Psychology Discussion

Essay on personality development.


After reading this essay you will learn about Personality Development:- 1. Definition of Personality Development 2. Characteristics of Personality Development 3. Three Cases 4. Freudian Analysis 5. Swami Vivekananda’s Concept.

  • Swami Vivekananda’s Concept of Personality Development

Essay # 1. Definition of Personality Development:

Personality is concerned with the psychological pattern of an individual— the thoughts, emotions and feelings—that are unique to a person. In fact, the totality of character, attributes and traits of a person are responsible for molding his personality.

These inherent personality traits and the different soft skills interact with each other and make a person what he or she is. It helps bring out a number of intrinsic qualities of a person, which are a must in any responsible position.

In simple words, personality is a set of qualities that make a person distinct from another. The word ‘personality’ originates from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means a mask. In the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was just a conventional device to represent or typify a particular character.

It is the sum of the characteristics that constitute the mental and physical being of a person including appearance, manners, habits, taste and even moral character. The personality of a person is how he presents himself to the world; it is how others see him.

It has been aptly said:

Reputation is what people think you are.

Personality is what you seem to be.

Character is what you really are.

When we do something again and again, we form a habit. Ultimately these habits form a particular behaviour. If they recur frequently, they become a part of our psyche. They are reflected in all our activities—what we say, what we do, how we behave in certain circumstances and even in how we think. They become the core of our personality.

Personality analysis is thus a methodology for categorizing the character and behaviour of a person. Personality is made up of some characteristic pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviour that make one person different from others.

Each of these individual attributes has its own individual characteristics, as indicated in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Personality Attributes and their Characteristics:

According to a theory expostulated by Carl Jung (1875-1961), a contemporary of Freud, all personal characteristics are a by-product of two fundamental attitude types: introversion and extroversion. Extroverts are optimistic, outgoing and confident, while introverts are averse to going out and facing the world outside.

Besides introversion and extroversion, different temperaments of indi­viduals play an important role in determining their personality. Long ago, Greek physician Hippocrates put forward the theory that the temperament of a person is dependent on certain fluids (which he calls ‘humor’) present in the human body.

Disproportionate mixtures and increase of any of the humors causes a change in the human temperament.

According to this categorization, human temperaments have been classified into four categories:

Sanguine temperament — caused by excess of blood

Melancholic temperament — caused by excess of spleen

Phlegmatic temperament — caused by excess of phlegm

Choleric temperament — caused by excess of bile

Individual attributes of these temperaments are given in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Attributes and temperaments:

This ancient theory of Hippocrates has undergone many modifications but the main principle still holds good. However, these individual attributes are not the only factors that mould the personality: heredity and environment also play a major part in influencing one’s personality. Here are a few comprehensive case studies illustrating the points discussed.

Through the following three case studies, it will become clear that personality is a multi-dimensional issue with the following key characteristics:

1. One’s personality sends out a signal that others read.

2. Consciously different personalities can be powerful.

3. There is no ‘one right personality’ ; it differs by role.

Essay # 2. Characteristics of Personality Development:

Case i: one’s personality sends out a signal that others read :.

Nelson Mandela had a towering personality. The world respects him, and knows many aspects of his personality. Yet, as you read through the different anecdotes of this great leader, what strikes you as a refreshing revelation is that Mandela very effectively ‘worked on’ his personality. He was conscious that his personality reflected the confidence he exuded in others, and his demeanor was a signal to his people.

As stated in a TIME magazine article (2008), during a presidential election campaign. Nelson Mandela’s propeller plane developed a snag a few minutes before landing. Mandela, however, continued to be calm, reading a newspaper. The plane had an emergency landing and Mandela came out safe.

Later Mandela said, ‘Man, I was terrified up there!.. Of course I was afraid!… But as a leader, you cannot let people know. You must put up a front.’ Richard Stengel wrote in this TIME magazine article about Mandela as he reflected on this episode:

‘And that’s precisely what he learned to do: pretend and, through the act of appearing fearless, inspire others. It was a pantomime Mandela perfected on Robben island, where there was much to fear.

Prisoners who were with him said watching Mandela walk across the courtyard, upright and proud, was enough to keep them going for days. He knew that he was a model for others, and that gave him the strength to triumph over his own fear.’

Similarly, while Mandela was always bitter about his long imprisonment, he always put up a positive demeanour about it.

India’s cricket captain, Mahendra Singh Dhoni too sends a cool and composed signal to his team at all times. Even in the most stressful situations, he appears completely in control and unruffled.

Yet, internally he churns his thoughts at all times, with a deft combination of planning his moves and being outright street-smart. He is aware that his unflustered exterior is a signal that keeps his team composed and focused, without losing their nerve in crunch situations.

Personality, unlike what many people believe, is not in-born and static. It can be consciously developed and changed. With conscious effort, one can project the desired personality.

For example, in preparation for an interview session, or in one’s professional career, a person may have to work on his personality. Every role comes with certain personality expectations.

By consciously working on the desired traits over time and projecting the desired ones, one can make a very tangible change to his original self to meet the expectations.

One’s personality is a signal that others read at all times. This includes every gesture and every articulation of the person. This signal is read by the interviewer or by superiors in a professional world. In turn, opinion gets formed and selection choices are made based on such impressions.

In one’s career, it is therefore important to recognize at all times that there is a direct correlation between the personality signal one sends out and one’s career growth. Those who do not align these expectations may get stunted in their careers.

Case II: Same Person: Consciously Different Personalities can be Powerful :

Mandela’s powerful personality always reached his people. Waving hands with a smiling face and wearing bright coloured print shirts showed him as a fulfilled patriarch of modem Africa. His tight fists during his run for the Presidency showed his determined resolve.

Wearing fatigues and sporting a beard while he was the leader of the African National Congress’s (ANC’s) underground wing showed his aggression (TIME 2008). Thus, it is possible, and even desirable, to not have the same personality under all conditions. Consciously working on, and demonstrating different personalities under different conditions can be very powerful.

In a corporate-setting, appearance and body language matter. One’s attire, demeanour and style reflect one’s personality. Hence, it is important to consciously work on one’s appearance so that it creates the desired impression during an interview or subsequently in one’s career.

Case III: There isn’t One Right Personality; It Differs by Role :

In an interview for a global team leader position, an experienced candidate, Seema, was pitted against a well-qualified and outspoken John. Seema had worked in several companies, and led small teams. John, on the other hand, was a brilliant researcher and had primarily worked in individual contributor roles.

During the interview for the team leader position, the interviewer presented a case where the work to be done is split across two teams—one in India, the other in the US. The team in India looked at their counterpart in the US as a threat, and vice versa. Each team wanted to get a bigger share of the pie and own more of the quality work than the other.

When John was asked how he would handle the leadership of the India team, he said he would outmaneuver the US team by demonstrating clear innovation excellence and superiority of his team over its counterpart.

He confidently articulated the many methods he would use to showcase to his management how the work he did will clearly be of higher value and impact. This would ensure increased ownership of the work by the India team, and hence a larger share of the pie.

Seema, however took a completely different view. She said she would first call for a joint face-to-face interaction session between the US and the India teams. The intent would be to break any mental barriers and misgivings between the teams and the respective leaders.

She said it is critical that the teams on both sides of the globe think of themselves as one team—since they both represented the same company, working to win against the competition. Subsequent to that session, the teams will work cohesively, supporting each other at all times, to win more customer business.

This way, she explained, the total work pie can be grown, benefiting both the teams. It would give both the India team and the US team more responsibilities.

The interview team liked John’s aggression and confidence, but felt that these personality traits, while valuable in many cases, were not appropriate for this role. The current role required a strong ethic of teamwork and global collaboration.

John’s focus would lead to more internal strife and competition. He would dissipate more energy on winning internal battles. Seema’s strategy was to build a strong global team and to focus her energy externally to win against competitors.

Essay # 3. Personality Development from the Three Cases:

The three case studies clearly bring out an important learning:

Personality is our identity, as perceived by others. A particular personality can be groomed.

This is well-stated in a video on personality development by Economic Times (2009), which states:

‘Personality development is a continuous process and the evolution of an individual’s personality is linked to his personal and professional growth. It is often multi-faceted, and individuals display different personalities at different places and in different phases of their life.’

‘The need to develop your personality in line with people, place, time etc., underlines the importance of personality development. The process of personality development requires a set of skills that need to be learned and at times unlearned.’

The three case studies bring out the following:

There is no one right or wrong personality. It varies by the role and situation at hand. An aggressive personality that is critical to achieve success in some situations may be counterproductive in another situation. Similarly, an introverted personality may be better-suited for some roles than an extroverted personality.

It is also important to be conscious that one’s personality constantly emits a signal for others to read. Thus, it is important for one to have a deep realization of the role one intends to pursue and its expectations—and work on grooming the desired personality traits.

Essay # 4. Freudian Analysis of Personality Development:

According to Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), personality consists of three structures (Fig. 1.1):

3. Superego

Of these three, the id is absolutely unconscious; it has nothing to do with reality. It acts per the pleasure principle that demands immediate gratification irrespective of the environment. However, such instant satisfaction of the needs is not always realistic or socially acceptable.

Examples of id would be the instinct to grab a beautiful piece of artistry from a museum to satisfy our own craving. Another example could be to want to hit a person in public as a reaction to an abuse.

Next is the ego, which is actively concerned with the reality principle. It intends to realistically meet the demands of the id in accordance with the outside word. Freud considered the ego to be very sensitive and prompt to react to anything it considers unsavory in the outside world that it confronts.

However, having a strong ego has the positive advantage of reacting positively to criticisms and problems. It urges one to proceed forward with determination to achieve the desired goal.

For example, the ego would make the person realize that there is armed security in the museum and there is no way to grab the piece of artistry from the museum. The ego, in the other example, would also tell the person that there is no way to smack the other person who is much stronger physically than him.

Finally, the superego, according to Freud, is the moral branch of personality, which goes beyond being the realistic. It reflects the values arid judgment, including the ones developed during one’s childhood upbringing that forces the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally.

Freud believed that one’s personality is based on the dynamic interactions amongst these three components. The super ego would reflect, and realize that the consequence of grabbing the piece of artistry from the museum or smacking a person in public would not only be construed as a criminal offence, but will be morally improper.

The person may instead choose to look at other options to procure at low cost a replica of the same piece of art. Similarly, instead of hitting, stating a counter-point that communicates strong displeasure may be more appropriate. It is interesting to note that all-round development of the personality is also the main theme of the philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.

Essay # 5. Swami Vivekananda’s Concept of Personality Development:

According to the Vedantic concept advocated by Swami Vivekananda, all-round harmonious development of personality is possible if proper attention is given to the five dimensions that are involved in forming and developing the human personality.

Good leadership qualities are the outcome of different types of personality traits.

Psychologists have categorized personality types as follows, based on the Enneagram, which dates back at least two thousand five hundred years.

1. Perfectionists

3. Achievers

4. Romantics

5. Observers

6. Questioners

7. Enthusiasts or adventurers

8. Bosses or asserters

9. Mediators or peacemakers

It is critical to note that an individual’s personality should not be made to force-fit into one of these categories. Inherent in individuals is a mix of personalities, which shows itself in different circumstances and contrasting environments.

In one’s career too, one needs to demonstrate a combination of these personalities that best suits the situation. Each of these personality attributes also bring out different classes of leadership. Working with leaders that exhibit these characteristics at different stages of one’s career can be a great learning opportunity for professionals.

The different personality types can be described as follows:

a. Perfectionists:

Leaders who are perfectionists set a very high bar of expectation for themselves.

They are principled leaders with the following personality traits:

1. Strive for excellence in everything they do—however large or small :

Perfection in content and look-and-feel are both important to them. These leaders are very dedicated, and have an extremely intense work ethic. As a natural consequence, such leaders often expect the same from their people. Their motto for their team is to do every aspect of the job in a way that cannot be improved upon.

2. Foundation built on a strong focus of quality :

To such leaders, a flaw in execution is an absolute no-no. Hence, to ensure flawless execution, they develop and pursue systematic processes with intense rigor. These processes include multiple checks-and-balances at each step to ensure that errors surface in the early stages and get rectified.

3. Lofty standards :

Another characteristic of such leaders is setting lofty standards. They benchmark themselves with the highest global standards, and strive for themselves and their teams to achieve the same. They have internal metrics to constantly compare themselves and their teams against the benchmark. Their high standards make them respected by their people for the quality of what they produce.

However, perfectionist leaders could potentially get slowed down by the weight of their own expectations. It is not uncommon to see programmes led by such leaders getting delayed over and over again. This happens due to the perfectionists’ constant desire to improve, without making a judgment call on the right time to stop, and move on to the next programme.

Individuals wanting to pursue a career in a design can learn from perfectionists. Companies which look at design as their core competency value the skills of perfectionists.

b. Helpers:

These leaders seek out opportunities to assist others. They are often good coaches and sounding boards for their people. Their personality is built on sincere skills to listen to, and to understand the needs of others. These leaders thrive on building and nurturing relationships.

Three key attributes of these leaders that are based on strong interpersonal skills are:

1. Smiling demeanor:

They have a pleasant personality, are optimistic, and have a cheerful attitude not only about work, but also about life.

2. Generously appreciative:

To get the best out of their teams and peers, they are always generously appreciative of the work they do. They do not lose an opportunity to encourage their people and give a pat on their back to increase their team’s enthusiasm to encourage further contributions. They show that they care.

3. Empathy:

This implies understanding the position of someone from one’s own position. In other words, these leaders put themselves in the other’s shoes and try to understand how they would feel if they were in the same position.

Helpers, however, often get trapped in their over-zealousness to please and support many people. Their weakness is their inability to say ‘no’ . They cannot turn down requests from others. Thus, they bring unto themselves huge mental stress as more and more people get to depend on them.

Strong leaders who exhibit this personality trait find a way to overcome this handicap, by coming up with a scalable model with others sharing the load of supporting the people who are dependent on them. Individuals looking for roles in human Resources or coaches/mentors in organizations can build the ‘helper’ personality.

c. Achievers:

These are leaders who excel in a single-minded pursuit of their goals. What characterizes these leaders is their focus and relentless pursuit of moving ahead while removing obstacles that come their way.

These leaders have the following personality traits:

1. Goal setting:

These leaders set aggressive, but realistic goals. They begin with a clear vision of what they set out to do for their work groups and for themselves. They break it up into near-term milestones for the teams—and ensure that the team remains focused on them at all times.

2. Execution:

Achievers are highly execution-oriented and this is their biggest strength. They overcome barriers that come their way. They plan well, monitor risks at all times, and provide for contingencies. They are also known for building a culture of efficiency in their organization.

Lack of efficiency and competence in their teams that slows execution frustrates them. Speed means a lot to achievers—and they do everything to inculcate these traits amongst their team members. Learning from achievers can give a jump-start to a young professional’s career.

By observing such leaders, one can understand the art and science of goal-setting and instill in themselves the spirit of maniacal execution. People with highly ambitious career goals develop the personality traits of achievers and learn from those who practice it effectively.

d. Romantics:

Romantics are idealistic leaders. They crave for Utopia—in terms of where they want to see themselves, and their groups and organization. They set goals that may not be realistic—but ones that ‘looks and feels glamorous’. They are expressive and often excel in artistic pursuits as part of, or in addition to their chosen profession.

Some personality traits of romantics are:

1. Set lofty vision that may not be grounded in reality:

These leaders lack realism. They dream and set goals that are impossible to meet—but create a (short-lived) feel-good ambience.

