The Goi Peace Foundation

2021 international essay contest for young people – winners announced.

We are pleased to announce the winners of the 2021 International Essay Contest for Young People. From among 28,217 entries from 161 countries, the following winners were selected. We take this opportunity to thank all of you who participated in the contest!

Royal Commonwealth Society.png


The Queen's Commonwealth Essay Competition (QCEC) is the world's oldest international schools' writing contest, established by the Society in 1883. With thousands of young people taking part each year, it is an important way to recognise achievement, elevate youth voices and develop key skills through creative writing.

Each year, entrants write on a theme that explores the Commonwealth's values, fostering an empathetic world view in the next generation of leaders and encouraging young people to consider new perspectives to the challenges that the world faces. Themes have included the environment, community, inclusion, the role of youth leadership, and gender equality.

In the past decade alone, this high-profile competition has engaged approximately 140,000 young people, over 5,000 schools and thousands of volunteer judges across the Commonwealth.

Celebrating the Commonwealth Year of Youth, the theme, 'A Youth-Powered Commonwealth,’ asked QCEC entrants to explore the power young people hold within the global community and to consider how this power can be harnessed to make a meaningful impact in the world.

We were thrilled to receive a record-breaking 34,924 entries to the QCEC from every Commonwealth region, with the winners and runners-up from India and Malaysia. Find out more about this year's winners below and watch their reactions on discovering this significant achievement!


Siddhi   Deshmukh

Senior Winner  

A creative thinker and a voracious reader, Siddhi De shmukh is from the city of Mumbai, India. Siddhi is a 17 year-old student currently studying in Mayo College Girls’ Scho ol, Ajmer. She is the President of the English Creative Writing Society , and head of the World Scholar’s Cup club at her school. Siddhi’s role is instrumental in writing and directing the upcoming Annual School Play, and she is also an act ive member of Mayo College Girls’ School’s English Editorial Team. Siddhi’s passions lie in studying English Literature, History, Psychology, and Political Science, and she plans to pursue her passions in the future.

Siddhi is a canine lover and values her time that she spends with her dog, Snowy, whenever she is home. One of her major interests is films, as she finds them immensely empowering, and she loves watching them with her mother. A huge fan of Hozier, Bowie and the Beatles, Siddhi also finds inspiration in music and books. Her favourite authors include J.R.R Tolkien, Donna Tartt and Oscar Wilde. Siddhi, through her expression of writing, delves into the existential conflict of human existence and her writing is often inspired by the experiences she draws from her personal life.

Read her winning entry , 'An Angel That Burns' .


Shreeya Sahi

Junior Winner 

Ever since Shreeya was young, she was hungry for stories, and always wanted more. Now, at age 12, she loves writing stories as much as reading them.

She currently lives in Panchkula, a cosy town in Northern India. Shreeya has hopped through schools with varied philosophies in USA and India. The different perspectives and thoughts have shaped her into who she is today. 

Her passion lies in creating magic from the mundane. She fills empty sketchbooks with whimsical drawings, bakes with whatever's in her kitchen, and delights in skipping stones on a still pond. 

For the Queens Commonwealth Essay competition Shreeya wrote a letter to the Little Prince, expressing her admiration for him. She is grateful for her family, friends, and facilitators and wishes all of them could be present for the award ceremony. A special nod to Mr. Gibbs and Mrs. Mckeown, who seeded her love for writing, and her steadfast mom and comical brother, who were there for every story twist.

Read her winning entry, 'Dear Little Prince' .


Yong   Sin Kong

Senior Runner-up

Yong Sin K ong is a 15-year-old Form 3 student from Kluang High School. She has been an avid enjoyer of storytelling since her early years, whether it be in the form of literature, cinema, or th eatre. Whenever she writes, she draws inspiration from the people she idolises, ranging from Neil Gaiman to Lin Manuel-Miranda. She is an ardent fan of the Beatles, musicals, 80s coming-of-age films, and dystopian novels. More often than not, you can find her dancing around her room to the latest Taylor Swift album or diligently journaling with glitter gel pens. In Johor, Malaysia, she shares her life with her family and her loyal dog, Mimi.

