expository essay on human trafficking in nigeria

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expository essay on human trafficking in nigeria


An appraisal of the effect of human trafficking in nigeria.

Human trafficking is regarded as modern slavery. It ‘involves deceiving or coercing someone to move either within a country or abroad through legal or illegal channels for the purpose of exploiting him or her’. The phenomenon in recent time has generated a lot of attention among local and international community. The menace has become a lucrative criminal business and Nigeria has acquired a reputation for being one of the leading African countries in human trafficking with cross-border and internal trafficking as a country of origin, transit and of victims. The paper attempts to articulate the effects of the illicit business on Nigeria national image. The major reasons for the persistence of the ugly phenomenon of human trafficking in Nigeria include pervasive poverty, unemployment, greed etc for the purpose of forced labour, domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, and rituals. The paper also review the legislations put in place the Nigeria government to curb menace. The paper recommends that fighting human trafficking in Nigeria is all encompassing because it requires a need for synergy of efforts to create public awareness of the crime, address the poverty situation in the country, create employment for the youths, reinforce relevant national laws, organize counseling, rehabilitation and reintegration programme for the victims Keywords: Human, Trafficking, Nigeria, National Image, Moral Appraisal

CHAPTER 1 Introduction


Human trafficking is defined in international law as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments of benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.” (Letitia and Yvonne, 2014). In other words, human trafficking refers to the wide variety of processes by which individuals become enslaved—that is, unable to leave a situation without fear of violence and paid nothing or next to nothing for any duration of time. Human Trafficking most often takes place in three stages: (1) recruitment at place of origin, which often involves coercion or abduction; (2) the transfer of victims to a final destination, either crossing international borders or moving internally within the same country; and finally, (3) the exploitation of the victims. The most widespread forms of exploitation are forced commercial sex and labour, including domestic servitude, but victims are also trafficked for purposes of forced marriages, organ removal and ritual killings. Traffickers target the most vulnerable sectors of society luring their victims, many of whom are women and children, with promises of a better life through employment or education. Human trafficking is largely a form of modern slavery on account of its resemblance to the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade. Slavery as an institution was abolished in the 19th century, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights prohibiting slavery or servitude recognizes the rights of all human beings to live trade, more than two centuries ago, about 300 international protocols and conventions prohibiting and criminalizing slavery and slave trade in any form, have been signed and adopted by nation states (Goliath, 2008). But the recent global economic crunch, poverty, social and political conflicts, wars, natural disasters and the contemporary climate change have profoundly influenced the alarming dimension with which people are being pulled-up as clients for human traffickers (UNHCR, 2000). Human trafficking, like money laundering, advanced fee fraud, cyber scams and illicit trade in arms and narcotics has elicited a great concern as a contemporary social problem worldwide (Poulin, 2004). It is considered to be the third largest source of profit for organized crime apart from drugs and arms (UNHCR, 2000). In 2007, marking the 200 year anniversary for the abolition of slavery, the United Nations’ researchers and other experts agreed that approximately 800,000 persons are trafficked across the world countries borders each year. The researchers and experts also concurred that human trafficking is nothing but organized crime with the total market value estimated at about $32 billion (South African Government Information, 2009). The international awareness of the scourge of human trafficking has over the years increased considerably. The illegal trade occupies a prominent position among the social ills that pervade the Nigerian Society (Ofuoku, 2010). While it may appear that the problem seems more endemic in the southern part of the country, there are indications that no part of the country is completely immune from this social malaise that has ravaged many countries in the world (UNICRI, 2004). The United Nations protocol to prevent, suppress and punish human trafficking, especially women and children, defined human trafficking as “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or of a position, of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payment of benefit to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at minimum, the exploitation of prostitution, of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, servitude or the removal of organs” (South African Government Information, 2009). Nigeria, Italy, Spain, Thailand and Belgium are the countries heavily affected by the problem of human trafficking in minors and girls for sexual exploitation. Despite efforts by the government to curb the menace, human trafficking has remained a critical problem in Nigeria. The prevalence of human trafficking has generated serious concerns that have provoked interest of this paper to articulate the potential vulnerability of the victims and the attendant effects on the nation’s image. To properly situate this objective for intellectual discussion, this paper shall attempt to provide an expository situation of Human Trafficking in Nigeria, an in-depth moral appraisal of the effects on the nation’s image, assess the potency of the Nigerian legal instruments available to curb human trafficking and also recommend possible recommendations to the problem of human trafficking in Nigeria.

