one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

One Art Summary & Analysis by Elizabeth Bishop

  • Line-by-Line Explanation & Analysis
  • Poetic Devices
  • Vocabulary & References
  • Form, Meter, & Rhyme Scheme
  • Line-by-Line Explanations

one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

“One Art” was written by the American poet Elizabeth Bishop. The poem is a villanelle , a traditional form that involves a fixed number of lines and stanzas and an intricate pattern of repetition and rhyme. Through this form, the poem explores loss as an inevitable part of life. The speaker considers what it means to experience loss over and over again, and whether it is truly possible to “master” the experience of loss and grief. “One Art” was included in Bishop’s final collection of poetry, Geography III , which was published in 1976.

  • Read the full text of “One Art”

one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

The Full Text of “One Art”

“one art” summary, “one art” themes.

Theme The Inevitability and Pain of Loss

The Inevitability and Pain of Loss

Line-by-line explanation & analysis of “one art”.

The art of ... hard to master;

one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

so many things ... ... is no disaster.

Lose something every ... ... hard to master.

Then practice losing ... ... will bring disaster.

Lines 10-12

I lost my ... ... hard to master.

Lines 13-15

I lost two ... ... wasn’t a disaster.

Lines 16-17

—Even losing you ... ... shan’t have lied.

Lines 17-19

It’s evident ... ...  it!) like disaster.

“One Art” Symbols

Symbol The Watch

  • Line 10: “I lost my mother’s watch.”

“One Art” Poetic Devices & Figurative Language

  • Line 1: “The art of losing isn’t hard to master;”
  • Line 6: “The art of losing isn’t hard to master.”
  • Line 12: “The art of losing isn’t hard to master.”
  • Line 18: “the art of losing’s not too hard to master”
  • Line 3: “to be lost that their loss is no disaster.”
  • Line 9: “to travel. None of these will bring disaster.”
  • Line 15: “I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.”
  • Lines 18-19: “the art of losing’s not too hard to master / though it may look like ( / Write /  it!) like disaster.”
  • Line 1: “losing”
  • Line 3: “lost,” “ loss”
  • Line 4: “Lose”
  • Line 5: “lost”
  • Line 6: “losing”
  • Line 7: “losing,” “losing”
  • Line 10: “lost”
  • Line 11: “loved”
  • Line 12: “losing”
  • Line 13: “lost,” “lovely”
  • Line 16: “losing”
  • Line 17: “love”
  • Line 18: “losing’s”

End-Stopped Line

  • Line 1: “master;”
  • Line 3: “disaster.”
  • Line 5: “spent.”
  • Line 6: “master.”
  • Line 7: “faster:”
  • Line 9: “disaster.”
  • Line 11: “went.”
  • Line 12: “master.”
  • Line 13: “vaster,”
  • Line 14: “continent.”
  • Line 15: “disaster.”
  • Line 19: “disaster.”
  • Lines 2-3: “intent / to”
  • Lines 4-5: “fluster / of”
  • Lines 8-9: “meant / to”
  • Lines 10-11: “or / next-to-last”
  • Lines 16-17: “gesture / I”
  • Lines 17-18: “evident / the”
  • Lines 18-19: “master / though”
  • Line 5: “lost door keys, the hour badly spent.”
  • Line 7: “losing farther, losing faster:”
  • Line 14: “some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.”
  • Lines 16-17: “(the joking voice, a gesture / I love)”

Alliteration

  • Line 1: “losing,” “master”
  • Line 2: “many”
  • Line 3: “lost,” “loss”
  • Line 7: “losing,” “farther,” “losing,” “faster”
  • Line 10: “lost,” “watch,” “look,” “last”
  • Line 11: “last,” “loved,” “went.”
  • Line 14: “realms,” “rivers”
  • Line 16: “losing,” “joking,” “gesture”
  • Line 17: “love,” “lied”
  • Line 19: “look,” “like,” “like”
  • Line 1: “art,” “losing,” “isn’t,” “hard,” “to,” “master”
  • Line 2: “so,” “many,” “seem,” “filled,” “intent”
  • Line 3: “lost,” “loss,” “disaster.”
  • Line 4: “Lose,” “something,” “day,” “Accept,” “fluster”
  • Line 5: “lost,” “door,” “badly,” “spent”
  • Line 6: “art,” “losing,” “isn’t,” “hard,” “master”
  • Line 7: “practice,” “losing,” “farther,” “losing,” “faster”
  • Line 8: “places”
  • Line 9: “to,” “travel,” “will,” “disaster.”
  • Line 10: “lost,” “my,” “mother’s,” “look,” “last”
  • Line 11: “last,” “loved,” “went”
  • Line 12: “art,” “losing,” “isn’t,” “hard,” “to,” “master”
  • Line 13: “lost,” “two,” “cities,” “lovely,” “vaster”
  • Line 14: “realms,” “owned,” “two,” “continent”
  • Line 15: “it,” “wasn’t,” “disaster.”
  • Line 16: “losing,” “joking,” “ gesture”
  • Line 17: “love,” “lied,” “It’s,” “evident”
  • Line 18: “art,” “losing’s,” “not,” “too,” “hard,” “to,” “master”
  • Line 19: “it,” “look,” “like,” “Write,” “it,” “like,” “disaster.”
  • Line 1: “art,” “hard,” “master”
  • Line 2: “things,” “filled,” “with,” “intent”
  • Line 3: “disaster”
  • Line 7: “practice,” “faster”
  • Line 8: “places,” “names”
  • Line 10: “lost,” “watch,” “last, or”
  • Line 11: “last”
  • Line 12: “art,” “hard,” “master.”
  • Line 13: “cities,” “vaster,”
  • Line 14: “rivers,” “continent”
  • Line 15: “miss ,” “it,” “disaster.”
  • Line 18: “art,” “losing’s,” “too,” “hard,” “to,” “master”
  • Line 19: “like,” “Write,” “like,” “disaster.”

“One Art” Vocabulary

Select any word below to get its definition in the context of the poem. The words are listed in the order in which they appear in the poem.

  • (Location in poem: Line 1: “master;”; Line 6: “master.”; Line 12: “master.”; Line 18: “master”)

Form, Meter, & Rhyme Scheme of “One Art”

Rhyme scheme, “one art” speaker, “one art” setting, literary and historical context of “one art”, more “one art” resources, external resources.

The Bishop Archives at Vassar College — Elizabeth Bishop attended Vassar College and her papers are now stored in Vassar’s Special Collections. Visit the Vassar Archives & Special Collections website to learn more about Bishop’s papers stored at the library. 

Audio of “One Art” in Reaching for the Moon — A 2013 Brazilian film, Reaching for the Moon, explores Bishop’s life in Brazil and her relationship with the architect Lota de Macedo Soares. Although the movie misinterprets the poem “One Art” as about Bishop’s relationship with Soares—the poem was, in fact, about Bishop’s last partner, Alice Methfessel—the movie includes a recitation of the poem by the actress Miranda Otto, who played Bishop. In the scene, Bishop reads the poem to her friend Robert Lowell.

Biography of Elizabeth Bishop — Learn more about the poet's life and work.

The Drafts of “One Art” — Read more about Bishop’s writing process and how “One Art” changed over the course of 17 drafts in this essay at Modern American Poetry.

"Elizabeth Bishop's Art of Losing" — Read this article from The New Yorker to learn more about Bishop’s life, including the circumstances that gave rise to the poem “One Art.”

LitCharts on Other Poems by Elizabeth Bishop

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Interesting Literature

A Short Analysis of Elizabeth Bishop’s ‘One Art’

By Dr Oliver Tearle (Loughborough University)

‘One Art’ is a poem by the American poet Elizabeth Bishop (1911-79), first published in the New Yorker in 1976 and included in her collection Geography III the following year. The poem, which is one of the most famous examples of the villanelle form, is titled ‘One Art’ because the poem is about Bishop’s attempts to make loss and poetry into one unified ‘art’: to ‘master’ what she calls the ‘art of losing’.

You can read ‘One Art’ here ; below, we offer an analysis of Bishop’s poem.

‘One Art’ : summary

Elizabeth Bishop begins ‘One Art’ by asserting that it is easy to deal with loss. So many things in life seem to be designed to be lost, that losing them should not be viewed as a disaster.

Next, she entreats us to try to lose something every day if we can. It might be lost front-door keys (an item commonly lost or mislaid) or lost time (an hour wasted doing something unproductive). After all, it isn’t difficult to master this idea of losing things.

Once we have learnt to lose these small, insignificant things, we should set our sights higher, or rather ‘farther, faster’: we should forget the names of things, or forget places we have been, or places we intended to visit on our travels. Forgetting any of this, she assures us, will not bring about disaster.

Bishop then proffers a personal example: she lost her mother’s watch, and then the last-but-one of the three houses she has lived in. This, too, was easy: after all, it isn’t hard to ‘master’ this ‘art’ of losing things.

Now the losses get even bigger: two cities, which the poet had presumably left behind. These were beautiful cities she was fond of. She even ‘lost’ two rivers and a whole continent, leaving them all behind. Although she misses them, it wasn’t so terrible to lose them. It certainly wasn’t a disaster.

In the poem’s final quatrain, Bishop turns to address an unidentified ‘you’: she tells this addressee that even losing them, with their endearing jokey voice (a gesture the poet loves), can be lost, the poet can admit without having lied.

She then concludes by reaffirming her earlier statement that it isn’t ‘too hard’ to ‘master’ the ‘art’ of losing things which we hold dear in our lives, although it may look like disaster.

‘One Art’ : analysis

‘One Art’ is a subtle poem whose force derives in part from the ambiguity of the word ‘hard’, which appears in the first of the poem’s two refrains. In the context of the poem, ‘hard’ can mean both ‘difficult to achieve’ and ‘difficult to cope with emotionally’.

Clearly, the former is true but the poem – with its litany of dearly-held things the poet has lost, including a loved one in that final stanza – invites us to question how true the second is. It may be ‘easy’ to lose loved ones – indeed, it’s sadly inevitable that the people we love will die – but it isn’t easy in the other sense: that is, it isn’t easy to get over that loss.

‘Losing’, too, clearly carries several different meanings in ‘One Art’: losing one’s keys isn’t the same as ‘losing’ a continent (parting with it or leaving it behind when one moves to another continent), for instance. Even ‘master’ is carrying two subtly distinct meanings: both ‘achieving’ and ‘overcoming’. One masters the violin, while one has to master one’s fears. These two types of ‘mastering’ are not exactly equivalent.

It is partly because of these fine differences in meaning that ‘One Art’ succeeds where many villanelles can fall prey to deathly flatness: as William Empson once observed, the difficulty with writing a villanelle is to stop it from dying as it goes on.

The various meanings of the words ‘hard’ and ‘master’ mean that each time this refrain is repeated throughout the poem, it takes on a slightly different meaning, becoming both more apt and more ironic: apt because we come to realise how many things we must ‘lose’ in the course of a life, but ironic because we realise that, contrary to what the poem appeared to be saying, it is a disaster to lose many of these things.

‘One Art’ comes to have the air of someone whose shoulders are shaking with sobs even as they wipe tears from their eyes and reassure us that they’re not crying.

‘One Art’ is an example of a villanelle . As its name suggests, the villanelle is a French verse form, yet this French form took its name from an Italian one: the word derives from villanella , a form of Italian part-song which originated in Naples in the sixteenth century. The villanelle comprises nineteen lines made up of five tercets (three-line stanzas) and a concluding quatrain.

As the Oxford English Dictionary summarises it, ‘The first and third lines of the first stanza are repeated alternately in the succeeding stanzas as a refrain, and form a final couplet in the quatrain.’

In addition to the restrictive pressure of these recurring refrains, the rhyme scheme of the villanelle is also tight: aba aba aba aba aba abaa . Bishop innovates slightly with these restrictions, employing pararhyme or half-rhyme (‘fluster’, ‘gesture’) in a couple of the lines, while her frequent use of enjambment or run-on lines prevents the individual lines of ‘One Art’ from becoming too self-contained.

After all, the poem is about how all of these various forms of loss can be unified into ‘one art’. (Contrast Bishop’s villanelle with one by William Empson, ‘ Missing Dates ’, which utilises mostly end-stopped lines.)

In addition to these modifications to the villanelle form, Bishop doesn’t repeat the second of her two refrains in full throughout the poem: only the final word, ‘disaster’, and the general sentiment expressed in the line remain constant throughout. But the repetition or near-repetition of the two refrains serves a very particular purpose in ‘One Art’.

In some villanelles – Sylvia Plath’s early poems using this form spring to mind, as do Empson’s poems – the repetition carries the force of mental paralysis and deadlock: the poet finds themselves returning to the same narrow obsessions again and again. But in ‘One Art’, it is more of an unravelling of a fragile belief than it is the hardening of an inevitability.

That is to say, Bishop begins in a casual yet sure and certain enough manner: it isn’t hard to master the art of loss, after all, so what’s all the fuss about? The poem seems to shrug.

But as the villanelle develops and those refrains recur, we start to suspect that the poet is kidding herself: as she’s trying to convince herself of this axiomatic truth, all of the evidence is leading her away from it.