Read her winning entry , ‘Observations made at a Local Kopitiam, 13th of March, 2023’ . 


Mitali   Ragtah

Junior  Runner-up

Isabel Allende once s aid, “Write what should not be forgotten.”

That is a quote 11-year-old Mitali Rag tah has always lived by on her journey as a young writing enthusiast. In the gloomy winters of 2020, during the lockdown, 9-year-old bookworm Mitali wanted to do something different. So, she brought together some short poetry and voilà, her first book, “Freedom then and now” was written.

Then she wrote her second book in 2022, “Fairy tales with a twist”. It was inspired by all the girls who believed they were weak and powerless and needed a prince to solve all their problems. Mitali strongly believes in and advocates gender equality and for this she has participated in some in-school organisations and many debate clubs.

When she isn’t scribbling away, Mitali likes to hang out with her family and friends, play soccer and perform the classical India dance, Bharatnatyam.

Read her winning entry, 'Water Girl of India' .



We were thrilled to receive a record-breaking 26,322 entries to the QCEC from every Commonwealth region, with the winners and runners-up from New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and India.



We were delighted to receive a record-breaking 25,648 entries to The Queen's Commonwealth Essay Competition 2021, with entries from every Commonwealth region on the topic 'Community in the Commonwealth'. 



From more than 11,000 entries, four pieces were selected as the Winners and Runners up of The Queen's Commonwealth Essay Competition 2020. Read them here and watch the Awards Ceremony.

2019 WINNERS.jfif


The 2019 Winners and Runners-up were drawn from across the Commonwealth and wrote inspiring poems, stories and narratives on the topic 'A Connected Commonwealth'. 

10 Break-Out Sessions

  • Time: 3:30 pm - 4:30 pm

India is undergoing its economic, technological and demographic transition simultaneously. An old country is becoming youthful and adventurous with the passage of time. Young Indians like OYO founder Ritesh Agarwal are quietly taking charge of Indian ethos by becoming icons of audacious aspirations and tangible proofs of its potential, spawning startups that are becoming most valuable and famous than many legacy companies. How can young revolutionaries find ways to carry the older generation of investors, regulators, workers and consumers with them and what can other economies and founders learn from India’s momentous transition?

For over 50 years teams of student have volunteered to organise the St. Gallen Symposium. They have written countless invitations, met thousands of partners, and welcomed some of the most important personalities of their time on stage. Together with former members of the ISC we will reflect on the St. Gallen Symposium experience of cross-generational dialogue and collaboration, the lessons they have learned for their lives and on how the symposium has evolved. This session is organised together with ISC Alumni.

As the need for innovation is growing, the routinisation of well-structured creative processes within organizations is key for concurrent value creation. Prof. Susan Goldsworthy of IMD, this year's St. Gallen Symposium artist Javiera Estrada and Light Artist Gerry Hofstetter will discuss the role of collaboration in the creative process. Together, and in conversation with the audience, they’ll explore the way collaboration can drive creativity in various organisational contexts, and, on the other hand, the role of introversion and lone contemplation in creating something new.

Many employee volunteering and giving programs are presented as an employee perk, similar to casual Fridays or a team-building event. But treating workplace giving and volunteering this way fails to fully capitalise on the great potential of such programs: to foster employee personal growth, and address key societal challenges. The panel will particularly explore the potential of skills-based volunteering, its benefits, and the unique challenges that arise when moving from merely transactional volunteering to something far more transformative.

The investment landscape over the next twenty years will be radically different from previous generations. While there appears to be greater access to capital, there also appears to be much more volatility and debt with no clear dominant financing mechanism. Entrepreneurs, VC, Private Equity, and banks will have to find new ways to work together to create growth and stimulate innovation. How can investors and entrepreneurs better collaborate and find mutually beneficial agreements that balance risk and return?