2. Lack focus and are poor in taking decisions:

Romantics are unable to focus on a goal and take hard decisions that are needed to move forward in pursuit of the vision.

3. Kind and people-friendly:

They are kind-hearted, humorous, love to interact with people, can spend long hours discussing how things should be (and are not today).

e. Observers:

These leaders have a strong sixth sense. They are highly intuitive in gauging situations.

1. Intuitive:

Observers are highly perceptive. They have a keen power to process the events around them, do a causal analysis, and come to their own conclusion. They are more curious than others, and often get deeply entangled in analyzing seemingly minor events around them for a long time.

2. Critical:

The observations made by these leaders lead to critical and sharp conclusions, sometimes bordering on pessimism.

Observers are loners. In fact, they appreciate being left alone and be given the time to analyse situations in depth.

Observers like to be respected for their well thought through views and in-depth analysis. They do not take to criticism very lightly and tend to get argumentative if doubted.

In one’s career, having some aspect of the traits of the observer can help an individual be perceptive of the situation around them, and take the right career decisions.

f. Questioners:

These are leaders who keep an organization honest and move in the right direction without getting into complacency.

Key attributes of questioners are:

1. Analytical skills:

Questioners possess the gifted ability to think on their feet. They have a sharp analytical bent of mind which helps them in finding flaws in arguments and in the rationale.

2. Lateral thinking:

These leaders possess the skills for lateral thinking. When most others in a team are naturally drifting towards a conclusion, questioners bring in fresh perspective and lateral thinking.

3. Articulate:

These leaders communicate crisply and forcefully. They are usually respected for their views. Having questioners in a team can be an asset to ensure an organization does not drift in the wrong direction. They may come across sometimes as negative or ones who slow down the standard process, but they may be ignored at the organization’s peril.

These leaders allow one to think through the non-obvious and thereby avoid risky pitfalls. They also ensure that teams do not get into the trap of group-think in the wrong direction.

g. Enthusiasts or Adventurers:

Enthusiasts lend an air of optimism around them.

They have the following attributes:

1. Variety:

They thrive on variety. Enthusiasts tend to move from one role to another, and even change professions completely over the course of their career.

2. Story teller:

Enthusiasts love to dream a future, and tend to get their teams-excited about it. These dreams may not be grounded in reality, but that does not bother the enthusiasts. They tell stories to their teams about how the world will be in their desired future state.

3. Spontaneous:

They are spontaneous, have high energy and eternally optimistic. Often they have an infectious personality that rallies people around them. Enthusiasts or adventurers, however, fail to sometimes carry through on their commitments. Their execution and attention to detail are sloppy, and need strong people to balance them.

People interested in following a career in public speaking need to have some traits of Adventurers, as they go from one situation to the other, telling stories of successes and new models for growth.

h. Bosses or Asserters:

People with the ‘Boss’ personality are those with high determination and are possessed with a sense of direction. They have a clear idea of the direction to be taken, and are dismissive of other’s views.

Some of the traits bosses or asserters exhibit are:

1. Courageous:

Asserters have strong conviction of thought. They have an independent mindset, and are confident of their approach. They are not afraid to take unpopular decisions.

2. Power orientation:

They love to have the power and even demonstrate the power to their subordinates and peers. They come across as dominating in meetings and sometimes are poor listeners.

3. Supportive of team:

Strange as it may seem to some, asserters fight for their people and protect them in discussions where their worth is challenged. Asserters are strong personalities who may be dismissive of good suggestions from their team members, if these are contrary to their opinion.

Extremely assertive leaders sometimes lead to a high-stress situation in organizations, and often cause bum-out. One who needs to turnaround an organization from a crisis by taking hard decisions can learn from the skills of asserters.

i. Mediators or Peacemakers:

An organization cannot do without peacemakers. Conflicts are common in any organization, and peacemakers ensure these do not go out of hand. While peacemakers play an important, sometimes invisible role in an organization, they sometimes feel frustrated at the lack of due recognition for the thankless role they play.

Peacemakers are characterized-by the following:

1. Good at arbitration and trustworthy :

These leaders observe situations and carefully listen to positions of all concerned. They then deftly look for possible middle-ground. They are trusted by all, because they do not play games and are genuinely interested in a solution. This helps them to be effective in volatile situations.

2. Hate conflict :

Peacemakers try to take the steam out of confrontational situations. They tell the warring parties why ‘winning’ is inconsequential and take both sides to a compromise. They thrive in harmony.

3. Like to be respected :

They have an inherent desire to be respected for the critical role they play in an organization to keep the harmony. But whatever might be the types of personality of a leader, leadership in general means the ability to influence others and convert them to their own opinion. A leader is capable of changing the scenario from you versus me, to you and me.

It has been said that a leader is a person who knows the road, who can keep ahead and who pulls others with him. A leader gains the confidence of others because he has confidence in himself whatever might be the adversities he faces.

He knows that even if he can’t direct the winds, he can at least adjust the sails. He understands how to win the heart of others and win his objective. Leadership qualities can be ascertained with the help of different kinds of personality tests.

Related Articles:

  • Personality Development: Definition and Characteristics
  • Top 9 Types of Personality Traits
  • Personality: Short Essay on Personality
  • Role of Will and Character in Personality Development

Tchiki Davis, Ph.D.

Personal Development: 9 Skills, Tips, and Examples

Why personal development is so important and how to improve yourself..

Posted June 7, 2020 | Reviewed by Gary Drevitch


I am obsessed with personal development because it's helped me completely change my life. Only 10 years ago, I had no connections, no money, and worked a minimum wage retail job. Now, I have a Ph.D. from Berkeley, am the author of a book on how to generate happiness in the technology age , and have created a variety of well-being-boosting programs . And it's all because I worked on developing myself. So how do you make personal development work for you?

Personal development can include any skill that you build to improve yourself—your emotions, thoughts, or behaviors. It doesn't really matter which skills you want to improve; the key to personal development is taking the right steps—steps that help ensure that you reach whatever goal you are pursuing.

Learn more from the video below:

What are the most important personal development skills? It really depends on what you're trying to achieve. But here are 9 that I have found to be important to successful personal development.

1. Start by figuring out which personal development skills you need to build. The first step in any personal development strategy is to figure out how to best use your time. It makes little sense to learn how to code if you don't plan to be a coder or to bench press 400 pounds if you don't plan to be a weight lifter. These can be hobbies, but personal development is more about building skills to reach your personal goals . So it's good to take some time to self-reflect. (If well-being is a goal of yours, take this well-being quiz to see which skills you need to build.)

2. Develop entrepreneurial thinking. Everyone can benefit from learning how to think like an entrepreneur, regardless of whether or not you are one. Why? Because entrepreneurs are innovative, good at planning for all possible outcomes, and skilled at getting others to buy into their vision or dream. And perhaps more importantly for personal development, they tend to be adaptable to all sorts of situations.

By developing entrepreneurial thinking, you better adapt to whatever your circumstances are so you can more easily achieve your goals, whether those goals are to start a business that makes a positive impact in the world , to set yourself up for an early retirement , or climb Mount Everest.

3. Develop a growth mindset . If we have a “fixed mindset,” we may shy away from challenges that could help us grow. But this can be problematic because our fear of making mistakes can lead us to avoid challenges and new experiences—experiences which would help us grow, improve ourselves in important ways, and create the life we desire.

If we have a “ growth mindset ” we seek out challenges because we value learning and growth more than we value feeling smart or knowing what we’re doing. That's why those with a growth mindset often build new skills more easily: They believe they can and so they really work at it.

4. Develop your self-soothing mechanism. High levels of stress are not only bad for our health and well-being, they can prevent us from effectively pursuing and achieving our self-development goals. By learning effective, long-lasting relaxation techniques , your body and mind will be more equipped to handle the inevitable challenges that arise when you're trying to develop yourself.

5. Develop resilience . Resilience is that super-important skill that helps you bounce back quickly after being knocked down. This is one of the most important skills for success because none of us will achieve anything if we don't keep trying when we fail. We can build resilience by improving skills like emotion-regulation , mindfulness , and positivity.

6. Develop your value compass. It's not always easy to live by our core values . But when we go through life without following our personal values, we can easily get lost. We may suddenly "wake up" and realize that we are not who we want to be or where we want to be. This is why it's so important to stay in alignment with our personal values.

What are your values? Perhaps: kindness, curiosity, creativity , hard work, or personal relationships. Define your personal values so you know which actions are in alignment with those values.

7. Create a personal development plan. A good personal development plan takes all these factors into consideration—the WHAT, the HOW, the WHY, and the WHEN. And it focuses on long-term goals . So ask yourself:

essay on my personality development

  • What skills will you build?
  • How will you build them?
  • Why will you build them?
  • And when will you build them?

It can be helpful to create a 10-year plan to map out how you'll reach these goals.

8. Record your progress towards personal development. Keeping track of our progress as we move toward our personal development goals is key to making sure we're on the right track. Then we can pause and take a different direction if we've gone off course. By maintaining self-awareness and frequently checking in with ourselves, we can identify things that we need to devote more attention to. As a result, we can make better progress toward our personal development.

9. Keep developing yourself in new ways. The science is clear: The more ways we develop ourselves, the broader our skillset, and the more success we tend to have. So try learning some new emotional skills or do some activities to build new skills. You just might learn something that changes your life.

Facebook /LinkedIn images: GaudiLab/Shutterstock

Tchiki Davis, Ph.D.

Tchiki Davis, Ph.D. , is a consultant, writer, and expert on well-being technology.

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Are you reaching your full potential? A guide to personal development

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What is personal development?

5 areas of personal development, the benefits of personal development, 6 steps to developing a personal development plan, how personalized development can help.

I’m no stranger to feeling stuck. There are days I wake up and just go through the daily motions. I make coffee then sit down at my computer for a day of work. I’ll usually work out, walk the dogs, make dinner. Then, read, watch a show, go to bed. The next day? Wake up and do it all over again. 

Especially at the height of the pandemic, it started to feel like vicious monotony. Our lives seemingly stalled in bumper-to-bumper traffic. It feels like dreams, goals, and ambitions are buried in thick molasses or honey at the back of our brains. And even as we navigate this new normal , that “stuck” feeling might be stuck with us. 

The good news? You’re not alone — and personal development is here to help. 

I embarked on an intentional personal development journey well before I knew what it meant. I knew I wanted to see personal growth — and had reached a point in my life where I needed real change .

At BetterUp, personal development comes to life in what we call an Inner Work® practice . Inner Work® is deep work, a practice that isn’t always visible to the outside eye. But with the right personal development toolkit, you can build a lifelong practice of Inner Work® . 

My own personal growth journey has seen its series of ups and downs, failures and successes. Any personal development journey is a lifelong commitment, not a sprint or achievable task. It will weather bumps and roadblocks but it can also thrive in other areas of your life. 

If you’re looking for ways to up your personal development game, we’re here to help. 

It’s certainly not as easy as it sounds. Every person is unique. So, it only makes sense that personal development will look different for everyone. But what does it actually mean? 

Personal development is looking inward and focusing on ways to better yourself. Personal development increases your self-awareness, your self-esteem, increases your skills, and fulfills your aspirations.  

At BetterUp, we’re big believers in the practice of Inner Work®. In many ways, personal development is a form of Inner Work® . It is the act of looking inward to achieve a purpose or result, especially in the pursuit of clarity, purpose, and passion in life. 

Personal development is much larger than just career development or self-development. It encompasses all aspects of your life where you’d like to see personal growth — and it doesn’t discriminate on where it shows up for you. 

When it comes to personal development, it’s hard to not reference Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, your basic needs need to be fulfilled in order to reach your fullest potential. In other words. To reach self-actualization means we’re reaching the highest levels of self-awareness , self-confidence , personal growth, and self-realization. 

Much like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, we see five different areas of personal development. Different personal development goals can fall into different categories. 


Exercising your brain and staying mentally fit is critical to personal development. At BetterUp, this comes to life in a few ways: coaching, learning opportunities , and career growth. For example, right now, I’m taking a creative writing course to help keep my mental creative muscles going strong. (And BetterUp foots the bill as part of our learning stipend.) 

Mental development can be anything from workshops, training sessions , or even just rest. Rest is just as (if not more) important than mental exercise. And as your mental fitness improves , so does your resiliency, innovation, and self-awareness. 


Social connections and relationships are also a must-have for any personal development. After all, self-improvement is not a solitary pursuit. Humans are social creatures — we need that connection to learn and grow. And from social connections, we gain important skills. Like communication skills , problem-solving, relationship-building, and the ability to receive (and give) feedback. We also learn from those around us and their experiences. 


Personal growth and development — whether you’re religious or not — can come through in spirituality. It’s important to recognize that religion and spirituality are not synonymous. In fact, far from it. 

Spirituality means you’re investing in a deeper understanding of your own self in the world around you. It helps you get to know yourself and uncover your values. And in the context of Inner Work®, the spiritual personal development tool can bring greater awareness to self and change. 



Emotional personal development often goes hand-in-hand with emotional intelligence . At its simplest, emotional intelligence is the ability to understand feelings. Beyond feelings, it’s understanding how those feelings shape our thoughts and actions. 

Any number of experiences lends itself to emotional personal development. And those experiences can help you in your pursuit of self-improvement. Take your own Inner Work® journey so far. What experiences have shaped you into who you are today? When you reflect on your journey, what have you learned? 

If you’re looking back at your journey and identifying the growth, it’s likely you’ve fostered a sense of emotional development along the way. This requires emotional intelligence to understand what role your feelings and thoughts played. 


A healthy body nourishes a healthy mind. There’s an intrinsic link between your physical, mental, and emotional well-being. 

This aspect of personal development is focused on physical health — like nutrition, sleep, exercise, and movement. When your physical self is nourished, it’s likely your mind is also reaping those benefits. Consider ways you can build this area of personal development and take note of how your body and your mind feel. 

There are plenty of benefits to personal development. Personal growth isn’t easy but the benefits will make the journey worthwhile. 

My friend at Google has worked with a BetterUp coach for the last year. In her own personal development journey, she's shared why working with a coach has transformed her personal growth journey. 

"My experience with BetterUp has transcended the professional workplace. My coach knows me on a personal level, which allows for her to help me set boundaries, manage expectations, and receive feedback. Ultimately, it's helped me reach my biggest goal of having a work-life balance."   A Google employee, BetterUp Member 
  • Increased self-awareness and self-esteem. Personal growth requires looking inward at your own thoughts, feelings, habits, and reactions. It requires attentiveness — and awareness — to who you are as a person in a present state. But it also challenges you to look to the future to where you want to go. By investing in yourself, you’re increasing your self-awareness and by default, self-esteem . 
  • Increased mental fitness. Becoming mentally fit requires work. And many aspects of personal development aid in building strong mental fitness. With increased mental fitness, you’ll see a ripple effect of positive benefits. We’ve gathered data around the impact of mental fitness . People with strong mental fitness are more productive, are less likely to experience mental illness, and are more creative and innovative. 
  • Greater resilience. With personal development, you gain greater resilience . This is another positive symptom of strong mental fitness, too. Investing in your personal growth means investing in your ability to bounce back after rough patches. 
  • More knowledge and learned skills. Oftentimes, personal development comes with more knowledge and learned skills. This can come to life in different ways. For example, you may take courses in digital marketing that help you gain the skills you need to further your career development. Or, you may sign up for art or pottery classes, which help you gain skills in entirely different areas of your life. 
  • Improved personal and professional relationships. Another personal development benefit is improved personal and professional relationships . This is an area that flourishes when you invest in your personal growth, especially in emotional and social aspects. 