The subtle shift from the initial ‘losing isn’t hard’ into that closing ‘losing’s not too hard ’ (ah, so it is hard, after all) reveals the fissure that has opened up in the speaker’s thinking.

That final ‘ Write it!’, desperately italicised and enclosed within parentheses for emphasis and isolation, seems to admit, finally, that all writing comes from loss, and from trying to work through that loss. Writing is consolation, and for consolation to happen, something must, after all that, have been lost.

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26 pages • 52 minutes read

Elizabeth Bishop

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Throughout her life, Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979) suffered many losses. Her father died before her first birthday and her mother entered a mental institution when Bishop was only five, leaving her to the guardianship of maternal and paternal grandparents. Later, Bishop’s lover committed suicide in Brazil, prompting Bishop’s return to the US. “One Art” (1976) alludes to several of these prominent losses, though the poem objectively approaches loss. “One Art” defines loss as a special form of art capable of mastery and practice like poetry. Despite loss, or perhaps because of it, Bishop crafted tight, detailed, and descriptive poems. Her poetry resisted more expressive, contemporary literary styles like the Confessional poetry for which her best friend Robert Lowell was known.

Poet Biography

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Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979) published roughly 100 poems during her lifetime. She garnered acclaim, even becoming poet laureate of the US and earning the Pulitzer Prize in 1956, but it wasn’t until after her death that critics truly began realizing her impact on American poetry. Bishop chose quality over quantity, which is why she didn’t publish as consistently as other poets of her time. She preferred revision and exactitude, precision and attention to detail; one critic likened her crafted poems to watching intricate mobiles spin.

Bishop’s father died before she turned one-year-old. Bishop’s maternal grandparents took her in when her mother, who suffered from mental illness, entered a mental institution when Bishop was five. Her life drastically changed—again—when her wealthy paternal grandparents became guardians and afforded her a life of privilege. Bishop attended Vassar College where she befriended poet Marianne Moore. She traveled the world after graduation and published her first collection of poetry,  North and South  (1946). Her second collection,  Poems: North & South/A Cold Spring  (1955), earned the Pulitzer Prize. While living in Brazil in 1967, Bishop’s lover, Lota de Macedo Soares, committed suicide. Bishop returned to the US after this loss and began teaching. She won a National Book Award and the Neustadt International Prize for Literature. It was only toward the end of her life that her poetry began garnering the lasting praise for which it’s now known. “The Armadillo” and “One Art” are two of her most well-known works. Bishop was also a painter, a translator, and a fiction writer; much of this work posthumously went into publication.

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Bishop, Elizabeth. " One Art ." 1976. Poetry Foundation .

The first stanza introduces the poem’s subject: loss. Bishop contends “The art of losing isn’t hard to master” (Line 1), while considering how lost items seemingly contain an “intent” (Line 2) to disappear. This intent, says Bishop, clearly shows that loss itself is nothing major.

In the second stanza, Bishop suggests mastering loss every day by losing things like time and keys. The third stanza ups the ante by introducing larger types of loss: Bishop recommends losing “places, and names, and where it was you meant / to travel” (Lines 10-11). These items won’t feel so much like loss if the reader is already practicing daily loss.

Bishop mentions in the fourth stanza how easily she has lost things—including her mother’s watch and houses she loved. She continues with personal loss in the fifth stanza admitting she has lost “two cities […] / some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent” (Lines 17-18). Though she misses these lost items, she still doesn’t equate loss with “disaster” (Line 19), something she repeatedly warns the reader not to equate with loss.

In the final stanza, Bishop admits that, though she has lost someone, and this fact is hard to write, she continues to hold that loss is not disastrous.

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Elizabeth Bishop’s “One Art” Poem Analysis

Poets and writers use numerous literary devices, ways of building rhyme, and rhythm to convey the message of their compositions to readers. Elizabeth Bishop is also one of these authors as her poetry is filled with various elements to create form and context for sharing her personal experience and ideas. This paper will analyze the poem “One Art” by Elizabeth Bishop to demonstrate the appropriateness of using all of the author’s literary techniques to convey the message.

The poem “One Art” is a personal story of the author, which can be familiar to many people. Bishop talks about the belongings and people she has lost in her life, from the small items in early childhood to important things like home and loved ones. In real life, Bishop experienced the death of her mother and father, a commitment to a mental facility, and constant relocation that deprived her of a home, which is reflected in her poem.

For this reason, the protagonist in the verse is the author himself, and her antagonist is the loss that she repeatedly overcome. At the same time, five short verses fully reveal the plot of the story. The rising action manifested in listing losses from small to significant. The climax describes the narrator’s loss of a loved one, which is the most painful for her (Bishop line 17). However, the following lines indicate that she has coped with feelings, which is the falling action. Thus, the author reveals her experience and forms a story that the reader can understand without even knowing the details of her life.

Moreover, the poem’s form is one of the features that allows the author to convey emotions to the reader. The poem consists of four verses of three lines and the final verse of four lines, while it has all two rhymes repeated through the text. These lines are meaningfully divided into three parts, each of which speaks of losses of varying degrees. In the first part, Bishop talks about small things that are easy to replace, in the second about more significant material values, and in the third about a loved person.

This structure is characteristic of the villanelle form of poetry, which is most often used to convey strong emotions as it has repetition that emphasizes the problem. Bishop most often repeats the phrase “The art of losing isn’t hard to master” in the first, sixth, twelfth, and eighteenth lines. Simultaneously, the repetition of the words “is not a disaster” that follows this phrase emphasizes that loss is a painful experience each time, but it can be overcome. Therefore, this form of verse is an accurate way to amplify the message and convey emotion to the readers.

Moreover, Bishop uses several other literary devices to enhance the message of the poem. Firstly, although the verse is written in the first person, it sounds like the author’s desire to provide support to readers but not only share experiences with them. This feature is expressed by such impersonal appeals as “lose” and “practice,” as well as the pronoun “you,” which in this verse creates the feeling that the author is speaking directly to the reader (Bishop lines 3, 7). In addition, the strong emphasis is on the bracketed phrase on the last line “(Write this!)” (Bishop line 19). This phrase sounds like a piece of advice that readers must remember to avoid the feeling of doom and hopelessness that the author faced when perceiving loss as a disaster.

Furthermore, Bishop uses images that are understandable and close to the reader to convey the rising action and convey the growing pain of loss. The author begins with the loss of keys or an hour of time, which is an only unpleasant trifle for everyone. Bishop moves on to more personal and sensitive issues such as places, names, cities, and countries that once mattered in a person’s life (line 7). Losing valuable material or sentimental things is more sensitive for most people, so Bishop puts them to the next level. Consequently, readers can easily match the narrator’s experience with their own and, at the climax, feel the emotions that the author has put into it. Thus, such features of the plot construction and almost imperceptible details allow Bishop to fill her poem with meaning and feelings that are deep but understandable to readers.

In conclusion, the analysis of “One Art” poem by Elizabeth Bishop demonstrates that the author skillfully uses literary techniques to convey the message of the verse. The main feature is the villanelle form of poetry, which allows the author to emphasize the problem using repetition and three parts of building a story like an essay. In addition, Bishop uses familiar images and phrases for readers that make them feel the described experience as if it was their own. Thus, although Bishop brings her personal struggle to this poem, a reader can understand and feel its message even without knowing the details of the author’s biography.

Bishop, Elizabeth. “ One Art. ” Web.

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Analysis of Tone and Structure in Elizabeth Bishop's Poem "One Art"

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One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis

One Art is a section personal lyric that reflects the genuine misfortunes Elizabeth Bishop experienced amid her lifetime. One Art painstakingly and coolly records this arrangement of occasions, beginning innocently extensive with a dumbfounding methodology on 'the workmanship', before continuing to more misfortunes. It comes full circle in the individual loss of a friend or family member, and the confirmation that, truly, this may resemble a calamity.

One Art has a backhanded impact with regards to disappointment and misfortune. The poem does not quickly delve into the main situation at hand, but instead begins with meaningless symbolism. In so doing, Bishop later then connects the unimportant symbolism with the more obvious . As the sonnet advances, the items made reference to end up progressively more important, as does their misfortune. Bishop not just deliberately ensures chances to practice this specialty of acing misfortune, however supplies materials marked 'with the purpose to be lost.' She powers the second stanza to imagine with the ruminations of the first.

Readers learn accurately how to ace this craftsmanship, and are asked to practice to influence it into a high-minded propensity: 'To lose something consistently.' A further guidance directs the endorsement of that subsequent confusion—the 'bother'— delivered by undue tumult. Bishop actualizes a continuously unique, relatively wild, calendar of misfortune in the third stanza at that point essentially moves the concentration to the following exercise. Never again does she express reasonable, kind episodes; the lyric has moved past them to overpowering concerns: spots, names, and goals. The 'expectation' of the main stanza blooms into the more extensive aims of 'where it was you intended to travel' of the third stanza. The reader must supply a relative precedent to compare with this line.

After Bishop battles to prompt particular subtle elements from the peruser she unexpectedly presents the verse 'I' in the exact next stanza. Her experiential recognition, stifled in the principal half of the ballad, surfaces as she is obviously encountering disturbance in the reader’s capacity to capture the past exercises of misfortune. She rapidly moves and request a particular individual thing, 'my mom's watch,' making substantial the sentiment of unrecoverable misfortune. This library of misfortune proceeds to the following line where she is missing 'three cherished houses.' Bishop exhibits reality of this misfortune by misusing what is, all things considered, the primary genuine fiasco in the lyric.

In Conclusion, Bishop makes a Catch 22 that is apparent by a mix of the lyric's opening and shutting stanzas. By encapsulating wild feeling in a shape intended to control it, and in an articulation intended to deny it, Bishop makes pressure, inner conflict, and an impactful acknowledgment of the endeavors to control the wild. All through the ballad, Bishop resolutely endeavors to pick up the dominance of misfortune, at the end of the day brings back the acknowledgment that it isn't totally achievable. The last stanza obviously misuses the genuine remedy for the main genuine fiasco; The passing of a friend or family member.        

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Home — Essay Samples — Literature — One Art — One Art By Elizabeth Bishop: How The Author Uses Perspectives And Syntax

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One Art by Elizabeth Bishop: How The Author Uses Perspectives and Syntax

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one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis

The art of losing isn’t hard to master;

so many things seem filled with the intent

to be lost that their loss is no disaster,

Lose something every day. Accept the fluster

of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.

The art of losing isn’t hard to master.

Then practice losing farther, losing faster:

places, and names, and where it was you meant

to travel. None of these will bring disaster.

I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or

next-to-last, of three beloved houses went.

I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,

some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.

I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.

— Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture

I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident

the art of losing’s not too hard to master

though it may look like (Write it!) a disaster.

Why I chose it

She explains a major problem well in this poem. We have so many losses in life and we have to learn how to forget some of them otherwise life will overwhelm us. Only if we do this, we will learn how to deal with the big losses in life and the pain that comes with them.

Elizabeth Bishop is trying to teach this important lesson to the reader and she does this by creating a poem with an interesting structure. She increases the amount that is lost after each stanza so the reader can understand how forgetting small losses can help them get over bigger losses.

one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

Proficient in: Behavior

“ Very organized ,I enjoyed and Loved every bit of our professional interaction ”

She uses a rhyme scheme of ABA in each of her 3 line stanzas and each middle line of the stanzas rhyme with each other middle line of the other stanzas e.g went, continent, intent. With this, the poem flows nicely which helps the reader understand it.

Also I was curious on the poem because of the title. After reading it I questioned how loss can be named an art. Bishop explains this clearly in her poem.

Elizabeth Bishop’s poem, ‘One Art’, is a poem overflowing with irony which uses the structure and expressions to evoke the emotion of loss which Bishop is trying to convey to the reader. She seems to have lost many things in her life and has written this poem for the sole purpose to reassure the reader that if they find control within themselves, they are able to accept the many losses that are in their lives. Loss is something that cannot be mastered, emotion is always attached to loss. But Bishop is trying to tell the reader that with each loss, you endure it more and will ultimately learn to control the feeling, with less pain.

The speaker in this poem seems to be Bishop dealing with her inner emotions of loss, trying to ‘master’ loss so she does not have to deal with the painful emotions afterwards. This is ironic at the very concept of mastering loss, as loss is not a feeling that can be mastered. The structure of the poem is a villanelle as there are five stanzas of three lines followed by a stanza of four lines. Bishop seems to have utilised this structure to increase the reader’s attention and respect for loss as each stanza progresses.

The tone of this poem is recognized by the reader from reading the first line. The poem deals with loss which is associated with death. A poem dealing with this theme will most certainly have a negative tone, and One Art is no exception. The tone changes with each stanza, gaining in sadness as the poem continues. This is because the value of what is lost increases within each stanza. This tone helps the reader emphasise on the value of loss.