Trafficking in human beings is not new. Historically it has taken many forms, but in the context of globalization, has acquired shocking new dimensions. It is a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon involving multiple stakeholders at the institutional and commercial level. It is a demand-driven global business with a huge market for cheap labour and commercial sex confronting often insufficient or unexercised policy frameworks or trained personnel to prevent it. Nigeria has acquired a reputation for being one of the leading African countries in human trafficking with cross-border and internal trafficking. From all account, Nigeria is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking (Mashil, 2005). The dynamics of human trafficking in Nigeria are considerably geographical in nature and involve internal and crossborder trafficking. The cross-border context of human trafficking in Nigeria is presented by syndicates that procure travel documents, transportation fare and accommodation for the women and girls who are desperate to leave the country in search of greener pastures in Europe, America, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. These vulnerable women and girls easily become prey for the traffickers. The lure to find a lucrative job abroad and earn a fat pay becomes clearly irresistible because of the devaluation of the Naira and the humiliating pangs of poverty in the country. It is only on arrival at their destination that the women and girls are confronted with the harsh realities that they have been deceived, and are ultimately lured or coerced into commercial sex. While the accurate statistics of the total number of women and girls trafficked into sex industry are difficult to obtain, in 2001, the number of Nigerian women working in the sex industry in Italy alone was about 10,000; a more recent conservative estimate put the figure at roughly 20,000 (Italy, 2011; UNICRI, 2004). A recent report on human trafficking and migration to Europe shows that in 2014, 170, 100 arrived Italy by sea, compared to 141, 484 migrants that were ferried through the Mediterranean Sea from Libya in 2013. According to the report, the migrants had come from Syria (42, 323), Eritrea (34, 329), Mali (9,908) Nigeria (9,000), Gambia (8, 691), Somalia (5, 756) and some other nations (4,095). Among the migrants, 64, 625 were said to have applied for asylum (Ojugbana, 2015). In the case of Nigeria, most of the migrants were victims of human trafficking hoodwinked by syndicates as a result of their desperation to travel to Europe or Asia for a better life. Thus, human trafficking is a complex phenomenon of which many people are involved at both family and community levels, as well as at the border or international transactions. The Guardian Opinion (June 29, 2004) observed that Nigeria is a well-known player in human trafficking. According to the paper, the country serves as” a base camp and transit channel for traffickers and their human commodity”. The paper also noted that inside the country and at border areas some locations are known to be target spots for operations. In a similar view, Oloko cited in Okpalakunne (2006) explained that human trafficking consists of both national and trans-national recruitment and movement of persons for the purpose of providing cheap, manipulatable and exploitable labour for domestic and agricultural work, commercial sex work or prostitution, begging, unregulated industrial work and street trading. The South-east and South-south geo-political zones of Nigeria are noted for active involvement in human trafficking. For instance, several thousands of children are known to have been trafficked from Igbo land, Akwa Ibom and Cross River states to Lagos, Benin Republic, Togo and Gabon for the purpose of engaging them in child labour, which is akin to child slavery. The high rate of child trafficking became a major source of concern to the Akwa, Ibom State government that it banned “all forms of trafficking in children from the state to other parts of the country to serve as house-helps or cheap labour of any form” in 2004. The government also threatened to “deal drastically with parents who persist and promote trafficking in children” (Njoku, 2015). The Western part of the country is also involved in child trafficking for the purpose of using them as cheap labour for domestic work, agricultural production, including cocoa and rubber farms. Nwakamma (2004) reported that Asewele, a community in Ondo State is a spot for child slavery. He stated that both males and females were sold at a price of about N25, 000.00 each across the border and there were always prospective buyers. He also noted that despite the efforts being made by the police and immigration officers, Nigerian borders are still vulnerable as far as child trafficking is concerned. In Benin City, capital of Edo State, there were syndicates who specialized in recruiting and sponsoring young ladies to Europe especially Italy, Amsterdam and Belgium for prostitution. Taire (2004) observed that it was since 2000 that the issue of Nigerian women in general, and ladies from Benin city and its environs in particular going to Europe to work as commercial sex workers had become a real cause for concern. Similarly, THIS DAY (May 3, 2004) in a story culled from Economist stated that people-trafficking in Benin-city was an organized and lucrative trade. The paper observed that it was riot possible to know how many ladies were shipped out each year, but that “everyone in Benin-city knows who has gone”. The paper noted that the girls were recruited by local sponsors “who pay up-front for transport, and the girls therefore start out with thousands of dollars in debt” The major reasons for the persistence of the ugly phenomenon of human trafficking in Nigeria include pervasive poverty in the society especially at the family level; the frightening problem of unemployment among the populace particularly the youths, and ignorance of the prospective victims of human trafficking about their fate in foreign countries. Some other reasons include bad leadership that has failed to improve the welfare of the citizens thereby resulting in mass disillusionment and the urge by many citizens to leave the country in search for better living conditions in other countries; the abuse of traditional method of fostering children and get-rich-quick syndrome in contemporary Nigerian society. There is also the pressures of urban migration which have stretched the demands for house helps and, in turn, induced the internal trafficking of young boys and girls conscripted sometimes into near slave labour (The Guardian Editorial, June 29, 2004). Moreover, there is the problem of the existence of powerful and influential syndicates within and outside Nigeria that coordinate and finance the despicable business, and the lure of huge profit that accrue to them annually from it. IGWEBUIKE: An African Journal of Arts and Humanities Vol. 4 No 2, June 2018. ISSN: 2488-9210(Online) 2504-9038(Print) (A Publication of Tansian University, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies)