11 personal development skills to work on

If you’re not sure where to start, consider working with a coach . Personalized coaching can help serve as your guide while you’re building your roadmap to self-actualization. 

Your coach will work one-on-one with you to help identify key skills to work on catered to your own experience. You can start by taking the Whole Person Assessment  to help assess where your strengths and areas of opportunity lie. 

We’ve identified some common areas of self-improvement and personal development you may consider investing in: 

  • Communication and interpersonal skills 
  • Problem-solving 
  • Cognitive agility and adaptability 
  • Self-compassion, self-care , and self-reflection 
  • Conflict and conflict resolution  
  • Navigating change and uncertainty 
  • Future-mindedness  
  • Organizational skills 
  • Growth mindset 
  • Teamwork and collaboration  
  • Self-awareness 

Like any other goal, it’s important to put together a plan. By assembling your personal development plan with some structure, you’re more likely to achieve your goals. 

1. Identify areas where you’d like to improve 

This first step will likely require some Inner Work®. Take a minute to reflect on where you are right now. What are your strengths? In what areas do you want to focus? What growth and development do you want to see in yourself? 

If you’ve taken the Whole Person Assessment, this can help as a useful tool. Once you’ve reflected on your personal goals , identify the areas where you’d like to improve . 

2. Work with a coach or mentor to assemble a plan 

Even if it's your own personal development plan, you don’t have to do it alone. Lean on support systems — like life coaches or mentors — to help frame a plan. With the right structure in place (and feedback along the way), you’ll be better equipped to put the plan into action. 

3. Structure your personal development goals  

Stick to a routine — and build consistency. Start to examine your day-to-day and try to find ways to either build habits or stack new habits onto existing ones. 

In this last year, I wanted to build strength training into my fitness routine. The kicker? I never use weights. I decided to put a yoga mat with weights next to my running shoes. Every time I go for a run, I have to think about those weights sitting next to my shoes. It helps to remind myself to do a quick 5-minute exercise with some dumbbells.  


4. Find an accountability buddy 

Sometimes, having someone holding you accountable makes all the difference. If you and a friend are both setting intentions and goals, consider ways you can support one another. 

Every new hire at BetterUp gets a stack of great books during the onboarding process. My teammate reached out today to see if we could create an accountability plan . We’re each holding each other to 100 pages of reading a week. 

5. Be honest and aware of your progress 

Your personal development plan requires integrity. Be honest with yourself about your growth and progress. This also requires a level of self-awareness. You can also gather feedback from friends, family, and colleagues to help gather insight on how you’re progressing in your goals, too. 

6. Factor personal development into your mental fitness plan 

How does personal development factor into your mental fitness plan? Consider ways you can work with your coach on building aspects of personal development into your overall mental fitness. 

Personal development is just that: it’s personal. 

Every human is different. If our society cracked the nut on personal development, every self-help book would help everyone. Or every learning process would benefit every student. 

But we know from our life experiences that there’s no “one-size-fits-all” solution to anything when it comes to human nature. 

It’s important to lean on personalized support like coaching to help craft a catered plan that works for you. You won’t have the same needs, strengths, opportunities, and skills as your neighbor. So why would your personal development plan be the same? 

Push yourself outside of your comfort zone. By doing so, you'll be on the path to reaching your full potential .

While self-actualization and Inner Work® is a lifelong process, your personal development goals shouldn't be daunting. Start small — like building a new skill or even investing in work-life balance . By doing so, you'll set yourself up for success in all areas of your life.

If you're ready to make a change to improve the quality of your life, consider how personal and professional development coaching can help. With help from BetterUp, you can awaken your full potential .

Madeline Miles

Madeline is a writer, communicator, and storyteller who is passionate about using words to help drive positive change. She holds a bachelor's in English Creative Writing and Communication Studies and lives in Denver, Colorado. In her spare time, she's usually somewhere outside (preferably in the mountains) — and enjoys poetry and fiction.

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Student Essays


5 Best Essays on Personality Development & its Importance

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Personality development is the process whereby a man enriches his mental, physical exterior appearance by means of adding value to it. As the Personality is sum total of one’s inner and exterior characteristics, so the personality development refers to adding value to it. The following Essay On Personality Development talks about its core meaning, purpose and importance of Personality development and how personality development is important in today’s life.

List of Topics

Essay on Personality Development & Its Importance in Life

Personality development is one of the most important aspects of human life. It helps in determining the way we think, feel and behave. It is the result of our interactions with others and our environment. Personality development starts from the time we are born and continues throughout our life. Personality development refers to the process of improving one’s personality. It is a lifelong process that involves learning new things, adapting to new situations and making changes in oneself.

There are various factors that contribute to personality development. These include nature (heredity), nurture (environment), experiences, culture and socialization. Heredity refers to the traits that are passed on to us from our parents. Nurture refers to the environment in which we grow up and the experiences we have. Our culture and socialization play a major role in shaping our personality.

Personality development is important because it helps us to become better individuals. It enables us to cope with the challenges of life and to lead successful and fulfilling lives. It also helps us to develop our unique talents and abilities.

Personality Development for Students

Personality development is very important for students. It helps them to become better individuals and to cope with the challenges of life. It also helps them to develop their unique talents and abilities. In addition to that a strongly personality developed person is always successful and also have a better social life. He will never be afraid to take challenge because he know his capabilities and can perform in every situation.’

>>> Related Post:   “ Essay on My Strengths & Weaknesses  ”

Therefore, Personality development is highly instrumental in our lives. We need to work on it throughout our lives in order to become better individuals. It is a lifelong process that involves learning new things, adapting to new situations and making changes in ourselves.

Essay on Personality Development:

Personality development is the process of shaping and enhancing one’s personality. It refers to a combination of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive patterns that make up an individual’s unique traits and characteristics. These patterns are influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, experiences, and upbringing.

The concept of personality development has been studied extensively in psychology and is considered crucial for personal growth and success in life. It is a continuous process that starts from childhood and continues throughout one’s lifetime.

Personality development can be classified into two main categories: innate and acquired traits. Innate traits are those that are inherited genetically, such as physical features, while acquired traits are shaped by external factors like education, culture, and personal experiences. Both these types of traits determine an individual’s behavior and responses to different situations.

The development of one’s personality is a complex process that involves various stages. It starts with the formation of an identity during early childhood, followed by self-awareness and socialization in the adolescent years. As individuals grow older, their personalities continue to evolve, influenced by various experiences, relationships, and life events.

In today’s fast-paced and competitive world, having a well-developed personality is essential for personal and professional success. It helps in building confidence, assertiveness, effective communication skills, and the ability to adapt to changing situations. Therefore, it is crucial to invest time and effort in developing one’s personality continuously.

To conclude, personality development is an ongoing process that determines an individual’s behavior and overall well-being. It is a combination of innate and acquired traits that are shaped by various experiences throughout one’s life. Nurturing and enhancing one’s personality can lead to personal growth, success, and fulfillment in all aspects of life.

Essay on Personality Development through Sports:

Personality development refers to the process of improving one’s characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes. It is a continuous journey that involves growth, learning, and self-discovery. Personality development can be influenced by various factors such as upbringing, education, and experiences.

One major aspect that plays a significant role in shaping an individual’s personality is sports. Participating in sports activities has been proven to have a positive impact on one’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being. However, the benefits of sports go beyond just physical health. It also contributes to an individual’s overall personality development.

Sports can teach individuals important life skills such as teamwork, discipline, and perseverance. These skills are crucial in one’s personal and professional life. Through sports, individuals learn to work together towards a common goal, which can help them develop better social skills and build stronger relationships.

Moreover, sports also teach individuals how to handle success and failure. In competitive sports, there will always be winners and losers. Through these experiences, individuals learn the importance of resilience and how to bounce back from setbacks. They also learn to take responsibility for their actions and make necessary improvements to achieve their goals.

Furthermore, sports can also help individuals develop confidence and self-esteem. As they improve their physical abilities and skills, they gain a sense of accomplishment and belief in themselves. This confidence can translate into other areas of life, allowing them to take on challenges with a positive attitude.

In conclusion, sports have a significant impact on an individual’s personality development. It not only promotes physical health but also instills important life skills and values. Therefore, it is essential to encourage individuals to participate in sports activities as a means of fostering their personal growth and development.

Essay on Role of Teacher in Personality Development:

The role of teachers in shaping the personalities of their students is crucial. Teachers are not just responsible for imparting knowledge and academic skills, but they also play a significant role in the overall development of a child.

One of the key roles of teachers is to act as role models for their students. Students often look up to their teachers and emulate their behavior, attitude and values. This makes it imperative for teachers to possess desirable qualities such as empathy, patience, and integrity so that they can positively influence their students.

Moreover, teachers also play an essential role in nurturing the emotional intelligence of their students. They not only teach academic subjects but also help students develop important life skills like communication, problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking. These skills are vital for a child’s personality development and growth.

Teachers also have the responsibility of identifying and nurturing the strengths of their students. Every child is unique, and it is the teacher’s job to recognize their potential and encourage them to excel in their areas of interest. This not only boosts the self-confidence of students but also helps them discover their true passions.

Additionally, teachers act as mentors and guides for their students, providing them with emotional support and guidance when needed. They help shape the character of their students by instilling values like honesty, respect, and responsibility.

In conclusion, the role of teachers in personality development is multifaceted and crucial. They not only educate but also inspire, motivate and guide their students towards becoming well-rounded individuals who contribute positively to society. Thus, it is essential for teachers to continuously strive towards being the best role models and mentors for their students.

Benefits Of Personality Development:

Personality development refers to the process of enhancing and improving one’s characteristics, traits, and behaviors. It involves understanding oneself, making positive changes, and developing a strong sense of self-confidence and self-awareness. This process can have several benefits for individuals in both their personal and professional lives.

Here are some key benefits of personality development:

Improves Communication Skills

Effective communication is a critical skill that can bring success in all aspects of life. By developing one’s personality, an individual learns how to communicate effectively and confidently with others. This includes verbal as well as written communication skills. Good communicators are often able to express their thoughts and ideas clearly, build strong relationships, and lead a successful personal and professional life.

Helps In Self-Awareness

Personality development involves understanding one’s strengths, weaknesses, and other personal traits. It helps individuals become more self-aware and introspective. With a better knowledge of oneself, an individual can identify areas that need improvement and work towards personal growth. This leads to increased self-confidence and a better sense of direction in life.

Boosts Self-Confidence

By developing one’s personality, individuals gain confidence in themselves and their abilities. They learn to overcome self-doubt, take on new challenges, and achieve their goals. This confidence not only helps in personal life but also makes a significant difference in professional settings where it enables an individual to take on leadership roles and excel at tasks.

Enhances Decision Making Skills

Personality development also improves an individual’s decision-making skills. By being self-aware, individuals can make better decisions by taking into account their strengths, weaknesses, and goals. This ability to analyze situations and think critically leads to better choices and outcomes in both personal and professional life.

Improves Overall Well-Being

When individuals work on developing their personality, they also learn to manage stress, control emotions, and maintain a positive outlook on life. This results in improved mental, emotional, and physical well-being. By staying calm and composed during challenging situations, individuals can lead healthier and more fulfilling lives.

Helps In Building Stronger Relationships

Effective communication skills, self-awareness, confidence, and improved decision-making abilities positively impact an individual’s relationships with others. By developing their personality, individuals learn to listen actively and empathize with others. They also become better at resolving conflicts, building trust, and maintaining healthy relationships.

In conclusion, personality development can bring significant positive changes in individuals’ lives by improving their communication skills, self-awareness, confidence, decision-making abilities, overall well-being, and relationships. By investing time and effort towards this process, individuals can lead happier, more successful, and fulfilling lives.

>>>> Read Also : ” Essay on Talent, Concept & Importance “

Paragraph on Personality:

Personality is a complex and multifaceted concept that refers to the unique combination of characteristics and traits that make up an individual’s pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving. It is shaped by both genetic predispositions and environmental factors, such as culture, family dynamics, and life experiences. Some key aspects of personality include temperament, or one’s innate tendencies towards certain emotions and behaviors, as well as character, which encompasses an individual’s values, morals, and ethical principles. Personality plays a significant role in shaping our thoughts and actions, influencing how we interact with others and navigate the world around us.

In addition to these core aspects, personality also includes traits like introversion vs extroversion, openness to new experiences, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. These traits are often measured on a spectrum, with individuals falling somewhere between the two extremes. For example, someone may be highly introverted or extroverted, or they may fall somewhere in the middle. Similarly, a person can have varying levels of openness to new experiences or be highly conscientious or emotionally stable.

One’s personality is not fixed and can change and evolve over time, influenced by various life events and experiences. However, certain aspects of our personality tend to remain relatively stable throughout our lives. Understanding one’s own personality can help individuals navigate relationships, work environments, and personal growth more effectively.

Essay about Personal Growth and Development

Personal growth and development are concepts that refer to the continuous process of improving oneself by gaining new knowledge, skills, and experiences. It is a lifelong journey that involves self-reflection, learning from mistakes, setting goals, and making positive changes in one’s behavior and attitudes.

In this essay, we will explore the importance of personal growth and development, the different ways to achieve it, and how it can positively impact an individual’s life.

Why is Personal Growth & Development Important?

Personal growth and development are essential for individuals to reach their full potential. It allows us to gain a deeper understanding of ourselves, our values, and our beliefs. By continuously learning and developing, we become more self-aware and can make better decisions that align with our goals and aspirations.

Moreover, personal growth and development help us adapt to changes in our lives. It equips us with the necessary skills and mindset to face challenges, overcome obstacles, and move forward in life.

It is also worth noting that personal growth and development not only benefit individuals but also have a positive impact on those around them. By improving ourselves, we can inspire and motivate others to do the same.

Ways to Achieve Personal Growth & Development

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to personal growth and development. Each individual may have different goals and preferences, so it is essential to find what works best for you. However, here are some common ways that people can achieve personal growth and development:

  • Continuous learning: This can involve formal education, reading books, attending workshops or seminars, or even just learning from everyday experiences.
  • Self-reflection: Taking time to reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and actions can help you gain a better understanding of yourself and identify areas for improvement.
  • Setting goals: Having clear and achievable goals can provide direction and motivation for personal growth and development.
  • Stepping out of your comfort zone: Trying new things, taking risks, and facing fears can lead to personal growth by challenging you to grow and adapt.
  • Seeking feedback: Asking for feedback from others can provide valuable insights and help identify blind spots that you may not be aware of.

The Impact of Personal Growth & Development

Personal growth and development can have a profound impact on an individual’s life. It can lead to increased self-confidence, improved relationships, and better overall well-being.

As individuals continue to grow and develop, they may also find that their goals and priorities shift. This allows them to adapt and make changes in their personal or professional lives that align with their values and aspirations.

Moreover, personal growth and development can also have a positive impact on society as a whole. As individuals become more self-aware and make positive changes in their behaviors, they can contribute to creating a more compassionate, empathetic, and understanding community.

In conclusion, personal growth and development are crucial components of living a fulfilling life. By continuously learning, reflecting, setting goals, and stepping out of our comfort zones, we can achieve personal growth and make positive changes in our lives. It is a journey that never truly ends, as there is always room for growth and improvement.