Bishop uses repetition often and refrains the line “The art of losing isn’t hard to master” which is done to stress on the importance of the title. Also the reader’s sense of the subject is gained by each repetition as the theme of the poem is emphasised after each stanza. Each refrain builds up stronger amounts of loss. The second stanza is based on the loss of “door keys” or wasting time. The poet personifies these lost objects, saying that they “seem filled with the intent to be lost.” This is showing that these objects want to be lost and by giving inanimate objects feelings, it conveys that these objects are not of great importance. These are basically simple losses that one can learn to forget, but as the poem progresses, the amount that is lost builds up, including personal things with much more importance. This point can be proven in the third stanza, where she says “Then practice losing farther, losing faster:” This is the point in the poem, where she begins to name things that can be lost with much greater importance.

Following the third stanza, the next one involves things of personal importance to a person. “my mother’s watch…three beloved houses.” These things are more personal as a home is one which symbolises love and protection, which is a contrast to the insignificant loss of keys. In the fifth stanza, she describes the loss of things with huge importance, “two rivers, a continent”. Bishop continues the patter of possessions increasing in importance, by describing things which affect thousands of people. She seems to have reached things of the highest importance but finally in the last stanza, it all leads up to the most painful loss, the loss of a lover. After the fifth stanza, she uses a dash to start the last stanza.

This is done to show that she is finished describing the loss of material objects, and is moving on to the loss of something with the most importance. “It’s evident the art of losing’s not too hard to master though it may look like (Write it!) a disaster”. This entire stanza flows together due to the quicker pace and full use of enjambment throughout the entire stanza. The reader was use to the punctuation increasing and pace slowing down each stanza from the first to the fifth, so this increased the impact of pace on the last stanza, making it more powerful. Parenthesis was effectively used to show how hard and painful it was for the writer to write down her emotions into words, “(Write it!)”.

Bishop is trying to teach the reader to endure the many small losses, in order to feel less pain in the loss of something with much importance. By breaking away from describing the loss of an inanimate material objects towards a living person, she amplifies the feeling of loss which conveys the message of the poem clearly to the reader.

With each stanza, we further understand the emotions which Bishop is trying to convey to us. She uses the title to imply how dealing with a loss is an art in its own accord. An art is something of beauty that requires massive amounts of effort to accomplish.

The use of punctuation is another distinct feature of the structure of this poem, with each stanza, the amount of punctuation increases up until the fifth stanza. Bishop increases the value of what was being lost, along with this, the punctuation increases as well. This was done to slow down the pace of the poem so that the reader understands the importance of each possession. When describing each thing that was being lost in the fourth, “two cities, lovely ones….two rivers, a continent.” Along with the commas, caesura was used as well in the first line to slow down the pace. By forcing the reader to stop in the middle of the line, it takes them by surprise as it was sudden, not done in the poem before. This stanza contrasts with the quicker pace of the first stanza as there was only one semi-colon and comma used. This is clear evidence of the punctuation used by Bishop which greatly emphasises what Bishop was trying to achieve with this poem.

This poem was written to show the readers the comparison of loss between different things. This poem may seem simple, but is very deep mainly through the way the poet utilised the structure and the richness in irony. This can be seen by how she refrains the use of “loss isn’t hard to master”. This changes in the last line to “loss isn’t too hard to master” This might show how it is getting harder for the poet to overcome the loss of a loved one. Bishop proves that the loss of trivial things and mastering this loss, will not be able to prepare you for the loss of something beloved by you, which further increases the ironic nature of the poem. In the end she could be all alone, hence the title “One Art”. She believed that if she could detach herself from pain and forget these feelings, she can begin a new life and grow, but realises that it is too hard for her.

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One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis

post secondary education dansk

Lifelong education.

From daycare to primary schools: an emphasis on social skills.

Danish children begin public daycare as early as 9 months, and by age 3 98 % of children in Denmark are attending public kindergartens. Staffed by professionals with training in early childhood education, these institutions teach basic academic concepts like letters and numbers, as well as social rules like taking turns and helping others. Most of the day is spent on "free play" and activities outdoors. 

At age 6, Danish children begin their formal schooling. The educational approach in Denmark avoids class rankings and formal tests; instead, children work in groups and are taught to challenge the established way of doing things. Teachers are called by their first names. The emphasis is on problem-solving, not memorisation.

All children in Denmark have access to tuition-free government folkeskole  (people's school) until they are 16 years old. Some parents choose private schools because they are smaller, or because they have a particular educational approach.

Others choose private schools for religious reasons: Denmark is home to Jewish, Christian, and Muslim schools. English-language international schools and French and German-language schools are also available on a paid-for basis. All schools are required to follow the national government's basic requirements for primary education. 

Danish School teacher and children

Choosing a secondary education: Academic or trade school?

Near the end of their time in primary school, Danish children take a nationwide test to help them choose the next step in their education.

Pupils with strong academic abilities often select a gymnasium for their secondary education, where they can focus on languages, sciences, math or similar subjects to prepare them for university.

More practically-oriented pupils often prefer a trade school that can train them in high-paying skills like metalworking, electrical technology, or mechanics, or a business school where they can learn about accounting or software development.

Other pupils delay the decision for a year, choosing an efterskole  (after school) where they live away from home and study topics of interest like theatre or sports alongside their academic requirements.

Universities and "getting paid to go to school"

Once they have completed their secondary education, Danes can choose from a variety of tertiary options, including a standard university that grants bachelors, masters', and PhD degrees; a university college that awards bachelors degrees in hands-on subjects such as social work; or a public arts and architecture academy, like The Royal Academy of Music. 

Full-time students in Denmark are eligible for  Statens Uddannelsestøtte , or SU (limited income support) from the government alongside other work they do to help pay their expenses while studying. It is common for Danes to begin working in their future job roles while they are still in the process of education, either as a paid praktikant  (intern) or apprentice.

Did you know

Denmark has eight universities, nine art and performance institutions including the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, and eight university colleges that award professional bachelor degrees in areas like nursing. That is pretty impressive for a country with only 5.7 million people!

Lifelong learning for fun and profit

Education in Denmark does not stop with graduation; at any given time, one out of three Danish adults age 25-64 is taking some kind of continuing education course. 

Many Danish workplaces pay for their employees' additional training, and there are also public and private providers of classes that help build business and professional skills. Unemployed people in Denmark are often required to take courses that will prepare them to return to the job market.

Denmark's public and private investment in the development of new qualifications and skills is one of the highest in Europe. The idea is to maintain a highly-qualified and well-educated workforce that can succeed in a global knowledge economy. Of course, not all education is for professional reasons. Many adults in Denmark take classes in cooking, painting, foreign languages, music, or dance just for fun. A lot of these classes are publicly funded and offered for a minimal fee.  

Danish-School-Kayaking

"Folk high schools": A fundamental part of Danish culture

Adult education is nothing new in Denmark: since 1844, folkehøjskoler or højskoler (folk high schools) around Denmark have helped ordinary people develop the skills they needed to thrive as citizens.

The schools were inspired by the influential Danish educational leader Niels Grundtvig (1783-1872), who believed that offering higher education to rural people was as important as cultivating the urban intellectual elite. Grundtvig's ideas were widely copied in other Scandinavian countries.

These days, there are 70 højskoler around Denmark, many specialising in subjects like film, design, sports, theatre, and politics.  The schools are voluntary and require no grades or exams. Many offer "live-in courses" for a week or more, and while they are not tuition-free, prices are low and the cost of attending includes room and board.

Read more about the Danish højskoler.

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Secondary education in Denmark

Bøger

After elementary school, most young people in Denmark take either an upper secondary (high school) education (72%) or a vocational education (20%).

High school in Denmark

In Denmark, there are four different types of high school education. Common to them all is that they are preparatory for further study – i.e. a secondary school diploma allows the student to apply for admission to a programme of higher education. You can read more at Uddannelsesguiden (The Education Guide).

STX is a programme of general education with subjects within the disciplines of the humanities, science and social science. The requirement for admission is a passed 9th grade final examination. The programme lasts three years, and consists of a six-month basic course and a 2½-year study programme.

The HHX programme emphasises mercantile, internationally-oriented and business-oriented educational perspectives. The requirement for admission is a passed 9th grade final examination. The programme lasts three years, and consists of a six-month basic course and a 2½-year study programme.

The HTX programme emphasises technological, scientific and business-oriented educational perspectives. The admission requirement is a passed 9th grade final examination, and the programme lasts three years, consisting of a six-month basic course and a 2½-year study programme.

HF is a general secondary school-level programme that is vocationally and practically oriented. The programme is aimed at providing admission to the vocational colleges and the professional bachelor study programmes. A HF examination with an extended subject package also provides access to the university Bachelor programmes. The requirement for admission is a passed 10th grade final examination. The programme lasts two years, and includes both a number of compulsory subjects and some specialised subject packages on specific themes such as health, environment, pedagogy or economics.

There are a number of international secondary schools in Denmark. An international private secondary school is a programme of secondary school education aimed at students who wish to take an international examination. The international examination in question, such as the International Baccalaureate (IB), must also provide access to programmes of higher education in Denmark. A number of state secondary schools also offer IB.

If you are from another Nordic country and wish to take an upper secondary school programme in Denmark

The Nordic countries have entered into a mutual agreement that provides young people in the Nordic countries with access to secondary (high school) education in all of the Nordic countries on a par with the citizens of their own countries. This means that you can usually obtain admission to a Danish secondary school if you have completed primary school in another Nordic country.  

Vocational programmes in Denmark (EUD and EUX)

A vocational programme is a practical educational programme in which a large part of the teaching takes place at an internship venue, such as a large industrial company, a workshop, a kitchen or a shop.

The programme alternates between school classes and periods of practical work experience, and usually consists of a basic course and a main course. You can choose from 105 programmes with more than 300 stages or specialisations. You can take a vocational programme directly after elementary school, or later, depending on your age and background. Once you have completed a vocational programme, you will be qualified for employment as a skilled worker.

You can take an EUX programme together with the vocational programme. This gives you the same opportunities for admission to higher education as a secondary school examination.

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post secondary education dansk

6.2 Teaching and learning in general upper secondary education

On this page, curriculum, subjects, number of hours, structure of the programmes, number of hours, teaching methods and materials, the higher general examination programme (stx), the higher preparatory examination (hf), the higher commercial examination programme (hhx), the higher technical examination programme.

The duration of most general upper secondary education programmes is three years and the programmes consists of:

An introduction of 3 months

A specialised study programme of two years and nine months

The duration of a full-time Higher Preparatory Examination ( HF ) is two years.

The national core curriculum for all general upper secondary education programmes is defined by the Ministry of Children and Education . The core curriculum for 2020 ( Læreplaner 2020 ) describes the academic objectives and core contents of all subjects in the Danish general upper secondary education.

All education programmes have compulsory subjects and electives subjects. STX, HHX and HTX each have different academic profiles that are reflected in the specialised study programmes consisting of a number of specialised study subjects. The subjects the students follow provides them with specific qualifications.

The students are taught in Danish.

Subjects in general upper secondary education programmes are taught at three different levels depending on the hours that are allotted to the subject. The levels range from A, B and/or C. As a general rule, C-level subjects are allotted 75 hours, B-level subjects are allotted 200 hours and A-level subjects are allotted 325 hours.

The latest upper secondary education reform was implemented in 2017. It changed, among other things, the length of the introductory period, the number of specialised study programmes and the curricula.

Various learning and teaching approaches are employed in the upper secondary education programmes. For example classroom instruction, project work and individual and group based written as well as oral work. Up to 25 percent of the teaching time can be spent on virtually organised teaching, where students and teacher are not necessarily in the same room.

Information communication technology (ICT) is also used as a tool for teaching and the Ministry of Children and Education aims to increase and develop the use of ICT. The ambition is that using ICT as a tool for teaching will help students to contribute to future technological innovation and development.

Teachers choose their own teaching material.

There are no official regulations for homework.

The academic standard of the STX Programme is closely linked to aspects of the academic subject. The students are to achieve general knowledge in the humanities, natural science and social science with a view to being in a position to complete higher education.

All students have to choose a specific field of study, which could be specialising in Science, Languages, Social science and Arts. Each field of study consists of a number of specialised study programmes. In 2020 STX offers a total of 18 specialised study programmes.

The following compulsory subjects apply no matter what field of study a student has chosen:

Each student also chooses one of the 18 specialised study programmes and a number of elective subjects and each student writes a specialised study project in the third year within two to three subjects of their choice. 

The Ministry of Children and Education defines the specialised study programmes and their content, but the institution themselves decides the number of specialised study programme offered.

A specialised study programmes contains three or two specialised study subjects. The following combinations are possible within the four fields of study:

Furthermore the Ministry of Children and Education defines a number of elective subjects. The number of elective subjects offered depends on the institution. Each student can choose one to two elective subjects.

In total, each student completes a minimum of 2470 hours of teaching. In addition there is homework with written assignments, preparation of texts, research etc. as well as time for examinations.

The HF programme aims to develop the students’ capacity for in-depth study and their understanding of the connections between the subjects.

Unlike the other upper secondary education programmes, HF – when offered on a full-time basis - is a two-year long education programme. The adult education centres (VUC) also offer the subjects on a single course basis and sometimes as packages of subjects.

