manufacturer to offer ChatGPT as a standard feature, starting in the second quarter of 2024. The integration of OpenAI’s chatbot across VW’s lineup, including Tiguan, Passat, Golf, and its ID family of electric vehicles, highlights the automaker's commitment to cutting-edge technology and enhanced customer experience.

The AI-based chatbot enhances the voice assistant's capabilities, providing relevant responses and control over entertainment. Volkswagen's partnership with Cerence ensures a robust integration of ChatGPT, marking a significant step toward AI-driven interactions within vehicles.

Flying Cars on Display

CES 2024 will showcase two companies presenting "flying cars." XPeng AeroHT, an affiliate of China's XPeng Inc., will introduce an electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft. Hyundai's Advanced Air Mobility company, Supernal, will also showcase an eVTOL vehicle prototype, highlighting the growing interest and innovation in the aerial mobility sector.

CES 2024 paints a futuristic picture of the automotive industry, with a focus on technology that goes beyond traditional vehicle design. As the world watches these innovations unfold at CES, it's evident that the automotive industry is at the forefront of the tech revolution, where EVs, AI, and software-defined technologies are not just concepts but imminent realities.

From global EV series and modular platforms to software-defined vehicles and AI-powered virtual assistants, major car manufacturers are showcasing their commitment to shaping a connected, electric and autonomous future. The integration of AI in vehicles, both in voice assistants and advanced chatbots, signals a paradigm shift in how we interact with our cars.

The convergence of technology and automotive expertise at CES 2024 underlines a clear message — the future of mobility is here and it's electrifying.

To read this article on Zacks.com click here.

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Guest Essay

Claudine Gay: What Just Happened at Harvard Is Bigger Than Me

A gate at Harvard.

By Claudine Gay

Dr. Gay is a former president of Harvard University, where she is a professor of government and of African and African American studies.

On Tuesday, I made the wrenching but necessary decision to resign as Harvard’s president. For weeks, both I and the institution to which I’ve devoted my professional life have been under attack. My character and intelligence have been impugned. My commitment to fighting antisemitism has been questioned. My inbox has been flooded with invective, including death threats. I’ve been called the N-word more times than I care to count.

My hope is that by stepping down I will deny demagogues the opportunity to further weaponize my presidency in their campaign to undermine the ideals animating Harvard since its founding: excellence, openness, independence, truth.

As I depart, I must offer a few words of warning. The campaign against me was about more than one university and one leader. This was merely a single skirmish in a broader war to unravel public faith in pillars of American society. Campaigns of this kind often start with attacks on education and expertise, because these are the tools that best equip communities to see through propaganda. But such campaigns don’t end there. Trusted institutions of all types — from public health agencies to news organizations — will continue to fall victim to coordinated attempts to undermine their legitimacy and ruin their leaders’ credibility. For the opportunists driving cynicism about our institutions, no single victory or toppled leader exhausts their zeal.

Yes, I made mistakes. In my initial response to the atrocities of Oct. 7, I should have stated more forcefully what all people of good conscience know: Hamas is a terrorist organization that seeks to eradicate the Jewish state. And at a congressional hearing last month, I fell into a well-laid trap. I neglected to clearly articulate that calls for the genocide of Jewish people are abhorrent and unacceptable and that I would use every tool at my disposal to protect students from that kind of hate.

Most recently, the attacks have focused on my scholarship. My critics found instances in my academic writings where some material duplicated other scholars’ language, without proper attribution. I believe all scholars deserve full and appropriate credit for their work. When I learned of these errors, I promptly requested corrections from the journals in which the flagged articles were published, consistent with how I have seen similar faculty cases handled at Harvard.

I have never misrepresented my research findings, nor have I ever claimed credit for the research of others. Moreover, the citation errors should not obscure a fundamental truth: I proudly stand by my work and its impact on the field.

Despite the obsessive scrutiny of my peer-reviewed writings, few have commented on the substance of my scholarship, which focuses on the significance of minority office holding in American politics. My research marshaled concrete evidence to show that when historically marginalized communities gain a meaningful voice in the halls of power, it signals an open door where before many saw only barriers. And that, in turn, strengthens our democracy.

Throughout this work, I asked questions that had not been asked, used then-cutting-edge quantitative research methods and established a new understanding of representation in American politics. This work was published in the nation’s top political science journals and spawned important research by other scholars.

Never did I imagine needing to defend decades-old and broadly respected research, but the past several weeks have laid waste to truth. Those who had relentlessly campaigned to oust me since the fall often trafficked in lies and ad hominem insults, not reasoned argument. They recycled tired racial stereotypes about Black talent and temperament. They pushed a false narrative of indifference and incompetence.

It is not lost on me that I make an ideal canvas for projecting every anxiety about the generational and demographic changes unfolding on American campuses: a Black woman selected to lead a storied institution. Someone who views diversity as a source of institutional strength and dynamism. Someone who has advocated a modern curriculum that spans from the frontier of quantum science to the long-neglected history of Asian Americans. Someone who believes that a daughter of Haitian immigrants has something to offer to the nation’s oldest university.

I still believe that. As I return to teaching and scholarship, I will continue to champion access and opportunity, and I will bring to my work the virtue I discussed in the speech I delivered at my presidential inauguration: courage. Because it is courage that has buoyed me throughout my career and it is courage that is needed to stand up to those who seek to undermine what makes universities unique in American life.

Having now seen how quickly the truth can become a casualty amid controversy, I’d urge a broader caution: At tense moments, every one of us must be more skeptical than ever of the loudest and most extreme voices in our culture, however well organized or well connected they might be. Too often they are pursuing self-serving agendas that should be met with more questions and less credulity.

College campuses in our country must remain places where students can learn, share and grow together, not spaces where proxy battles and political grandstanding take root. Universities must remain independent venues where courage and reason unite to advance truth, no matter what forces set against them.

Claudine Gay is a former president of Harvard University, where she is a professor of government and of African and African American studies.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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  1. Best Tips and Help on How to Write a Conclusion for Your Essay

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    How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay Daniel W. Nov 8, 2023 A well-structured conclusion is considered an important element of a strong essay and is often a part of the grading criteria. Some instructors or grading rubrics might be more lenient on this aspect, while others might place a higher emphasis on it.

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