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United Nations

Unodc country office nigeria, unodc trains naptip investigators and prosecutors on human trafficking case management practices.

UNODC Nigeria

expository essay on human trafficking in nigeria

At the Side Event to the High-level meeting of the UN General Assembly on the appraisal of the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons in November 2021, the Director-General of the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) Dr. Fatima Waziri-Azi made reference to the newest edition of the UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons . She highlighted that the report’s analysis of court case summaries, showed that Sub-Saharan Africa still have the lowest rates in convictions and victim identification. She therefore called upon UNODC to further investigate cases from African countries to help NAPTIP improving its law enforcement responses at national and regional levels.

In a response to this call, UNODC trained 25 NAPTIP investigators and prosecutors on case management practices from the 30 th November to 2 nd December 2021 within the project ‘’Strengthening Nigeria’s Criminal Justice Response to Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants’’ (PROMIS Nigeria), funded by the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The training focused on a broad range of topics, including: strengthening the coordination between investigators and prosecutors; analysis of four closed NAPTIP cases and limitations of prosecuting under the previous Trafficking In Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act of 2003.

Participants at the training appreciated the practical approach of the sessions and agreed going forward on a few things such as: holding case team meetings before, during, and after every case to ensure an air-tight case; testing the admissibility of electronic evidence in court especially for cases regarding minors; building trust and integrity amongst case teams; and having, statements for victims and suspects verbatim rather than written in processed English which could be discredited in court.

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Guest Essay

Who Owns the ‘Victorious Youth’?

A photo illustration of a bronze sculpture of a human body with spaghetti wrapped around the lower torso.

By Adam Kuper

Mr. Kuper is an anthropologist and the author, most recently, of “The Museum of Other People: From Colonial Acquisitions to Cosmopolitan Exhibitions.” He wrote from London.

In the summer of 1964, Italian fishermen recovered an antique bronze statue from the seabed off Italy’s Adriatic coast. They landed it in the small port of Fano, where it disappeared for almost a decade; apparently it spent some time in a priest’s bathtub and a cabbage patch. It reappeared in the gallery of a Munich art dealer who dated it to around 400 B.C. and claimed that it was the work of Lysippos, an Athenian sculptor. The Getty Foundation bought it in 1977 for almost $4 million and put it on display as the “Victorious Youth” at the Getty Villa, where it still is.

Though maybe not for much longer. In 2018 Italy’s highest court declared the statue the property of Italy — while conceding that it might have been discovered in international waters and that the sculptor was probably Greek.