HF specifically aims at preparing the students for short-cycle or medium-cycle higher education programmes. For direct enrolment at universities after HF, HF-students must complete an extended study package.

The two-year long HF differs from the other three-year long upper secondary education programmes, because no annual marks are given. Instead, there is an oral or written examination in all subjects by the end of the school year.

The following subjects are compulsory :

Furthermore the Ministry of Children and Education defines a number of elective subjects. The number of elective subjects offered depends on the institution. 

In total, each student completes a minimum of 1625 hours of studies. This does not include the time spent on homework or the time spent on examinations.

The aim of the HHX programme is to provide qualification for academic studies within the areas of business economics and socio-economics. This is supplemented with foreign languages and other general subjects.

All students have to choose a specific field of study among the following: Economics and marketing, Economics and Languages, and Languages. Each field of study consists of a number of specialised study programmes. In 2020 HHX offers a total of 16 specialised study programmes.

The following compulsory subjects apply no matter what field of study a student has chosen:

Each student also chooses one of the 13 specialised study programmes and a number of elective subjects. Each student also writes a specialised study project in the third year within two to three subjects of their choice.

The Ministry of Children and Education defines the possible specialised study programmes and their content, but the institution itself decides how many specialised study programmes they offer.

A specialised study programmes contains three or two specialised study subjects. The following combinations are possible within the three fields of study:

Furthermore the Ministry of Children and Education stipulates a number of elective subjects. The number of elective subjects offered depends on the institution. Each student can choose one or two elective subjects.

In total, each student completes a minimum of 2470 hours of studies. This does not include the time spent on homework or the time spent on examinations

The aim of HTX programme is to provide qualification for academic studies within the areas of technical and natural science combined with other general subjects. The emphasis in the HTX programme is on technological subjects and natural sciences.

All students have to choose a specific field of study among the following: Natural science, Technology and Communication. Each field of study consists of a number of specialised study programmes. In 2020 HTX offers a total of 18 specialised study programmes.

Each student also chooses one of the 13 specialised study programmes and a number of elective subjects and each student writes a specialised study project in the third year within two to three subjects of their choice.

The Ministry of Children and Education defines the possible specialised study programmes and their content, but the institution themselves decides the number of specialised study programme offered

A specialised study programmes contains two specialised study subjects. The following combinations are possible within the four fields of study: 

Furthermore the Ministry of Children and Education defines a number of elective subjects. The number of elective subjects offered depends on the institution. Each student can choose one- two elective subjects.

In total, each student completes a minimum of 2630 hours. This does not include the time spent on homework or the time spent on examinations.

Vocational education and training in Europe

Eu member states.

  • September 2021
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet, The European network of expertise on VET
  • VET in Europe reports 2005-18

General themes

VET in Denmark comprises the following main features:

  • a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory schooling to doctoral degrees;
  • a parallel adult education and continuing training (CVT) system.

Adult education and continuing training are designed to meet the needs of adult learners, for example through part-time courses. The two systems offer equivalent qualifications at various levels, enabling horizontal permeability.

Distinctive features ([ 1 ]):

The Danish VET system is characterised by a high level of stakeholder involvement. Social partners, vocational colleges, teachers and learners are all involved in developing VET based on consensus and shared responsibility. Stakeholders play a key role in advising the Ministry of Education on overall VET policy and determining the structure and general framework for training programmes within their field, cooperating in national trade committees. At local level, stakeholders cooperate in developing curricula to respond to local labour market needs.

Denmark has the highest participation in adult education and continuing training in the EU. High participation rates reflect the national strategy to focus on knowledge-intensive specialist sectors and lifelong learning, the large public sector and a tradition of strong ties between education institutions and social partners.

An integrated lifelong learning strategy was introduced in 2007 and supported by the implementation of a national qualifications framework. This improved horizontal and vertical permeability within education and training. It also improved guidance services and provided better opportunities for recognition of non-formal learning and qualifications through standardised procedures for validation of prior learning.

Public financing is central to the VET system, with colleges receiving performance-based block grants. Apprenticeships and employee further training are subsidised according to a solidarity principle, coordinated in the AUB system ( Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelses Bidrag ). Within this system, all enterprises, regardless of their involvement in VET, contribute a fixed amount per employee to a central fund. Enterprises are then partially reimbursed for providing training placements and for employee participation in continuing training.

Education and training are considered a key area. As demand for skilled labour continues to increase, IVET is expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous learner population. Two reforms have had significant influence on VET development. The VET reform (2014) established VET learners’ minimum entrance requirements. Requirements for VET teachers were strengthened in 2010, since when all VET teachers must have a pedagogic diploma (60 ECTS) at EQF level 6. Both initiatives are expected to increase VET quality. Social assistance reform (2014) makes it mandatory for unemployed people under 30, receiving social benefits, to participate in education and training. This will increase the number of weaker learners entering VET.

The 2014 VET reform has four main objectives for improving VET quality:

  • more learners must enter VET directly from compulsory schooling: from 18% in 2015 to 30% by 2025;
  • completion rates in VET must be improved: from 52% in 2012 to 67% in 2025;
  • VET must challenge all learners so they reach their full potential;
  • employer and learner satisfaction with VET must gradually be increased by 2020.

A lack of suitable training placements in enterprises is frequently cited as a primary reason for learner dropout. Several policy initiatives seek to address the problem, but the global financial crisis has further widened the gap between training place supply and demand. Implementation of 50 practical training centres (2013) and the planned 1 000 new placements in Vækstplan 2014 (growth plan, 2014) are expected to alleviate this problem.

Unemployment, and particularly long-term unemployment, among young people with little or no work experience poses challenges for adult education and continuing training. Substantial upskilling and reskilling is necessary to avoid a considerable part of the workforce becoming permanently excluded from the labour market. The 2014 growth plan includes funding for the unskilled to become skilled workers through targeted adult VET programmes.

Data from VET in Denmark Spotlight 2016 ([ 2 ]).

Population in 2018: 5 781 190 ([ 3 ])

It increased since 2013 by 3.2% due to positive natural growth and a higher immigration than emigration rate ([ 4 ]). The fertility rate of 1.75 in 2017 is well above the EU average.

As in many EU countries, the Danish population is ageing.

The old-age dependency ratio is expected to increase from 29 in 2015 to 45 in 2060 ([ 5 ]).

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

post secondary education dansk

Source : Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

An increasing proportion of the total population is made up of foreign immigrants and their descendants. In January 2018, this group accounted for 13.4% of the Danish population.

Providing education and training opportunities to those with a non-Danish ethnic background in order to ensure their integration into the labour market is a policy focus. At the beginning of 2016 the government launched a new VET training programme for immigrants ([ 6 ]).

Denmark is increasingly becoming a multicultural society. Currently, 13.4 % of the population has an immigrant background.

Consequently, there are a growing number of VET-related programmes for immigrants.

Most companies are micro- and small-sized.

Employment by sector/main economic sectors in 2016:

  • trade and transport;
  • other business services;
  • public administration, education and health;
  • agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Exports comprise mainly agricultural products, food, medicine and green tech.

post secondary education dansk

Source : Statistics Denmark [extracted 6.11.2017].

The Danish labour market is highly regulated. Only low skilled jobs are available without a diploma.

Total unemployment ([ 7 ]) (2018): 4.2% (6.0% in EU-28); it increased by 1.6 percentage points since 2008 ([ 8 ]).

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

post secondary education dansk

NB: data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series; low reliability for ISCED 5-8, age 15-24. ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education. Source : Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

Unemployment rates of people aged 15-24 are higher than among people aged 25-64 for all education levels, with low qualified (or not qualified) people scoring the highest unemployment rates.

Among 25-64 year olds, economic crises had hit more low-qualified and high-qualified people than those with medium-level qualifications, including most VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4).

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates remained stable from 2014 (86.1%) to 2018 (88.6%) ([ 9 ]), which was above the EU-28 average.

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

post secondary education dansk

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. Source : Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

The employment rate of all ISCED level graduates has increased to 81.2% (+2.3 percentage points) in 2014-18. In the same period, the employment rates of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased by 2.5 percentage points ([ 10 ]).

The share of the Danish population aged 25 to 64 with higher education (ISCED 5-8) is 38.3%, which is above the EU-28 average of 32.2%. The share of people holding medium-level qualifications (ISCED 3-4) is also high (40.4%).

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

post secondary education dansk

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Low reliability for ‘No response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia, and Poland. ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education. Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019]

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Source : Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

post secondary education dansk

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Source : Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

With a 38.9% share of IVET learners in the total population of upper secondary learners in 2016, Denmark is below the EU-28 average of 47.2%.

In general, there are more male than female learners in VET: 68% and 32% in 2017.

However, the distribution is uneven in various branches. In commercial training and social and healthcare training, for example, there are more female apprentices, while the opposite applies to technical training ([ 11 ]).

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased significantly from 11.3% in 2009 to 10.2% in 2018. It is above the national objective for 2020 of not more than 10%, and below the EU-28 average of 10.6%.

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

post secondary education dansk

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series. Source : Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted on 16.05.2019] and European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

In 2012, the completion rate in VET was only 52%. The proposal for a reform of the Danish VET system was ratified by Parliament in 2014, with one of its objectives being to improve completion rates to at least 60% by 2020 and at least 67% by 2025.

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

post secondary education dansk

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training; break in series. Source : Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

Denmark has the highest participation in adult education and continuing training in the EU, regardless of levels of educational attainment. In 2017, the share of participation in education and training among the population aged 25-64 was 26.8% compared with EU-28 average of 10.9%. These figures refer to all forms of education and training activity, both formal and non-formal.

The high participation rate reflects several specific characteristics, such as the national strategy to focus on knowledge-intensive specialist sectors and lifelong learning, a large public sector and a tradition of strong ties between education institutions and social partners. Adult vocational training programmes ( Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser, AMU), offering short vocational training programmes to skilled and unskilled workers, as well as to the unemployed, have a significant role to play in this regard.

Learners in mainstream education, October 2017

The main age group in VET is 18-20, but there is a significant group of VET-learners aged 30-40.

post secondary education dansk

Source . Statistics Denmark [accessed 8.4.2019].

The education and training system comprises:

  • primary and lower secondary education (basic schooling); (ISCED levels 1-2);
  • upper secondary education; (ISCED level 3);
  • post-secondary education (ISCED levels 4-5);
  • higher education;(ISCED levels 6-8).

Children participate in mainstream education from the age of six and progress through the system during their youth into adulthood. Adult education and continuing training (CVT) mirrors the qualifications provided within the mainstream system but is designed specifically for adults. It also provides opportunities to acquire supplementary qualifications. As such, the two parallel systems combined provide a framework for lifelong learning.

Basic schooling is compulsory from the ages of 6 to 16, that is, from pre-school class to ninth grade. In 2017 ([ 12 ]), 46.2% of the youth cohort decided to continue to the optional 10 th grade rather than enter an upper secondary programme directly. The 10 th grade is an option for young people to acquire academic competence and clarity about their choices before entering youth education (either general or vocational upper secondary education). 2015 VET reform combines the 10 th grade and VET programmes into a programme called EUD10.

Primary and lower secondary education is generally integrated into, and located within, the comprehensive Danish Folkeskole ([ 13 ]), although other types of institution, such as private independent schools, also exist. Of the youth cohort, 80.0% attended the comprehensive Danish Folkeskole in the school year 2016/17. There is a tendency to move towards private compulsory schooling. In the same school year (2016/17), 15.9% attended a private school. Of the rest of the youth cohort, 4.1% attended special programmes. Primary and lower secondary education is completed by taking an examination providing access to upper secondary (youth) education.

Within the adult education and continuing training system, there are two programmes at EQF level 2. Preparatory adult education (FVU) provides courses in basic literacy and mathematics, as well as courses for those with learning difficulties or with Danish as their second language. General adult education (AVU) is provided to adults who, for whatever reason, did not complete lower secondary education or need supplementary education in particular subjects. Qualifications at this level are equivalent to the ninth or 10 th grade leaving examination.

Upper secondary education consists of both general upper secondary education and vocational upper secondary education and training ( erhvervsuddannelse, EUD). General upper secondary education programmes usually last three years and prepare learners for higher education at tertiary level. Five different qualifications result from five corresponding programmes:

  • upper secondary leaving qualification ( studentereksamen , STX) (EQF 4);
  • higher preparatory examination ([ 14 ]) ( højere forberedelseseksamen, HF) (EQF 4);
  • higher commercial examination ( højere handelseksamen, HHX) (EQF 4);
  • higher technical examination ( højere teknisk eksamen , HTX) (EQF 4);
  • combined vocational (journeyman’s test) and general upper secondary leaving qualification ( EUX ) (EQF 5).

The adult education (age 25 and above) and continuing training system includes three types of programme at upper secondary level:

  • higher preparatory single subjects ( enkeltfag , HF) (EQF 4);
  • basic (vocational) adult education ( Erhvervsuddannelse for voksne , EUV) (EQF 3-5), which is equivalent to EUD;
  • and adult vocational training programmes ( Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser , AMU) (EQF 2-5).