My Best Personality Essay:

My best personality is a combination of many different qualities that make me unique. I am a kind, caring, and empathetic person who always puts others before myself. I have a positive attitude towards life and try to find the good in every situation.

One of my best traits is my ability to listen and communicate effectively with others. I always strive to understand people’s perspectives and offer support when needed. I am also a determined and hardworking individual, always willing to go the extra mile to achieve my goals.

I believe that my curiosity and open-mindedness have helped me grow as a person. I enjoy learning new things, exploring different cultures, and challenging myself to step out of my comfort zone.

Moreover, I value honesty and integrity above all else. I believe that being true to oneself and others is crucial in building strong and meaningful relationships.

In conclusion, my best personality is a culmination of various qualities that make me who I am. While I may not be perfect, I am constantly learning and striving to become a better version of myself each day. So, instead of focusing on an ‘end’ to this essay, I will continue to grow and evolve as a person, embracing my uniqueness and striving to make a positive impact in the world. The journey of self-discovery is never-ending, but I am excited for what the future holds.

Q: What is personality development in your own words essay?

A: Personality development is the lifelong process of shaping one’s distinctive qualities, behavior, and mindset. It involves self-awareness, growth, and the acquisition of social skills to become a better, more refined version of oneself.

Q: What is personality development in 100 words?

A: Personality development refers to the ongoing process of individual growth and transformation in aspects like character, behavior, and attitude. It encompasses self-awareness, emotional intelligence, and acquiring social skills. Through life experiences, self-reflection, and learning, a person hones their personality to adapt to changing circumstances, enhance their relationships, and pursue personal goals.

Q: What are the 5 personality development?

A: The five key factors in personality development, often referred to as the “Big Five” personality traits, are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. These traits influence how an individual thinks, behaves, and relates to others.

Q: What is the importance of personality development in one’s life essay?

A: Personality development is crucial for personal and professional success. It enhances self-confidence, communication skills, adaptability, and emotional intelligence. A well-developed personality not only improves relationships but also helps individuals navigate life’s challenges and achieve their goals. This essay would elaborate on these points and stress the significance of continuous self-improvement.

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Essay on Personality

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Essay on My Personal Development

Students are often asked to write an essay on My Personal Development in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on My Personal Development

Introduction to personal growth.

Personal development is about getting better and learning new things. It’s like growing taller but for your mind and skills. Just like a plant needs water to grow, our minds need new knowledge and practice.

Learning New Things

I try to learn something new every day. It can be a new word, a math problem, or a fact about the world. This makes my brain stronger and more ready for school quizzes and life.

Overcoming Challenges

When things get tough, I don’t give up. I keep trying, even if I fail at first. Each time I try, I get a little better. This is how I grow.

Being nice to people is also part of personal development. When I help friends and share, it makes me feel good and builds my character.

Staying Healthy

Eating right and playing sports keep my body healthy. A healthy body helps me think better and stay focused on my goals.

Every day, I work on being a better me. It’s not always easy, but it’s worth it. I’m excited to keep growing and learning.

250 Words Essay on My Personal Development

Personal development is like a journey where I learn new things and become a better version of myself. It’s about improving skills, gaining knowledge, and setting goals for a brighter future. Think of it as planting a seed that slowly grows into a strong tree.

One big part of personal growth is learning. This can be at school, from books, or through talking with others. Every new fact or skill is like a tool in my toolbox, helping me solve problems and do things better. Just like a video game character that levels up, I feel stronger and more confident with each new thing I learn.

Setting Goals

Setting goals is another important step. These are like checkpoints in a race that guide me where to go. When I set a goal, I have something to aim for, like getting better at math or learning to play a musical instrument. Reaching these goals makes me proud and pushes me to set even bigger ones.

Life can throw challenges my way, but facing them is key to personal development. Each time I overcome a problem, I learn and get tougher. It’s like a puzzle that seems hard at first, but once I solve it, I feel great and ready for the next one.

My personal development is an exciting adventure. It’s about learning, setting goals, and facing challenges. With each step, I grow just like that seed into a strong tree, ready to reach for the sky.

500 Words Essay on My Personal Development

When we talk about personal development, we mean the way a person grows or gets better over time. It’s like when you learn to ride a bike. At first, you might fall and have trouble, but with practice, you can ride smoothly. Personal development is similar. It’s about learning new things and becoming a better version of yourself.

One big part of personal growth is learning. This doesn’t just mean school subjects, but also things like playing a sport, cooking, or even how to be a good friend. Every time you learn something new, your brain grows stronger. Think of your brain as a muscle. The more you use it, the stronger it gets.

Setting goals is like having a map for a treasure hunt. Your goals are the treasure, and the map is the plan you make to reach them. When you have a goal, like getting better grades or saving money for a new toy, it gives you something to work towards. It’s important to make sure your goals are clear and possible to reach.

Sometimes, things get tough. Maybe you’re trying to learn how to spell difficult words, or you’re not getting along with a friend. These tough times are challenges. Overcoming them is a big part of personal development. When you face a challenge and work through it, you get stronger and more confident.

Being Healthy

Your body and mind are connected. If you want to grow as a person, taking care of your body is important. Eating good food, getting enough sleep, and playing or exercising keep you healthy. When you’re healthy, your mind is ready to learn and grow.

Building Relationships

No one grows all by themselves. We all need friends and family to help us. Building strong relationships means learning to listen, share, and care for others. When you have good relationships, you have people to help you when you’re having a hard time and to cheer for you when you do well.

Being Positive

Having a positive attitude can make a huge difference in personal development. It’s like when the sun comes out after a rainy day. Everything feels better. When you think positively, you’re more likely to try new things and keep going, even when it’s hard.

Personal development is all about growing and getting better, step by step. It’s learning new things, setting goals, and overcoming challenges. It’s staying healthy, building relationships, and keeping a positive attitude. Just like a plant needs water and sunlight to grow, you need challenges, learning, and support to grow. So keep trying new things, and remember, every day is a chance to grow a little more.

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

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How to Masterfully Describe Your Personality in an Essay: A Step-by-Step Guide 2023

Personality essay


Step 1: self-reflection and introspection, step 2: identifying core values and beliefs, step 3: gathering evidence and examples.

  • Step 4: Show, don't tell

Step 5: Structuring your essay effectively

Step 6: balancing self-awareness and humility, step 7: seeking feedback and editing.

Describing your personality in an essay is not simply an exercise in self-expression; it is a transformative process that allows you to artfully communicate and convey the intricate nuances of your character to the reader. By delving into the depths of your self-awareness, personal growth, and the values that serve as the compass guiding your actions and decisions, you embark on a journey of self-discovery and introspection. In this comprehensive step-by-step guide , we will navigate the intricacies of crafting a compelling personality description in your essay, providing you with the necessary tools to masterfully articulate your unique qualities, experiences, and perspectives.

At its core, the act of describing your personality in an essay is an opportunity to authentically showcase who you are. It is a platform to illuminate the multifaceted nature of your being, unveiling the layers that make you distinct and individual. Through self-reflection and introspection , you delve into the recesses of your soul, gaining a deeper understanding of your own personality traits and characteristics. This process of self-exploration allows you to unearth the strengths that define you and the weaknesses that provide opportunities for growth.

Identifying your core values and beliefs is another essential step in effectively describing your personality. By exploring your fundamental principles and ideals, you gain insight into the motivations behind your actions and the driving force behind your decisions . These values serve as the undercurrent that weaves together the fabric of your personality, giving coherence and purpose to your thoughts and behaviors. Understanding how your personality traits align with your core values enables you to articulate a more comprehensive and authentic depiction of yourself.

To breathe life into your personality description, it is crucial to gather evidence and examples that showcase your traits in action. Recall specific instances where your personality has manifested itself, and examine the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that were present. By drawing on these concrete examples, you provide tangible proof of your personality claims, allowing the reader to envision your character in vivid detail.

However, it is not enough to simply tell the reader about your personality traits; you must show them through vivid and descriptive language. By employing sensory details and evocative storytelling, you paint a vibrant picture that engages the reader’s imagination. It is through this artful depiction that your personality comes to life on the page, leaving a lasting impression.

Crafting an effective structure for your essay is also paramount to conveying your personality in a coherent and engaging manner. A well-structured essay captivates the reader from the outset with an engaging introduction that sets the tone and grabs their attention. Organizing your essay around key personality traits or themes creates a logical progression of ideas, enabling a seamless flow from one aspect of your personality to the next. This careful structuring enhances the readability and impact of your essay, allowing the reader to follow your journey of self-expression with ease.

In describing your personality, it is essential to strike a delicate balance between self-awareness and humility. While it is important to acknowledge your strengths and accomplishments, it is equally crucial to avoid sounding arrogant. Honesty about your weaknesse s and areas for growth demonstrates humility and a willingness to learn from experiences, fostering personal growth and development.

Also, seeking feedback and diligently editing your essay play a vital role in refining your personality description. Sharing your work with trusted individuals allows for constructive criticism, providing valuable insights into how effectively your personality is being portrayed. By carefully incorporating this feedback and paying attention to grammar, punctuation, and clarity, you can ensure that your essay is polished and ready to make a lasting impression . Below are the step by step guide on how to masterfully describe your personality in an essay

How to Masterfully Describe Your Personality in an Essay: A Step-by-Step Guide

Before diving into writing, take the time to deeply understand your own personality traits and characteristics. Reflect on your strengths and weaknesses , considering how they have influenced your actions and interactions with others. Additionally, contemplate significant life experiences that have shaped your personality, providing valuable insights into who you are today.

Your core values and beliefs are the guiding principles that define your character. Explore what truly matters to you and the ideals that drive your decisions . By connecting your personality traits to these fundamental values, you create a more comprehensive understanding of yourself, providing a solid foundation for your essay.

To effectively describe your personality, draw upon specific instances where your traits were on display. Recall experiences that highlight your behavior, thoughts, and emotions. By utilizing concrete examples, you lend credibility to your claims about your personality, allowing the reader to envision your character in action.

Step 4: Show, don’t tell

Avoid falling into the trap of generic and vague descriptions. Instead, use vivid language and sensory details to bring your personality to life. Engage the reader’s imagination by painting a clear picture through storytelling. Let them experience your traits firsthand, making your essay more engaging and memorable.

Crafting a well-structured essay is crucial for conveying your personality in a coherent and engaging manner. Begin with an attention-grabbing introduction that captivates the reader’s interest. Organize your essay around key personality traits or themes, ensuring a logical progression of ideas. Maintain a smooth flow between paragraphs, enhancing the overall readability of your essay.

While it’s essential to highlight your strengths, be careful not to come across as arrogant. Emphasize your accomplishments and positive attributes without boasting. Simultaneously, be honest about your weaknesses and areas for growth , demonstrating humility and a willingness to learn from experiences. This balance showcases maturity and self-awareness.

Sharing your essay with trusted individuals can provide valuable perspectives and constructive criticism. Seek feedback from mentors, teachers, or friends who can offer insights into your essay’s strengths and areas that need improvement. Revise and refine your essay based on this feedback, paying close attention to grammar, punctuation, and clarity.

Incorporating these steps and techniques will allow you to masterfully describe your personality in an essay, capturing the essence of who you are in a compelling and authentic manner. Whether you are writing personality essays, an essay about personalities, or an essay on personality, the introduction of your personality essay should create a strong impression. It serves as a gateway for the reader to delve into your unique characteristics and perspectives. By effectively integrating these steps and maintaining a balanced approach, you can create a personality essay introduction that sets the stage for a captivating exploration of your individuality. So, how would you describe yourself? Use these guidelines and examples to express your personality with confidence and authenticity in your essay.

Mastering the art of describing your personality in an essay allows you to authentically express yourself and connect with readers on a deeper level. By embracing self-reflection and emphasizing personal growth, you create a c ompelling narrative that showcases your unique qualities. So, embark on this journey of self-expression and let your personality shine through your writing. Embrace authenticity, as it is through effective self-expression that personal growth and understanding can flourish.

If you’re looking for professional essay writing and editing services, GradeSmiths is here to help. With a team of experienced writers and editors, GradeSmiths offers reliable and high-quality assistance to students in need of essay support. Whether you need help with essay writing, editing, proofreading, or refining your content, GradeSmiths can provide the expertise you require. Their dedicated team is committed to delivering well-crafted essays that meet academic standards and showcase your unique ideas and voice. With GradeSmiths, you can trust that your essay will receive the attention and care it deserves.

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How to Write About Yourself in a College Essay | Examples

Published on September 21, 2021 by Kirsten Courault . Revised on May 31, 2023.

An insightful college admissions essay requires deep self-reflection, authenticity, and a balance between confidence and vulnerability. Your essay shouldn’t just be a resume of your experiences; colleges are looking for a story that demonstrates your most important values and qualities.

To write about your achievements and qualities without sounding arrogant, use specific stories to illustrate them. You can also write about challenges you’ve faced or mistakes you’ve made to show vulnerability and personal growth.

Table of contents

Start with self-reflection, how to write about challenges and mistakes, how to write about your achievements and qualities, how to write about a cliché experience, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about college application essays.

Before you start writing, spend some time reflecting to identify your values and qualities. You should do a comprehensive brainstorming session, but here are a few questions to get you started:

  • What are three words your friends or family would use to describe you, and why would they choose them?
  • Whom do you admire most and why?
  • What are the top five things you are thankful for?
  • What has inspired your hobbies or future goals?
  • What are you most proud of? Ashamed of?

As you self-reflect, consider how your values and goals reflect your prospective university’s program and culture, and brainstorm stories that demonstrate the fit between the two.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Writing about difficult experiences can be an effective way to show authenticity and create an emotional connection to the reader, but choose carefully which details to share, and aim to demonstrate how the experience helped you learn and grow.

Be vulnerable

It’s not necessary to have a tragic story or a huge confession. But you should openly share your thoughts, feelings, and experiences to evoke an emotional response from the reader. Even a cliché or mundane topic can be made interesting with honest reflection. This honesty is a preface to self-reflection and insight in the essay’s conclusion.

Don’t overshare

With difficult topics, you shouldn’t focus too much on negative aspects. Instead, use your challenging circumstances as a brief introduction to how you responded positively.

Share what you have learned

It’s okay to include your failure or mistakes in your essay if you include a lesson learned. After telling a descriptive, honest story, you should explain what you learned and how you applied it to your life.

While it’s good to sell your strengths, you also don’t want to come across as arrogant. Instead of just stating your extracurricular activities, achievements, or personal qualities, aim to discreetly incorporate them into your story.

Brag indirectly

Mention your extracurricular activities or awards in passing, not outright, to avoid sounding like you’re bragging from a resume.

Use stories to prove your qualities

Even if you don’t have any impressive academic achievements or extracurriculars, you can still demonstrate your academic or personal character. But you should use personal examples to provide proof. In other words, show evidence of your character instead of just telling.

Many high school students write about common topics such as sports, volunteer work, or their family. Your essay topic doesn’t have to be groundbreaking, but do try to include unexpected personal details and your authentic voice to make your essay stand out .

To find an original angle, try these techniques:

  • Focus on a specific moment, and describe the scene using your five senses.
  • Mention objects that have special significance to you.
  • Instead of following a common story arc, include a surprising twist or insight.

Your unique voice can shed new perspective on a common human experience while also revealing your personality. When read out loud, the essay should sound like you are talking.

