Assignment of Contract

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What is an Assignment of Contract?

An assignment of contract is a legal term that describes the process that occurs when the original party (assignor) transfers their rights and obligations under their contract to a third party (assignee). When an assignment of contract happens, the original party is relieved of their contractual duties, and their role is replaced by the approved incoming party.

How Does Assignment of Contract Work?

An assignment of contract is simpler than you might think.

The process starts with an existing contract party who wishes to transfer their contractual obligations to a new party.

When this occurs, the existing contract party must first confirm that an assignment of contract is permissible under the legally binding agreement . Some contracts prohibit assignments of contract altogether, and some require the other parties of the agreement to agree to the transfer. However, the general rule is that contracts are freely assignable unless there is an explicit provision that says otherwise.

In other cases, some contracts allow an assignment of contract without any formal notification to other contract parties. If this is the case, once the existing contract party decides to reassign his duties, he must create a “Letter of Assignment ” to notify any other contract signers of the change.

The Letter of Assignment must include details about who is to take over the contractual obligations of the exiting party and when the transfer will take place. If the assignment is valid, the assignor is not required to obtain the consent or signature of the other parties to the original contract for the valid assignment to take place.

Check out this article to learn more about how assigning a contract works.

Contract Assignment Examples

Contract assignments are great tools for contract parties to use when they wish to transfer their commitments to a third party. Here are some examples of contract assignments to help you better understand them:

Anna signs a contract with a local trash company that entitles her to have her trash picked up twice a week. A year later, the trash company transferred her contract to a new trash service provider. This contract assignment effectively makes Anna’s contract now with the new service provider.

Hasina enters a contract with a national phone company for cell phone service. The company goes into bankruptcy and needs to close its doors but decides to transfer all current contracts to another provider who agrees to honor the same rates and level of service. The contract assignment is completed, and Hasina now has a contract with the new phone company as a result.

Here is an article where you can find out more about contract assignments.

deed of assignment of a contract

Assignment of Contract in Real Estate

Assignment of contract is also used in real estate to make money without going the well-known routes of buying and flipping houses. When real estate LLC investors use an assignment of contract, they can make money off properties without ever actually buying them by instead opting to transfer real estate contracts .

This process is called real estate wholesaling.

Real Estate Wholesaling

Real estate wholesaling consists of locating deals on houses that you don’t plan to buy but instead plan to enter a contract to reassign the house to another buyer and pocket the profit.

The process is simple: real estate wholesalers negotiate purchase contracts with sellers. Then, they present these contracts to buyers who pay them an assignment fee for transferring the contract.

This process works because a real estate purchase agreement does not come with the obligation to buy a property. Instead, it sets forth certain purchasing parameters that must be fulfilled by the buyer of the property. In a nutshell, whoever signs the purchase contract has the right to buy the property, but those rights can usually be transferred by means of an assignment of contract.

This means that as long as the buyer who’s involved in the assignment of contract agrees with the purchasing terms, they can legally take over the contract.

But how do real estate wholesalers find these properties?

It is easier than you might think. Here are a few examples of ways that wholesalers find cheap houses to turn a profit on:

  • Direct mailers
  • Place newspaper ads
  • Make posts in online forums
  • Social media posts

The key to finding the perfect home for an assignment of contract is to locate sellers that are looking to get rid of their properties quickly. This might be a family who is looking to relocate for a job opportunity or someone who needs to make repairs on a home but can’t afford it. Either way, the quicker the wholesaler can close the deal, the better.

Once a property is located, wholesalers immediately go to work getting the details ironed out about how the sale will work. Transparency is key when it comes to wholesaling. This means that when a wholesaler intends to use an assignment of contract to transfer the rights to another person, they are always upfront about during the preliminary phases of the sale.

In addition to this practice just being good business, it makes sure the process goes as smoothly as possible later down the line. Wholesalers are clear in their intent and make sure buyers know that the contract could be transferred to another buyer before the closing date arrives.

After their offer is accepted and warranties are determined, wholesalers move to complete a title search . Title searches ensure that sellers have the right to enter into a purchase agreement on the property. They do this by searching for any outstanding tax payments, liens , or other roadblocks that could prevent the sale from going through.

Wholesalers also often work with experienced real estate lawyers who ensure that all of the legal paperwork is forthcoming and will stand up in court. Lawyers can also assist in the contract negotiation process if needed but often don’t come in until the final stages.

If the title search comes back clear and the real estate lawyer gives the green light, the wholesaler will immediately move to locate an entity to transfer the rights to buy.

One of the most attractive advantages of real estate wholesaling is that very little money is needed to get started. The process of finding a seller, negotiating a price, and performing a title search is an extremely cheap process that almost anyone can do.

On the other hand, it is not always a positive experience. It can be hard for wholesalers to find sellers who will agree to sell their homes for less than the market value. Even when they do, there is always a chance that the transferred buyer will back out of the sale, which leaves wholesalers obligated to either purchase the property themselves or scramble to find a new person to complete an assignment of contract with.

Learn more about assignment of contract in real estate by checking out this article .

Who Handles Assignment of Contract?

The best person to handle an assignment of contract is an attorney. Since these are detailed legal documents that deal with thousands of dollars, it is never a bad idea to have a professional on your side. If you need help with an assignment of contract or signing a business contract , post a project on ContractsCounsel. There, you can connect with attorneys who know everything there is to know about assignment of contract amendment and can walk you through the whole process.

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Attorney Cory Barack specializes in business, real estate, probate, and energy law. He can help you with oil/gas leases, easements, property sales, drafting contracts and wills, setting up companies, and resolving disputes. He is licensed to practice law in Ohio and is located in Eastern Ohio.

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Deed of Assignment (for Intellectual Property)

a formal legal document used to transfer all rights

In the realm of intellectual property, a Deed of Assignment is a formal legal document used to transfer all rights, title, and interest in intellectual property from the assignor (original owner) to the assignee (new owner). This is crucial for the correct transfer of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and other IP rights. The deed typically requires specific legal formalities, sometimes notarization, to ensure it is legally enforceable.

To be legally effective a deed of assignment must contain:

  • Title of the Document : It should clearly be labeled as a "Deed of Assignment" to identify the nature of the document.
  • Date : The date on which the deed is executed should be clearly mentioned.
  • Parties Involved : Full names and addresses of both the assignor (the party transferring the rights) and the assignee (the party receiving the rights). This identifies the parties to the agreement.
  • Recitals : This section provides the background of the transaction. It typically includes details about the ownership of the assignor and the intention behind the assignment.
  • Definition and Interpretation : Any terms used within the deed that have specific meanings should be clearly defined in this section.
  • Description of the Property or Rights : A detailed description of the property or rights being assigned. For intellectual property, this would include details like patent numbers, trademark registrations , or descriptions of the copyrighted material.
  • Terms of Assignment : This should include the extent of the rights being transferred, any conditions or limitations on the assignment, and any obligations the assignor or assignee must fulfill as part of the agreement.
  • Warranties and Representations : The assignor typically makes certain warranties regarding their ownership of the property and the absence of encumbrances or third-party claims against it.
  • Governing Law : The deed should specify which jurisdiction's laws govern the interpretation and enforcement of the agreement.
  • Execution and Witnesses : The deed must be signed by both parties, and depending on jurisdictional requirements, it may also need to be witnessed and possibly notarized.
  • Schedules or Annexures : If there are detailed lists or descriptions (like a list of patent numbers or property descriptions), these are often attached as schedules to the main body of the deed.

Letter of Assignment (for Trademarks and Patents)

Letter of Assignment

This is a less formal document compared to the Deed of Assignment and is often used to record the assignment of rights or licensing of intellectual property on a temporary or limited basis. While it can outline the terms of the assignment, it may not be sufficient for the full transfer of legal title of IP rights. It's more commonly used in situations like assigning the rights to use a copyrighted work or a trademark license.

For example, company X allows company Y to use their trademark for specific products in a specific country for a specific period.  

At the same time, company X can use a Letter of Assignment to transfer a trademark to someone. In this case, it will be similar to the Deed of Assignment. 

Intellectual Property Sales Agreement

Intellectual Property Sales Agreement

An IP Sales Agreement is a detailed contract that stipulates the terms and conditions of the sale of intellectual property. It covers aspects such as the specific rights being sold, payment terms, warranties regarding the ownership and validity of the IP, and any limitations or conditions on the use of the IP. This document is essential in transactions involving the sale of IP assets.

However, clients usually prefer to keep this document confidential and prepare special deeds of assignment or letter of assignment for different countries.

IP Transfer Declaration

IP Transfer Declaration

In the context of intellectual property, a Declaration is often used to assert ownership or the originality of an IP asset. For example, inventors may use declarations in patent applications to declare their invention is original, or authors may use it to assert copyright ownership. It's a formal statement, sometimes required by IP offices or courts.

When assigning a trademark, the Declaration can be a valid document to function as a proof of the transfer. For example, a director of company X declares that the company had sold its Intellectual Property to company Y. 

Merger Document

Merger Document

When companies or entities with significant IP assets merge, an IP Merger Document is used. This document outlines how the intellectual property owned by the merging entities will be combined or managed. It includes details about the transfer, integration, or handling of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and any other intellectual property affected by the merger.

In all these cases, the precise drafting of documents is critical to ensure that IP rights are adequately protected and transferred. Legal advice is often necessary to navigate the complexities of intellectual property laws.

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Deed of Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that records the transfer of ownership of a real estate property from one party to another. 3 min read

Updated October 8,2020:

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that records the transfer of ownership of a real estate property from one party to another. It states that a specific piece of property will belong to the assignee and no longer belong to the assignor starting from a specified date. In order to be valid, a deed of assignment must contain certain types of information and meet a number of requirements.

What Is an Assignment?

An assignment is similar to an outright transfer, but it is slightly different. It takes place when one of two parties who have entered into a contract decides to transfer all of his or her rights and obligations to a third party and completely remove himself or herself from the contract.

Also called the assignee, the third party effectively replaces the former contracting party and consequently assumes all of his or her rights and obligations. Unless it is stated in the original contract, both parties to the initial contract are typically required to express approval of an assignment before it can occur. When you sell a piece of property, you are making an assignment of it to the buyer through the paperwork you sign at closing.

What Is a Deed of Assignment?

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that facilitates the legal transfer of ownership of real estate property. It is an important document that must be securely stored at all times, especially in the case of real estate.

In general, this document can be described as a document that is drafted and signed to promise or guarantee the transfer of ownership of a real estate property on a specified date. In other words, it serves as the evidence of the transfer of ownership of the property, with the stipulation that there is a certain timeframe in which actual ownership will begin.

The deed of assignment is the main document between the seller and buyer that proves ownership in favor of the seller. The party who is transferring his or her rights to the property is known as the “assignor,” while the party who is receiving the rights is called the “assignee.”

A deed of assignment is required in many different situations, the most common of which is the transfer of ownership of a property. For example, a developer of a new house has to sign a deed of assignment with a buyer, stating that the house will belong to him or her on a certain date. Nevertheless, the buyer may want to sell the house to someone else in the future, which will also require the signing of a deed of assignment.

This document is necessary because it serves as a temporary title deed in the event that the actual title deed for the house has not been issued. For every piece of property that will be sold before the issuance of a title deed, a deed of assignment will be required.

Requirements for a Deed of Assignment

In order to be legally enforceable, an absolute sale deed must provide a clear description of the property being transferred, such as its address or other information that distinguishes it from other properties. In addition, it must clearly identify the buyer and seller and state the date when the transfer will become legally effective, the purchase price, and other relevant information.

In today's real estate transactions, contracting parties usually use an ancillary real estate sale contract in an attempt to cram all the required information into a deed. Nonetheless, the information found in the contract must be referenced by the deed.

Information to Include in a Deed of Assignment

  • Names of parties to the agreement
  • Addresses of the parties and how they are binding on the parties' successors, friends, and other people who represent them in any capacity
  • History of the property being transferred, from the time it was first acquired to the time it is about to be sold
  • Agreed price of the property
  • Size and description of the property
  • Promises or covenants the parties will undertake to execute the deed
  • Signatures of the parties
  • Section for the Governors Consent or Commissioner of Oaths to sign and verify the agreement

If you need help understanding, drafting, or signing a deed of assignment, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel's marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.