The fashion industry accounts for 10% of humanity’s annual carbon emissions – more than all international flights and maritime shipping combined. For long, the fashion and luxury watchmaking industry drove, together with the fashion media industry, unsustainable dynamics in the sector: generating more and more demand through an artificial cycle of new collections and seasonal trends. Businesses’ marketing, media as well as influencers thereby create a constant longing and demand for their products. How can designers, fashion houses and publishers exit this vicious cycle and, collaboratively, drive the transition towards more sustainable and ethical fashion and luxury watchmaking?

Media diversity, freedom of the press and freedom of expression in Europe are currently under threat. Journalists and independent media companies are increasingly joining forces across borders to respond to such challenges as well as to be able to continue to offer independent quality journalism in the future. This session will identify learnings from new media partnerships such as the Leading European Newspaper Alliance (LENA) and the Organised Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) to identify how media can most effectively work together.

Technology, innovation, and entrepreneurship are key drivers of the modern economy and social mobility. Given their importance, we should strive to improve accessibility to tech, education and entrepreneurship across all backgrounds. Creating open and inclusive communities, especially with tech is important to accomplishing this goal, but it is easier said that done. Simultaneously, a third iteration of the internet – Web3 – has the potential to radically transform the internet of things and reduce barriers to access. How can these forces be effectively harnessed and directed for the benefit of all people and move the world forward?

Over the past decades, the tech sector, especially the internet of things, has become a central component of modern economies. Trying to catch up with the exponential pace of technological development, the US, China, and Europe are crafting rules of the game on digital markets. What are the emerging characteristic differences between regulatory regimes of digital markets, in the US, Europe and beyond, and how do they balance innovation and regulation? In light of strategic competition over tech dominance between the US and China, what are the opportunities and challenges for Europe in particular?

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the world of work forever. The fast and widespread adoption of remote work and an ever-increasing concern of employees with purpose and meaning on their job have intensified the war for talents. Reaching out to and concurrently engaging employees is key for businesses across sectors and regions. What learnings can be drawn from the pandemic as regards our approach to work? Has the world of work changed for the better? And what role does leadership culture and a new approach to hiring play going forward?

  • A Demographic Revolution: Young India Takes Charge (with All India Management Association) 9:00 am - 10:00 am
  • Collaborative Advantage Across Generations: Reflecting on the SGS Experience (ISC Alumni) 9:00 am - 10:00 am
  • Collective Genius? Cultivating Creativity in the Arts and Beyond 9:00 am - 10:00 am
  • Connecting Business with Purpose: The Potential of Skills-Based Volunteering 9:00 am - 10:00 am
  • Financing the Next Generation of Entrepreneurs 10:00 am - 11:00 am
  • Hacking the Fashion & Luxury Watchmaking Industry towards more Sustainability (with Condé Nast College) 10:00 am - 11:00 am
  • M100 Sanssouci Colloquium@St. Gallen: Media’s New Power: More Impact Through Collaborative Journalism 10:00 am - 11:00 am
  • Democratizing Access to the next Generation of Technology and Innovation: Communities and Radical Transformation 10:00 am - 11:00 am
  • Varieties of Tech Capitalism: Europe's Approach to Innovation and Regulation in a Global Context 11:00 am - 12:00 pm
  • Changed for Good? Engaging with the New World of Work 11:00 am - 12:00 pm

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St. Gallen Symposium

Global Essay Competition

Compete in our Global Essay Competition and qualify for participation as a Leader of Tomorrow in the world’s premier opportunity for cross-generational debates: The St. Gallen Symposium.

Meet 300 of society’s brightest young minds. Present and debate your ideas with 600 senior leaders. Be inspired by some of the world’s most impressive speakers. Gain a unique and new perspective on this year’s topic. Become a member of a unique global community. Participate in the symposium with us. Win prize money of CHF 20,000 split amongst the three winners.

Topic Question

Striving for more or thriving with less – what pressing scarcity do you see, and how do you suggest to tackle it.

Scarcity generally refers to a situation where human needs exceed available resources . This year’s Global Essay Competition invites young leaders worldwide to focus on a specific contemporary or future challenge related to scarcity and propose an innovative way to address it.