If you want to know more about academic writing , effective communication , or parts of speech , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Academic writing

  • Writing process
  • Transition words
  • Passive voice
  • Paraphrasing


  • How to end an email
  • Ms, mrs, miss
  • How to start an email
  • I hope this email finds you well
  • Hope you are doing well

 Parts of speech

  • Personal pronouns
  • Conjunctions

First, spend time reflecting on your core values and character . You can start with these questions:

However, you should do a comprehensive brainstorming session to fully understand your values. Also consider how your values and goals match your prospective university’s program and culture. Then, brainstorm stories that illustrate the fit between the two.

When writing about yourself , including difficult experiences or failures can be a great way to show vulnerability and authenticity, but be careful not to overshare, and focus on showing how you matured from the experience.

Through specific stories, you can weave your achievements and qualities into your essay so that it doesn’t seem like you’re bragging from a resume.

Include specific, personal details and use your authentic voice to shed a new perspective on a common human experience.

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What is Personality Development ? A Brief Explanation

Gain a comprehensive understanding of "What is Personality Development?" through this blog. Dive into the core concept and its importance, and uncover the factors that influence one's personality development. Journey through the various stages of personality development, and by the end, you'll have a clear grasp of how personality development impacts our lives.


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A person's personality shapes their thoughts, beliefs & expectations. This blog will help you answer, “What is Personality Development?” and will help you discover the aspects that influence one's personality. 

Table of Contents  

1)  What is Personality Development? 

2)  Factors influencing Personality Development 

3)  Stages of Personality Development 

4)  Importance of Personality Development 

5)  Theories of Personality Development 

6)  Conclusion 

What is Personality Development ?  

Personality Development is like a journey where we learn about ourselves and how we act. It's about getting better and changing in different ways. Imagine it as a puzzle where some parts are inherited from our families, like how we look, and some of our behaviours. But as we grow up, the things we do and the people we meet add more pieces to this puzzle, making it unique. 

Our personality starts with things we get from our family, like being quiet or friendly. But as we meet more people and go through different experiences, we change and grow. For example, if we face a problem and learn how to solve it, we might become more confident. This is how our personality develops over time, like a story with different chapters.  

Remember, everyone's personality journey is different. Just like no two puzzles are the same, each of us has our own special way of growing and becoming who we are. And as we continue this journey, it is important to adapt to challenges and discoveries that make us the wonderful individuals we are.

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Factors influencing Personality Development  

Personality is a unique trait one possesses. It is also important to understand that various factors influence Personality Development. They’re listed below: 


Our genes, which we inherit from our parents, lay the foundation for our personality. Just like how you might get your hair colour from your mother or your father's smile, parts of how you act and feel also come from genes. These genes can affect whether we're naturally calm or a bit more excited, what we like, and how we handle things. 


The places w here we grow up, and the people around us, are like the artists who help paint our personality. Our families, the places we live in, and the things we see and hear all make a big difference. If you're from a big family that loves to chat, you might also enjoy talking and sharing. Or if you’ve grown up where music is a constant presence, chances are that you might develop a love for music too. 

Social interactions  

Friends , and people we spend time with can change how we are. For example, when you learn a new game from a friend who has been kind to you. You can also learn new things about how to act and behave. Talking to different people helps us see the world in new ways, which might make us try new things or even change some things about the way we act. 

Life experiences  

Life is full of ups and downs, like when we win a game, or when we have a tough day. These experiences shape how we deal with things. When we handle problems, they make us stronger, and help us understand ourselves better. So, even though tough times are not fun, they help us grow and become more confident. 

Education and learning   

Going to school and learning new things help s us become better people. Imagine school as a treasure of unlimited knowledge. As we learn, we become smarter and learn how to have meaningful conversations with others, solve problems, and think about things in different ways. Education makes us more confident and helps us share our thoughts and ideas.  

Media and technology  

Th ings such as the TV shows we watch and the media we see online can also affect how we think and feel. Just like a friend who shapes your view on the new game with their review, the things we see in media can shape our interests and the way we look at the world. So, if you like superheroes because you saw them on TV, that's the media affecting your personality. 

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Stages of Personality Development  

Stages of Personality Development

There are three stages of Personality Development which we will be discussing below. 


Childhood is like the beginning of a story, where our personality starts to take shape. When we're small, the people who look after us, like our parents or guardians, are the ones who guide us on this journey. They help us feel safe when we're scared and show us love when we need it. Just like a warm blanket on a cold day, their care wraps around us and makes us feel special. 

We watch our parents and other grown-ups and learn how to do things by copying them. It's a bit like learning a new game by watching someone else play first. We pick up how to talk, how to behave, and how to make sense of the world. All these little experiences come together to create our personality. 


As we get older and become teenagers, we start to figure out who we really are. This is like exploring many things at once. Friends and other people of our age become important. We start to care about what they think and what's "cool." Sometimes, we might even change the way we dress or talk just to fit in. 

We start to discover our own unique interests and values. We begin to reali se that it's okay to stand out and be different. Friends and trends guide us in this period. Ultimately, we emerge with a better understanding of who we are, our strengths, and the special qualities that make us unique. 


When we grow up and become adults, our personalit ies continue to grow and change. Just like how a tree keeps growing and getting stronger, we keep learning and becoming wiser. Adulthood shapes who we shall be for the rest of our lives.  

Our jobs become an important part of this journey. Imagine a job you really love—it's like a special tool that helps you grow even more. It can boost your confidence and skills, making you feel capable and accomplished. The people we meet along the way, whether colleagues or friends, also contribute to our growth. 

Importance of Personality Development  

Importance of Personality Development

Personality Development is an important trait, and it shapes the person you are. Here, we’ll discuss the importance of Personality Development in your life. 

Self confidence  

It is the belief in oneself, the assurance that we possess, the skills, knowledge, and qualities to overcome life's challenges. As we develop self-confidence, our personality transforms and enables us to express our thoughts. It helps us to interact confidently with others and pursue our aspirations with determination. 

When we understand ourselves better, we feel surer of who we are. This confidence helps us speak our minds, have meaningful conversations, and pursue our dreams with determination. It's like having a torch that guides us in the dark. 

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Interpersonal relationships  

Interpersonal relationships are a must have for meaningful connections. Effective Personality Development provides us with this skill, enhancing our ability to relate to others. When we develop the skill of understanding different viewpoints, it makes things a lot easier. It's like having versatility that allows us to build bridges based on understanding. 

Active listening cultivates a space where people feel valued and understood. When these skills are honed through effective Personality Development, they form the very essence of strong interpersonal relationships. They develop trust, understanding, and connection. It makes relationships that are not only enduring but also deeply fulfilling. 

Career growth  

Career growth is directly connected with the development of a robust personality. A strong personality becomes a factor in taking individuals towards success in their professional careers. Effective communication, as shaped by a strong personality, emerges as a key factor in career growth. 

The ability to convey thoughts clearly, both in verbal and written forms, establishes a seamless space for ideas to flow. A strong personality also generates leadership qualities. It helps individuals make informed decisions and inspire their peers. This leadership quality not only benefits personal growth but also contributes to one's professional circle.  


When we develop our personality, we cultivate the skill of adaptability. It's like learning how to dance gracefully, adjusting our steps as the music changes. This skill allows us to face changes and challenges without feeling overwhelmed. We become more open to new ideas, different ways of doing things, and even unexpected turns in our path. 

Having adaptability means we don't get stuck in one way of thinking or doing things. We can think on our feet and find solutions when things don't go as planned. We can even turn setbacks into opportunities. It is a quality that helps us survive in this ever-evolving space. 

Theories of Personality Development  

V arious theories revolve around Personality Development. Here are the three most famous theories. 

Trait t heory  

At the heart of the study of personality lies the Trait theory. It is a concept introduced by esteemed psychologists such as Gordon Allpor t and Hans Eysenck . This theory says that by identifying and classifying distinct traits or characteristics, we can gain an understanding of an individual's personality.  

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These traits are enduring qualities that paint a picture of an individual's usual patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The practical applications of the Trait theory are numerous and can profoundly impact various aspects of our lives. Here’s a list of benefits: 

Cultivating self-awareness:  

Personal growth starts with truly understanding ourselves. By identifying and grasping our main qualities, we begin to learn about ourselves. With this understanding, we can make smarter choices in our everyday life and work. This improved self-awareness gives us clues about what we're good at and where we can get better. 

Effective communication :  

In a world buzzing with interactions, understanding the traits of others becomes important. When we grasp the unique characteristics that shape someone's personality, we can adapt our communication style to resonate better with them. Curating our words and expressions based on their traits paves the way for clearer understanding.  

E nhancing team dynamics:  

Teamwork hinges on collaboration and togetherness, both of which are greatly influenced by individual traits. By comprehending the traits of our team members, we unlock the potential for improved dynamics. Diverse traits can be utilised to create an environment where different strengths complement each other. This leads to more effective problem-solving, innovation, and shared success. 

Psychoanalytic t heory  

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic theory presents a fascinating view of Personality Development. According to this theory, our personality is a complex interplay between conscious and unconscious thoughts. Freud identified three fundamental components of personality – Innate Desires (ID), Ego, and Superego. Each plays a role in shaping our behaviour. This theory holds practical implications that can significantly enhance our daily lives: 

Understanding ourselves better:  

Dedicating moments to self-reflection, whether through expressive journaling or open conversations in therap y allows us to unplug hidden conflicts and emotions that might have considerable influence over our actions. By shining a light on these hidden aspects of our psyche, we gain a deeper comprehension of why we act the way we do. 

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Solving inner struggles:  

As we recognise the equilibrium between our Innate Desires ( ID ) and our Internal Morals (Superego), we can pave the way for resolving internal battles. Understanding the source of our inner conflicts allows us to seek resolutions that are aligned with our values and ideals. This, in turn, guides us towards making more accurate decisions in various life situations. 

Managing emotions:   

When we dig into where our emotions come from, we get better at controlling how we react. It's like becoming a master of our emotions. This helps us deal with tough situations calmly and thoughtfully. So, when things get tricky, we can handle them better and stay composed, reacting more sensibly and positively 

Social C ognitive theory  

Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive theory is like a guidebook on how we become who we are. It says that we learn a lot by watching others and believing in ourselves. This theory says that our personality isn't just from inside us. It comes from how we act, what we're like, and what's around us. Let's explore how this theory can be helpful in everyday life: 

Skill development:  

Imagine if you want to get good at something, like playing the guitar. Instead of just practising on your own, you can watch someone who's already great at it. By copying their moves and techniques, you can learn faster. This works for other skills too, whether it's painting, cooking, or even how to be more confident. 

Goal setting:  

Ever had a big dream, like becoming a scientist or an artist? The Social Cognitive theory talks about something called "self-efficacy". It's like believing you can do it. When you believe in yourself, you're more likely to set big goals and actually achieve them. So, if you dream of something amazing, believing in yourself can help you get there. 

Behavioural change:  

Think about habits or the way you usually act. Sometimes, some things make us do certain actions, like feeling stressed or happy. Social Cognitive theory says we can change these habits by understanding what makes us do them. If we figure out the triggers, we can change our surroundings or how we act to make things better. Like, if you want to be healthier, you can avoid junk food and do more exercise. 


Personality Development is a constant process influenced by genetics, environment, experiences, and interactions. And now that you’ve understood “What is Personality Development?” understanding the factors that influence personality shall become a lot easier for you. Acknowledging its significance allows individuals to cultivate their traits, behaviours, and overall perspective on life. This journey of self-improvement not only benefits personal growth but also improves relationships, careers, and overall well-being. 

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The Days of My Life: Personal Development Essay

Introduction: purpose, goals, and methods, in search for my own self: from early childhood to these days, conclusion: personal development in retrospect, reference list.

Taking a retrospect at one’s own development is a good way to analyze the current behavioral patterns and define the issues that may possibly jeopardize building relationships with the people around. In the given research, I am going to take a look at my won cognitive development through the lens of various cognitive development theories (CDTs) and check the effects of various internal and external factors on my life. Thus, I will learn not only to apply the theories that I have learned to practice but also to define the aspects that I will have to work on later.

The journey starts in early childhood

Naturally, browsing through my early childhood memories is quite complicated, seeing how I remember quite little about the given stage of my life. However, there were some choice moments that I clearly remember as the pivoting points of my development. For example, I can still recall some of the games that my mother used to play with me to develop my ability to think logically and be able to communicate.

Piaget’s theory at its best

Perhaps, one of the best ways to demonstrate a child’s development of cognitive and analytical skills, Piaget’s theory can be easily applied to my childhood memories. As an infant, I played with a teddy bear. Being a single parent, my mother had to leave me in daycare, yet I protested against being alone. To calm me down, my mother suggested that I draw a portrait of my teddy bear, which I did. Therefore, my ability to cognize the world through object permanence (tactile functions) transformed into symbolic thinking (transfer of the tactile experience into visual one).

Erikson: at the sixth stage

My childhood development can also be seen through the prism of Erikson’s stages of cognitive development. An alternative to Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories, it also has the right to exist, which my childhood experience has confirmed. I developed trust in my mother at the stage of infancy. It should be noted that the link between trust and breastfeeding, which Erikson provided, seems quite inconsistent, since in my case, mother-child relationships were very strong, even though my mother gave up breastfeeding when I was six weeks and started using bottle feeding. Like other children, I started fighting for my autonomy when I was around three; with little experience of raising children, my mother did not encourage my attempts at being independent properly and scolded me down when I failed, which resulted in enhancing my shame and doubt.

Vygotsky: the world around me

My childhood impressions, however, can also be analyzed from the point of view provided by Vygotsky. For instance, in my early childhood, I refused to share my toys with my playmates. The given phenomenon, in fact, can be explained with the help of Vygotsky’s theory. Noticing my greediness, my mother started giving me examples of generosity. For example, she tried to have me around when lending money, books, etc., to her friends and giving her things to charity. Thus, my mother performed the function of a scaffold, teaching me the basic principles of sharing.

Psychodynamic theory: new discoveries

Motivated both consciously and unconsciously, in accordance with the principles of psychodynamic theory, I learned new skills from interacting with the environment around me and the emotions that I had in the process. Sometimes these experiences were useful, like the pride that I felt after being praised for reading a very long word without mistakes at school. However, some of the emotions blocked my enthusiasm as a learner for quite along. For example, even now, I shiver a bit when I need to strike a match because of the burn that I got at five when playing with my mother’s lighter when she could not see me.

Growing pains: teenage angst

Much like any other teenager, I had to face a number of problems in order to accept the new patterns of relationships and to learn new communication skills. Apart from the way in which society works, I also had to learn how to be accepted and, at the same time, remain an individual. To describe the stages that I had to pass in the course of this transformation, Sternberg’s theory should be used.

Sternberg’s theory: from conventional to creative intelligence

I must admit that, as a child, I did not socialize with the rest of the children much; as a result, growing into a teenager, I was socially awkward most of the time. What I knew about people and society, I learned mostly from books and soon discovered that there was a huge gap between novels and reality. At this point, my development could be viewed through the lens of Sternberg’s theory.

Practical sub theory in action: acquiring communication skills

In the fifth grade, I started working on my communication skills. The process of skills acquisition was rather complicated, even though I had some experience in communication. In accordance with Sternberg’s theory (Bussey & Bandura, 1999, p. 677), I had to learn the basics of conventional communication principles before choosing the communication patterns that suited me best.