In broad terms, higher education comprises:

  • professionally oriented short- and medium-cycle programmes where the short-cycle programmes lead to an academy profession degree and are offered at academies of professional higher education, while the medium-cycle programmes lead to a professional bachelor degree and are offered by university colleges;
  • research-based long-cycle programmes offered at universities where most learners continue to a master degree programme after completing a bachelor degree. The former can then provide access to doctoral programmes.

There are corresponding programmes within the adult education and continuing training system: short-cycle further (vocational) adult education (VVU), medium-cycle diploma programmes, and long-cycle master programmes. As part-time courses, these programmes allow participants to combine education with a working career, as well as improving the integration of the individual’s professional and life experience.

The Danish VET system is divided into IVET and CVT.

The IVET system is for learners aged up to 25 and the CVT for learners aged 25 and above.

Danish education and training features a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory schooling to doctoral degrees, and a parallel adult education and continuing vocational training (CVT) system. CVT is designed to meet the needs of adult learners, for example through part-time courses. The two systems offer equivalent qualifications at various levels, enabling horizontal permeability.

VET programmes are organised according to the dual principle, alternating between periods of college-based and work-based learning (apprenticeship training) in enterprises. The college-based learning will typically comprise practice based learning in workshops.

When learners complete a VET programme they can enter the labour market as skilled workers, or can apply for CVT in the form of professional academy programmes ( Erhvervsakademier ).

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

The Danish VET system can best be characterized as a unified VET system based on the dual principle.

Although VET programmes are offered in several variations in Denmark, building on different legal frameworks, there is no doubt that the main pathway through VET is the dual-based apprenticeship programme, founded and developed from the beginning of VET education and training in Denmark.

More than 95% of participants in Danish VET are involved in this kind of VET programme, leaving only a small percentage for “alternative” VET pathways, such as the ‘new master apprenticeship programme’ ( ny mesterlære ), in which the dual system is normally put in parentheses, or the few college-based VET programmes without work-based learning in a company.

VET programmes organised according to the dual principle, alternate between periods of college- based and work-based learning (apprenticeship training) in enterprises. A typical initial VET programme (EUD) lasts three-and-a-half years with a 2:1 split between workplace and college- based training, although there is considerable variation among programmes. Individual study plans are compiled for all students. VET colleges and social partners share the responsibility for developing curricula to ensure responsiveness to local labour market needs. Qualifications at this level provide access to relevant fields in academy profession (KVU) programmes and professional bachelor programmes at tertiary level.

Adopted from the Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation ([ 15 ])

Parliament sets out the overall framework for VET, which is administered by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry has overall parliamentary, financial and legal responsibility for VET, laying down the overall objectives for programmes and providing the legislative framework within which stakeholders, social partners, colleges and enterprises are able to adapt curricula and methodologies to the needs of both learners and the labour market.

Social partners play an institutionalised role at all levels of VET, from the national advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on principal matters concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprising representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market.

Stakeholder involvement in Denmark

post secondary education dansk

Source : www.uvm.dk

The national advisory council consists of 31 representatives from the social partners. In its advisory capacity, the council monitors developments in society and highlights trends relevant to VET. The council makes recommendations to the Ministry regarding the establishment of new VET programmes and the adaptation, amalgamation or discontinuation of others.

National trade committees ( faglige udvalg ) are the backbone of the VET system. Approximately 50 trade committees are responsible for 106 main programmes. The committees normally have between 10 and 14 members and are formed by labour market organisations (with parity of membership between employer and employee organisations). They are financed by participating organisations.

Among their core responsibilities, national trade committees:

  • perform a central role in the creation and renewal of VET courses by closely monitoring developments in their particular trade. They also have a dominant position in formulating learning objectives and final examination standards based around the key competences that are deemed to be required in the labour market;
  • conduct relevant analyses, development projects, etc., and maintain close contact with relevant stakeholders;
  • decide the regulatory framework for individual courses within boundaries set by the legislative framework. They decide which trade is to provide the core of the training, the duration of the programme and the ratio between college-based teaching and practical work in an enterprise;
  • approve enterprises as qualified training establishments and rule on conflicts which may develop between apprentices and the enterprise providing practical training;
  • function as gatekeepers to the trade, as they are responsible for issuing journeyman’s certificates in terms of content, assessment and the actual holding of examinations.

Local training committees are affiliated to each vocational college and ensure close contact with the local community, thus improving responsiveness to particular local labour market needs. They consist of representatives of local employers and employees appointed by national trade committees, as well as representatives of staff, management and learners appointed by colleges. Training committees work closely alongside colleges in determining the specific curriculum of colleges, including which optional subjects are available. They assist and advise national trade committees in approving local enterprises as qualified training establishments and in mediating conflicts between apprentices and enterprises. Finally, training committees help to ensure that enough suitable local training placements are available.

117 VET colleges offer basic vocationally oriented education programmes. 97 of these are technical colleges, commercial colleges, agricultural colleges or combination colleges. In addition, 20 colleges offer social and healthcare training programmes. A number of the colleges offer their programmes through local branches at locations other than the main college. As self-governing institutions, vocational colleges are led by a governing board with overall responsibility for the administrative and financial running of the college and educational activities in accordance with the framework administered by the education ministry. The board consists of teachers, learners and administrative staff representatives, as well as social partner representatives. The board takes decisions regarding which programmes are offered at the college and their capacity, imposes local regulations and guidelines, guarantees responsible administration of the college’s financial resources, including approval of budgets and accounts and hires and fires the operational management (director, principal, dean or similar). The operational management, meanwhile, is responsible for implementing the overall objectives and strategies set out by the governing board.

A publicly financed system of basic, secondary and further education and training that recognises relevant non-formal and informal competences and practical work experience is a fundamental characteristic of the system.

Mainstream (‘youth’) VET is based on alternative models where training takes place in turn at college and in an enterprise. The state finances training at colleges, while enterprises finance on-the-job training; apprentices receive an apprentice’s salary while in the company, as laid down in the collective agreements.

In 2018, the state spent a total of DKK 7 173 3 million (EUR 963 million) on VET basic courses and main programmes (see table below). A considerable proportion of these funds was distributed to colleges in accordance with the ‘taximeter’ principle, whereby funding is linked to some quantifiable measure of activity, for example, the number of full-time equivalent learners, with a set amount awarded per unit. Among other things, this system provides an incentive for colleges to increase retention within the system.

Besides the ‘taximeter’ rate, VET providers also receive an annual fixed grant for the maintenance of buildings, salaries, etc. The total state grant is provided as a block grant which institutions use at their own discretion within the boundaries of the legislative framework and specific institutional objectives.

Expenditure on main youth education pathways (2018)

Source : National budget 2018.

When it comes to financing training in companies, all employers, both public and private, pay a sum into the ‘employers' reimbursement scheme’ (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag), regardless of whether or not they provide apprenticeship placements. This fund finances VET both for young people and adults. From 2018, all employers will be obliged to pay an annual contribution of DKK 2 702 (EUR 362) per full-time employee. These funds are then allocated to workplaces that take in apprentices so that they do not bear the cost of training alone. These employers receive reimbursement for wages paid during apprentices’ periods of college-based training.

VET for adults (AMU) is largely publicly financed. Providers receive ‘taximeter’ funding and must negotiate budgets and targets with the Ministry of Education annually.

In VET, there are:

  • general subject teachers;
  • vocational subject teachers;
  • in-company trainers;

General subject teachers are usually university graduates with a professional bachelor degree in teaching.

Vocational subject teachers usually have VET education background and substantial experience in the field (normally, at least five years is required).

The job of a VET teacher is considered demanding, and the motivation for applying for these jobs is of the highest level, when jobs in the private sector are hard to find.

Colleges and training centres have autonomy in staff recruitment. The Ministry of Education is not involved in teacher recruitment procedures, and teachers are not civil servants entering the system through tests.

There are no requirements for teachers to have a pedagogical qualification prior to their employment.

Pedagogical training ( Diplomuddannelsen i Erhvervspædagogik ) is part-time in-service training based on interaction between theory and practice. This programme was introduced for all teachers employed in VET and adult education (AMU) recruited after 15 January 2010 and replaces the previous teacher training course ( Pædagogikum ). The objective is to improve teaching skills to a level equivalent to teachers in compulsory education with a professional bachelor degree. The programme is the equivalent of one year of full-time study (60 ECTS) and the acquired qualification is placed at EQF level 6. It is, however, generally conducted as a part-time study to root training in practical teaching experience. New teachers must enrol in the programme within one year of gaining employment at a VET college or AMU centre. The programme must be completed within a period of six years. The programme was developed by the Danish National Centre for the Development of Vocational Education and Training (Nationalt Center for Erhvervspædagogik, NCE), a centre of excellence collecting, producing and disseminating knowledge on VET based at University College Copenhagen (UCC). The programme was developed in cooperation with an advisory group consisting of representatives of teacher associations and college management organisations, as well as the Ministry of Education. There are three compulsory and five optional modules, as well as a final examination project. Both NCE and other providers at different university colleges offer the programme ([ 17 ]).

In-company trainers play an important role in VET, given the dual training principle characteristic of all VET. There are different types of trainers with different responsibilities: planners, training managers and daily trainers. However, there are very few legal requirements to become a trainer.

Trainers in enterprises who are responsible for apprentices must be craftsmen. They must have completed a VET programme, for which they have received a ‘journeyman’s certificate’, and have work experience.

Once qualified to teach in VET, there is no general legislation on in-service training. Individual teachers are obliged to keep their subject-specific and pedagogical knowledge up-to-date. The college is required to draw up a plan for the competence development of the teachers at the college. On this basis, and in cooperation with the teacher, the college determines the individual’s professional in-service training plan. Courses are offered locally by many providers in accordance with market conditions. A certificate is normally awarded to participants, but a recognised qualification is not generally awarded. The new VET reform requires skills updating for teachers and leaders in VET institutions at a level equivalent to 10 ECTS points. The updating will continue until 2020, and DKr 400 million (EUR 53 million) has been granted for it.

There are also no in-service training requirements or control mechanisms for in-company trainers. Quality assurance, beyond that undertaken voluntarily by the enterprise, is restricted to informal contacts between the VET college and the enterprise. The adult education (AMU) systems provide a number of courses of one to two weeks duration to support the training of trainers. The courses are not mandatory and are mostly used by the social care and healthcare professions.

More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers ([ 18 ]).

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([ 19 ]) and European Skills Index ([ 20 ]).

Social partners play an institutionalised role at all levels of VET, from the national advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on the main issues concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprising representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market.

Various approaches to quality assurance of vocational colleges are implemented. Self-assessment remains the primary mechanism, but external monitoring is increasing in importance. Since the 1980s, a shift has taken place from detailed regulation of input to framework regulation of output. The aim of output regulation is to increase the focus on results and quality so that institutional practices meet political objectives, including adaptation to the needs of regional and local business sectors for education and competence development ([ 21 ]).

Monitoring is conducted at two levels:

  • system level: the assessment is on the effectiveness of the more than 100 different main programmes in terms of employment frequency among graduates. The education ministry then enters into dialogue with national trade committees about any programmes which fail to reach their targets in order to assess their relevance in terms of labour market needs and possible steps for improvement;
  • institutional level: at this level, monitoring can be divided into content monitoring and financial monitoring. The first concerns the degree to which a vocational college is providing its programmes in accordance with the legislative framework. The second monitors the college’s compliance with budgetary constraints as laid down by the education ministry.

Completion, dropout and examination pass rates also form part of the quality appraisal of a vocational college. Within companies, the social partners supplement ministerial monitoring through national trade committees and local training committees, appraising the quality of graduates, curricula, apprenticeships within enterprises, etc.

Quality assurance mechanisms are also part of the

validation process when it comes to including new qualifications in the Danish qualification framework. Only officially recognised, validated and quality-assured programmes are included in the qualifications framework. Informal and non-formal learning are only recognised to the extent that they are formalised though a process of validation of prior learning corresponding to one of the qualifications included.

In terms of VET, trade committees (at the upper secondary level) and further education and training committees (adult VET) assess programmes and make recommendations for their placement in the framework to be approved by the education ministry. For each educational field, guidelines have been produced to aid committees in their assessment and are quality-assured through consultation with independent experts. Procedures and criteria for including VET qualifications in the framework are the subject of an evaluation report compiled by the Danish Evaluation Institute ([ 22 ]).

Competence assessment for young people

A young person participating in VET will have his or her competence assessed in the initial period of the education. The competence assessment should clarify what is required by the learner in relation to the education they want. The competence assessment is based on previous education or employment. The goal is to ensure that the education programme that the college offers the learner allows him or her to start at the right level and to avoid duplicating education. The college should allow the competence assessment to be included in the preparation of the learner’s individual education plan, so that the learner is credited with relevant parts of the programme ([ 23 ]).

Competence assessment for adults

Adults can have their competences assessed in relation to adult vocational courses and adult vocational education. In respect of short courses, this is an option known as Individual Competence Assessment ( Individuel Kompetence Vurdering, IKV). Individual citizens have a right to this assessment and can even obtain financial compensation from the job centre for the time spent in this process, which takes between half a day and five days, provided by the relevant educational institution.