Be creative in thinking about proposed solutions: do we need to strive for more and find ways to boost the availability of the resource in question? Or does it focus on ways to thrive with less and thus rethink our needs and demand?

Be free in choosing which scarce resource you focus on: examples include – but are NOT limited to – human labour, capital, natural resources, or intangibles like time, creativity, or care. Be bold and precise in describing a contemporary or future challenge of scarcity and the specific kind of resources you focus on, and offer a concrete and actionable idea of how we should confront it.

Registration window for the GEC for the 53rd St. Gallen Symposium is closed.

If problems occur during registration, please clear your cached images and files in your browsing history or consider using the browser Google Chrome. If you still cannot apply, use the following  link. For any unanswered questions please contact us via e-mail at  [email protected]


Qualify with an excellent essay.

We expect a professional, creative and thought-provoking essay. Be bold, unconventional, and distinctive on the competition question.

For your contribution to be valid, the following criteria must be met

Check your eligibility and prepare documents, to be eligible, you must fulfill all of the following criteria:.

  • Enrolled in a graduate or postgraduate programme (master level or higher) in any field of study at a regular university
  • Born in 1994 or later

Make sure you can provide the following documents:

  • Copy of passport or other identification (in English for non-Roman languages)
  • Confirmation of matriculation/enrolment from your university which proves your enrollment in a graduate/postgraduate level programme as of 1 February 2024 (download sample document  here )
  • Your contribution file with no indication of your name in the file name, the file metadata or the file itself

Meet us and ask your questions!

Meet our student representatives to learn how you can qualify for a participation in the 53 rd St. Gallen Symposium. We will have physical presentations at your university again as well as regular webinars to answer your questions!

Accompanying a Leader of Tomorrow

General questions, who can compete for a participation as a leader of tomorrow at the st. gallen symposium.

Students enrolled at a regular university, who are matriculated in a graduate or postgraduate programme.

What is the St. Gallen Global Essay Competition?

The St. Gallen Global Essay Competition is a global student essay competition, offering students who study at graduate or postgraduate level around the world the opportunity to apply for participation at the St. Gallen Symposium.

What is the Knowledge Pool?

The Knowledge Pool is a group of Leaders of Tomorrow with a strong affiliation to topics of relevance to the St. Gallen Symposium. They show outstanding track records in the particular fields they work or study. They are hand-selected by the International Students’ Committee. It is not possible to apply for membership in the Knowledge Pool.

How much does it cost to participate? 

The participation in the symposium is free for all Leaders of Tomorrow. Moreover, expenses for travel, board and lodging are covered by the ISC. However, we recommend bringing a small amount of pocket money for your convenience.

Essay Competition

Who is eligible for the 54 th  st. gallen symposium.

Students enrolled at a regular university, who are matriculated in a graduate or postgraduate programme as of 1 February 2025, from any field of study, born in 1995 or later.

What is a “regular university”?

In the context of the Global Essay Competition, a regular university is defined as an institution of higher education that also conducts research and offers at least one PhD programme. Exceptions are possible and are granted on a case-by-case basis.

Can Bachelor students participate?

Unfortunately, students on bachelor level do not fulfil the eligibility criteria and therefore cannot enter the competition. There is no other way to apply for participation and we, therefore, encourage all students to join the competition once they pursue with their studies at a graduate level. You may, however, be eligible if the level of study in your current year is equivalent to international graduate level which must be confirmed in writing by your university.

Can teams participate?

Only individual submissions are allowed as we can only grant participation to one contender per contribution.

How long should the contribution be? 

The maximum amount of words is 2,100 (excluding bibliography or graph descriptions and the like). There is no minimum word count. Please make sure to state the exact word count in your document. Also keep in mind that you must not state your name in the contribution.

Do I have to quote my sources?

All sources must be quoted and all essays are scanned for plagiarism. You must refer each source to the respective text passage. Please note that plagiarism is a serious offense and that we reserve the right to take further steps in case of deliberate fraud. Self-plagiarism will also result in disqualification, as the work has to be written exclusively for the Global Essay Competition of the St. Gallen Symposium.