Experimental sub theory in action: training communication skills

After learning new skills, I tried them on the people around me in an attempt at winning them over. In some cases, my attempts were successful – I managed to find a sidekick when I enrolled in an art class. However, in a number of instances, these attempts led nowhere, which made me work harder on my social skills.

Gender issues and Chodorow’s theory: defining the differences

However, intelligence development and the skill of thinking outside of the box were not the only issues that I had to learn in the process of growing up. As I had stressed previously, at the age of 11, my knowledge of the social and physiological differences between boys and girls made me flock with girls of my age. However, at the age of 14, I started feeling that building relationships with boys are also an important part of my cognitive experience.

I remember dating boys at 15–17 and being romantically involved; however, it was all a part of growing up and cognizing the world and people around me, which was the key reason why these relationships never went anywhere. Perhaps, being relatively short, these experiences did not lead me to succumb to “women’s universal subordination that is based on a social, rather than a biological, explanation” (Ryle, 2012, p. 135), as Chodorow put it.

The world, through the lens of a young adult

Triarchic theory is still powerful: new experiences.

After I gave birth to my daughter, I discovered a whole new world of new experiences. Not all of them were positive – some included such problems as fighting fears when my daughter got sick, etc. However, by learning to be a mother, I realized that I have a plethora of both practical and artistic skills to learn. Therefore, Sternberg’s theory of learning to handle new tasks is still powerful. For example, while I used to be quite awkward when teaching my daughter to talk, I now feel experienced enough to develop sets of exercises for her creative learning.

Horney and Freud’s legacy: gender theories

As I have stressed above, I have been having issues in communication with the opposite sex. The given issues must have been stemming from my childhood experience. Being a child of a single mother, I could not observe the interactions between a man and a woman and, therefore, had to discover the specifics of gender relationships on my own. As Freud specifies, the so-called scripts, i.e., patterns of relationships, are learned in late childhood (Ryle, 2012, p. 135); in my case, these scripts did not include a male counterpart, which was the key stumbling block in my relationships with my male friends. As a result, I seem to have developed what Horney defined as a masculinity complex, which makes my gender relationships even more complicated (Paris, 2003, p. 22).

Divorce and the associated threats: Jung

I have to admit that at some point in my development, I had to face a serious crisis. In contrast to my expectations, my family life left much to be desired in terms of relationships with my husband. The problems that I encountered could be traced back to my Electra complex, as Jung (Borovečki-Jakovljev & Matacic, ‎2005, p. 351) defined it. Being raised by a single parent, I had little to no examples of interactions between a husband and a wife, which meant that I had to create my own interactional patterns.

Evaluating my experience, I must admit that I have a number of issues to confront. While my development did not differ much from the development of other children, such factors as being raised by a single parent and failing at claiming my independence in early childhood have affected my character and, therefore, shape my current behavioral patterns.

What needs to be addressed

As Jung’s theory allowed defining, I will have to work on learning to build relationships with men. Without a particular pattern learned from early childhood, the given task is extremely complicated. However, the situation that I face at present also has a positive side to it – I do not have the inherently wrong male-female relationship pattern based on the example set by my parents.

Future developmental prospects

Despite the fact that I already have a number of behavioral patterns cemented in my brain, changes in the environment that I live in, particularly new influences and interactions with new people mat possibly change the way I build relationships with people around me. By using the theories listed above to analyze my behavioral patterns, I will be capable of shaping my attitude towards other people and be open to new experiences.

Borovečki-Jakovljev, S. & Matacic, S.‎ (2005). The Oedipus complex in contemporary psychoanalysis. Collegium Antropologicum 29 (1), pp. 351–360.

Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106 (6), pp. 676-713.

Paris, B. J. (2003). Horney & humanistic psychoanalysis. In Frager, R. & Fadiman, J. (Eds.), Personality and personal growth (pp. 1–29). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Ryle, R. (2012). How do we learn Gender? Questioning Gender (pp. 119–165). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

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Personality development in the context of individual traits and parenting dynamics

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Our conceptualization of adult personality and childhood temperament can be closely aligned in that they both reflect endogenous, likely constitutional dispositions. Empirical studies of temperament have focused on measuring systematic differences in emotional reactions, motor responses, and physiological states that we believe may contribute to the underlying biological components of personality. Although this work has provided some insight into the early origins of personality, we still lack a cohesive developmental account of how personality profiles emerge from infancy into adulthood. We believe the moderating impact of context could shed some light on this complex trajectory. We begin this article reviewing how researchers conceptualize personality today, particularly traits that emerge from the Five Factor Theory (FFT) of personality. From the temperament literature, we review variation in temperamental reactivity and regulation as potential underlying forces of personality development. Finally, we integrate parenting as a developmental context, reviewing empirical findings that highlight its important role in moderating continuity and change from temperament to personality traits.

At the core of personality psychology is a focus on variability in human behaviors and attitudes that are stable across context and can arise from within the individual. The belief that people are ultimately individuals who bring unique perspective and contributions to their own development began to flourish in the Western world in the 19th century. This new focus on the individual propelled initiatives within philosophy and psychology to focus on dimensions that differentiate us from one another ( Barenbaum & Winter, 2008 ). Over time, this acknowledgement of individual differences permeated other areas of psychology – raising the notion that variation in individual traits can be systematic and predictive, and not simply random noise to be filtered out. Since personality can influence a host of constructs of interest – motivation, achievement, social behavior, decision-making – attempts to examine individual differences in this domain are evident across the field.

Early on, much of the emerging personality research was mired in a debate centered on quantifying what portion of personality was trait-based in contrast to experience-shaped. However, the current review will not fully wade into this debate—which ironically often pointed to broad theories of development, while not necessarily taking on a developmental approach ( Barenbaum & Winter, 2008 ). Rather, we will focus on how transactions between endogenous and contextual factors shape the personality development. Particularly, we want to highlight early emerging forces, such as temperament, that shape the emergence of personality traits within the context of the parenting environment. In doing so, we review how researchers conceptualize personality today, how temperamental reactivity and regulation may be underlying forces of personality development, and the role of the parenting context in moderating continuity and change from temperament to personality traits. Our understanding of these complex, bi-directional, interactions are outlined and illustrated in a simplified conceptual model (Section 3) that guides our interpretation of the currently available literature.

1. Current conceptualization of personality

The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality has guided research and theory building for almost three decades ( John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008 ). FFM, also known as the Big Five model, contends that the construct of personality includes Basic Tendencies or traits that are biologically-based, as well as Characteristic Adaptations that result from dynamic interactions between Basic Tendencies and experience. The combination of Basic Tendencies and Characteristic Adaptations , give rise to our observed personality phenotypes and directly impact the individual’s self-concept and objective biography (for a review, see McCrae & Costa, 2008 ). The theory postulates that there are five basic tendencies of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness , and Conscientiousness . Briefly explained, Neuroticism reflects emotional instability, and a tendency to display behaviors related to negative emotionality, such as anxiety, tension, and sadness. Extraversion refers to a high desire to approach and engage with the social and material world, and it includes traits of sociability, positive emotionality, and assertiveness. Agreeableness reflects a prosocial orientation and amiability that includes behaviors of altruism and trust, whereas the Openness factor includes dimensions of originality, perceptiveness, and intellect with which individuals experience life. Finally, Conscientiousness refers to a tendency to control impulses in compliance with social order, including task-oriented behaviors such as planning, organizing, as well as following norms or rules ( John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008 ).

In some ways, this conceptualization of personality has been closely aligned with our typical conceptualization of childhood temperament. For example, personality traits have been defined as “endogenous dispositions that follow intrinsic paths of development essentially independent of environmental influences” ( McCrae et al., 2000 , p. 173). The term “endogenous” suggests that these traits are biologically-based and early occurring, much like temperament. In fact, McCrae and colleagues (2000) argued that based on behavioral genetic and heritability studies of personality, we can conclude that personality traits have a large genetic component and that childhood shared environment (e.g., adoptive parents and siblings) has little to no effect on adult personality. Furthermore, they also present cross-cultural analyses of the maturation of personality traits from age 14 to age 50, supporting general declines in Neuroticism and Extraversion , and increases in Conscientiousness with age across five countries. Although these results lend support to the biological and universal aspects of personality traits, we should be careful in making strong inferences. Personality traits are usually assessed at an age when they may have reached a high degree of stability. Thus, these studies may 1) miss potential ways in which context can interact with early expressions of these traits (i.e., temperament) to shape continuity, and 2) miss individual variation or change that cannot be captured at group-level analyses ( Halverson & Deal, 2001 ).

Temperament research typically focuses on the early developmental period, measuring individual differences in behavior and physiology that are expressed in infancy and may lay the foundation for later personality. Indeed, temperament-linked differences are evident as early as four months of age ( Fox, Henderson, Rubin, Calkins & Schmidt, 2001 ; Kagan, 2012 ). By measuring systematic differences in emotional reactions, motor responses, and physiological states (e.g., heart rate variability), we can identify a number of temperament dimensions or temperamental styles that we believe may contribute to the underlying biological components of personality ( Rothbart & Bates, 2012 ). For example, an infant who displays increased limb movement when presented with a toy is rated as highly reactive ( Kagan, 2012 ). If this reactivity is accompanied by smiles and pleasant vocalization, then the infant id also rated as high in positive affect. This pattern of high positive reactivity is linked to the personality trait of Extraversion ( Caspi & Shiner, 2006 ; Slobodskaya & Kozlova, 2016 ), suggesting that this tendency for high approach and engagement of novelty is manifested early in infancy. However, links between temperament and personality traits are rarely strong, suggesting that these biological traits may not follow a path completely independent of environmental influences ( Shiner & Caspi, 2012 ). For example, studies suggest that temperament is influenced by prenatal experiences ( Huizink, 2012 ), and that after birth, early context may continue to influence change and continuity of infant temperament ( van Ijzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg, 2012 ). Furthermore, recent findings from epigenetic research has provided the mechanisms by which experience can robustly influence temperamental traits, such as reactivity and regulation ( Roth, 2012 ).

While previous work in infant temperament has provided some insight into the early origins of personality traits, we still lack a rich or cohesive developmental account of how different adult personality profiles emerge (or evolve) from infancy to adulthood. Despite attempts to link temperament dimensions to adult personality profiles, bridging the gap between early individual differences and adult personality traits has proved to be an intricate endeavor. We believe the moderating impact of context could shed some light on the complex trajectory from infant temperament to adult personality. First, however, we more carefully review our current understanding of temperament and the link to personality.

2. Temperament-linked individual differences and personality

Rothbart and Derryberry (1981) defined temperament as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation that are constitutional or biologically based. Reactivity, or the arousability of emotion, motor, and physiological systems, is evident in behavioral responses to novel stimuli such as increased vocalization, motoric movement, and affective expression. Furthermore, temperamental reactivity can be positive or negative, depending on the affective valence accompanying the infant’s response. Individual differences at these two emotional extremes are characterized as exuberant and fearful temperaments, respectively. Exuberant infants explore novel spaces and toys and are more likely to respond to a stranger or new social interaction with positive affect ( Fox et al., 2001 ). When in the same situation, fearful infants are more likely to cry, kick, or cling to their mothers, and may also show extreme hypervigilance and negative affect compared to non-fearful children ( Kagan, 2012 ). Temperamental regulation functions to modulate reactivity, such that the behavioral expression of high reactivity may be constrained if effective regulation is also present, or exacerbated if regulation abilities are low.

2.1. Temperamental reactivity

Negative reactivity is associated with a low threshold of arousal in limbic structures, particularly the amygdala and the broader threat response system ( Kagan, Reznick, & Snidman, 1987 ). Greater arousal results in heightened sensitivity to context, such that infants with lower thresholds are more sensitive to novel stimuli and thus more likely to show negative responses characterized by fear, even when presented with ostensibly “neutral” stimuli ( White, Lamm, Helfinstein, & Fox, 2012 ). Such negative reactivity is evident in the later emerging temperament profile of Behavioral Inhibition (BI). BI toddlers show longer latencies to interact or approach, respond with negative affect, and remain in close proximity to their mother when presented with a novel toy or in the presence of a stranger, reflecting a highly vigilant response. Furthermore, these behavioral expressions have been associated with physiological differences also originating in the limbic system, such as higher and more stable heart rate and higher cortisol levels ( Kagan et al., 1987 ). Although we cannot extensively describe physiological differences between negative and positive reactivity infants in the current review, a robust collection of studies have identified temperament-linked differences in electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power, sympathetic tone and baseline rate in the cardiovascular system, cortisol reactivity, the Event Related Negativity (ERN) waveform, and neural response to both threat and reward (for an in-depth description of methodology and group comparisons see Fox, Henderson, Pérez-Edgar, & White, 2008 ; Kagan & Snidman, 2004 ; McDermott et al., 2009 ; Schwartz et al., 2012 ).

Positive reactivity in infants on the other hand, may be the result of a high threshold of arousal, which likely affords infants the ease and comfort to navigate new social situations because they do not perceive such situations as threatening. Typically, Western personality preferences have led us to embrace the exuberant child, while simultaneously believing that fearfulness is a cause for concern ( Pérez-Edgar & Hastings, 2018 ). Although negative reactivity has more generally been associated with negative outcomes, such as anxiety ( Chronis-Tuscano et al., 2009 ; McDermott et al., 2009 ), positive reactivity can also lead to maladaptive outcomes if unregulated (see below). For example, Morales, Pérez-Edgar, and Buss (2016) found that exuberant toddlers who scored low in regulation tasks showed increased attention bias to reward, and their exuberance predicted externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors, in turn, have been associated with traits of low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness , and can manifest behaviorally in aggression and antisocial behavior ( Miller, Lynam, & Jones, 2008 ).

Early temperamental traits can lead to lasting physiological and cognitive profiles particularly when embedded within a context that reinforces and magnifies their expression ( Rothbart & Bates, 2012 ). In contrast, some environments may actively (even if unconsciously) work to mitigate early traits that do not conform to desired behavioral and emotional patterns ( Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn2007 ). The progression from temperament reactivity to later child outcomes – including emergent personality – through environmental mechanisms that shape continuity may explain why a small percentage of BI infants develop acute social difficulties and clinical anxiety as early as adolescence ( Kagan, 2012 ), while most grow to be healthy, if a bit shy.

2.2.Temperamental regulation

Self-regulation is the modulation (upward or downward) of reactivity through the processes of attention, inhibition, approach and avoidance, functioning as a mechanism for reactive control ( Rothbart, Posner, & Kieras, 2006 ). For instance, an infant with high reactive control may be more likely to disengage from an unpleasant or negative stimulus in the environment (a scary toy) and focus attention elsewhere. Early in infancy, reactive control plays a crucial role in the expression of temperament because it directly modulates behavioral manifestations of reactivity. For example, the infant who is more likely to disengage attention from a negative stimulus will display less vocalization and motoric movement in response.

Temperamental regulation can also incorporate effortful control ( Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003 ). Describing control as “effortful” reflects top-down processes that, unlike automatic reactive processes, are recruited voluntarily. For example, BI children with higher effortful control may more easily recruit strategies to regulate negative feelings in social situations, which can facilitate their social interactions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of the main brain structures involved in effortful control, and along with the Executive Attention Network (EAN) have been extensively studied for their role on regulation abilities (for a review, see Rueda, Posner, & Rothbart, 2005 ; Henderson & Wilson, 2017 ). In summary, individual differences are evident in the way infants react to their environment and regulate environmental input. Thus, the behavioral manifestation of temperament is a product of the interplay between the infant’s motoric and emotional reactivity and the infant’s regulation capacity.