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Content Approved by UpCounsel

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Drafting a Deed of Assignment

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Note: Want to skip the guide and go straight to the free templates? No problem - scroll to the bottom. Also note: This is not legal advice.

Introduction

A Deed of Assignment is a vital legal document used to transfer rights, interests or assets between parties. It is regularly used in business transactions, and often regarding real estate or intellectual property. A well-crafted deed of assignment can protect both sides from potential legal disputes, ensuring that everyone involved understands their obligations and responsibilities.

The Genie AI team has seen many instances where having a valid deed of assignment can make all the difference - without it businesses could be exposed to considerable risk. That’s why we offer free templates and step-by-step guides to help those wishing to draft their own deed.

When creating a Deed of Assignment it is important to take the specific circumstances into account - any changes or additions should be accurately documented and agreed by all involved parties beforehand. Furthermore, it is essential that the terms are clearly written out in an unambiguous way so every party knows exactly what they have signed up for. Beyond protecting both sides’ interests, this type of agreement can also be used for copyright assignments, leases, debt transfers and trusts.

Before signing on the dotted line it’s also critical that executing such documentation is done properly - all parties must sign in the presence of a witness who will also affix their signature and date the document accordingly. Once this process has been completed filings must then be made with any relevant government authorities whenever necessary (especially in cases involving real estate or intellectual property transfers).

In summary, drafting a Deed of Assignment not only safeguards everyone’s best interests but also provides additional benefits depending on its use case - reading through our step-by-step guidance below should provide you with more information on how to access our template library today and start benefitting from its advantages without needing to sign up for an account with Genie AI first!

Definitions (feel free to skip)

Legal Binding: When a legally binding document is used, it means that all parties involved are legally obligated to follow the terms and conditions set forth in the document.

Assignor: The assignor is the person who is transferring rights, interests or assets to someone else.

Assignee: The assignee is the person who is receiving the rights, interests or assets from the assignor.

Witness: A witness is an independent third-party who is present when a document is signed, in order to ensure that the process is completed in a secure and legally binding manner.

Stamp: A stamp is an official seal or mark that is used to verify and authenticate a document.

Tax: A tax is a sum of money that is paid to a government or public authority.

Duty: Duty is an obligation or responsibility assigned to someone.

Defining the Deed of Assignment

What is a deed of assignment and what is its purpose, parties involved, who needs to be involved in the making of a deed of assignment, drafting the deed, determine what kind of deed of assignment needs to be drafted, consider the subject matter to be assigned in the deed, research the legal requirements for the kind of deed to be drafted, draft the deed of assignment in accordance with the legal requirements, executing the deed, check that the parties to the deed are correctly identified, confirm that the deed is correctly signed and dated by all parties, confirm that the deed is witnessed by an independent third party, have the deed of assignment properly executed by all parties, registration, determine whether the deed of assignment needs to be registered, if registration is necessary, confirm the registration procedures, take necessary steps to register the deed of assignment, considerations, consider any applicable tax or stamp duty implications of the deed of assignment, consider any restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, consider whether the deed of assignment needs to be registered in any public records, common mistakes, not accurately identifying all of the parties to the deed, not having the deed properly executed by all parties, not having the deed witnessed by an independent third party, not considering any applicable tax or stamp duty implications, not considering any applicable restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, record keeping, ensure that the original deed of assignment is securely stored, create a digital copy of the deed and store it in a secure manner, review the deed of assignment to ensure accuracy, confirm that all steps have been completed correctly, seek advice from legal professionals if necessary, get started.

  • Establish the parties involved in the Deed of Assignment
  • Identify the property or service being assigned
  • Specify the terms of the assignment
  • Ensure the Deed of Assignment is properly witnessed
  • Check that all signatures are valid

When you have completed the steps above, you will have successfully defined the Deed of Assignment and can proceed to the next step.

  • A deed of assignment is a legal document that is used to transfer the rights and responsibilities of one party (the assignor) to another party (the assignee)
  • It is used to transfer contractual rights and obligations between parties
  • It should include information such as the names of the parties, the date of the assignment, and the description of the rights transferred
  • You will know that you have completed this step when you have an understanding of what a deed of assignment is and why it is used.
  • Identify the party transferring their rights (the assignor) and the party receiving the rights (the assignee)
  • Draft the deed in the name of both parties, including full names and contact details
  • Ensure the deed is signed by both the assignor and assignee
  • Once the deed is signed, the parties should exchange copies of the document

Once the assignor and assignee have been identified and the deed has been drafted and signed, you can check this step off your list and move on to the next step.

  • Identify the parties involved in the Deed of Assignment. This would typically include the assignor (the party transferring their rights or interest) and the assignee (the party receiving the rights or interest).
  • Ensure that all parties involved have the legal capacity to enter into a contract.
  • When all parties have been identified and their legal capacity has been verified, you can check this step off your list and move on to drafting the Deed.
  • Read the applicable laws in your jurisdiction to determine the required language and structure of the Deed of Assignment
  • Gather the necessary information on the parties, the asset being assigned, and other relevant details
  • Draft the Deed of Assignment, taking into account all the necessary details
  • Make sure the language is clear and unambiguous
  • Have the Deed of Assignment reviewed by a legal professional
  • When the Deed of Assignment has been drafted and reviewed, you can move on to the next step.
  • Identify the type of assignment that needs to be drafted and the legal requirements that need to be satisfied
  • Consider the purpose of the Deed and the rights and obligations of the parties to the Deed
  • Determine if the Deed is for an absolute or conditional assignment
  • Consider if the Deed should be an express or implied assignment
  • Determine if the Deed needs to be in writing or if it can be oral
  • Check the applicable laws in your jurisdiction to ensure that you are drafting a valid Deed
  • Check if there are any additional requirements that need to be included in the Deed

When you can check this off your list: Once you have identified the type of assignment and the relevant legal requirements, you can move on to considering the subject matter to be assigned in the Deed.

  • Identify the subject matter of the Deed of Assignment, such as a patent, trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property
  • Assess the value of the subject matter and any associated liabilities
  • Understand the relationship between the assignor and assignee
  • Have all necessary documents, such as a purchase agreement, to provide more detail about the assignment

Once you have identified the subject matter of the Deed of Assignment, assessed its value, understand the relationship between the assignor and assignee, and gathered any additional documents, you can move onto the next step of researching the legal requirements for the kind of Deed to be drafted.

  • Research the relevant legislation, case law, and other materials related to the Deed of Assignment to be drafted
  • Consult with a lawyer familiar with the relevant law to understand the requirements
  • Take detailed notes on the legal requirements that must be adhered to in the Deed of Assignment
  • Once you have all the necessary information, double-check that you understand the requirements before moving on to the next step.
  • Prepare the text of the Deed, ensuring that all relevant information regarding the parties, the subject matter, and the consideration is included
  • Check to make sure the language conforms with relevant laws and regulations
  • Have the Deed reviewed by a solicitor to ensure that it complies with all legal requirements
  • Once the Deed has been approved by a solicitor, have the parties sign the document
  • Once the Deed has been signed by both parties, make multiple copies and ensure each party has a copy
  • This step is complete once the Deed has been signed and each party has a copy of the document.
  • Ensure both parties sign the Deed of Assignment in the presence of two witnesses who are over the age of 18 and not parties to the Deed
  • Have both parties sign the deed in the presence of two witnesses and have the witnesses sign the deed to attest to witnessing the signature of the parties
  • Check that the parties have signed the Deed in the presence of the witnesses by noting the signatures and the dates of signature in the execution clause of the Deed
  • Once the Deed has been executed, have the parties date and keep a copy of the Deed in a secure place
  • You will know that you have completed this step when the Deed has been properly executed by the parties in the presence of two witnesses.
  • Identify all parties to the Deed and verify that their details are correct.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed are identified in the document and that the details of each party are accurate and up-to-date.
  • Check that the names, addresses and contact details of each party are correct.
  • Once you have verified that the parties and their details are correctly identified, you can move on to the next step.
  • Check that all parties have signed the Deed in the correct place, and that the date of signature is correct
  • Ensure that each party has signed the Deed in the presence of an independent witness
  • Check that all parties have signed the Deed with their full name and title, if applicable
  • Confirm that the date of signature is correct and that all parties have signed on the same date
  • Once you have verified that all parties have correctly signed and dated the Deed, you can proceed to the next step.
  • Ensure that the Deed is witnessed by an independent third party who is not a party to the Deed.
  • Ask the third party to sign the Deed and provide their name, address, occupation and date of signing.
  • Check that the third party has signed and dated the Deed.
  • Once the above is complete, you can check this step off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Obtain signatures from all parties on the deed of assignment, ensuring that each party signs in the presence of a witness
  • Have an independent third party witness each party’s signature
  • Ensure that all parties have a valid form of identification, such as a driver’s license or passport, available for inspection by the witness
  • Ensure that all parties sign the deed of assignment in the presence of the witness
  • Obtain the witness’ signature, confirming that all parties signed in the presence of the witness
  • You will know this step is completed once all parties have signed the deed of assignment and the witness has signed confirming they were present during the signing.
  • Obtain a copy of the executed Deed of Assignment from all parties
  • Contact the relevant state or territory office to determine whether the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered
  • If registration is required, complete the necessary forms, pay the registration fee, and submit the required documents
  • Once the Deed of Assignment is registered, the registrar will issue a certificate of registration
  • Check off this step when you have received and reviewed the certificate of registration.
  • Research the applicable laws and regulations in the relevant jurisdiction to decide if the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered
  • Consult a legal professional if unsure
  • When you have the answer, you can move on to the next step.
  • Confirm what type of Deed of Assignment requires registration with the relevant government agency or registry.
  • Research the registration procedures and the requirements you must meet in order to register the Deed of Assignment.
  • Obtain any fees or additional documents that are necessary to complete the registration process.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed of Assignment understand the registration process and the requirements for completing it.

You can check off this step once you have researched and confirmed the registration procedures for the Deed of Assignment.

  • Gather the necessary documents for registration, such as the Deed of Assignment, supporting documents, and the applicable fee
  • Visit the registration office to register the Deed of Assignment
  • Submit the necessary documents to the registration office
  • Pay the applicable fee
  • Obtain a copy of the registered Deed of Assignment
  • Upon completion of the above steps, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Review and understand the nature of the rights and obligations being assigned
  • Determine if there are any restrictions or limitations in the assignment
  • Assess if any approvals are needed from third parties before the assignment is valid
  • Confirm that the assignor has the right to assign the interest being transferred
  • Check to see if the assignee has the necessary capacity to accept the assignment
  • Analyze if the assignment is subject to any applicable laws or regulations
  • Determine if any additional documentation is needed to support the assignment
  • Once you have considered all of the above, you can proceed with drafting the Deed of Assignment.
  • Check with your local taxation authority or a qualified tax professional to see if the Deed of Assignment is subject to any taxes or stamp duty.
  • Ensure that the Deed of Assignment includes any required taxes or stamp duty payments.
  • Check to see if the tax or stamp duty implications vary by jurisdiction.
  • Once you’ve considered the tax or stamp duty implications, you can move on to the next step.
  • Identify any restrictions or limitations that could affect the transfer of rights in the Deed of Assignment
  • Consider whether there are any legal restrictions that must be observed in the transfer of the rights being assigned
  • Research any relevant industry standards or regulations to ensure that the restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned are compliant
  • Ensure that the Deed of Assignment clearly outlines the restrictions or limitations of the rights being assigned
  • When all restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned are taken into consideration, checked for compliance and outlined in the Deed of Assignment, this step is complete.
  • Consider whether the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered with any government or public agencies.
  • Determine if any registration is required or optional.
  • Research the relevant regulations and laws to ensure that the assignments are properly recorded.
  • Check any local requirements or restrictions.
  • Once you have determined that the Deed of Assignment does or does not need to be registered, you can move on to the next step in the process.

• Read over the Deed of Assignment twice to make sure you’re accurately identifying all of the parties to the Deed. Make sure you include the full names and addresses of the assignor and assignee, as well as any other relevant parties. • Check that the legal description of the subject property is accurate. • Ensure that the consideration (the amount being exchanged for the assignment) is stated clearly and accurately. • Make sure that the names of the initial parties to the Deed are also included in the recitals. • Ensure that the recitals and the express terms of the Deed are consistent with one another. • Make sure that the Deed is signed, notarized, and delivered in accordance with state law.