Some of the reasoning was technical: The statue had been landed at an Italian port by an Italian-flagged vessel and had remained on Italian soil for several years. Some arguments depended on historical interpretation: When the statue was created, the judge said, “the artist had most probably visited Rome and Taranto.” The judge added, “At the relevant time, Greece and Rome had enjoyed good relations, and thereafter, Roman civilization developed as a continuation of Hellenic civilization.” These considerations were, in the judge’s view, sufficient to establish a “significant connection” with Italy, a state that came into existence in 1861. In May, the European Court of Human Rights upheld Italy’s right to seize the statue.

This is a time of reckoning for museums. There is widespread agreement, even in museums, that questionable pieces in collections should be returned. But returned to whom? If a statue cast in Greece 2,000 years ago is discovered off the coast of Italy, is it part of the heritage of modern Italy? The Italian courts seem to think so. If a statue cast in Rome 2,000 years ago is discovered in Greece, Cyprus or Turkey, would it belong to one of those states, or would Italians have a claim over Roman antiquities on the ground that they share a culture — whatever that may mean — with ancient Romans? Is the modern Italian Republic the heir to the multiethnic Roman Empire, which spanned most of Europe, the Near East and parts of North Africa for more than four centuries?

These are hard questions that may not have satisfactory answers. When an item is hundreds of years old, museums cannot simply hand it back to a person it once belonged to, and it is not usually a straightforward matter to identify the original owners or their descendants. The default response is to send the object to the rulers of the modern nation within whose boundaries it was probably first found. That can lead to incongruities.

Consider a recent case that came out of the Manhattan district attorney’s office. Matthew Bogdanos, the assistant district attorney who heads that department’s Antiquities Trafficking Unit, presented to the Chinese Consulate in New York 38 miscellaneous East Asian antiquities that his office had confiscated. Among them were what Kate Fitz Gibbon, the executive director of the Committee for Cultural Policy, a U.S. think tank, described to me in an email as “a grab bag” of Tibetan Buddhist objects, some of them “likely copies.”

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How a disillusioned Nigerian man’s trek to Europe becomes a test of faith and ambition

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Book Review

The Road to the Salt Sea

By Samuel Kọ́láwọlé Amistad: 304 pages, $28.99 If you buy books linked on our site, The Times may earn a commission from Bookshop.org , whose fees support independent bookstores.

Countless Christian songs exalt the ableness of God, but the tune that makes up my childhood soundtrack is the one my mother, a gospel guitarist, would sing when her faith hit the rockiest of shores: “If you’ve tried everything and everything failed …You know God is able … try Jesus.”

Her melodies floated back to me as I read Samuel Kọ́láwọlé’s debut novel “The Road to the Salt Sea,” which follows the story of Able God, an ambitious Nigerian man disillusioned with his stagnant life. He gets drawn into a crime that sends him into the clutches of a charismatic religious leader promising impoverished Lagos residents better-paying jobs in Italy. As Able God and his fellow migrants embark on this journey, there is a foreboding sense that what lies ahead might be even more treacherous than the realities they’re leaving behind. This harrowing migration story wrestles with themes of family pressure, personal ambition, modern-day slavery, religion and that ever-prevailing Western insistence on positive manifestation — a self-help philosophy that can feel disconnected from the horrors of war and other calamities.

With a close third-person narrator, the book opens like a thriller — with Able God hiding and nursing a wound — before the narrative quickly flashes back to the events leading up to this fateful moment. At 32, the college-educated Able God is not living the life his mother had imagined for him when she bestowed him with such an aspirational name. He’s stuck in a dead-end job at a luxury hotel in Lagos, where the glass walls, gleaming chandeliers and vast lobby stand in stark contrast to his one-room apartment devoid of electricity.

A deeply religious woman who weaves her Yoruba traditions and Christian faith, Able God’s mother rebukes him: “Do you want to serve others for the rest of your life?”

While he has long strayed from his religious upbringing, Able God is just as idealistic as his mother; he’s simply bound to another form of faith: self-help books whose affirmational phrases he repeats like proverbs.

Determined to “think” his way into manifesting the life he fantasizes about (world-renowned chess player or wealthy business magnate), every day he flashes his “hundred-watt toothpaste-commercial” smile at hotel guests, affluent people he believes could help catapult him into a better future. But Able God also resents the way some of the travelers treat hotel workers and other working-class Lagos residents. “How had he acquired his wealth?” Able God wonders about a guest named Dr. Badero. “He was sure he’d built his wealth on the blood, sweat and toil of the powerless.”