Recognition of prior learning results in an individual plan for education and a competence document listing formal qualifications, the individual’s prior experiences and learning equivalents, or a course certificate depending on the relevance and validity of his or her former experiences ([ 24 ]). When applying for adult vocational education, it is compulsory to have one’s prior learning and experiences assessed before enrolment, which means that every adult above 25 years of age who intends to embark on vocational education should participate in Recognition of Prior Learning (so-called realkompetencevurdering , RKV, or RPL). This process takes between half a day and five days and leads the participant to one of three learning options:

  • adult vocational education 1 (EUV 1): the learner has at least two years of relevant workplace experience. This means that the practice-based periods of the course and its initial part/ introductory basic programmes are left out (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1 ). In the case of mercantile vocational education, the primary part is included in the adult version;
  • adult vocational education 2 (EUV 2): the learner has less than two years of relevant workplace experience. An education plan should be drawn up reflecting the participant’s experiences, which will usually exclude the initial part and shorten the other parts;
  • adult vocational education 3 (EUV 3): the learner has no relevant workplace experience. Adults should follow the same education plan as young people, but should not have the initial part (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1, GF 1) ([ 25 ]).

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([ 26 ]).

Salary for apprentices

Danish VET learners are entitled to receive financial support during their education and training. If the VET learner signs a contract with a company, he or she will receive a salary during the education and training period. The salary is DKK 9 500 -12 500 per month (EUR 1 275 - 1 675) and increases each year.

If the VET learner does not have a contract with a company, he or she is entitled to receive financial support from the Danish learners' grants and loans scheme ( Statens Uddannelsesstøtte , SU) when the learner is enrolled in the basic course (GF1 and GF2).

If the learner is living with his or her parents, the monthly amount is DKK 946 (EUR 125). If the learner is living away from his or her parents and is 20 years of age, the monthly amount is DKK 6 090 (EUR 800).

Loans and grants

A learner receiving financial support from the SU is also entitled to take out a loan with the SU. The monthly amount of the loan is normally DKK 3 116 (EUR 420). Loans must be repaid at 4% interest during the period of education and at the national discount rate of +1% after finishing that period.

Participants of VET for adults (AMU) are entitled to a fixed allowance: the State grant system for adult training (godtgørelse, VEU). In 2018, the amount available was DKK 4 300 (EUR 578) per week, corresponding to the maximum unemployment insurance benefit rate. As most participants are employed and receive a full salary during the training period, this allowance is primarily paid to employers as partial reimbursement of wages. As with apprenticeship training (EUD), expenditure for the allowances is covered by the employers’ reimbursement scheme, to which all enterprises contribute a fixed amount regardless of levels of participation in adult education and continuing training activities.

Participants may also receive a transport allowance and financial support for board and lodging ([ 27 ]) if programmes are offered at a considerable distance from the participant’s home.

Employers’ reimbursement scheme

All employers, both public and private, pay a sum into the ‘employers' reimbursement scheme’ ( Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag ), regardless of whether or not they provide apprenticeship placements. This fund finances VET for both young people and for adults (AMU). From 2018, all employers will be obliged to pay an annual contribution of DKK 2 702 (EUR 362) per full-time employee. These funds are then allocated to work places that take apprentices so that they do not bear the cost of training alone. These employers receive reimbursement for wages paid during apprentices’ periods of college-based training.

The latest tripartite agreement of August 2016 has launched a couple of new incentives for Danish companies aiming to establish more contracts with apprentices. The overall goal is to establish 10 000 new contracts in 2025.

Primarily, companies will be able to provide a much clearer picture of themselves as education operators, giving them the option of assessing whether they are in line with political expectations.

Fines and stimulations for companies

Companies that fail to sign the necessary number of contracts must pay a fine of DKK 27 000 (EUR 3 620) for each missing contract relative to the size of the company. On the other hand, companies that meet the standard number of contracts will receive a 7.4% higher refund from AUB ( Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag , the employers reimbursement scheme,) to motivate them to sign the expected number of contracts.

In some Danish regions, public employers have laid down rules concerning the involvement of private companies in projects, underlining that the company cannot be engaged in public activities if the number of apprentices is below the standard.

Wage compensation scheme

Among the incentives promoting companies’ interest in having their low-skilled workers participate in adult vocational education is the wage compensation scheme. Companies are partly compensated for the wages they pay to their employees who are participating in education at a rate, in 2018, of DKK 4 300 (EUR 4 300) a week, equivalent to the highest level of unemployment benefit ([ 28 ]). The companies should pay for the courses. In 2018 the payment will be between 590 DKK (EUR 79) and DKK 950 (EUR 127) per person per week ([ 29 ]).

Please see:

  • guidance and outreach Denmark national report ([ 30 ]);
  • Cedefop’s labour market intelligence toolkit ([ 31 ]);
  • Cedefop’s inventory of lifelong guidance systems and practices ([]).

Vocational education and training system chart

  • Download PDF

post secondary education dansk

Programme Types

Basic VET (EGU)

programmes,

WBL at least 75%

VET programmes (EUX),

4-4.5 years

VET programmes,

apprenticeships (EUD),

ISCED levels 353 and 354

Adult VET (EUV)

ISCED 353, 354

CVET (AMU) for

new skills and upgrade

Further adult education

Academy professions

programmes (KVU),

Professional bachelor

Source: Statistics Denmark, 2018.

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How to enroll in the world’s greatest ballet school – the Bolshoi Ballet Academy

Students attend a class in the Bolshoi Ballet Academy

Students attend a class in the Bolshoi Ballet Academy

The Moscow State Academy of Choreography, also known as the Bolshoi Ballet Academy, is one of the most prestigious Russian ballet schools and as you know, Russian ballet is the best in the world. The school was founded in 1773 by Empress Catherine the Great, as part of the Moscow Foundling Home, where orphans were taught a wide range of subjects to make them able to serve the state and to live up to their civic duties, which included taking part in balls. The best teachers from Europe came to Moscow to train the orphans to dance.

The first graduates were so good that they were invited to dance at the Bolshoi Theater, which at that time was called the Petrovski Theater. In 1784, the theater started supervising the ballet school, and so the students of the Academy gained the opportunity to perform on the Bolshoi stage and even go on foreign tours.

Who can study?

Any foreign student can apply at any time of the year by sending a video with class work (make sure there are bar , center work, adagio, allegro, pointe work and repertoire). Along with video , one must fill out the application form and attach a copy of your passport with photo. For more details visit balletacademy.ru .

Students perform in a hallway before the start of a class

Students perform in a hallway before the start of a class

How long does it take to study?

If accepted, most foreign students are recommended to study in a Traineeship Program (intermediate education) from 1 to 10 months. After this traineeship a student must pass the exams, and can then be offered to continue studying in the Full-time Educational Program (also intermediate education). This program is available only for students who speak Russian. It lasts no less than three years and is possible only after the Traineeship Program is completed. There is also a higher education program for foreign students who already have ballet diplomas from other schools.  

So should I know Russian?

All classes are held in Russian, which is part of the obligatory Traineeship Program.

Most foreign students are aged 13-18

Most foreign students are aged 13-18

How much does it cost?

Traineeship Program costs 2,000 euro per month, and full-time Educational Program costs 19,000 euro a year.

What about a Russian visa?

Here you should keep calm and prepare your papers. The ballet school will send you an official invitation and you will be able to get a single-entry visa. Upon arriving in Russia you will have to report to the academy, and the staff will give you a form for the state duty fee (1,600 rubles, which is about $26), and the academy will submit the documents for your multiple-entry visa.

A student stretches in a hallway of the Academy

A student stretches in a hallway of the Academy

Where to live?

Full-time students are provided with accommodation for the entire period of studies. There is a dormitory in the Academy’s building on 2nd Frunzenskaya Street, equipped with TV, Wi-Fi, fridge, piano (!), cooking and laundry facilities. Medical care for an emergency will also be provided, while transportation costs are a student’s own matter. By the way, parents or relatives are welcome to visit dancers and talk to teachers.

Are there many foreign students right now?

For the 2017-2018 academic year there are about 110 foreign students on the traineeship and educational programs, and about 15 students enrolled in higher education at the academy. there are students from more than 20 countries, svetlana semenikhina, head of international programs, told russia beyond. the average age for foreign students is 13-18, but some are younger, though they’re likely the exceptions and live in moscow with their parents ..

Students rehearse before a concert

Students rehearse before a concert

Are there foreign graduates performing in Russian theaters?

David Motta Soares from Brazil graduated the Academy in 2015, and now is a performer in the Bolshoi Theater’s ballet. Julian Mackay, who was the first American to get both a secondary and higher education in the Bolshoi Academy, now dances for St. Petersburg’s Mikhailovsky Theater. Alessandro Caggegi from the UK has graduated in 2015, since then he has been performing at The State Opera of Tatarstan.

UPD on Nov. 1, 2018: The previous version of the article had no information about British dancer Alessandro Caggegi graduated from the academy and stayed working in Russia.

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Cal State East Bay launches inclusive post-secondary education program

Think By the Bay students posing by the East bay Letters

  • BY Sarah Harris
  • December 11, 2023

Reaching Goals

Cal State East Bay is creating inclusive educational opportunities with the newly launched two-year post-secondary program Think by the Bay (TBTB). As a project affiliated with Cal State East Bay’s Center for Disability Justice Research (CDJR), TBTB furthers CDJR’s mission to promote equity through radically inclusive teaching, scholarship and advocacy. TBTB is also a University Extension project.

Cal State East Bay and five other California State Universities received a pilot grant from the California Department of Developmental Services to launch the fall 2023 program. Cal State East Bay welcomed five students to this historic program in August. 

“Starting a program like TBTB has been a goal for all of us for many years,” said Talya Kemper, associate professor of teacher education. CSUEB’s pilot grant is led by Kemper with Sara McDaniel, assistant professor of special education, and Sarah Taylor, professor of social work. Other collaborators are listed below. 

According to the TBTB team, students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) who complete an inclusive post-secondary education program have higher rates of competitive integrated employment. McDaniel said, “We want to provide access and inclusion to college for anyone who wants to attend. Every student, no matter their abilities, deserves to experience college and continue their education.” 

Filling the Gaps

Think by the Bay is something no one on campus has ever been part of before. “This is an entirely new venture at CSUEB, but our program is part of a larger state and nationwide expansion of Inclusive Postsecondary Education (IPSE) programs,” said Taylor. “We are working with partners across the CSU and UC systems to increase opportunities for students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) to attend college.” In October, Governor Newsom signed AB 447 in support of inclusive programs on California college campuses. 

While CSUEB’s existing College Link Program helps students with autism succeed in the higher education environment, unmet needs remain — that’s where Think by the Bay comes in. “Think by the Bay is different in that we welcome students with IDD who may not otherwise have the opportunity to join our campus community,” said Kemper. 

Think by the Bay students select existing courses that they are interested in taking and enroll in those courses alongside other CSUEB students. “Our team works with our faculty partners to ensure that TBTB students are fully included in their selected courses and that the faculty are supported in the process,” said McDaniel. Additionally, each semester, TBTB students take a course designed to support them in interdependent living, learning and employment skills. 

Identifying Challenges and Future Expansion

The CSUEB workgroup began putting their heads together in spring 2022 to gather input from stakeholders to inform program development and explore options for program design and additional funding. The biggest challenge was logistics: figuring out how to support the students, how to pay for it and what the day-to-day would look like. “Kate White in University Extension has been instrumental in helping us register students for their classes, ensure that students have access to all campus services and facilities and answer the many questions we have,” said Kemper of the many colleagues who helped get the program off the ground.

In the future, TBTB collaborators hope to build a program supported by a full-time coordinator so they can welcome even more students on campus. Taylor said, “We’d love to eventually offer a 4-year program option, as well as residential opportunities for TBTB students to live on-campus!” 

The College Campus Experience 

TBTB’s kickoff has sparked great excitement for the team. “We are excited about having students on campus who wanted to attend college but were not given access or opportunity to do so before. Getting to know them and finding creative ways to support their goals has been incredibly fulfilling,” McDaniel shared. “They’ve also been instrumental in helping us shape the program to best meet their needs and expectations for a college experience.” 

From classes to co-curricular activities, campus life and work and volunteer experiences, Think by the Bay students are gaining experiences they might not have had access to before. And as part of the CSUEB community, TBTB students contribute to the campus experience as well. “We also hope the entire campus community benefits from having an opportunity to learn, work, and spend time with Think by the Bay students,” said Taylor.

Any student interested in service learning and making friends in the process is welcome to become a peer mentor for the program. The current peer mentors are from nursing, construction management, business and kinesiology programs and bring their own unique perspectives to the group. Kemper said, “We have a small but mighty team right now, and it has been incredible to watch friendships form between our peer mentors and TBTB students.” 