Once you’ve completed the above steps, you can check off this task and move on to the next step in the guide.

  • Identify the assignor and assignee. The assignor is the party transferring their rights and the assignee is the party receiving the rights.
  • Check all of the details are correct. This includes the names, addresses and other contact information for both parties.
  • Draft the deed to ensure that the assignor and assignee are accurately identified.
  • You can check this off your list and move on to the next step once you have confirmed that the assignor and assignee have been accurately identified in the deed.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed have read, understood and agreed to the terms and conditions of the agreement.
  • Have all parties affix their signature to the Deed and the accompanying documents.
  • Check that all the signatures are dated and in the presence of a witness.
  • When all parties have properly executed the Deed, you can move on to the next step.
  • Ensure all parties have signed the Deed in the presence of a witness.
  • The witness must be an independent third party who is not a party to the Deed.
  • The witness must sign each page of the Deed that contains a party’s signature.
  • The witness must also include their full name, address and occupation on the Deed.
  • Once all of the above requirements are met, then you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Determine the applicable taxes or stamp duty implications for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Research any applicable taxes or stamp duty fees for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Calculate the applicable taxes or stamp duty fees for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Make sure to include the applicable taxes or stamp duty fees in the Deed of Assignment.

Once you have determined the applicable taxes or stamp duty implications for the Deed of Assignment, and included them in the Deed of Assignment, you can move on to the next step.

  • Determine the rights that you are assigning and review any applicable laws or regulations to ensure that the assignment of such rights is permitted.
  • Consider any applicable contractual restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, such as any applicable confidentiality obligations or restrictions on the transfer of rights.
  • Once you have determined that the assignment of the rights is permitted and there are no applicable restrictions or limitations, you can proceed to the next step of recording keeping.
  • Create a record of the Deed of Assignment, including the date it was executed, by each party
  • Maintain a copy of the Deed of Assignment in a secure place
  • Record any additional related documents, such as any security documents, release documents, or other agreements
  • When all of the above have been done, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Obtain a physical copy of the original Deed of Assignment
  • Ensure the original Deed is signed by both parties
  • Keep the original Deed in a safe and secure place, such as a locked filing cabinet or safe
  • Make sure the document is stored in a location that is accessible to both parties
  • Ensure that the original Deed is not destroyed or tampered with in any way

You can check this off your list and move on to the next step once the original Deed of Assignment is safely stored in a secure location.

  • Scan or take a digital photo of the original Deed of Assignment and save it to a secure location.
  • Ensure that the digital copy is readable and clearly displays all of the information contained in the original document.
  • Ensure that the digital copy is stored in a secure location, preferably on a cloud-based storage system or other secure server.
  • Make sure that only authorized personnel have access to the digital copy of the Deed.
  • When finished, you will have created a digital copy of the Deed and stored it in a secure manner.
  • Read over the Deed of Assignment to ensure accuracy
  • Make sure all details are correct, and all parties are named
  • Verify that all signatures are complete and accurate
  • Make sure the date of the assignment is correct
  • Check that the document is formatted and laid out correctly
  • Once you are satisfied with the accuracy of the Deed of Assignment, you can move on to the next step.
  • Read through the entire document to make sure all the information is correct
  • Double check that the names and details of the parties involved are spelled correctly
  • Ensure that all the dates are accurate, and that any and all parties have signed the deed in the right places
  • Check that the terms and conditions in the deed are consistent with the agreement between the parties
  • When you have verified all the details, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Check the Deed of Assignment to ensure that all required elements are present, including accurate information and signatures of all parties.
  • Verify that any and all attachments to the Deed of Assignment are included and accurate.
  • Ensure that all dates, signatures, and other pieces of information are accurate and up-to-date.
  • Once you’ve confirmed that all of the steps have been completed correctly, you can move on to the next step.
  • Seek professional advice from a lawyer or other legal professional to ensure that the deed of assignment is legally binding and enforceable.
  • Request that the legal professional checks that all steps have been completed correctly, and that the deed of assignment meets all requirements under local law.
  • Ask the legal professional to provide you with written advice on any changes or revisions that may be necessary to make the deed of assignment valid and enforceable.
  • Once the legal professional has confirmed that the deed is legally sound, you can check off this step and proceed with the next one.
  • Research legal professionals who are able to provide advice and assistance with the drafting of a deed of assignment
  • Contact the legal professionals to discuss the specific requirements and details of the deed of assignment
  • Ask the legal professionals if they are able to provide advice and assistance with the deed of assignment
  • Receive advice from the legal professionals and make changes to the deed of assignment accordingly
  • Once you are satisfied with the changes to the deed of assignment, you can move on to the next step.

Q: Does a Deed of Assignment need to be signed?

Asked by John on April 23rd 2022. A: Yes, a Deed of Assignment needs to be signed by both the assignor and the assignee in order for it to be legally binding. The signatures should be witnessed and dated, and should be in front of an independent witness who is not related to either party. It is also important to include the relevant clauses and provisions in the deed, as these will set out the rights and obligations of each party.

Q: What is the difference between an assignment and a novation?

Asked by Sarah on July 29th 2022. A: An assignment is a transfer of rights or obligations from one party to another, while a novation is a transfer of rights or obligations from one party to another with the consent of all parties involved. An assignment does not necessarily require the consent of all parties, while a novation always requires the consent of all parties. Additionally, an assignment can transfer rights or obligations without necessarily extinguishing any pre-existing agreements, while a novation extinguishes any pre-existing agreements.

Q: Is a Deed of Assignment legally binding in different jurisdictions?

Asked by Tyler on October 17th 2022. A: Yes, a Deed of Assignment can be legally binding in different jurisdictions, though the exact requirements for validity may differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In general, however, a Deed of Assignment needs to be signed by both parties and witnessed by an independent third party in order for it to be legally binding. Additionally, the deed should include all relevant clauses and provisions that are applicable in each jurisdiction.

Q: Are there any tax implications when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Emma on January 15th 2022. A: Yes, there are tax implications that need to be taken into account when drafting a Deed of Assignment. Depending on the jurisdiction and specific tax laws, there may be tax implications for both parties if they are transferring rights or obligations under the deed. It is important to seek professional tax advice before entering into any agreement that involves transferring rights or obligations between parties as this could have significant financial implications for all involved.

Q: Do I need legal advice when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Jacob on June 5th 2022. A: While it is not necessary to seek legal advice when drafting a Deed of Assignment, it is generally recommended in order to ensure that all relevant legal requirements are satisfied and that all involved parties are aware of their rights and obligations under the deed. It is also important to make sure that all language used in the deed is clear and unambiguous so that it can easily be understood by all parties involved.

Q: How can I ensure that my Deed of Assignment is valid?

Asked by Michael on August 28th 2022. A: In order for your Deed of Assignment to be valid, it must meet certain legal requirements which vary between jurisdictions. Generally speaking, your deed should include all relevant clauses and provisions applicable in your jurisdiction as well as signatures from both parties which should be witnessed by an independent third party who is not related to either party involved. Additionally, any language used within the document should be clear and unambiguous so that it can easily be understood by all involved parties.

Q: What information do I need to provide when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Ashley on November 10th 2022. A: When drafting a Deed of Assignment, you will need to provide information about both parties involved such as their names, addresses, contact details and any other relevant information required under applicable laws in your jurisdiction. Additionally, you will need to include any relevant clauses or provisions applicable in your jurisdiction which will set out the rights and obligations of each party under the deed as well as any other information required for the document to be legally binding.

Q: What are common mistakes made when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Joshua on February 20th 2022. A: One common mistake made when drafting a Deed of Assignment is failing to include all relevant clauses or provisions applicable in your jurisdiction which set out the rights and obligations of each party involved in the agreement. Additionally, failing to have the document signed by both parties or witnessed by an independent third party can render the document invalid or unenforceable under applicable law in some jurisdictions. Moreover, using ambiguous language within the document can also lead to misunderstandings and disputes further down the line which could be avoided if clear language was used throughout the document instead.

Example dispute

Lawsuit referencing a deed of assignment.

  • The plaintiff may raise a lawsuit if they have been wronged by the defendant in a way that is outlined in the deed of assignment.
  • For example, the deed of assignment may outline that the defendant is responsible for paying a certain amount of money to the plaintiff, and the defendant has failed to do so.
  • The plaintiff may also raise a lawsuit if the defendant has failed to adhere to any other obligations laid out in the deed of assignment.
  • The plaintiff would need to prove that the defendant has breached the deed of assignment in order to win the lawsuit.
  • If successful, the plaintiff may be able to obtain a judgment in their favor, which may require the defendant to pay the plaintiff the money they are owed.
  • In addition, the plaintiff may be able to seek other damages, such as punitive damages, if the breach of the deed of assignment was particularly egregious.
  • Depending on the severity of the breach, the plaintiff may also be able to seek an injunction to prevent the defendant from continuing to breach the deed of assignment.
  • Settlement of the dispute may also be possible, wherein the defendant agrees to pay a certain amount of money to the plaintiff, or agrees to adhere to the obligations laid out in the deed of assignment.

Templates available (free to use)

Deed Of Assignment For Rent Deposits Occupation Lease Deed Of Assignment Of Benefit Of Claim For The Freehold Or Extended Lease House Under Section 8 Or Section 14 Deed Of Assignment Of Equitable Interest In Residential Land Deed Of Assignment Of Goodwill And Intellectual Property Rights Transfer Of A General Partnership To An Llp Deed Of Assignment Of Property Sale Benefits [Section 42 Deed Of A

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Understanding an assignment and assumption agreement

Need to assign your rights and duties under a contract? Learn more about the basics of an assignment and assumption agreement.

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deed of assignment of a contract

updated November 24, 2023 · 3min read

The assignment and assumption agreement

The basics of assignment and assumption, filling in the assignment and assumption agreement.

While every business should try its best to meet its contractual obligations, changes in circumstance can happen that could necessitate transferring your rights and duties under a contract to another party who would be better able to meet those obligations.

Person presenting documents to another person who is signing them

If you find yourself in such a situation, and your contract provides for the possibility of assignment, an assignment and assumption agreement can be a good option for preserving your relationship with the party you initially contracted with, while at the same time enabling you to pass on your contractual rights and duties to a third party.

An assignment and assumption agreement is used after a contract is signed, in order to transfer one of the contracting party's rights and obligations to a third party who was not originally a party to the contract. The party making the assignment is called the assignor, while the third party accepting the assignment is known as the assignee.

In order for an assignment and assumption agreement to be valid, the following criteria need to be met:

  • The initial contract must provide for the possibility of assignment by one of the initial contracting parties.
  • The assignor must agree to assign their rights and duties under the contract to the assignee.
  • The assignee must agree to accept, or "assume," those contractual rights and duties.
  • The other party to the initial contract must consent to the transfer of rights and obligations to the assignee.

A standard assignment and assumption contract is often a good starting point if you need to enter into an assignment and assumption agreement. However, for more complex situations, such as an assignment and amendment agreement in which several of the initial contract terms will be modified, or where only some, but not all, rights and duties will be assigned, it's a good idea to retain the services of an attorney who can help you draft an agreement that will meet all your needs.

When you're ready to enter into an assignment and assumption agreement, it's a good idea to have a firm grasp of the basics of assignment:

  • First, carefully read and understand the assignment and assumption provision in the initial contract. Contracts vary widely in their language on this topic, and each contract will have specific criteria that must be met in order for a valid assignment of rights to take place.
  • All parties to the agreement should carefully review the document to make sure they each know what they're agreeing to, and to help ensure that all important terms and conditions have been addressed in the agreement.
  • Until the agreement is signed by all the parties involved, the assignor will still be obligated for all responsibilities stated in the initial contract. If you are the assignor, you need to ensure that you continue with business as usual until the assignment and assumption agreement has been properly executed.