2.3.The contextual role of temperament

The interplay between temperamental reactivity and regulation becomes more nuanced as regulation becomes more effortful or voluntary. Recent evidence suggests that not all regulatory processes affect temperamental reactivity in the same fashion. White and colleagues (2011) examined a large sample of infants from 4-months to preschool age. They found that BI children with poor attention shifting were more likely to follow a developmental path to anxiety compared to BI children who were better at shifting their attention. This evidence, on its own, suggests that more robust regulation may buffer risk trajectories from fearful temperament to Neuroticism and psychopathology. However, White et al. (2011) found a different moderation pattern for inhibitory control, an associated, but distinct, component of self-regulation. Inhibitory control is the ability to stop an automatic or dominant impulse and to activate a subdominant response for the purpose of goal completion. Unlike attention shifting, high, and not poor, inhibitory control was associated with development of anxiety problems in BI children, a finding that has since been replicated (see Henderson & Wilson, 2017 ).

A nuanced understanding of regulation provides some explanation for the variability in developmental trajectories from temperamental reactivity to personality, which will depend in part on which regulatory processes are called upon by individual children. For example, training inhibitory control processes in exuberant children may buffer risk for externalizing problems, and, in the absence of externalizing tendencies, children may develop into more Agreeable and Conscientious adults. However, using the same strategy in behaviorally inhibited children could exacerbate negative reactivity and the risk for internalizing behaviors, which has been associated with adult Neuroticism ( Muris, Meesters, & Blijlevens, 2007 ). Together, these findings emphasize the differential effects of specific self-regulation components, and more importantly, point to the important role of temperament in tethering development to a given adult personality profile over others, and to influencing whether regulation comes to buffer or potentiate risk for psychopathology.

3. Developmental links from temperament to personality

There is now increasing evidence for links between temperament dimensions and the Big Five. The Five Factor Theory of personality helped distinguished between basic tendencies of personality ( Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness , and Openness to Experience ) and later emerging components that are largely driven by life events and personal experience (e.g., Characteristic Adaptations and Self-Concept ). The Big Five, which reflect endogenous characteristics driven by biological systems much like temperament, has proven to be a more suitable construct to assess developmental links between temperament and adult personality ( Shiner & Caspi, 2012 ).

The effort to link temperament to personality has mostly focused on how temperament dimensions of Positive Emotionality , Negative Emotionality , and Effortful Control assessed early in childhood predict differences in personality traits later. Positive Emotionality , given a context that reinforces its stability throughout childhood, likely develops into the broader trait of Extraversion , which includes positive emotions, the motivation to engage in social relationships, and the desire to seek rewarding cues in the environment ( Olino, Klein, Durbin, Hayden, & Buckley, 2005 ; Caspi & Shiner, 2006 ).

Negative Emotionality , in contrast is often linked with manifestations of Neuroticism . For example, De Pauw, Mervielde, and Van Leeuwen (2009) assessed 443 preschoolers on their temperament and personality traits concurrently, and found a large overlap between both constructs, and each positively correlated with internalizing behaviors. Furthermore, Slobodskaya and Kozlova (2016) examined longitudinal links between temperament dimensions assessed within infancy and toddlerhood, and personality traits in childhood. They found that high Negative Emotionality along with low Effortful Control in infancy predicted childhood Neuroticism . In fact, results from their path analysis indicated that Effortful Control in infancy predicts all three of the personality traits assessed in childhood: Extraversion , Conscientiousness , and Neuroticism . Although these results are preliminary given the limited sample size and large variation of time intervals between assessments, they support the contextual role of temperamental regulation in the development of later personality. As previously discussed, Effortful Control is characterized by regulatory abilities that facilitate soothability in infancy, and the ability to inhibit dominant impulses and voluntarily shift attention when necessary to achieve a goal. This dimension has been linked to Conscientiousness , Extraversion , and generally adaptive traits in adult personality ( Halverson et al., 2003 ).

The extant literature supports moderate links between individual differences in infant temperament and later personality traits, while also suggesting that temperament does not predict personality in a deterministic way. What then is the developmental trajectory from infant temperament to childhood and adult personality? We believe the dynamic interaction between temperament-linked individual differences in infancy and early contextual factors leads to emergence of personality traits in childhood, as depicted in the left portion of Figure 1 . As these traits continue to actively and evocatively interact with the environment from infancy throughout childhood and adolescence, they increasingly become more context- and person-specific, resulting in the distinct personality profiles observed in adulthood ( Shiner & Caspi, 2012 ).

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Mechanisms of change from temperament to personality Development

For example, “goodness of fit” refers to the extent that a child’s temperament is compatible with the context of development. This term was proposed by Chess and Thomas (1991) to describe the relational or dynamic aspect of temperament. The term “fit” implies a synchrony or transaction between temperament and context, and fit is considered “good” when the environment can meet the demands of a child’s temperament and provides opportunities for growth and sets expectations for regulation that are in accordance with that temperament. Dissonance between temperament and contextual demands would be considered a poor fit, and could potentially lead to maladaptive outcomes. The dynamic interaction between temperament and context may buffer or exacerbate the evolution of temperament traits into personality traits ( Shiner & Caspi, 2012 ).

For instance, a recent study by van der Voort and colleagues (2014) reported the longitudinal buffering effects of maternal sensitivity on children’s inhibited temperament. They followed a sample of 160 adopted infants into the adolescent years, assessing patterns of anxious and depressed behaviors. Although inhibited temperament was a strong predictor of socially reticent behaviors in middle childhood and internalizing problems in adolescence, maternal sensitivity measured at both infancy and middle childhood interacted with inhibited temperament to predict less internalizing problems in adolescence. Sensitivity may allow parents to more readily perceive fearful and vigilant cues in their inhibited infant, and provide more support in those instances in which the infant needs reassurance of safety. Conversely, if parenting behaviors do not fit the infant’s temperamental demands, inhibited and fearful tendencies could be further reinforced throughout childhood.

A good example comes from a series of studies from Kiel and Buss (2010 ; 2011 ; 2012 ; 2013) . Initially, they found that the relation between fearful temperament and protective parenting was stronger when mothers were more accurate in predicting or anticipating their children’s fearful responses ( Kiel & Buss, 2010 ). Presumably, this accurate anticipation increased the likelihood that mothers of fearful children would respond with protection in novel situations, which then perpetuated temperamental fearfulness. In a follow-up study, they maternal accuracy in anticipating fearful responses and protective parenting in toddlerhood was linked to social withdrawal at kindergarten entry ( Kiel & Buss, 2011 ). More recently, they have also shown that it is protective parenting in low-threat , but not high-threat situations that relates to fearful temperament ( Kiel & Buss, 2012 ). This pattern implies that ‘overprotective’ parenting behaviors, even if superficially ‘sensitive’, may potentiate risk from fearful temperament to later internalizing behaviors, anxiety, and high levels of Neuroticism .

In summary, we presume that temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits share underlying biological systems that drive their commonalities. When these basic, biological tendencies of adult personality are examined in isolation from the influence of life experience, moderate to strong links with temperament begin to emerge ( McCrae et al., 2000 ; Rothbart, 2011 ; Zentner & Bates, 2008 ). Such links suggest that temperament and personality traits may in essence be the same construct, differentiated only by the developmental point at which they are expressed ( Slobodskaya & Kozlova, 2016 ). Supporting this notion, Shiner and Caspi (2012) argue that personality traits are different from temperament dimensions in that the former include components that are only expressed when individuals develop more advanced cognitive abilities and self-awareness. They explain links between temperament and personality traits in terms of an outward expansion of children’s temperament. Specifically, as children develop and continue to be influenced by experience, life events, and social interactions, the expression of temperament expands beyond individual differences in basic reactivity and emotion, to more nuanced differences in intricate systems such as motivation, goal setting, beliefs, and views of self and others. We build on their cognitive-focused model, and argue that parenting practices form part of those experiences, life events, and social interactions that drive the expansion of temperament. Our developmental model in Figure 1 is in line with Shiner and Caspi’s (2012) view, depicting personality traits as biologically rooted in temperament, and interacting with early context and life experience to shape adult personality.

As previously stated, despite moderate links between temperament and personality traits there remains considerable unexplained variance in adult functional profiles after accounting for temperament and personality traits. At the very least we see moderate environmental influences on personality development even beyond the context of early childhood. We depict extended role of the environment in the center portion of Figure 1 , in agreement with McCrae et al.’s (2000) argument that the environment likely conditions the way in which personality evolves through adulthood.

Taking an even broader perspective, we believe the transactions between the individual and the environment depicted in our model are also dynamically embedded within the larger cultural context of family systems, socio-cultural expectations, and intergenerational processes that may exert important influence on child characteristics and contextual expectations ( Poole, Tang, & Schmidt, in press ). In essence, we suggest that context actively shapes the emergence and expression of personality through dynamic transactions between temperament and environmental factors. These transactions may happen via moderating effects of temperament, as well as bidirectional effects in which temperament elicits or evokes the environmental inputs children encounter, and consequently these environmental inputs gradually shape the expression of temperament (Oppenheimer, Hankin, Jenness, Young, & Smolen, 2013), creating a loop of experience-expectant and experience-dependent transactions. We explore this transactional relationship between child temperament and context using parenting as one example of early environmental influences on personality development.

4. The Parenting Context

Parents have direct genetic influences on children’s temperament and personality ( Scott et al., 2016 ). In addition, passive gene-environment correlations mean that parenting practices, as well as the choices parents make in shaping their child’s environment, are influenced by shared genetic characteristics. In this way, parents have both direct and indirect genetic effects on their child’s developmental outcomes. Thus, as we discuss the contextual influences of parenting on child temperament and personality, it is important to keep in mind that any behavioral influence parents have on their children is also likely to carry a genetic component.

Parents create most of the immediate setting in which infants develop, namely the home and the interpersonal environment, including the face-to-face relationships that take place there. These affordances make parents active agents in children’s social and emotional context, specifically through early parenting style and practices ( Belsky et al., 2007 ). For example, when parents respond to their infant’s cry with soothing and support, they are providing the means for infant emotion regulation. Similarly, in the presence of a stranger or novel situation, a parents’ facial cues (e.g., smile) signal to the infant whether the social context is safe or dangerous. Variations in parenting behavior directly impact the formation of the attachment relationship, and attachment relationships, in turn, influence children’s socioemotional competence and personality over time ( Lewis-Morrarty et al., 2015 ; Stevenson-Hinde, Chicot, Shouldice, & Hinde, 2013 ).

Additionally, parents also shape the infant’s social context beyond the immediate family setting, such as the peer environment. For example, before children gain autonomy, their parents choose what play activities children can engage in (e.g., story time at the library), and the playmates children can interact with. Parents continue to influence their children as they pass though important developmental transitions, such as school entrance, puberty and adolescence. These are periods when children undergo identity exploration and active reorganization of their social world (e.g., romantic relationships), which have relevant theoretical implications for the development of personality ( Reitz, Zimmermann, Hutteman, Specht, & Neyer, 2014 ; Syed, & Seiffge-Krenke, 2013 ).

4.1. Theoretical models of parenting influence

Theorists have proposed several mechanisms through which parenting can shape child outcomes, specifically the development of personality. Bowlby was one of the first to discuss the development of “internal working models” based on the parent-child attachment relationship ( Bowlby, 1980 ). The central tenet of working models is that children internalize representations about “the self” from the dynamic and transactional interactions between them and their caregiver ( Bretherton, 1990 ). Furthermore, children adopt working models of behavior based on the quality of these interactions that they then carry onto other contexts (e.g., school). In essence, parenting quality can influence children’s concept of who they are and how others view them. Additionally, parenting quality can also influence children’s manifestation of personality traits. For example, children who experience harsh punishment and controlling parenting may perceive themselves as unworthy or unlovable, and model intrusive and controlling behaviors that could then lead to low agreeableness or high neuroticism.

Environmental elicitation is a second mechanism theorized to explain relations between the parenting context and personality development. Here, a child’s individual characteristics can elicit specific parenting behaviors ( Shiner & Caspi, 2003 ). For example, a “difficult temperament”, which is a term used to describe infants who are easily irritable, cry often, and are hard to sooth, may elicit frustration in the parent and lead to harsh, controlling parenting or even rejection. The environmental elicitation model can be traced back to an organismic view of development, where changes arise from within the organism (e.g., the child) as the organism actively acts on the world and evokes responses from the environment ( Overton, 2015 ).

A caveat to the environmental elicitation model is that research now suggests a more dynamic approach may be at play, where the elicited environmental responses may be as dependent on environmental characteristics as they are on child characteristics ( Lerner, Rothbaum, Boulos, & Castellino, 2002 ). This is reflected in the bidirectional effects between child and context in Figure 1 . Children’s individual characteristics in tandem with parental individual characteristics can influence the type and quality of parenting response. For example, some studies suggest that parents with higher education levels are more likely to show warmth and support in response to a difficult child, whereas parents with low educational attainment are more likely to respond with harsh control and reciprocal negative affect ( Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Stams, Hermanns, & Peetsma, 2007 ). This approach to environment elicitation can be traced back to Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological framework of development, in which developmental change is theorized to occur through dynamic transactions between organism and immediate environment, and where the individual characteristics of the organism and the characteristics of the environment are equally important in these interactions (for an overview, see Rosa & Tudge, 2013 ).

The working model of behavior and the environmental elicitation model are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and there is empirical evidence suggesting that they may in fact work simultaneously within the framework of parenting and personality development. For example, Van den Akker and colleagues (2014) examined personality development from age 6 to age 20 along with maternal over-reactivity and warmth. The sample included 596 children and their mothers, who reported on their children’s personality traits at five different time points throughout the study, as well as their parenting practices. Van Den Akker and colleagues found that high maternal over-reactivity predicted decreases in Conscientiousness at later time points, and high maternal warmth predicted decreases in emotional stability, which would be reflected in high Neuroticism . This finding echoes the earlier work of Buss and Keil (2011 ; 2012) .

Additionally, the authors also reported that increases in benevolence, which is a characteristic of Agreeableness , predicted later increases in maternal warmth and decreases in over-reactivity. Similarly, high Extraversion in childhood predicted increases in maternal over-reactivity and warmth. Although these results merit replication and further investigation of why specific traits are more reinforced or discouraged by different parenting practices, they nonetheless provide valuable evidence for bidirectional effects between temperament and early context. Additionally, they provide convincing evidence that environmental elicitation and working models of behavior are two mechanisms simultaneously at play, producing dynamic transactions between personality traits and parenting.

4.2. Parenting practices and personality development

The literature has largely focused on specific types of parenting behaviors associated with positive or negative child socioemotional outcomes. Although the aim of this paper is to review the parenting context in interaction with intrinsic child factors, it is worth summarizing briefly the findings that initially emerged when examining the main and direct effects of parenting on child outcomes. Two major dimensions have been used to describe parenting quality: parental warmth or sensitivity and parental control. Parental warmth is a global construct that usually reflects positive parenting behaviors. These behaviors may include measures of sensitivity, support, positive affect, and responsiveness among others ( Behrens, Parker, & Kulkofsky, 2014 ). Warm and responsive parenting has been consistently associated with higher levels of social and emotional competence. For example, Raby, Roisman, Fraley, and Simpson (2015) reported on the socioemotional development of 243 individuals followed from infancy to adulthood. Behavioral expressions of maternal sensitivity were also measured at different time points throughout infancy, as early as three months of age. They found that early maternal sensitivity significantly predicted social competence across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Furthermore, these effects remained significant after accounting for potential child-context developmental transactions, such as children independently choosing more aspects of their environment as they grow in autonomy. These results not only highlight the important role of parenting on child outcomes but also the general, enduring impact of early context on children’s social development.