Able God and his co-workers witness all manner of outlandish behavior from privileged guests, but when Dr. Badero turns violent against a sex worker who lives in Able God’s neighborhood, Able God cannot turn a blind eye. “He had known men like Dr. Badero all his life, men who dominated women — and who hurt them. Men who thought sexual conquest was a God-given right.” Such an assessment could be lifted from these fictional pages and plopped into recent news recounting the actions of powerful men.

Obsessed with saving the woman he believes is in danger, Able God becomes embroiled in a crime from which no affirmations or prayer can rescue him. A religious leader hawking the migration to Italy promises the trip is “free” and can be paid later with their jobs. This snake-oil salesman’s name is Ben Ten (after the namesake TV series’ cartoon character with the capacity to morph into different aliens).

As he endures an increasingly difficult trip, Able God leans on self-help mantras the more he senses his control over his destiny slipping away. “Enjoy the journey on the way to your destination,” he recalls. Yet not only is this journey not enjoyable — it threatens the lives of the migrants as they cross border checkpoints stocked with corrupt soldiers, trudge through the unforgiving Sahara, face starvation and thirst and enter a part of Libya still reeling from civil war. “We are close to the Promised Land,” Ben Ten tells them after weeks of traveling, but following his announcement comes a dramatic turning point that plummets the migrants into human trafficking, slavery and even graver violence.

In his essay collection, “How to Write About Africa,” the late Kenyan author and journalist Binyavanga Wainaina wrote satirically about journalists and authors who treat one of the world’s most diverse continents as though it were a monolith. “Treat Africa as if it were one country,” he advised, tongue-in-cheek. “It is hot and dusty with rolling grasslands and huge herds of animals and tall, thin people who are starving. … Don’t get bogged down with precise descriptions.”

In “The Road to the Salt Sea,” you’ll find starvation, power dynamics inherent in class systems, the aftereffects of war, but the novel is proof that when a writer dares to broach such themes, stereotypes can be dismantled through specificity, through painting characters as full beings. With his attention to detail and rich crafting of an interior life for Able God, Kọ́láwọlé offers us a masterclass in sensory writing (engaging the five senses in ways that repulse and delight). He subtly weaves history into his narrative and balances his main character’s inner life with the chaos of the external world. “These children lacked guardians and lived in poverty, but they also had freedom.”

In an interview with the Hopkins Review, Kọ́láwọlé, who was born and raised in Ibadan, about 80 miles north of Lagos, says his greatest wish is for his writing “to touch the heart of my reader.” In “The Road to the Salt Sea,” he grabs us by the throat, gut and heart. At times, the suspense is all-engrossing; at other times, one wrenching scene after another overwhelms. Yet the novel reminds us that even in calamitous times, the search for meaning and purpose continues, despite the ways in which mantras might fall short, biblical messages might confound and false prophets and preachers peddle desperate and vulnerable people.

During a stop in Niger, Able God wanders upon a place of worship “reduced to ashes” in what he believes was the result of religious riots. “Could God inhabit something so charred and dilapidated?” he wonders. Able God is no saint, but his fight for physical survival, and even his ability to hold on to a shard of optimism in the face of atrocities, is testament to the tenacity of the human spirit.

Cassandra Lane is author of a memoir, “We Are Bridges,” editor-in-chief of L.A. Parent and a contributor to the anthology “Writing the Golden State: The New Literary Terrain of California.”

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Profile image of Samson B J Dubukumah

This paper looks at the effects of human trafficking and the challenge of the young girl child in the society, furthermore, it also explain Human trafficking as a form of modern slavery, either by recruitment or transfer of people using force or abduction, deception or receiving payment to get consent of a person to have control over another person.