Unless you're dealing with a complex assignment situation, working with a template often is a good way to begin drafting an assignment and assumption agreement that will meet your needs. Generally speaking, your agreement should include the following information:

  • Identification of the existing agreement, including details such as the date it was signed and the parties involved, and the parties' rights to assign under this initial agreement
  • The effective date of the assignment and assumption agreement
  • Identification of the party making the assignment (the assignor), and a statement of their desire to assign their rights under the initial contract
  • Identification of the third party accepting the assignment (the assignee), and a statement of their acceptance of the assignment
  • Identification of the other initial party to the contract, and a statement of their consent to the assignment and assumption agreement
  • A section stating that the initial contract is continued; meaning, that, other than the change to the parties involved, all terms and conditions in the original contract stay the same

In addition to these sections that are specific to an assignment and assumption agreement, your contract should also include standard contract language, such as clauses about indemnification, future amendments, and governing law.

Sometimes circumstances change, and as a business owner you may find yourself needing to assign your rights and duties under a contract to another party. A properly drafted assignment and assumption agreement can help you make the transfer smoothly while, at the same time, preserving the cordiality of your initial business relationship under the original contract.

Belle Wong, J.D.

by   Belle Wong, J.D.

Belle Wong, is a freelance writer specializing in small business, personal finance, banking, and tech/SAAS. She ...

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Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights [Parts and Template]

Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights (Parts and Template)

A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights is a legal document used when a person or a company who originally was a party to a contract (also known as the assignor or transferor) transfers his or its rights under the contract to another party (the assignee or transferee).

Accordingly, when the Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights has been drafted on the basis that in the original contract there is no prohibition to or restriction on assignment, and hence signed by both parties, it can be consequently assigned without the other contracting party’s consent.

In this article, I’ll try to dissect a sample Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights of a St. Peter Life Plan and provide descriptions of its fundamental elements or parts. As drafting a deed requires abundant caution, presence of mind, and knowledge of property and other allied laws, I highly advise that you seek help from experts and experienced in legal transactions.

Parts of a Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights

[1] Title of Deed . As implied above, deeds come in different forms and types. Check if the document and the first section displays the title – Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights. Conventionally, the first paragraph runs:

  KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:

This deed, made and entered made and entered into this 13 rd day of January 2018 at the City of Manila, by and between:

[2] Parties Involved . A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights must contain accurate information about the identities of the assigning and assigned parties. Other information such as age legality, citizenship, and postal address must be included, just as seen below:

Juan De la Cruz, Filipino citizen, of legal age, married to Josefina De la Cruz, and with residence and postal address at 123 Kasiglahan Street, Karangalan Village, Dela Paz, Pasig City, Philippines, hereinafter referred to as the “ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR”

Sebastian Maliksi, Filipino citizen, of legal age, single, and with residence and postal address at 456 Kasimanwa Street, Karangalan Village, Dela Paz, Pasig City, Philippines, hereinafter referred to as the “ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE”

[3] Contract Details . A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights must contain a detailed description of the contract, hence in the context here – St. Peter Traditional Life Plan (St. Anne) contract and the Life Plan Agreement (LPA) Number:

WHEREAS, the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR is the owner of life / memorial plan contract which is identified as St. Peter Traditional Life Plan (St. Anne), with Life Plan Agreement No. 123456;

[4] Contract Assignment and Transfer Agreement . As one of the most important and critical parts, this specifies the terms and conditions of the agreement. See sample below:

WHEREAS, for and in consideration of the value of the plan and out of accommodation and assistance for the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE, the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR is assigning and transferring all his/her rights and interests over the Life Plan mentioned in the immediately preceding paragraph to the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE;

NOW, therefore for and in consideration of forgoing premises, the parties hereto have agreed on the following terms and conditions, to wit;

THE ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR, hereby waives all his / her rights and interests in the subject life plan in favor of the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE. It is understood that when the Life Plan is assigned / availed of, then all obligations of St. Peter Life Plan, Inc. are fulfilled and discharged.

As a consequence of this assignment / transfer of rights, the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE hereby assumes all the obligations and accountabilities of the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR to St. Peter Life Plan, Inc. in connection with the life plan contract which it issued to the latter.

The ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE obligates and / or undertakes to comply with and abide by the requirements which St. Peter Life Plan Inc. may impose in connection with the purchase, possession, and use of the said Life Plan particularly the requirement that it should be fully paid before the memorial service could be availed of pursuant to the Life Plan.

[5] Execution . Once the Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights is drafted, the parties involved shall execute it by affixing their signatures. Other than the assigning and assigned parties, witnesses should also sign all the pages of the document. In addition, the deed shall be acknowledged and notarized by a legal practitioner.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have hereunto set their hands on the date and place first above written.

[  Assignor/Transferor]                           [Assignee/Transferee]

SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:

[Witness]                                                    [Witness]

Disclaimer: Although much effort has been exerted in the creation of this article, the author disclaims any legal expertise and does not guarantee the accuracy and legitimacy of any or all of the information. Hence, it is advised that you consult with professionals such as insurance brokers and lawyers before engaging in legal transactions.    

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Contract Assignment Agreement

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This Contract Assignment Agreement document is used to transfer rights and responsibilities under an original contract from one Party, known as the Assignor, to another, known as the Assignee. The Assignor who was a Party to the original contract can use this document to assign their rights under the original contract to the Assignee, as well as delegating their duties under the original contract to that Assignee. For example, a nanny who as contracted with a family to watch their children but is no longer able to due to a move could assign their rights and responsibilities under the original service contract to a new childcare provider.

How to use this document

Prior to using this document, the original contract is consulted to be sure that an assignment is not prohibited and that any necessary permissions from the other Party to the original contract, known as the Obligor, have been obtained. Once this has been done, the document can be used. The Agreement contains important information such as the identities of all parties to the Agreement, the expiration date (if any) of the original contract, whether the original contract requires the Obligor's consent before assigning rights and, if so, the form of consent that the Assignor obtained and when, and which state's laws will govern the interpretation of the Agreement.

If the Agreement involves the transfer of land from one Party to another , the document will include information about where the property is located, as well as space for the document to be recorded in the county's official records, and a notary page customized for the land's location so that the document can be notarized.

Once the document has been completed, it is signed, dated, and copies are given to all concerned parties , including the Assignor, the Assignee, and the Obligor. If the Agreement concerns the transfer of land, the Agreement is then notarized and taken to be recorded so that there is an official record that the property was transferred.

Applicable law

The assignment of contracts that involve the provision of services is governed by common law in the " Second Restatement of Contracts " (the "Restatement"). The Restatement is a non-binding authority in all of U.S common law in the area of contracts and commercial transactions. Though the Restatement is non-binding, it is frequently cited by courts in explaining their reasoning in interpreting contractual disputes.

The assignment of contracts for sale of goods is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code (the "UCC") in § 2-209 Modification, Rescission and Waiver .

How to modify the template

You fill out a form. The document is created before your eyes as you respond to the questions.

At the end, you receive it in Word and PDF formats. You can modify it and reuse it.

Other names for the document: Assignment Agreement, Assignment of Contract Agreement, Contract Assignment, Transfer of Contract Agreement, Transfer of Agreement

Country: United States

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  • assignments basic law

Assignments: The Basic Law

The assignment of a right or obligation is a common contractual event under the law and the right to assign (or prohibition against assignments) is found in the majority of agreements, leases and business structural documents created in the United States.

As with many terms commonly used, people are familiar with the term but often are not aware or fully aware of what the terms entail. The concept of assignment of rights and obligations is one of those simple concepts with wide ranging ramifications in the contractual and business context and the law imposes severe restrictions on the validity and effect of assignment in many instances. Clear contractual provisions concerning assignments and rights should be in every document and structure created and this article will outline why such drafting is essential for the creation of appropriate and effective contracts and structures.

The reader should first read the article on Limited Liability Entities in the United States and Contracts since the information in those articles will be assumed in this article.

Basic Definitions and Concepts:

An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the “assignor” to another party called the “assignee.” The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment. The assignment of rights under a contract usually completely transfers the rights to the assignee to receive the benefits accruing under the contract. Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court , 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950).

An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the underlying contract or lease. Where assignments are permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract but may merely assign the rights at that time. However, an assignment cannot have any adverse effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it diminish the chance of the other party receiving complete performance. The assignor normally remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary by the other party to the contract.

The effect of a valid assignment is to remove privity between the assignor and the obligor and create privity between the obligor and the assignee. Privity is usually defined as a direct and immediate contractual relationship. See Merchants case above.

Further, for the assignment to be effective in most jurisdictions, it must occur in the present. One does not normally assign a future right; the assignment vests immediate rights and obligations.

No specific language is required to create an assignment so long as the assignor makes clear his/her intent to assign identified contractual rights to the assignee. Since expensive litigation can erupt from ambiguous or vague language, obtaining the correct verbiage is vital. An agreement must manifest the intent to transfer rights and can either be oral or in writing and the rights assigned must be certain.

Note that an assignment of an interest is the transfer of some identifiable property, claim, or right from the assignor to the assignee. The assignment operates to transfer to the assignee all of the rights, title, or interest of the assignor in the thing assigned. A transfer of all rights, title, and interests conveys everything that the assignor owned in the thing assigned and the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor. Knott v. McDonald’s Corp ., 985 F. Supp. 1222 (N.D. Cal. 1997)

The parties must intend to effectuate an assignment at the time of the transfer, although no particular language or procedure is necessary. As long ago as the case of National Reserve Co. v. Metropolitan Trust Co ., 17 Cal. 2d 827 (Cal. 1941), the court held that in determining what rights or interests pass under an assignment, the intention of the parties as manifested in the instrument is controlling.

The intent of the parties to an assignment is a question of fact to be derived not only from the instrument executed by the parties but also from the surrounding circumstances. When there is no writing to evidence the intention to transfer some identifiable property, claim, or right, it is necessary to scrutinize the surrounding circumstances and parties’ acts to ascertain their intentions. Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998)

The general rule applicable to assignments of choses in action is that an assignment, unless there is a contract to the contrary, carries with it all securities held by the assignor as collateral to the claim and all rights incidental thereto and vests in the assignee the equitable title to such collateral securities and incidental rights. An unqualified assignment of a contract or chose in action, however, with no indication of the intent of the parties, vests in the assignee the assigned contract or chose and all rights and remedies incidental thereto.

More examples: In Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs ., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998), the court held that the assignee of a party to a subordination agreement is entitled to the benefits and is subject to the burdens of the agreement. In Florida E. C. R. Co. v. Eno , 99 Fla. 887 (Fla. 1930), the court held that the mere assignment of all sums due in and of itself creates no different or other liability of the owner to the assignee than that which existed from the owner to the assignor.

And note that even though an assignment vests in the assignee all rights, remedies, and contingent benefits which are incidental to the thing assigned, those which are personal to the assignor and for his sole benefit are not assigned. Rasp v. Hidden Valley Lake, Inc ., 519 N.E.2d 153, 158 (Ind. Ct. App. 1988). Thus, if the underlying agreement provides that a service can only be provided to X, X cannot assign that right to Y.

Novation Compared to Assignment:

Although the difference between a novation and an assignment may appear narrow, it is an essential one. “Novation is a act whereby one party transfers all its obligations and benefits under a contract to a third party.” In a novation, a third party successfully substitutes the original party as a party to the contract. “When a contract is novated, the other contracting party must be left in the same position he was in prior to the novation being made.”

A sublease is the transfer when a tenant retains some right of reentry onto the leased premises. However, if the tenant transfers the entire leasehold estate, retaining no right of reentry or other reversionary interest, then the transfer is an assignment. The assignor is normally also removed from liability to the landlord only if the landlord consents or allowed that right in the lease. In a sublease, the original tenant is not released from the obligations of the original lease.

Equitable Assignments:

An equitable assignment is one in which one has a future interest and is not valid at law but valid in a court of equity. In National Bank of Republic v. United Sec. Life Ins. & Trust Co. , 17 App. D.C. 112 (D.C. Cir. 1900), the court held that to constitute an equitable assignment of a chose in action, the following has to occur generally: anything said written or done, in pursuance of an agreement and for valuable consideration, or in consideration of an antecedent debt, to place a chose in action or fund out of the control of the owner, and appropriate it to or in favor of another person, amounts to an equitable assignment. Thus, an agreement, between a debtor and a creditor, that the debt shall be paid out of a specific fund going to the debtor may operate as an equitable assignment.