Positive parenting practices have also been associated with more specific aspects of social development, such as prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior encompasses tendencies for sharing, helping, and cooperating for the purpose of benefiting someone other than the self ( Eisenberg, Eggum-Wilkens, & Spinrad, 2015 ), and has been implicated in adolescent and adult Agreeableness ( Habashi, Graziano, & Hoover, 2016 ; Luengo et al., 2014 ). Daniel, Madigan, and Jenkins (2016) assessed parenting warmth in both mothers and fathers in relation to toddlers’ prosocial behavior in a sample of 239 families. They found that both maternal and paternal warmth at 18 months predicted increases in prosocial behavior at 36 and 54 months, which is in line with the enduring effects of sensitivity reported by Raby et al. (2015) . Beyond predicting changes in prosocial behavior, Domitrovich and Bierman (2001) reported that supportive parenting also predicted social competence through associations with low levels of child aggression, and buffered children from the negative effects of peer dislike. Although partially limited by the cross-sectional design, these results and findings previously discussed suggest that warm supportive parenting has lasting positive effects on children’s later ability to navigate their social world. These effects, in turn, impact the form and expression of adult personality.

Multiple forms of parental control have been studied, including measures of parental harsh intrusiveness, dominance, and pressure, in contrast to gentle guidance and scaffolding behaviors that encourage child autonomy ( Grolnick & Pomerantz, 2009 ). Harsh control and intrusive parenting predict poor socioemotional competence ( Parker & Benson, 2004 ; van Aken, Junger, Verhoeven, & Dekovic, 2007 ). In a longitudinal study, Taylor, Eisenberg, Spinrad, and Widaman (2013) assessed children’s effortful control and intrusive parenting at 18, 30, and 42 months. Intrusive parenting was behaviorally coded from a series of mother-child interactions, including a teaching task, a free-play task, and a clean-up task. Taylor and colleagues found that parents’ intrusiveness was negatively related to later assessments of child effortful control, which encompasses regulatory skills such as attention shifting and emotion regulation that are relevant for social interactions. Furthermore, effortful control mediated the association between intrusive parenting and poor ego resiliency, which is a personality characteristic that reflects adaptability and flexibility to changes in the environment, and it is associated with social competence ( Hofer, Eisenberg, & Reiser, 2010 ).

Further highlighting the negative effects of harsh control, Wiggins and colleagues (2015) reported on the developmental trajectories of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in relation to harsh parenting from a large sample of children assessed at ages 3, 5, and 9 years. They found that a trajectory of increasing harsh parenting uniquely predicted a severe trajectory of externalizing symptoms, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms. These results suggest that harsh, controlling parenting may lead children to model these behaviors with their peers, causing social conflict and rejection, which may further reinforce the negative behaviors.

Despite significant contributions made in establishing direct links between parenting quality and child outcomes, a great deal of evidence suggests that parenting dimensions do not affect children in the same way ( Slagt et al., 2016 ). In some cases, parenting may only relate to social development through variables that moderate or mediate its effects, such as gender, genetic variability, or personality ( Lianos, 2015 ; Rabinowitz & Drabick, 2017 ).

In fact, Lianos (2015) assessed preadolescents’ personality traits in relation to the parenting style they received, and found that the association between parenting quality and social competence varied by children’s personality. Specifically, high parental rejection was significantly associated with lower social competence only for preadolescents low in Neuroticism , whereas individuals high in Neuroticism were as socially competent as children who did not experience parental rejection. Similarly, high parental overprotection seemed more detrimental for preadolescents low in Agreeableness and Extraversion , as they were significantly less socially competent than children who scored high on these traits, or children who did not experience overprotective parenting. These transactions between emerging personality traits and environmental factors are theoretically depicted in our developmental model ( Figure 1 ), and may also represent an enduring pattern of transactions carried over from infancy. Lianos’ findings also highlight the importance of examining the role of parenting context as a moderator of developmental links between children’s individual characteristics and later outcomes, including the final piece in our model: Personality Profiles . We next review the intersection of individual differences and parenting context in predicting personality development, describing the theoretical models employed so far, synthesizing the current findings, and suggesting areas that warrant further research.

4.3. Temperament reactivity and parenting

Positive reactivity, which is typically reflected by extreme high approach and excitement in the face of novelty, has been largely understudied in relation to parenting behaviors. There is some cross-sectional evidence to suggest that positive reactivity is associated with parental warmth ( Latzman, Elkovitch, & Clark, 2009 ), but such associations cannot clearly distinguish bidirectional effects and could be explained by gene-environment correlations or heritability of parents’ temperament. Longitudinal studies could elucidate the direction of these associations. However, few studies have reported longitudinal assessments between positive reactivity and parenting, especially in infancy.

Lengua and Kovacs (2005) assessed temperament and parenting using both children’s and parents’ report of these variables at two time points. They found that initial positive reactivity predicted higher levels of maternal acceptance, which supports the elicitation model. The authors suggested that the positive characteristics of these children, such as laughter and approach, may be perceived by parents as rewarding and elicit acceptance and warmth. Interestingly, the authors did not find support for the working model of behavior, as initial parental acceptance did not predict changes in positive reactivity.

Even fewer studies have considered the parenting context as a moderator of links between positive reactivity and later socioemotional adjustment, including personality development. Positive reactivity may have a protective effect against negative parenting behaviors, such as maternal rejection, physical punishment, and harsh control ( Lengua, Wolshick, Sandler, & West 2000 ; Lahey et al., 2008 ). For instance, children who are high in approach and positive emotionality may elicit more engagement and positive reactions from adults. In the face of negative parenting, children’s positive reactivity may facilitate deep and positive connections with other adults, who may then serve as an attachment figure that provides some emotional and social guidance for the child ( Werner, 1993 ). This particular area of study could benefit from longitudinal studies assessing positive reactivity and parenting over longer periods, and perhaps earlier in development. Multiple time point data could more directly examine the working model of behavior and the environmental elicitation model simultaneously, assessing whether changes in positive reactivity are only evident after longer time intervals. Additionally, the lack of parenting effects on positive reactivity may be the result of exploring this association later in childhood, as evident bidirectional effects may be more pronounced earlier in development when parents have greater control over the child’s daily experiences.

Negative reactivity has received far more attention than positive reactivity in this literature, perhaps because of its intuitive links to maladaptive outcomes. As previously explained, the global dimension of “difficult temperament” includes characteristics of irritability, high fear, and soothing difficulty, and it has been associated with lower maternal support and responsiveness, and higher parental disapproval and hostility ( Boivin et al., 2005 ; Gauvain, 1995 ). However, a meta-analysis of this relation ( Paulussen-Hoogeboom et al., 2007 ) suggests that results are mixed, and in some cases, may depend on other child characteristics (e.g., gender), and demographic variables (e.g., mother education).

In the case of fearfulness, some findings indicate a positive association with parental warmth and acceptance ( Lengua & Kovacs, 2005 ), whereas others have found longitudinal links to less negative parenting. Lengua (2006) assessed children’s temperamental fear and irritability as well as maternal rejection and discipline practices at three different time points over the course of three years. The sample included 190 children between the ages of 8 and 12, and their mothers. Latent growth modeling revealed that although initial levels of fear were concurrently related to higher levels of maternal rejection and inconsistent discipline, they predicted decreases in these negative parenting dimensions at later time points. Interestingly, initial irritability was also concurrently associated with higher maternal rejection, but it did not uniquely predict changes in rejection. In fact, irritability was associated with higher inconsistent discipline and it also predicted later increases in this dimension.

This interesting pattern of results point to the differential effects of specific temperamental characteristics on parenting, and to the potential for change in temperament given elicited changes in parenting toward higher warmth and less over-reactive control. For example, an infant who is extremely fearful to novelty and high in negative affect may be at risk for early internalizing problems given temperamental stability. However, if such fearful temperament elicits higher maternal warmth and support, coupled with more scaffolding and gentle control, changes in parenting could elicit decreases in fearfulness and negative emotionality, and might decrease the risk of developing adult personality traits of high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness . This is the central developmental pattern we depict in the first and second stages of Figure 1 , with bidirectional effects between child intrinsic characteristics and contextual factors.

This transaction pattern is in line with Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST; Ellis, Boyce, Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2011 ). DST postulates that some individual characteristics of an organism (e.g., temperament) may render it more sensitive to contextual influences (e.g., parenting) such that when faced with a negative context, the organism will show a worse outcome. However when embedded in a positive environment, the organism will benefit the most and perform the best. Children who possessed characteristics that increase sensitivity to context then develop “for better or for worse”, because they either thrive in privileged environments or struggle in adverse circumstances. Our theoretical model can encompass DST because we purposefully leave strength and valence of effects unspecified, acknowledging that the strength and direction of contextual influence may be conditioned by child characteristics. The extant literature supports a pattern in which children high in negative reactivity show high socioemotional competence in the context of maternal warmth and autonomy-supporting parenting ( Bradley & Corwyn, 2008 ). However, the other side of the coin has also been reported. Children high in negative reactivity whose parents report harsh control and low warmth show further continuity of negative reactivity and behavioral problems (Engle & McElwain, 2011; Feng, Shaw, & Moilanen, 2011 ), lower social adjustment ( Stright, Gallagher, & Kelley, 2008 ), and higher neurophysiological risk for anxiety ( Brooker & Buss, 2014 ). These overall patterns suggest that children high in reactivity may present with typically positive personality traits, such as Agreeableness or Conscientiousness , or more negative traits, such as Neuroticism , based on their developmental context. However, as noted above, there are limits to both sensitivity and the power of the environment. As such, it is very unlikely that a child sensitive to the environment due to negative reactivity will, even under the best of circumstances, show high levels of Extraversion .

4.4. Temperament regulation and parenting

Studies of temperament regulation usually include behavioral measures of effortful control, which is manifested on attention sustaining, perseverance, and low frustration in the face of difficulty ( Rueda, 2012 ). A large number of studies suggest that maternal warmth and supportive parenting are associated with higher levels of effortful control (for a meta-analysis, see Karreman, Van Tuijl, van Aken, & Deković, 2006 ). A study by Chang and colleagues (2015) investigated relations between effortful control and proactive parenting from age two to five. Initial levels of proactive parenting, characterized by practices of scaffolding and structured play, predicted increases in effortful control at age five. This result remained significant even after accounting for language skills, which is a significant predictor of effortful control.

There is also some empirical support for the eliciting effects of effortful control on parenting. Higher levels of self-regulation have been associated with more maternal support and less rejection ( Kennedy, Rubin, Hastings, & Maisel, 2004 ; Lengua, 2006 ). However, the studies are scarce and some of the results have been moderated by child’s gender or have systematically varied by parent (e.g., father vs. mother; Lifford, Harold, & Thapar, 2009 ). Future studies should further examine the circumstances in which effortful control predicts changes in parenting, especially because a more recent study did not find support for such elicitation effects ( Taylor et al., 2013 ). Overall, both elicitation and shaping effects between parenting and temperament regulation are important to personality development, because early effortful control has been associated with later personality traits of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness ( Rueda, 2012 ).

Besides exploring bidirectional effects, the literature has narrowed in on the interaction between self-regulation and parenting to predict child outcomes. A consistent pattern of results has emerged in the past 15 years: parenting practices appear especially important for the socioemotional development of children with low effortful control (for a meta-analysis, see Slagt et al., 2016 ). Other studies have replicated this pattern and provided support for unique environmental effects of the parenting context. For instance, Reuben et al. (2004) examined parenting, effortful control, and externalizing behaviors using a longitudinal adoption design in 225 families, including adoptive and birth parents. Adoptive maternal warmth predicted decreases in externalizing behaviors only for children with low effortful control. This study in particular highlights the importance of the parenting context and points to its contextual influence on children’s development independent from any shared genetic variance.

5. Conclusions

Personality has for decades been theorized to originate from temperament. However, we rarely see direct links between temperament and personality, suggesting that biologically determined profiles of temperament are not the only forces at work in shaping developmental trajectories. Instead, the current body of evidence suggests that adult personality develops along pathways influenced by environmental factors, such as the parenting context, that shape the continuity and manifestation of early-appearing biological differences.

Infant temperament probably begins to interact with parenting practices early in development, and these transactions can reinforce or discourage continuity of temperament and personality development. Infants’ behavioral and emotional reactivity elicits an array of parenting responses in order to meet the infant’s needs. Additionally, more recent findings also suggest that the elicited parenting behaviors and practices are dependent on the parent’s individual characteristics, and they can in turn shape the child’s temperamental characteristics. Empirical evidence that parenting can explain changes in temperament and that temperament can elicit changes in parenting is compatible with the “goodness of fit” transactional model proposed by Thomas and Chess (1991) . This model can also account for the moderating effects of infants’ temperament on the association between parenting behaviors and child outcomes. Both the theoretical model and the extant evidence highlight that a match between parenting and temperament, rather than a universal construct of “good parenting”, seems to be relevant in predicting personality development.

A growing literature suggests that parenting interacts with temperament to affect socioemotional development, especially pointing to the possibility that some temperament dimensions may be more vulnerable than others to the detrimental effects of a negative parenting context ( Slagt et al., 2016 ). Although the patterns are not always consistent across developmental periods, specific temperament dimensions, or parenting practices ( Rabinowitz & Drabick, 2017 ), the evidence is nonetheless indisputable that context, in the form of parenting, can moderate the relationship between temperament-linked individual differences and child outcomes. Additionally, the extant findings suggest that the intersection of temperament and parenting should be investigated as a dynamic, transactional relation. If it is to be fully understood, investigators should employ more longitudinal studies where both child temperament and parenting behaviors are observed at multiple time points, and their transactions considered to predict personality development ( Slagt et al., 2016 ). Finally, the complexity of temperament-parenting transactions also implies the possibility of simultaneous child and parent individual characteristics playing a functional role in the personality traits that children later express. Bronfenbrenner emphasized the importance of such simultaneously occurring characteristics:

Proximal processes that affect development vary systematically as a joint function of the characteristics of the developing person and the environment (both immediate and more remote) in which the processes are taking place ( Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1993 , p. 317).

To the extent that we consider personality to be a developmental process, Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory informs our current understanding of how personality develops in context. By his account, individual characteristics of the child and the context will inevitably affect the nature of their transaction, and therefore should be carefully considered in our designs. For example, child gender has occasionally been found to moderate the influence of effortful control on later parenting practices ( Lifford, Harold, & Thapar, 2008 ). This moderation calls for a comprehensive, holistic account of the child in our designs and measurement models, rather than including isolated individual characteristics that may only represent one portion of the child’s experienced “truth”. Similarly, caregiver role, parent psychopathology, education level, and household size are all characteristics of the parenting context that could influence “proximal processes” or parent-child transactions, and thus should be reflected in our studies. In conclusion, when examining personality development, transactions between child and parent over time are crucial, and these complex, dynamic relations can only inform the trajectory to adult personality when multiple individual characteristics of both entities (i.e., organism and context) are carefully considered.

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Home / Essay Samples / Education / Class Reflection / A Reflection About Myself and My Personality

A Reflection About Myself and My Personality

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