Related Papers

Adejorin Abiona

Introduction. The trafficking of human persons particularly children, for exploitative sexual and commercial labour as a result of their vulnerability, has continued to attract the attention of both national and international mass media, world leaders, academics, advocacy groups, clergy and humanity in general. This is because the trafficking of children has quite a number of negative socio-economic, health and political consequences. This article focuses on child trafficking in Nigeria, and therefore presents the nature, causes and consequences of the menace in Nigeria as well as the legal frame work that guarantees the right of the Nigerian Child against Human Trafficking. The article also makes recommendations on how to practically combat the menace with the instrumentality of the available legal frame work.

expository essay on human trafficking in nigeria

sa'idu abubakar

Research on Humanities and Social Sciences


Abstract Trafficking in humans, especially in minors and young women, for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a worldwide problem. It plagues the United States as much as it does the underdeveloped nations of the world. The International Labor organization — the United Nations (UN) agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues and United Nations’ report of 2002, estimated that between 12 and 17 million people are held in human slavery - forced and bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual and involuntary servitude worldwide, figures more than any at any other time in world history (International Labor Organization, 2002; U.S Department of State, 2002). The study examined the relationship between social cultural factors such as age, tribe, family structure, sexual abuse, physical abuse and trafficking in humans for the purpose of prostitution in Nigeria. Utilizing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), the statistical analysis of the secondary data of 60 records of victims of human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution selected from Women and Children Center in Nigeria was conducted. In the study, 80% of the participants in the sample reported that they had been sexually abused while 66.7% indicated that they have been physically abused. And the probability that victim of human trafficking would be sexually abused increases by 201% (Odds Ratio: 2.010) Keywords: Human Trafficking, Prostitution, Juvenile, Nigeria, sexual and physical abuse, Family structure

Njoku Godian Chibuike

Abstract Human trafficking is an increasing global problem that has existed for ages in the forms of slavery. Children, women and girls are trafficked in several parts of Nigeria for various purposes such as forced labour, rituals and prostitutions. The focus of this paper is on the trafficking of Nigerians within and outside of the country and the efforts of NAPTIP to stop the practice. This paper concludes that only collective efforts from the Nigerian government, the international community and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can this inhuman trade be stopped.


International and local policies/legislations exist on Child Trafficking. However, it remains a serious public health concern in many parts of the world particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. This paper explores the problem in Nigeria and proffers appropriate solution. It involves illegal recruitment and movement of children for the purpose of exploitation. Different factors predispose to trafficking in the country, mainly due to social, political or economic reasons. Of recent, the phenomenon of Baby factory becomes very common in some parts of the country, leading to young girls mobilized into the trafficking cycle and giving birth to children for sale in black markets. Trafficking occurs either locally within the country or internationally through various routes, across all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Various health implications associated with trafficking exist, these include physical, mental or sexual consequences, hence, the article outline existing legislations, barriers and ways of controlling the menace.

ABSTRACT The phenomenon of the trafficking of human beings, especially children into exploitative sexual and commercial labour as a result of their vulnerability, has begun to attract both national and international attention from the mass media, world leaders, academics, advocacy groups, the clergy and humanity in general. This is against the back drop of the fact that the trafficking of children has a number of far-reaching socio-economic, health and political negative consequences. Several factors, among them poverty, unemployment, ignorance and family size have been implicated as being reasons why women fall easy preys to the antics of traffickers. From available statistics, it can be said that the Nigerian female child is often trafficked within and outside the country for sexual exploitation while the male children are often trafficked for domestic servitude thereby depriving the children of basic primary education. Fighting the menace requires coordinated and concerted efforts from all stakeholders. This paper presents the nature, causes and consequences of the trafficking of the Nigerian Child as well as the laws that guarantee the right against trafficking of the Nigerian Child. Empirical evidence indicates that the activities of traffickers, corrupt embassy officials, the country’s porous borders, poverty, refusal of victims to expose traffickers, delay in prosecuting apprehended culprits, youth unemployment among others have synthesized to undermine the combat against the menace. The study makes far-reaching recommendations about how to mitigate the identified obstacles and practically fight the menace with the instrument of available legal frame works

Acta Juridica Hungarica

Michael Ogwezzy

casestudies journal , muhammad arshad

Human trafficking has generated serious attention in the last two decades worldwide. This is not unconnected to the fact that it has become a global menace. Several international, regional and national treaties and conventions have been adopted to end this inhuman trade. Nigeria has been identified as a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking. This paper examines the causes of human trafficking in Nigeria and its implications on national development. It also examines the international, regional and global responses to human trafficking. The study recommends that the government should empower Nigerian women as a way of reducing their vulnerability to this trade. The government should build capacities and also make sufficient budgetary allocation to the agencies that are involved in apprehending human traffickers and those that are responsible for the rehabilitation of their victims

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