In Egyptian Navigation Co. v. Baker Invs. Corp. , 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30804 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 14, 2008), the court stated that an equitable assignment occurs under English law when an assignor, with an intent to transfer his/her right to a chose in action, informs the assignee about the right so transferred.

An executory agreement or a declaration of trust are also equitable assignments if unenforceable as assignments by a court of law but enforceable by a court of equity exercising sound discretion according to the circumstances of the case. Since California combines courts of equity and courts of law, the same court would hear arguments as to whether an equitable assignment had occurred. Quite often, such relief is granted to avoid fraud or unjust enrichment.

Note that obtaining an assignment through fraudulent means invalidates the assignment. Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters. It vitiates the most solemn contracts, documents, and even judgments. Walker v. Rich , 79 Cal. App. 139 (Cal. App. 1926). If an assignment is made with the fraudulent intent to delay, hinder, and defraud creditors, then it is void as fraudulent in fact. See our article on Transfers to Defraud Creditors .

But note that the motives that prompted an assignor to make the transfer will be considered as immaterial and will constitute no defense to an action by the assignee, if an assignment is considered as valid in all other respects.

Enforceability of Assignments:

Whether a right under a contract is capable of being transferred is determined by the law of the place where the contract was entered into. The validity and effect of an assignment is determined by the law of the place of assignment. The validity of an assignment of a contractual right is governed by the law of the state with the most significant relationship to the assignment and the parties.

In some jurisdictions, the traditional conflict of laws rules governing assignments has been rejected and the law of the place having the most significant contacts with the assignment applies. In Downs v. American Mut. Liability Ins. Co ., 14 N.Y.2d 266 (N.Y. 1964), a wife and her husband separated and the wife obtained a judgment of separation from the husband in New York. The judgment required the husband to pay a certain yearly sum to the wife. The husband assigned 50 percent of his future salary, wages, and earnings to the wife. The agreement authorized the employer to make such payments to the wife.

After the husband moved from New York, the wife learned that he was employed by an employer in Massachusetts. She sent the proper notice and demanded payment under the agreement. The employer refused and the wife brought an action for enforcement. The court observed that Massachusetts did not prohibit assignment of the husband’s wages. Moreover, Massachusetts law was not controlling because New York had the most significant relationship with the assignment. Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the wife.

Therefore, the validity of an assignment is determined by looking to the law of the forum with the most significant relationship to the assignment itself. To determine the applicable law of assignments, the court must look to the law of the state which is most significantly related to the principal issue before it.

Assignment of Contractual Rights:

Generally, the law allows the assignment of a contractual right unless the substitution of rights would materially change the duty of the obligor, materially increase the burden or risk imposed on the obligor by the contract, materially impair the chance of obtaining return performance, or materially reduce the value of the performance to the obligor. Restat 2d of Contracts, § 317(2)(a). This presumes that the underlying agreement is silent on the right to assign.

If the contract specifically precludes assignment, the contractual right is not assignable. Whether a contract is assignable is a matter of contractual intent and one must look to the language used by the parties to discern that intent.

In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, the rights and duties under a bilateral executory contract that does not involve personal skill, trust, or confidence may be assigned without the consent of the other party. But note that an assignment is invalid if it would materially alter the other party’s duties and responsibilities. Once an assignment is effective, the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor and assumes all of assignor’s rights. Hence, after a valid assignment, the assignor’s right to performance is extinguished, transferred to assignee, and the assignee possesses the same rights, benefits, and remedies assignor once possessed. Robert Lamb Hart Planners & Architects v. Evergreen, Ltd. , 787 F. Supp. 753 (S.D. Ohio 1992).

On the other hand, an assignee’s right against the obligor is subject to “all of the limitations of the assignor’s right, all defenses thereto, and all set-offs and counterclaims which would have been available against the assignor had there been no assignment, provided that these defenses and set-offs are based on facts existing at the time of the assignment.” See Robert Lamb , case, above.

The power of the contract to restrict assignment is broad. Usually, contractual provisions that restrict assignment of the contract without the consent of the obligor are valid and enforceable, even when there is statutory authorization for the assignment. The restriction of the power to assign is often ineffective unless the restriction is expressly and precisely stated. Anti-assignment clauses are effective only if they contain clear, unambiguous language of prohibition. Anti-assignment clauses protect only the obligor and do not affect the transaction between the assignee and assignor.

Usually, a prohibition against the assignment of a contract does not prevent an assignment of the right to receive payments due, unless circumstances indicate the contrary. Moreover, the contracting parties cannot, by a mere non-assignment provision, prevent the effectual alienation of the right to money which becomes due under the contract.

A contract provision prohibiting or restricting an assignment may be waived, or a party may so act as to be estopped from objecting to the assignment, such as by effectively ratifying the assignment. The power to void an assignment made in violation of an anti-assignment clause may be waived either before or after the assignment. See our article on Contracts.

Noncompete Clauses and Assignments:

Of critical import to most buyers of businesses is the ability to ensure that key employees of the business being purchased cannot start a competing company. Some states strictly limit such clauses, some do allow them. California does restrict noncompete clauses, only allowing them under certain circumstances. A common question in those states that do allow them is whether such rights can be assigned to a new party, such as the buyer of the buyer.

A covenant not to compete, also called a non-competitive clause, is a formal agreement prohibiting one party from performing similar work or business within a designated area for a specified amount of time. This type of clause is generally included in contracts between employer and employee and contracts between buyer and seller of a business.

Many workers sign a covenant not to compete as part of the paperwork required for employment. It may be a separate document similar to a non-disclosure agreement, or buried within a number of other clauses in a contract. A covenant not to compete is generally legal and enforceable, although there are some exceptions and restrictions.

Whenever a company recruits skilled employees, it invests a significant amount of time and training. For example, it often takes years before a research chemist or a design engineer develops a workable knowledge of a company’s product line, including trade secrets and highly sensitive information. Once an employee gains this knowledge and experience, however, all sorts of things can happen. The employee could work for the company until retirement, accept a better offer from a competing company or start up his or her own business.

A covenant not to compete may cover a number of potential issues between employers and former employees. Many companies spend years developing a local base of customers or clients. It is important that this customer base not fall into the hands of local competitors. When an employee signs a covenant not to compete, he or she usually agrees not to use insider knowledge of the company’s customer base to disadvantage the company. The covenant not to compete often defines a broad geographical area considered off-limits to former employees, possibly tens or hundreds of miles.

Another area of concern covered by a covenant not to compete is a potential ‘brain drain’. Some high-level former employees may seek to recruit others from the same company to create new competition. Retention of employees, especially those with unique skills or proprietary knowledge, is vital for most companies, so a covenant not to compete may spell out definite restrictions on the hiring or recruiting of employees.

A covenant not to compete may also define a specific amount of time before a former employee can seek employment in a similar field. Many companies offer a substantial severance package to make sure former employees are financially solvent until the terms of the covenant not to compete have been met.

Because the use of a covenant not to compete can be controversial, a handful of states, including California, have largely banned this type of contractual language. The legal enforcement of these agreements falls on individual states, and many have sided with the employee during arbitration or litigation. A covenant not to compete must be reasonable and specific, with defined time periods and coverage areas. If the agreement gives the company too much power over former employees or is ambiguous, state courts may declare it to be overbroad and therefore unenforceable. In such case, the employee would be free to pursue any employment opportunity, including working for a direct competitor or starting up a new company of his or her own.

It has been held that an employee’s covenant not to compete is assignable where one business is transferred to another, that a merger does not constitute an assignment of a covenant not to compete, and that a covenant not to compete is enforceable by a successor to the employer where the assignment does not create an added burden of employment or other disadvantage to the employee. However, in some states such as Hawaii, it has also been held that a covenant not to compete is not assignable and under various statutes for various reasons that such covenants are not enforceable against an employee by a successor to the employer. Hawaii v. Gannett Pac. Corp. , 99 F. Supp. 2d 1241 (D. Haw. 1999)

It is vital to obtain the relevant law of the applicable state before drafting or attempting to enforce assignment rights in this particular area.

Conclusion:

In the current business world of fast changing structures, agreements, employees and projects, the ability to assign rights and obligations is essential to allow flexibility and adjustment to new situations. Conversely, the ability to hold a contracting party into the deal may be essential for the future of a party. Thus, the law of assignments and the restriction on same is a critical aspect of every agreement and every structure. This basic provision is often glanced at by the contracting parties, or scribbled into the deal at the last minute but can easily become the most vital part of the transaction.

As an example, one client of ours came into the office outraged that his co venturer on a sizable exporting agreement, who had excellent connections in Brazil, had elected to pursue another venture instead and assigned the agreement to a party unknown to our client and without the business contacts our client considered vital. When we examined the handwritten agreement our client had drafted in a restaurant in Sao Paolo, we discovered there was no restriction on assignment whatsoever…our client had not even considered that right when drafting the agreement after a full day of work.

One choses who one does business with carefully…to ensure that one’s choice remains the party on the other side of the contract, one must master the ability to negotiate proper assignment provisions.

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  • Practical Law

Deed of assignment of contract (with subcontracting option)

Practical law uk standard document 9-381-3100  (approx. 12 pages).

  • General Contract and Boilerplate
  • Standard documents
  • Insights & events

Assigning debts and other contractual claims - not as easy as first thought

Updates to UK Money laundering rules - key changes

Harking back to law school, we had a thirst for new black letter law. Section 136 of the Law of the Property Act 1925 kindly obliged. This lays down the conditions which need to be satisfied for an effective legal assignment of a chose in action (such as a debt). We won’t bore you with the detail, but suffice to say that what’s important is that a legal assignment must be in writing and signed by the assignor, must be absolute (i.e. no conditions attached) and crucially that written notice of the assignment must be given to the debtor.

When assigning debts, it’s worth remembering that you can’t legally assign part of a debt – any attempt to do so will take effect as an equitable assignment. The main practical difference between a legal and an equitable assignment is that the assignor will need to be joined in any legal proceedings in relation to the assigned debt (e.g. an attempt to recover that part of the debt).

Recent cases which tell another story

Why bother telling you the above?  Aside from our delight in remembering the joys of debating the merits of legal and equitable assignments (ehem), it’s worth revisiting our textbooks in the context of three recent cases. Although at first blush the statutory conditions for a legal assignment seem quite straightforward, attempts to assign contractual claims such as debts continue to throw up legal disputes:

  • In  Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corp Europe Ltd v Euler Hermes Europe SA (NV) [2019] EWHC 2250 (Comm),  the High Court held that a performance bond issued under a construction contract was not effectively assigned despite the surety acknowledging a notice of assignment of the bond. Sadly, the notice of assignment failed to meet the requirements under the bond instrument that the assignee confirm its acceptance of a provision in the bond that required the employer to repay the surety in the event of an overpayment. This case highlights the importance of ensuring any purported assignment meets any conditions stipulated in the underlying documents.
  • In  Promontoria (Henrico) Ltd v Melton [2019] EWHC 2243 (Ch) (26 June 2019) , the High Court held that an assignment of a facility agreement and legal charges was valid, even though the debt assigned had to be identified by considering external evidence. The deed of assignment in question listed the assets subject to assignment, but was illegible to the extent that the debtor’s name could not be deciphered. The court got comfortable that there had been an effective assignment, given the following factors: (i) the lender had notified the borrower of its intention to assign the loan to the assignee; (ii) following the assignment, the lender had made no demand for repayment; (iii) a manager of the assignee had given a statement that the loan had been assigned and the borrower had accepted in evidence that he was aware of the assignment. Fortunately for the assignee, a second notice of assignment - which was invalid because it contained an incorrect date of assignment - did not invalidate the earlier assignment, which was found to be effective. The court took a practical and commercial view of the circumstances, although we recommend ensuring that your assignment documents clearly reflect what the parties intend!
  • Finally, in Nicoll v Promontoria (Ram 2) Ltd [2019] EWHC 2410 (Ch),  the High Court held that a notice of assignment of a debt given to a debtor was valid, even though the effective date of assignment stated in the notice could not be verified by the debtor. The case concerned a debt assigned by the Co-op Bank to Promontoria and a joint notice given by assignor and assignee to the debtor that the debt had been assigned “on and with effect from 29 July 2016”. A subsequent statutory demand served by Promontoria on the debtor for the outstanding sums was disputed on the basis that the notice of assignment was invalid because it contained an incorrect date of assignment. Whilst accepting that the documentation was incapable of verifying with certainty the date of assignment, the Court held that the joint notice clearly showed that both parties had agreed that an assignment had taken place and was valid. This decision suggests that mistakes as to the date of assignment in a notice of assignment may not necessarily be fatal, if it is otherwise clear that the debt has been assigned.