Special thanks to other collaborators:

  • Alex Sandoval, assistant professor of hospitality, recreation, and tourism
  • Christopher Palmore, assistant professor in criminal justice
  • Rajan Selvarajan, associate professor of management
  • Susi Ferrarello, assistant professor of philosophy and religious studies
  • Lisa Lacy, community partner researcher
  • Brien Araki, community partner researcher
  • Anahita Mehrabi, MSW student research assistant
  • Diona Tran, community-based research assistant
  • Manan Patel, project assistant and peer mentor
  • Mummareddy Hemasree, peer mentor
  • Bryan Lopez, peer mentor
  • Anna Jackson, MSW intern
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Elon musk planning stem-focused school named after sci-fi book series detailing the collapse of a ruling empire.

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SpaceX CEO Elon Musk plans to launch a STEM-focused primary and secondary school in Texas before debuting a glittering university “dedicated to education at the highest levels,” according to a tax filing.

Musk, who moved from California to the Lone Star State during the pandemic, will build the schools in Austin with a $100 million donation from the billionaire’s charity called The Foundation, according to tax filings first reported by Bloomberg .

The charity’s name appears to be a nod to the science fiction series written by famed author Isaac Asimov that details the collapse of a ruling empire to make way for the birth of an alternate society — fitting considering Musk’s public criticism of the current education system.

Last year, the Tesla and SpaceX boss blamed liberal universities for the fact that he’s estranged from his 19-year-old daughter , Vivian Jenna Wilson, who recently changed her legal name to avoid being associated with the world’s richest person.

Musk has also said that Asimov’s “Foundation” series influenced his decision to launch SpaceX a decade ago with its stated goal of one day landing on Mars.

The Foundation’s application to open the schools was initially filed in October 2022 and approved in March, according to Bloomberg, though it’s unclear when the K-12 school will break ground.

Elon Musk's charity The Foundation filed for tax exempt status to open a STEM-focused K-12 school before debuting "a university dedicated to education at the highest levels" in Austin, Texas.

Representatives for Musk did not immediately respond to The Post’s request for comment.

The project will begin with a school catering to kindergarteners through 12th grade with an emphasis on STEM: science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Once that’s up and running, it “intends ultimately to expand its operations to create a university dedicated to education at the highest levels,” according to the filing with the IRS for tax-exempt status.

Musk noted that the university will boast “experienced faculty” and “hands-on learning experience including simulations, case studies, fabrication/design projects and labs” woven into a traditional curriculum.

The Tesla boss must first seek accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, which is responsible for recognizing degree-granting institutions in many southern states.

This is not Musk’s first foray into the world of schooling. In 2014, the father of 10 co-founded an “experimental” private school in SpaceX’s California office for five of his sons and select workers called Ad Astra.

At Ad Astra — Latin for “to the stars” — the curriculum was nothing short of unusual, ditching sports, music and foreign language for a heavy focus on artificial intelligence, coding and applied science.

In 2020, when Musk moved to Texas, the so-called “most exclusive school in the world” followed, and was renamed the Astra Nova School.

Per its website , the school currently has roughly 200 students.

Musk faces stiff competition in the state capital, which serves as the home of the University of Texas’ main campus. The University of Austin also was recently launched as an alternative to the “illiberalism” of traditional US colleges, according to Bloomberg.

Musk is investing heavily into Austin after moving there in 2020, including with Snailbrook, a town designed to avoid big-city regulations.

The University of Austin is set to host its first class of 100 students next fall.

Musk is making a bigger bet on Central Texas with the opening of Snailbrook, a town east of Austin he’s constructing to house Tesla and SpaceX employees, as well as staffers of his tunnel construction venture, Boring Company.

Floor plans filed in the Bastrop County Commissioners Court in January show the vision of Snailbrook village — a reference to Boring Company’s mascot.

The map shows Snailbrook would have 110 residences on what will be Boring Boulevard, WaterJet Way, Porpoise Place and Cutterhead Crossing.

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Elon Musk's charity The Foundation filed for tax exempt status to open a STEM-focused K-12 school before debuting "a university dedicated to education at the highest levels" in Austin, Texas.

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post secondary education dansk

What is Post-Secondary Education in Pakistan?

What is Post-Secondary Education in Pakistan-compressed

Post-Secondary Education

Post-secondary education in Pakistan refers to education. That takes place after the completion of secondary education. Which typically includes grades 9 to 12. In Pakistan, post-secondary education encompasses various types of institutions and programs. That offers education and training beyond the secondary level. Here are some key aspects of post-secondary education in Pakistan:

  • Higher Secondary Education: Higher secondary education in Pakistan includes grades 11 and 12. Students usually choose a specific academic stream (such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities, or commerce) based on their career aspirations. Successful completion of higher secondary education is a prerequisite for admission to undergraduate programs.
  • Undergraduate Programs: After completing higher secondary education. Students can enroll in undergraduate programs at universities, colleges, and other higher education institutions. These programs typically lead to bachelor’s degrees in various fields. Including arts, sciences, engineering, medicine, business, and social sciences. The duration of undergraduate programs varies depending on the field of study.
  • Universities: Pakistan has numerous universities that offer undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Some of the well-known universities include the University of the Punjab and Karachi University. Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), and Quaid-i-Azam University. These institutions provide a wide range of academic disciplines and degree programs.
  • Colleges: In addition to universities, there are colleges and institutes. That offers undergraduate programs in specific fields, such as engineering, technology, and teacher education.

More here…

  • Professional and Technical Education: Pakistan also has technical and vocational institutions. That offers post-secondary education and training in various technical and professional fields. These institutions aim to provide practical skills and knowledge to prepare students for specific careers.
  • Postgraduate Education: After completing a bachelor’s degree, students can pursue postgraduate education, including master’s and doctoral programs. This level of education is typically offered at universities and focuses on advanced research and specialization in specific fields.
  • Distance Education: Some institutions in Pakistan offer distance education programs. Allowing students to pursue post-secondary education through online or correspondence courses. This provides flexibility for individuals who may not be able to attend traditional in-person classes.
  • Quality and Challenges: Pakistan’s higher education system faces challenges related to quality, access, and infrastructure. While there are prestigious institutions in the country. There is also a need for improvements in educational quality, access to education in rural areas, and infrastructure development.

It’s important to note that the education system in Pakistan is subject to government policies and regulations. The specifics of post-secondary education may vary from province to province. Additionally, changes and developments in the education system may have occurred since my knowledge cutoff date in September 2021. So it’s advisable to consult updated sources or official government websites. For the most current information on post-secondary education in Pakistan.

Qualification For Admission Post-Secondary Education

The qualifications required for admission to post-secondary education in Pakistan. Can vary depending on the level of education and the specific program or institution you are interested in. Here are some general guidelines for different levels of post-secondary education:

Higher Secondary Education (Intermediate):

  • To enter higher secondary education (grades 11 and 12). You typically need to have completed your secondary education (matriculation) or its equivalent.
  • The specific eligibility criteria for admission to higher secondary programs may vary by institution and province. So it’s important to check with the school or college you are interested in.

Undergraduate Programs (Bachelor’s Degrees):

  • To pursue a bachelor’s degree program at a university or college. You generally need to have completed your higher secondary education (intermediate) or an equivalent qualification.
  • Different degree programs may have specific subject requirements or prerequisite courses. So you should check the admission requirements of the institution and program you are interested in.
  • Many universities in Pakistan require students to appear for an entry test. Such as the SAT, NAT, or the university’s own admission test, as part of the admission process for undergraduate programs.

Postgraduate Programs (Master’s and Doctoral Degrees):

  • Admission to postgraduate programs typically requires a bachelor’s degree in a related field from a recognized institution.
  • For master’s programs, you may need to meet a minimum GPA requirement. Some programs may also require you to pass an admission test or interview.
  • Doctoral programs usually require a master’s degree in a relevant field, research experience, and a research proposal.

Professional and Technical Programs:

  • Admission to professional programs like medical, engineering, and law schools often involves competitive entrance exams like the MCAT or ECAT. Or various law admission tests, in addition to meeting educational prerequisites.
  • Technical and vocational programs may have specific admission requirements, which can include educational qualifications, relevant work experience, or skills assessments.

Distance Education and Open Universities:

  • Some distance education programs may have more flexible admission criteria. However, you will still need to meet the minimum educational requirements for the specific program you wish to enroll in.

It’s essential to check the admission criteria and requirements of the particular institution. And the program you are interested in, as these can vary significantly. Admission procedures and eligibility criteria are typically outlined on the official websites of educational institutions. They may also publish admission advertisements in newspapers or online platforms. Providing detailed information about admission tests, deadlines, and required documentation.

Furthermore, keep in mind that different provinces in Pakistan may have slightly different admission procedures and criteria. So it’s advisable to consult the relevant provincial education authorities. Or the institution’s admission office for the most accurate and up-to-date information on admission qualifications.

post secondary education dansk

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  • Undergraduate Research
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  • Research opportunity

Deadline April 30, 2024: MUSC: Post-Baccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP)

  • Deadline to apply : The application is open from December 1, 2023 through April 30, 2024
  • Term: One-year
  • Program : Medical University of South Carolina: Post-Baccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP)
  • Description: Are you searching for your next step in the biomedical sciences?  

Great news, the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) just opened our NIH-funded Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP) application!

PREP is a fantastic opportunity for underrepresented and/or disadvantaged* students interested in enhancing their research and academic experience before applying to Ph.D. or MD/Ph.D. programs in biomedical sciences!  Individuals accepted into the program will be full-time employees of MUSC and receive salary support for 12 months.

Components of the program include:

  • Deep immersion in a research project with experienced mentors
  • Inclusion in a diverse, vibrant community of biomedical scientists at all levels of training
  • Generous salary, reimbursement for health insurance and relocation support
  • Enrollment in a graduate course, personalized support and guidance throughout the PhD application process
  • Opportunities to present research and network at regional and national conferences

* NIH eligibility includes students from disadvantaged backgrounds or underrepresented racial and ethnic groups or individuals with disabilities. Please visit the NIH PREP site to learn about specific requirements.

Register for our MUSC PREP open house session via Zoom this spring:

•  January 23rd at 12:00 PM Eastern Time

•  February 6th at 4:00 PM Eastern Time

We are also able to schedule one-on-one meetings so please reach out!

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2023 Secondary 1 Posting Results

Published Date: 13 December 2023 11:00 AM

News Press Releases

1. The Secondary 1 (S1) posting results will be released on Wednesday, 20 December 2023, at 9am.

2. The S1 posting results can be accessed through any of the following channels:

  • Short Message Service (SMS) via a local mobile number (if provided by the applicant during the application process);
  • S1-IS ( www.moe.gov.sg/s1-posting ) using the student's Birth Certificate number / FIN, and the S1 PIN; or
  • At the student's primary school.

3. Students do not need to report to their posted secondary schools upon receiving their S1 Posting Results. Students should refer to their posted schools' websites after receiving their posting results for more information, such as the reporting details, booklist, and purchase of books and uniforms. Parents of the incoming S1 cohort who are on Parents Gateway (PG) will also receive instructions from the posted schools from the afternoon the S1 Posting results are released.

4. If students are unable to report to their posted secondary school on the first day of school in January 2024 due to valid reasons, they should inform their posted secondary school directly after receiving their posting results to confirm that they are taking up the place, and the school will be able to reserve the place for them.

5. More information on S1 Posting and S1-IS are available at MOE's S1 Posting website ( www.moe.gov.sg/s1-posting ). For enquiries, please visit www.moe.gov.sg/contact .

Gnessin Moscow Special School of Music

Information.

Primary and lower secondary education

Primary and lower secondary education is integrated within a single structure and is provided by:

  • Municipal schools ("Folkeskole")
  • Private schools
  • Continuation schools

Compulsory education lasts 10 years (grades 0 to 9) with an optional grade 10.

Read more about primary and lower secondary education:

  • Ministry of Children and Education
  • Eurydice: Denmark

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post secondary education dansk

Once they have completed their secondary education, Danes can choose from a variety of tertiary options, including a standard university that grants bachelors, masters', and PhD degrees; a university college that awards bachelors degrees in hands-on subjects such as social work; or a public arts and architecture academy, like The Royal Academy o...

Secondary education in Denmark (in Danish: ungdomsuddannelse, "youth education") usually takes two to four years and is attended by students between the ages of 15 and 19. Secondary education is not compulsory, but usually free of charge, and students have a wide range of programmes to choose from.

The provision of education across public and private institutions influences the allocation of resources between levels of education and types of institution. In 2018, Denmark spent USD 11 551 per student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, USD 1 097 higher than the OECD average of USD 10 454.

Secondary education Higher Education Adult Education Types of secondary education Gymnasium Higher Preparatory Examination Higher Commercial Examination Programme Higher Technical Examination Programme Vocational education Basic Social and Health Education Post-secondary education Folk high school University colleges in Denmark

In addition, the VET-system offers a VET programme combining general upper secondary education with vocational education and training (EUX). The duration of a VET programme varies from two to five and a half years, the most typical being three and a half to four years. All programmes qualify students for labour market entry and all programmes ...

Statistics Denmark implements projects in other countries with the purpose to build up these countries' capacity to produce statistics. How many Danes have primary school as their highest level of education? Here is the statistic on educational attainment in Denmark.

Internet ISBN : 978-87-93706-81-1. Publisher : The Ministry of Higher Education and Science. Publication year : 2021. This booklet provides a brief introduction to the Danish education system - from primary school to higher education. In addition to this overview, it also describes the system of adult education and.