The conclusion from the above? Maybe it’s not quite as easy as first thought to get an assignment right. Make sure you follow all of the conditions for a legal assignment according to the underlying contract and ensure your assignment documentation is clear.

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  • Sample Contracts

FREE 10+ Deed of Assignment of Contract Samples in PDF

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A Deed of Assignment is a legal document that is used in real estate transactions to transfer legal title or ownership of land or buildings from the titleholder (known as the assignor) to another (known as the assignee), usually for a fee. The parties to the transaction execute the conveyance in writing, signing, sealing, and delivering it. This is a very important document that should be delivered to the buyer after the sale of any real property is completed. This document differs from the Contract of Sale in that, while it is an important document in real estate sales and purchases, the contract of sale does not convey legal interest in real estate on its own.

Deed Of Assignment Of Contract

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When a person or company who was originally a party to a contract (Assignor) transfers his or her rights under the contract to another party, this is known as an assignment of contract (Assignee). A party to a contract may later want to assign their contractual rights to a third party for a variety of reasons, such as a change in circumstances. This Deed of Assignment – Assignment of Contract template can be used to transfer the benefit, right, and title of a variety of commercial contracts. It allows the Assignor to assign a contract to another party, the Assignee. Please keep in mind that in order to assign a contract, it must not contain any provisions that prevent or restrict assignment.

1. Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 18 KB

2. Sample Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 713 KB

3. Standard Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 49 KB

4. Bank Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 943 KB

5. Contract Deed of Assignment

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Size: 81 KB

6. Contract Holder Deed of Assignment

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7. Deed of Assignment of Assumption Contract

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Size: 145 KB

8. Company Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 69 KB

9. Third Party Deed of Assignment of Contract

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Size: 188 KB

10. Deed of Assignment of Benefits of Contract

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Size: 132 KB

11. Deed of Assignment of Real Estate Contract

deed of assignment of real estate contract

Any contract that is exclusive to the original contracting parties or explicitly forbids assignment can only be designated with the consent of the other contracting party (Counterparty). If the contract prohibits assignment or demands the consent of the other party to the contract before it can be assigned, the Assignor must obtain the Counterparty’s consent before executing the Deed of Assignment.

This Deed of Assignment – Assignment of Contract was written with the assumption that there is no prohibition or restriction on assignment in the original contract. As a result, where the original contract allows for assignment, it can be assigned without the consent of the other contracting party. It is recommended that you create a Statutory Assignment.

The main difference between the two is that in an Equitable Assignment, the Assignee cannot sue the other party to the original contract in their own name. As a result, the Assignee must join the Assignor as a party to the action if they want to enforce the assigned rights against the other party to the original contract.

How to Use the Document?

The document should include the parties’ names and addresses, a detailed description of the property being conveyed, the property’s origin, and the assignor’s covenants and representations.

The parties should sign the document after it has been completed. If one of the parties is an individual, the document must be signed by the individual and attested by one witness who will put their name, occupation, address, and signature on the document.

If one of the parties is a corporation, the document should bear the corporation’s common seal and be signed by two directors or one director and one company secretary.

After the documents have been implemented correctly, either party (particularly the assignee) should take steps to register the property with the state ministry of lands if it is within the state government’s purview, and the federal ministry of housing and urban development if it is within the federal government’s purview. At least three or four signed copies of this document should be delivered to the Assignee for registration at the appropriate land registry by the Assignor. A signed copy of this document can also be kept for the Assignor’s records.

When do you need a deed of assignment?

When the owner wishes to transfer the property’s ownership (along with its rights and obligations) to another person, a Deed of Assignment is used. The deed is usually carried out as part of (or in addition to) another contract. If this is the case, however, the assignment is only permitted if the original contract permits it and if the other party to the original contract agrees to it.

What information do you need to create a deed of assignment?

You’ll need the following information to create your Deed of Assignment:

  • The assignor’s name and details (such as nationality and address), as well as the type of assignor (individual or business);
  • The type of assignee (individual or business), as well as the assignee’s name and other information (such as nationality and address); and
  • Describe the property to be assigned in a few words.

If you want to see more samples and formats, check out some deed of assignments of contract samples and templates provided in the article for your reference.

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  • Corporations
  • Definitions

business and law

Assignment of Contract (What It Is And How It Works: Best Overview)

deed of assignment of a contract

Looking for Assignment of Contract ?

What is the assignment of a contract in simple terms?

How does it work?

In this article, I will break down the meaning of contract assignment so you know all there is to know about it!

Keep reading as I have gathered exactly the information that you need!

Let me explain to you what assignment of contract means and why it matters!

Are you ready?

Let’s get started!

Table of Contents

What Is Assignment of Contract

The assignment of contract refers to instances where one party to a contract transfers its rights and obligations to another party.

In other words, one contracting party exits the contract and another party steps in the exiting party’s shoes.

For instance, Mary and Joe are parties to a contract.

Joe assigns his rights and obligations under the contract to Tim.

The original contract now continues between Mary and Tim where Joe has stepped out.

The party assigning the contract is called the “assignor” and the third party stepping in to the assignor’s shoes is the “assignee”.

Be sure to keep reading as I will explain to you how the assignment works and it’s important that you know more about the assignor’s liability when assigning the contract.

Assignment Under Contract Law

Under contract law , the assignment of a contract is considered to include the assignment of rights and the delegation of the party’s duties to another.

This means that the assignor’s rights are passed on to the assignee.

In addition to that, the assignor’s duties under the contract are also assigned to the assignee.

Assignment Under Property Law

In property law, the assignment of contract generally takes place between landlords and tenants.

Typically, a person (the tenant) will sign a lease with another party (the landlord) to rent an apartment or premises.

If the tenant wishes to leave the premise without breaching the terms of the contract, an assignment may be an option.

In that case, the tenant will assign its rights and duties under the lease agreement to another party (a new tenant).

How Assignment of Contract Works

To better understand the assignment of contract, let’s look more closely at how it works.

Contract Assignment Clause

One of the first things you should consider when contemplating an assignment of a contract is to find the contract assignment clause in your contract.

In most commercial contracts, the parties will include an assignment clause governing the possible assignment by the parties.

Some contracts will authorize the assignment, others will limit assignment to specific situations, while some contracts entirely prohibit assignments.

Be sure to read the contract assignment to see how your contract regulates assignments.

Consent To Assignment of Contract

In most cases, a contracting party looking to assign the contract to another party will need to get the consent of the other contracting party.

If the staying party consents to the assignment, the assignor can proceed with the assignment of the agreement to a third party (or assignee).

However, if the staying party does not consent to the assignment, then the other party must remain in the contract and observe its contractual obligations.

Assignor’s Liability

Assigning a contract does not necessarily mean that the assignor will be released of all liability under the contract.

Depending on the assignment clause language, the assignor may have the right to assign the contract but continue to remain liable under the contract.

In the event the assignor may continue to remain liable under the contract, it’s important that an assignment agreement be signed where the staying party releases and discharges the assignor of future contract liability .

Assignment Enforceability

Under the assignment law, when a contract is assigned as per the terms of the contract, the assignment will be legally enforceable.

However, assignment contracts are not enforceable if the contract prohibits the assignment, the assignment agreement is not materially consistent with the obligations under the original contract, or the assignment violates public policy or the law in some way.

In addition, a contract cannot be assigned if the assignor is not formally in a contract.

There are also instances where the contract requires that a party with special skills or unique characteristics render the services or perform the obligations, and an assignment would not work.

Keep reading as I will now give you an example of contract assignment so you can see how it works in practice.

Contract Assignment Process

The actual contract assignment process is fairly straightforward for most contracts.

Contract Assignment Steps

Here are the steps you’ll need to take to assign a contract:

  • See if the contract has an assignment clause
  • Make sure that the assignment clause authorizes assignments 
  • If the assignment is authorized, follow the assignment logistic provided in the contract 
  • If the assignment is prohibited, you may want to speak to the other contracting party to see if you could get consent to assign the contract

In some cases, all you may need to do is to give notice of assignment to provide the details of the assignment if the contract allows for an assignment this way.

In other cases, you may want to have an assignment agreement signed by the staying party, the exiting party, and the third party detailing the terms and conditions of the assignment.

Assignment Agreement Content

When a contract assignment agreement is needed, you should make sure that you include all the right information for the assignment to be valid and enforceable.

In most cases, the assignment of the contract is simple where you may find an assignment of contract form online to complete.

For simple assignment contracts, here is the content that you should expect:

  • Identification of the parties (original contract parties and assignee)
  • Contract assignment effective date
  • Original contracting party’s consent to the assignment
  • Assignee’s acceptance of the assignment 
  • Assignor’s release and discharge of obligations going forward 
  • Governing law 
  • Signature block for the three parties 

Alternatives To Assignment Contracts

What are the alternatives to a contract assignment?

Here are the main alternatives to a contract assignment:

  • Novation 

Licensing refers to situations when a party authorizes another party to use a property or asset (whether tangible or intangible).

Delegation is when someone authorizes another to act on its behalf under a contract.

Novation is when a new party takes on a contracting party’s rights and obligations where the existing party’s rights are relinquished and all liability under the original contract wiped out.

Assignment of Contract vs Delegation of Contract

What is the difference between the assignment of a contract and the delegation of a contract?

The “assignment” of contract refers to a situation where one contracting party “transfers” the contract to a third party.

Once the assignment is completed, the assignor will no longer be in a contract with the other contracting party and the assignee will take the assignor’s place.

For example, Party A and Party B are part of a service contract.

Party B assigns the contract to Party C.

Going forward, the contract will be between Party A and Party C.

On the other hand, a delegation is when a party to a contract subcontracts parts of a contract to another party.

The party delegating the contract to another remains a contracting party and will remain responsible for the contract even though the obligations were delegated to another.

For example, a general contractor may delegate the plumbing work in a project to a plumber.

Although the general contractor has delegated part of the project to a subcontractor, it remains a contracting party and will remain responsible for the overall project.

Assignment of Contract Example

Let’s look at a few examples of when a contract may be assigned to another.

Assignment of Contract In Bankruptcy

You have entered into a contract with a company providing you with phone services.

The company goes bankrupt.

In the context of the bankruptcy, another phone company buys out a portion of the bankrupt’s book of business and your contract is in the pool of assets purchased.

The bankruptcy trustee assigns your contract from the bankrupt phone company to the new phone company.

Assignment of Contract In Real Estate

In real estate, some investors engage in assignment transactions where they do not actually buy the property but enter into a purchase contract that it then assigns to another.

In essence, the real estate investor enters into a real estate purchase agreement defining the terms and conditions relating to the purchase of a property.

Following the executing of the real estate purchase agreement and prior to the “closing” of the transaction, it assigns the contract to another party in an attempt to make a profit without ever actually owning the property.

Assignment of Contract In Corporate Restructuring

In the corporate world, companies tend to restructure their operations to ensure they are legally and operationally optimized.

In the context of a corporate restructuring transaction, a company may assign a contract to another entity within its group, a subsidiary, or an affiliate.

Assignment of Agreement Takeaways 

So there you have it folks!

What Does Assignment of Contract Mean

“Assignment of contract” is a legal term used to refer to situations where a party to an existing contract transfers its contractual obligations to another party.

Following the assignment , the assignee becomes responsible to execute the contractual obligations in favor of the party staying in the original contract.

If you are looking to assign a contract, you may want to consult with a qualified contract attorney who can assess your rights and obligations.

Keep in mind that a simple assignment of a contract does not necessarily mean that the assignor is released from liability under the original contract.

Now that you know what is an assignment of contract, how it works, and what it entails, good luck with your transaction!

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If you enjoyed this article on what is an assignment contract, I recommend you look into the following terms and concepts. Enjoy!

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deed of assignment of a contract

Assignment of contract

deed of assignment of a contract

This article is written by Neha Dahiya, a law student at Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Law University, Sonipat. This article explains the meaning, types, and conditions of the assignment of contract. It also seeks to explain the judicial opinion about assignment by the means of a case study. 

This article has been published by Sneha Mahawar .

Table of Contents

Introduction

A contract binds the involved parties to fulfil their obligations. Non-fulfillment of the obligations results in the breach of the contract. Thus, the rights and obligations arising from the contract are owned by the contracting parties. However, in certain cases, these contractual rights and obligations can be transferred to a third party. This is known as the assignment of contract. In a world where the complexity of transactions is increasing continuously, such assignments have become very common. 

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Basics of a contract 

Section 2(h) of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 defines a contract as “an agreement enforceable by law”. It is characterised by an offer and an acceptance along with consideration and is backed by the power of law. An agreement is a promise by one party to another. A proposal once accepted becomes a promise. The formation of a contract results in rights and obligations for both parties. A lawful contract binds both parties to fulfil their obligations. In case they are not fulfilled, the aggrieved party can avail of the remedies provided by the law. 

Thus, Contract= (Offer + Acceptance) Agreement + Enforceability of law 

For example: ‘A’ promises to sell his house to ‘B’ for a consideration of Rs. 50 lakhs. Here, there was an offer to sell the house by ‘A’ and acceptance by ‘B’ for consideration of a fixed sum. It is a lawful agreement and hence is a contract. Here, ‘A’ has the obligation to give the house to ‘B’ and ‘B’ has an obligation to pay the amount. If either of them fails to fulfil their respective obligation, it will result in a breach of the contract. 

What is assignment of contract 

When the rights and obligations in a contract are transferred to a third party, who is not a party to the contract, it is called the assignment of contract. For example, in the case where there was a contract between ‘A’ and ‘B’ where ‘A’ was supposed to pay ‘B’ some amount, ‘A’ had an obligation to pay ‘B’ the amount and ‘B’ had the right to receive the amount. Along with this, if ‘B’ had to pay the same amount to ‘C’ and he asked ‘A’ to pay the money directly to ‘C’, it can be called an assignment of the obligation by ‘B’ to ‘A’. It is covered in Section 37 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. The Section provides that a party can dispense the performance of the contract by the assignment of it to a third party. This concept can also be found in the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 . The use of assignments has increased tremendously in recent times owing to the financial and contractual complexities of the transactions. Usually, it is employed in high-risk transactions that are secured by assigning the contractual rights along with the securities (like hypothecation or mortgage).

The party currently holding the rights and obligations of the existing contract is called the ‘assignor’ and the party to whom they are assigned and taking over the position is called the ‘assignee’. The transfer takes place from the assignor to the assignee. Also, it is pertinent to note that assignment does not affect the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved in any way. These rights and duties remain the same. And even after the transfer, the assignor remains liable if any problems arise unless there was an agreement to the contrary. Thus, the assignment of the contract involves an incorporeal transfer of the rights and obligations. And as per the laws of India, these transfers must be brought onto paper.  

How does assignment of contracts work 

The assignment depends upon several factors including the provisions of the contract entered into by the parties. The original contract may contain a clause that does not permit the assignment or make the consent of the other party necessary before the assignment. The contract can also contain a stipulation that states that the liability of the agreement would lie with the original parties, even after the assignment. This happens in situations where the assignor acts as a guarantor for the performance of duties as per the contract by the assignee. Acting as a guarantor makes the assignor liable. It is also possible that a contract may permit an assignment without any formal notification to the other party. But in this case, it is important for that party to create a ‘Letter of Assignment’ containing the details to notify all other contracting parties. The letter must be signed by both outgoing and incoming parties. 

For example: If ‘A’ and ‘B’ enter into a contract and include a clause that does not allow the assignment of the contract, neither of them can transfer their rights and liabilities to a third party. And if the contract contains a clause that necessitates the requirement of consent, then neither of them can transfer the rights and obligations without the other party’s consent. Also, if ‘A’ decides to assign his obligations to ‘C’ and acts as a guarantor for ‘C’, then also ‘A’ will continue to hold the liability. 

deed of assignment of a contract

Enforceability of the assignment

Usually, assignments of contract rights and obligations are enforceable. However, under some circumstances, they are not enforced. These are as follows:

  • If the provisions of the contract prohibit the assignment of the contract explicitly and it still happens somehow, it will be considered to be void. Such a clause is called an ‘anti-assignment clause’. 
  • Sometimes, due to the assignment of contractual rights and obligations, the basics of the contract are altered. In such circumstances, it cannot be considered enforceable. For example, if performance is affected by the assignment, it will probably not be enforced by the court. 
  • The assignment will not be enforced if it is illegal or contrary to the law in some or the other way. 

Contracts that can be assigned 

As per Indian law, any kind of contract can be assigned, provided it conforms to the provisions of the contract and is carried out with the consent of the parties involved. Also, for any contract whose foundation lies upon the ‘personal skills’ of the promisor, such a contract cannot be assigned under any circumstances. This is because such a contract depends upon the qualities or qualifications of the promisor only and cannot be found in someone else, thus, the obligations cannot be assigned in such a case. This has also been highlighted by our judiciary that two types of contracts can never be assigned, that are:

  • Where the contract is personal in nature.
  • Where the assignment of rights is prohibited either by the law or by the contract.

Thus, it is prudence that is followed while deciding the assignability of a contract. It is prudent to explicitly state the conditions regarding assignment in the contract itself, taking due care of the limits placed by the law.  

Who can handle assignment of a contract 

The most competent person to handle the assignment of contract is an attorney. An attorney is a licensed court practitioner who acts as a deputy or the agent of the party he/she is representing in the court of law. Such contracts need professional expertise as they contain some very technical and intricate details that are crucial for the correct and beneficial assignment. 

Types of assignable contracts

As per the common law, the assignment was done by the way of  three kinds of transactions:

  • Novation- In simple words, it is an agreement wherein both contracting parties permit the substitution of an existing party with a new one in the contract. Thus, there is a novation of contract where the original party is discharged of its obligations and they are transferred to a new party. This can be called the assignment of contractual obligations. However, there is an essential difference between both. In the assignment, the rights and obligations are transferred from one party to another. But in novation, instead of a transfer, one party substitutes another.  
  • Acknowledgment – Where both the parties acknowledge that the interests in the contract can be assigned to a third party in the contract, then the assignment can take place with the consent of both. 
  • Power of attorney – It is a legal document that allows a person to appoint someone to organise or manage various affairs including personal and financial. Thus, in a way it is like appointing an agent to conduct professional transactions, settle claims and cater to business demands.

As per the existing laws in India, there are broadly two types of assignment. 

  • Legal – A legal assignment is the one that is carried out as per Section 130 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 . it is characterised by all the formalities, intention to assign, communication to the assignee, and notice to the debtor. In this, a proper formal agreement is drafted giving assent to the assignment, as per the procedure laid down by the law. The consent of the party is sought first and a notice is sent. Proper communication is sent to the assignee as well. Finally, with all the formalities done, the assignment is carried out. 
  • Equitable – An equitable assignment holds good only in equity and not in the eyes of law. It can be related to a transfer of future benefits which is not enforceable by law. In respect of equitable charges attached to a property, the courts are bound to follow the laws laid down. Thus, as held in B.N. Railway Employees’ Urban Bank v. Seager (1941), an equitable assignment can be created only by a written document as per the provisions of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882. 

Modes of assignment 

The assignment of contractual rights and liabilities has been covered under Section 130 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 under the heading of ‘actionable claim’. An actionable claim can be transferred simply by the execution of a written instrument. Nothing more is required. The contract permitting assignment must be clearly laid down, strictly adhering to the provisions of this Section. The intention to assign must be clear and certain. Under Indian property laws, a deed is required for the assignment. And this deed must be duly stamped. However, stamp duty is extremely high in India. Also, it is a subject that falls in the concurrent list. So when it is legislated on by both centre and states, it leads to variations and there is no uniformity. This acts as a hindrance in the way of assignment. 

Validity of part-assignment

In the case of Doraisami v. Doraisami (1924), following the English precedent, it was held that if there is an assignment of a debt, the transfer must be of the whole debt and not just a portion of it. Thus, part-assignment was not recognised. However, in the subsequent case of Rajamier v. Subramaniam (1928) , the previous judgement was overruled. It was recognized that even though part-assignment was not recognised in the English common law, part-assignment of debt was a valid transfer as it was held to be good in equity. However, it was also laid down that in such part-assignments, while enforcing a claim, it was necessary to implead the owner of the rest of the portion as well. It was observed that no such distinction was made in the Transfer of Property Act, 1882. Thus, both may be transferred under the term ‘actionable claims’. 

However, the only problem that persists is presented by Order 2 Rule 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. As per this, a single cause of action cannot be allowed to be split into many. Thus, it may prevent the owner of a part of the debt from enforcing his rights. Thus, to avoid this, the lenders often submit a substitution claim or notice in the court so that this provision is not applied. 

Assigning intellectual property 

Assignment of intellectual property implies the transfer of the owner’s rights in copyrights, patents, trade secrets, trademarks, and such other intangible properties. Many times, companies look to sell or transfer their intellectual property because an excess of these can prove to be a burden for them. Maintaining intellectual property requires continuous registrations, defending suits against third-party claims or marketing, and creating a finished product. Thus, such transfers can generate good profit for the company and save it from unnecessary expenditure. On the other hand, several companies look for purchasing such property to provide an impetus to their growth. Thus, when intellectual property is assigned, all the rights, titles, and interests with respect to it are transferred to the assignee from the assignor.  

Assignment of contract in real estate 

The use of assignments in real estate is known as ‘real estate wholesaling’ . As per this, the real estate dealers instead of going by the conventional way of buying and selling the house, enter into a contract and then reassign it to another buyer so as to avoid the additional costs and pocket the profit earned in doing so. This is possible because a real estate purchase agreement does not contain a binding obligation to actually buy the property. Such an agreement is called an ‘Assignment of Real Estate Purchase and Sale’ agreement. Thus, here the assignor merely acts as a middleman, selling their right to buy the property with an equitable interest, i.e. in exchange for an assignment fee from the assignee, who is the ultimate buyer of the property.

Alternatives to assignment of contract 

There are certain other types of transfers that operate as an alternative to assignment. 

They are as follows:

  • Licensing- It is an agreement under which a party owning the rights over the property (for example – owning patent rights in case of intellectual property) leases those rights to another, without actually selling or assigning them. Thus, the second party gets a licence to use those rights owned by the first party, for its benefit.  
  • Delegation- Delegation basically implies appointing someone else to do the work for you. For example, ‘A’ gets a contract to cut the grass from ‘B’s garden. ‘A’ might delegate the work to ‘C’ without actually assigning the contract to him. But ‘A’ will still control the work and receive the payment. 

Case laws on assignment of contract 

Kapilaben and ors. v. ashok kumar jayantilal sheth through poa gopalbhai madhusudan patel and ors., (2019), facts of the case.

In this case, the appellants here had executed an agreement to sell in 1986 in favour of some of the respondents. The respondents had paid only a portion of the consideration amount. Thereafter, the original buyers, i.e. the respondents executed another agreement to sell in 1987 in respect of the same property in favour of Respondent 1 who was not included in the agreement of 1986. Subsequently, a dispute arose among the parties, and Respondent 1 filed a petition against both the original sellers and buyers seeking specific performance of the 1987 agreement. The petition was dismissed by a trial court citing that the original buyers could not have transferred the contract and assigned their obligation to a third party without the written consent of the original seller. Additionally, there was no evidence suggesting that the seller’s consent was taken. However, the decision was overruled by the High Court of Gujarat. Later on, the matter went to the Supreme Court of India

Issue involved in the case

Was the assignment of obligations by the original buyers to Respondent 1 without the consent of the original seller valid? 

Judgment of the Court

The Supreme Court laid down the following principles in its judgment:

  • Assignment of contractual liabilities, where the parties agree to substitute the old contract with a new one where the same responsibilities are transferred to another party is called novation. However, this assignment cannot occur without the consent of the other party to the contract. 
  • The rights and obligations under a contract are freely assignable unless the contract is personal in nature or is prohibited by the law. 
  • It was finally held that an assignment cannot be held valid just because it is not explicitly prohibited by the provisions of the contract. In order to classify an interest in the contract to be assignable, the terms of the contract and circumstances must be taken into consideration to infer whether the pirates intended to make the interests assignable.