The Danish education system Upper secondary education Upper secondary education includes general upper secondary education and vocational education and training. Upper secondary education programmes, also referred to as youth education programmes, can be divided into:

Secondary education Education and training After elementary school, most young people in Denmark attend upper secondary (high school) education or vocational education. Here you can read about the various educational programmes in Denmark, and about your possibility to attend Danish secondary education if you live in another Nordic country.

The fell spectacularly by 57.1 per cent102 The diversifi cation of post-secondary education in 2005 but increased by 43.5 per cent in 2006. The number of graduates in 2007 also increased slightly by 0.3 per cent. In 2007, men were over-represented in community colleges followed by polytechnics and KTAR.

Number of hours. Subjects in general upper secondary education programmes are taught at three different levels depending on the hours that are allotted to the subject. The levels range from A, B and/or C. As a general rule, C-level subjects are allotted 75 hours, B-level subjects are allotted 200 hours and A-level subjects are allotted 325 hours.

After completing ninth (compulsory) or 10 th grade in 2018, 93% of all students chose some form of further education or training activity, either general upper secondary education (73.1%), or EUD vocational upper secondary education and training (19.4%). As suggested by the discrepancy in these two sets of figures, students in VET are generally ...

Higher education qualifications Academy profession degree. Academy profession (AP) programmes are short-cycle higher education programmes combining theoretical knowledge with practical challenges. In order to be admitted to these programmes, you need a general upper secondary qualification or a vocational qualification of at least 3 years.

The folkeskole (English: 'people's school') is a type of school in Denmark covering the entire period of compulsory education, from the age of 6 to 16, encompassing pre-school, primary and lower secondary education. [1] Historical overview [ edit]

The Danish Folkeskole is a comprehensive school covering both primary and lower secondary education, which cover the first (grade 1 to 6) and second (grade 7-9/10) stage of basic education. In other words the Folkeskole is for 7-16/17-year-olds. Danish primary and lower secondary education comprises the Folkeskole, private elementary schools ...

The ballet school will send you an official invitation and you will be able to get a single-entry visa. Upon arriving in Russia you will have to report to the academy, and the staff will give you ...

What Do Primary, Secondary, and Post-Secondary Education Mean? — Tiyara, Inc. Each country has its own educational methods and systems. But, even within the same country, there can be differences in terminology and in how the schooling system is set up.

The Covid-19 pandemic accelerated the availability of online learning in higher education starting in 2020. NCES reports that 75% of all postsecondary students in the U.S.—over 14 million ...

In 1954, Elemash began to produce fuel assemblies, including for the first nuclear power plant in the world, located in Obninsk. In 1959, the facility produced the fuel for the Soviet Union's first icebreaker. Its fuel assembly production became serial in 1965 and automated in 1982. 1. Today, Elemash is one of the largest TVEL nuclear fuel ...

Reaching Goals. Cal State East Bay is creating inclusive educational opportunities with the newly launched two-year post-secondary program Think by the Bay (TBTB). As a project affiliated with Cal State East Bay's Center for Disability Justice Research (CDJR), TBTB furthers CDJR's mission to promote equity through radically inclusive ...

Elon Musk's charity The Foundation filed for tax exempt status to open a STEM-focused K-12 school before debuting "a university dedicated to education at the highest levels" in Austin, Texas.

for three freight-car loads of calcium from Bitterfeld consigned to Post Box 3 Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast. This proved beyond question that at Elektrostal there was a uranium factory making the metal in quantity, using methods worked out at least in part by the Auer group under Riehl. Indeed it also forced the conclusion that the Russians were at

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DEATH, HORROR, CORPSES, MORGUE

DEADHOUSE

Migrants scalped a young guy

The incident occurred because a guy with green hair asked migrants for a cigarette, who did not like his appearance.

19-year-old Yury Markov was thrown to the ground, beaten and cut off part of the skin from his head along with his hair.

In the photo Yuri Markov

Currently, one of the participants in the execution has been detained; he turned out to be a native of the Komi Republic. At the same time, some media reports that the guy was attacked by the so-called ‘Sharia patrol’ – outcasts professing Islam.

UPD: In an interview with journalists, Yuri Markov confirmed that he himself approached two citizens of Caucasian appearance, one of whom said that he was an ethnic Azerbaijani.

UPD 2: Both attackers were detained, one of them was born in Tajikistan.

Detained criminals

Elektrostal, Moscow region.

Related posts:

one art elizabeth bishop analysis essay

10 Comments

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‘We can’t restore our civilization with someone else’s babies’ -Steve King, former Iowa representative.

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im no racist but the only clear-thinking people are us BORN westerners…

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Define that term in more detail. EVERY single Westerner? If that was the case, we wouldn’t be complaining about anything now would we? Have you seen US? Cities that were once great, now crime-ridden nigger-infested shitholes. Who let them in? Not the fucking Asians or Russians or Brazilians that’s for sure

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Mr. Solution, when was the last time you actually visited America? My charming small town here is 82.4% white. Very little crime. One time these Latino guys and gals stabbed their rival a bunch of times a few years ago. And a black man shot someone in the head in 2021. And last year a young white man stabbed his female roommate to death. But that’s it.

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Ok, so, one day you complain about shitskins, the next day you say it’s not so bad. Are you just arguing to disagree with me? I visited the US 10 years ago actually, and I’ve seen what I’ve expected, a land of mutts and people from all over the world. Instead of being ethnically homogenous, you got ethnic and cultural enclaves everywhere. Your little town of “whites” is statistically speaking probably a bunch of sheep who would vote for their own destruction tomorrow because they don’t know shit. Never picked up a history book in their life, has no identity, no national or ethnic pride, has their soul crushed within them by white-guilt psyops and what not. You may as well write 82.4% traitor sleeper cells. Just waiting to be activated.

What about Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia? Detroit where the US autoindustry is based, now a shithole where you don’t dare look out the window in case you get your head blown off by Lil Tick from the 123rd St. Shitskin Squad.

And in general, is the white population not decreasing and the shitskins increasing in the US? Tomorrow, it’s your little town that’s next to be die-versified.

This is highly reminiscent of the Roman Empire. They weakened internally, then the barbarians flooded the gates. If you have a negative view of Nazi Germany or Hitler, you and me are not on the same side despite our identical skin color.

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Should line all three up and execute. 2 for being nasty niggers, 1 for being faggot with colored hair.

' src=

Westerners are the clowns of a big country of a circus.

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countries you mean western civilization isn’t just one country you know

' src=

At least his attackers were of “Caucasian appearance”. I would love for the migrants here in the US to be of Caucasian appearance. Sadly, that’s not the case in the West.

' src=

Caucasians? Why would you want Armenians, Georgians, Chechens in the US?

I hate stupid people

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  1. ⇉“One Art” by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis Essay Example

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  2. One Art by Elizabeth Bishop

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  4. 🌱 Elizabeth bishop essay. Elizabeth Bishop Essays. 2022-11-13

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  5. 💐 Summary of the poem one art by elizabeth bishop. One Art Summary

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COMMENTS

  1. One Art by Elizabeth Bishop

    With these two small words, Elizabeth Bishop encompasses the poem's entire purpose: to remove the pain of loss by first leveling out everything that we lose; from door keys to houses to people (One), and second by mastering the fact of losing through practice (Art). Stanza One The art of losing isn't hard to master; (…)

  2. One Art Poem Summary and Analysis

    "One Art" was written by the American poet Elizabeth Bishop. The poem is a villanelle, a traditional form that involves a fixed number of lines and stanzas and an intricate pattern of repetition and rhyme. Through this form, the poem explores loss as an inevitable part of life.

  3. A Short Analysis of Elizabeth Bishop's 'One Art'

    Elizabeth Bishop begins 'One Art' by asserting that it is easy to deal with loss. So many things in life seem to be designed to be lost, that losing them should not be viewed as a disaster. Next, she entreats us to try to lose something every day if we can.

  4. One Art: Study Guide

    "One Art" is a villanelle by the American poet Elizabeth Bishop, which first appeared in her final collection, Geography III (1976). Not only is "One Art" Bishop's best-known poem; it's also among the most famous examples of the villanelle, a notoriously strict form that features a rigorous rhyme scheme and two refrains.

  5. Elizabeth Bishop's Poem One Art: Accepting Loss

    The poem "One Art," by Elizabeth Bishop portrays the hidden feelings of an individual who has lost several things that have been significant to her; however, she overcomes the obstacles, and learns to move on. The poem consists of six stanzas with three lines in each stanza. It begins with confidence and determines people to let go and move on.

  6. 'One Art' by Elizabeth Bishop: Analysis Essay

    Elizabeth Bishop's poem 'One Art' is a poignant exploration of loss and the art of mastering it. Through her precise and controlled language, Bishop captures the universal experience of losing and the subsequent attempts to cope with the inevitable.

  7. Analysis of Poem 'One Art' by Elizabeth Bishop

    Elizabeth Bishop's poem 'One Art' is in the form of a villanelle, a traditional, repetitive kind of poem of nineteen lines. In it, she meditates on the art of losing, building up a small catalogue of losses which includes house keys and a mother's watch, before climaxing in the loss of houses, land and a loved one.

  8. The Poetry of Loss: An Analysis of "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop

    Learn more about Elizabeth Bishop. . . . . . . . . . In "One Art," Bishop attempts to reject the severity of loss. The poem begins with her intentionally flimsy argument: "The art of losing isn't hard to master.". Throughout the poem she speaks directly to the reader; as if to say, "Look, if I can lose, you can lose just as well.".

  9. Literary Analysis of One Art by Elizabeth Bishop

    The author, Elizabeth Bishop, wrote a poem titled "One Art" which took place 1927, in Boston. In the story, the main character, Elizabeth Bishop, talks about and describes the feeling of losing things. In this poem Bishop talked about what she has lost and how losing those things made her feel.

  10. One Art Summary and Study Guide

    Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop. A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality Study Guides with detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, and more. For select classroom titles, we also provide Teaching Guides with discussion and quiz questions to prompt student engagement.

  11. Analysing Of One Art By Elizabeth Bishop English Literature Essay

    Analysing Of One Art By Elizabeth Bishop English Literature Essay. "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop is a villanelle. Bishop writes about the pain of losing a beloved and how to deal with this loss. Bishop uses her life experience maybe to persuade herself or the reader but she has difficulties to convince herself that separation is a disaster.

  12. Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" Poem Analysis

    This paper will analyze the poem "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop to demonstrate the appropriateness of using all of the author's literary techniques to convey the message. Our experts can deliver a Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" Poem Analysis essay. tailored to your instructions. for only 13.00 11.05/page. 308 qualified specialists ...

  13. An Analysis of Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art"

    The poem "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop uses simple and elegant verse as a poetic device to help it achieve its purpose and to convey its theme. Bishop's poem is about the way in which people feel about losing things within their lives and how this can affect them.

  14. One Art Analysis

    In "One Art", Elizabeth Bishop uses repetition, symbolism, and imagery to relate the act of losing to the reader. The poet impress upon the reader that things are intended to be lost and as such the pain of loss should be diminished by the frequency in which we experience loss. In the poem, Elizabeth Bishop writes using the villanelle format.

  15. Analysis of Tone and Structure in Elizabeth Bishop's Poem "One Art

    The poem "One Art" written by Elizabeth Bishop surrounds the poem's entire purpose starting from the first words read which is the title, (One) to remove the pain of loss by first evening out everything that we lose from door keys to "houses" to people, and then mastering the fact of losing through practice (Art).

  16. Analysis of Poem "One Art" by Elizabeth Bishop

    Yet losing someone is a different struggle to overcome. Personification - An example of personification in One Art is "And, vaster, some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent. I miss them, but it wasn't a disaster" (13-15). Bishop claims she misses things like rivers and a continent, which are not human beings.

  17. One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis

    One Art is a section personal lyric that reflects the genuine misfortunes Elizabeth Bishop experienced amid her lifetime. One Art painstakingly and coolly records this arrangement of occasions, beginning innocently extensive with a dumbfounding methodology on 'the workmanship', before continuing to more misfortunes.

  18. One Art By Elizabeth Bishop: How The Author Uses ...

    Timed Rewrite. Loosing anything is seemingly disastrous. Modern poet Elizabeth Bishop uses syntax and perspectivism in "One Art" to portray an accepting and discontented tone towards loss to convey that there are some feelings of deprivation that are just unconquerable.

  19. One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis Free Essay Example

    One Art by Elizabeth Bishop Analysis Topics: Behavior Download Analysis, Pages 7 (1511 words) Views 513 The art of losing isn't hard to master; so many things seem filled with the intent to be lost that their loss is no disaster, Lose something every day. Accept the fluster of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.

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  22. Migrants scalped a young guy

    Migrants scalped a young guy. The incident occurred because a guy with green hair asked migrants for a cigarette, who did not like his appearance. 19-year-old Yury Markov was thrown to the ground, beaten and cut off part of the skin from his head along with his hair. Currently, one of the participants in the execution has been detained; he ...

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