Robinson v. Davison, (1871) 

In this case , the defendant’s wife had promised to play the piano at a concert. However, she failed to perform owing to her bad health. As a result, the plaintiff sued for compensation. 

Issues involved in the case

  • Can the plaintiff seek compensation in the present case?
  • Could assignment of contract be allowed to a third party?

The Court held that the performance of the present contract depended upon the personal skills of the defendant’s wife, which in turn depended on her good health. Thus, non-performance due to ill-health discharged the contract. Hence, no compensation could be claimed. Also, since the contract was based on the promisor’s personal skills and capability, it could not be assigned to a third party. 

Conclusion 

Assignment of contracts has become a common phenomenon in recent times. However, it is important that the assignments conform to the provisions laid down by the law. It must be carried out with the consent of the contracting parties. There are certain cases where the assignment is not possible like the contracts which are personal in nature, where there is an explicit provision in the contract to prohibit it, or when the law does not allow it in particular cases. These conditions must be adhered to. In fact, our law recognises both legal and equitable assignments. These assignments are covered under the provisions of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, and the Indian Contract Act, 1872. Thus, all the contracts where the contractual rights and obligations are transferred to a third party are valid, provided all the conditions laid down by law are followed. 

References 

  • http://docs.m anupatra.in/newsline/articles/Upload/E915DA6B-361C-493B-91D1-96D8EB703128.pdf
  • https://www.thebalancesmb.com/what-is-an-assignment-of-contract-in-a-business-agreement-4587747
  • https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/assignment-of-contract-basics-32643.html
  • https://www.contractscounsel.com/b/assignment-of-contract  

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What is a Deed of Assignment?

Home > Uncategorized > What is a Deed of Assignment?

  • April 18, 2023

A Deed of Assignment is a legal document used to transfer ownership of a property or asset from one party to another. It is an important document that establishes the transfer of rights and obligations between the assignor (original owner) and the assignee (new owner).

Table of Contents

Deed of assignment in construction.

In the construction industry, a deed of assignment is a legal document used to transfer rights and responsibilities from one party to another. The deed of assignment is commonly used in situations where a construction project is being transferred from one contractor to another. The document outlines the specific terms of the transfer and the responsibilities of the new contractor.

The purpose of the deed of assignment is to ensure that the transfer of the construction project is conducted in a legally binding and transparent manner. It provides clarity on the rights and obligations of both parties involved in the transfer, ensuring that the interests of each party are protected.

The deed of assignment typically includes information about the original contract , the parties involved in the transfer, and the specific terms of the transfer. It may also include provisions related to warranties , indemnities, and dispute resolution.

In the construction industry, a deed of assignment can be a critical document that ensures the success of a project. It can provide protection to both the original contractor and the new contractor, as well as any other parties involved in the project. By outlining the responsibilities and obligations of each party, the deed of assignment can help to prevent disputes and ensure that the project is completed on time and within budget.

Deed of Assignment Explained

A deed of assignment is a legal document that transfers ownership of a property or asset from one party to another. In the construction industry, a deed of assignment is commonly used to transfer ownership of a property or development rights from a landowner to a developer or investor.

Definition of Deed of Assignment

A deed of assignment is a legal document that transfers ownership of a property or asset from one party to another. It is a written agreement that outlines the terms and conditions of the transfer, including the rights and responsibilities of both parties. The document must be signed by both parties and witnessed by a third party to be legally binding.

The deed of assignment can be used for a variety of purposes, including the transfer of real estate, intellectual property, or development rights. It is often used in the construction industry to transfer ownership of land from a landowner to a developer or investor for the purpose of building a development.

Related Content: Benefits of a Deed of Assignment

Key Elements

A deed of assignment typically includes the following key elements:

  • Parties involved: The names and contact information of both parties involved in the transfer of ownership.
  • Description of the property or asset: A detailed description of the property or asset being transferred, including any relevant details such as size, location, and condition.
  • Consideration: The consideration or payment for the transfer of ownership, which can be in the form of money, services, or other assets.
  • Warranties and representations: A list of warranties and representations made by the seller regarding the property or asset being transferred, such as the absence of liens or encumbrances.
  • Indemnification: A provision that outlines the indemnification rights of both parties in case of any legal disputes or liabilities.
  • Governing law and jurisdiction: A clause that specifies the governing law and jurisdiction for any legal disputes that may arise.

Legal Implications

A deed of assignment has various legal implications in different situations. Some of these are:

  • Transfer of ownership: A deed of assignment is used to transfer ownership of a property or asset from one party to another. This means that the new owner has legal rights and responsibilities regarding the property or asset.
  • Liability and indemnification: The deed of assignment typically includes provisions that outline the indemnification rights of both parties in case of any legal disputes or liabilities. This means that both parties are protected in case of any legal issues that may arise.
  • Tax implications: The transfer of ownership through a deed of assignment may have tax implications for both parties involved. It is important to consult with a tax professional to understand the tax implications of the transfer.
  • Binding agreement: A deed of assignment is a binding agreement between the parties involved. This means that both parties must adhere to the terms and conditions outlined in the document.

Featured Content:

  • Essential Legal Requirements for Deed of Assignment
  • Step-by-Step Guide to Drafting Deed of Assignment

A deed of assignment is a crucial document in the construction industry for transferring ownership of land or development rights. It is important to understand the legal implications of a deed of assignment and to consult with legal professionals to ensure that the document is drafted correctly and protects the interests of both parties involved.

Examples of Deed of Assignment

Deeds of assignment are commonly used in various industries, including construction. Here are some real-life examples of how deeds of assignment are used in the construction industry:

Property Transactions

One of the most common uses of deeds of assignment in the construction industry is in property transactions. Here are some examples:

  • Sale of property: When a property is sold, the seller assigns all the rights and interests in the property to the buyer through a deed of assignment. This includes the ownership of the land, buildings, and any other assets associated with the property.
  • Transfer of ownership: In some cases, the owner of a property may transfer ownership to another party. A deed of assignment is used to transfer ownership and all associated rights to the new owner.
  • Mortgage transactions: When a property is mortgaged, the mortgage lender is assigned the right to the property as security for the loan. This is done through a deed of assignment.

Business Transfers

Deeds of assignment are also commonly used in transferring contractual rights in businesses. Here are some examples:

  • Contractual obligations: In a construction project, there may be contractual obligations that need to be transferred from one party to another. For example, if a subcontractor is replaced by another, the contractual rights and obligations of the original subcontractor are assigned to the new subcontractor through a deed of assignment.
  • Transfer of ownership: If a construction company is sold, the new owner may need to assume all contractual rights and obligations associated with ongoing projects. This is done through a deed of assignment, which transfers all rights and obligations to the new owner.

In both property transactions and business transfers, a deed of assignment serves as a legal document that outlines the transfer of rights and obligations from one party to another. It is a crucial part of ensuring that all parties involved are clear on their rights and obligations in the transaction.

Related Content: What are the Different Types of Deeds of Assignment ?

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The NSW Court of Appeal case of The Owners – Strata Plan No 84674 v Pafburn Pty Ltd [2023] NSWCA 301 , marks a significant authority for Design and Building Practitioners Act 2020 (NSW) claims including potentially limiting the jurisdictional reach of the NSW Civil and Administrative Tribunal (NCAT) in similar matters, as established in the NCAT Appeal Panel decision of Deaves v Sigma Group NSW Pty Limited [2023] NSWCATAP 94 .

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A significant concern for many homeowners is whether they can claim compensation for the emotional toll – stress and disappointment – resulting from a builder’s breach of these statutory warranties. While traditionally, claims in contract law focus on financial losses, recent legal developments have opened avenues for homeowners to seek redress for non-economic losses, like emotional distress. The evolving legal landscape, shaped by pivotal court decisions, has begun acknowledging the impact of such breaches on a homeowner’s mental well-being.

Understanding these rights is vital for anyone facing building disputes . It empowers you to not only seek compensation for financial losses but also for the emotional distress caused by breaches of the Home Building Act’s statutory warranties.

The case of Millen v Skyview Homes Pty Ltd [2021] NSWCATCD 137 is an interesting case about a renewal proceeding under Schedule 4 Clause 8 of the Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2013 (NSW), known as the NCAT Act. The Respondent is a licensed builder who also owned the property in question. 

The applicant purchased the property from the respondent builder. The property, a residential dwelling, is located in South Western Sydney, NSW. A final occupation certificate for the property was issued on 25 September 2019. 

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SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONTRACT OF SALE AND DEED OF ASSIGNMENT

SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONTRACT OF SALE AND DEED OF ASSIGNMENT

Contract of sale and deed of assignment are both documents used in real estate-related transactions in Nigeria. Although they are both used in property transactions the difference between both documents can be derived from their distinctive features and the role they each individually play in the acquisition of title to landed properties in Nigeria.

Generally, there are five stages involved in the process of acquisition of land in Nigeria, which range from the pre-contract stage to the post-completion stage. The contract of sale is executed at the second stage of a land transaction; it is evidenced in writing and is not mandated to be under seal. It is a preliminary land document executed in the transfer of ownership in the land to another from the seller to the buyer. A contract of sale takes effect after it has been exchanged between parties and it contains not only the basic requirements but goes further to include detailed terms, consideration, and future obligations of what the parties have agreed in respect of the land transaction. Some of the provisions of a contract of sale are:

  • Full details of the parties – (name and address).
  • Particulars of the property to be transacted (location, survey plan, etc).
  • Particulars of witnesses.
  • Purchase price of the property.
  • Payment of deposit, to whom it is to be paid, and in what capacity.
  • Balance and interest on unpaid purchase sum where the payment is to be paid in installments.
  • The capacity of the vendor.
  • Risk and insurance.
  • Possession before completion
  • Completion date of the transaction.
  • Provision for fixtures and fittings.
  • Specific terms, risks, etc.

Where a contract of sale has been executed between parties, an equitable right of the title is passed to the buyer as the vendor still retains legal title to the land and holds the same in trust for the buyer. A vendor cannot transact with the land contrary to the agreement in the contract and no party can rescind the contract without being held liable for a breach of contract.

Features of a Contract of Sale

  • In a contract of sale, the vendor is committed to the transaction and the purchaser has sufficient time to investigate the title before the final completion of the transaction.
  • The death of either party to the transaction does not terminate the contract as personal representatives can proceed with the contract of sale.
  • A contract of sale prevents last-minute withdrawal as withdrawal would amount to a breach of the contract.
  • A contract of sale protects the equitable interest of the purchaser
  • It crystallizes the position of the parties as terms have been expressly agreed upon.
  • The vendor cannot unilaterally and subsequently increase the purchase price as the price has already been fixed in the contract.
  • Payment of lesser stamp duties.

Deed of Assignment is the legal instrument executed between a buyer and seller upon the negotiation and completion phase of a sale of land transaction, subject to perfection. It is usually demanded by the buyer of the real property at the conclusion of the property transaction as the final legal document that transfers the interest of title in a land without any conditions attached, beyond the payment of the consideration price of the property. In a deed of assignment, the nomenclature of parties changes from Vendor to Assignor and Buyer to Assignee. Upon the execution of a deed of assignment between parties, there is a permanent transfer of legal title and ownership to land from the assignor to the assignee for a consideration paid and accepted by the assignor.

Deed of assignment is required to be evidenced in writing; to be signed, sealed, and delivered by parties to the transaction. A deed of assignment is said to have been delivered when interest has passed to the Assignee and the interest can be passed with or without a physical handover.

Another major difference between a contract of sale and deed is that under a deed of assignment, the title of land acquired is required to be perfected upon payment of the full consideration and execution of the deed. The perfection of title involves the assignee taken the required steps to register the deed of assignment at the appropriate Land Registry. The process for the perfection of a deed of assignment involves the following three steps;

  • Obtaining Governors Consent.
  • Stamping of the deed of assignment, and
  • Registration of the deed of assignment.

Finally, in a contract of sale, the buyer only acquires equitable interest in the property while the seller retains the legal interest in trust for the buyer. In the deed of assignment, the assignee acquires legal interest in the property and it can serve as a good root of title to subsequent buyers while the interest of the assignor on the same property is completely extinguished.

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  1. Forming Contracts: Part B

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