Can I have a look at previous Winner Essays?

Yes, you can find winner essays as well as other publications from the Global Essay Competition here .

What file formats are accepted?

Please make sure to hand in your essay in either a doc, docx or pdf format. The document must allow to copy the text easily (no document protections).

What documents do I need to submit?

In addition to your contribution, make sure to upload

  • a copy of your passport (or any other official government ID but no driver’s license) to verify your age
  • a confirmation of matriculation from your university confirming your graduate or postgraduate student status as of February 2023
  • a short abstract (200–300 words) which can be entered in the registration form directly

in the applicable field of the registration form.

What happens after I submitted my application?

The ISC will verify your eligibility and check all submitted documents for completeness and readability. Due to the large amount of essays we receive, our response may take some time, so thank you for your patience. If the jury selects your essay in the top 100 , you qualify as a Leader of Tomorrow for an expenses-paid participation in the 52 nd St. Gallen Symposium (4-5 May 2023). The results will be announced via e-mail by mid-March 2023. The jury selects the three awardees based on the quality of the idea on paper. The award is endowed with a total prize money of CHF 20,000. In addition, there will be a chance for the very best competitors (including the awardees) to present their ideas on the big stage at the symposium. For this, the students will be asked to pitch their idea on video beforehand.

Who’s in the jury?

The Award Jury consists of leading executives, journalists and professors from all around the world. The Academic Jury is composed of young top academics from the University of St. Gallen and the ETH Zurich.

When will the results be announced?

The jury’s decision will be announced by mid-March at the latest.


How do the travel arrangements work.

The organizing committee will get in touch with you prior to the symposium to discuss your itinerary and to book your travel.

Can the organising committee help me get a visa?

All Leaders of Tomorrow are self-responsible to get a visa. However, we will inform the applicable Swiss embassy about the invitation and will provide you with the necessary documents. Should a problem arise anyway, we are happy to help. Expenses for visa application are borne by the Leaders of Tomorrow themselves.

Where am I accommodated during the symposium?

All Leaders of Tomorrow are accommodated at private student flats across the city. Please give us an early notice should you have any special requirements (e.g. female flatmates only).

What transport is provided?

We book flights or train tickets and provide shuttle service from and to the airport. Furthermore, all Leaders of Tomorrow receive a free ticket for the public transport in St. Gallen during the week of the symposium.

How much money do I need? 

We recommend bringing some pocket money (CHF 100–200) for your convenience. Please note that depending on your time of arrival and departure, some meals might not be covered.

Can disabled people participate as well? 

Yes, of course. Most of the symposium sites are wheelchair-accessible and we are more than happy to help where we can. Although our ability to provide personal assistance is very limited, we do our best to provide the necessary services.

Is there any touristic programme and do I have time for sightseeing?

During the symposium there will be no time for sightseeing. However, we may offer selected touristic programmes a day before or after the symposium. These days can, of course, also be used for individual sightseeing. Nearby sites include the old town of St. Gallen, the lake Constance and the mountain Säntis.

Can I extend my stay in Switzerland?

Yes, upon request we can move your return flight to a date of your choice. If the new flight is more expensive, we may ask you to cover the price difference. Please note that we are unable to provide any services such as accommodation or transportation after the end of the symposium week.

Can I bring a spouse?

Unfortunately, we cannot provide any services such as travel, room, board or symposium access to any additional person.

Past Winners & Essay Reviews

Out of approx. 1,000 annual contributions submitted by graduate and post-graduate students from all around the globe, the jury selects three winner essays every year. Meet our competition’s past winners and read their contributions.

2023 – A New Generational Contract

Elliot gunn, gaurav kamath, megan murphy, essay question:.

The best or worst legacy from previous generations: How to preserve or replace it?

A great deal of our lives is influenced by when we were born. As those currently alive, we have inherited the world which previous and older generations have built. We owe a great deal to the efforts of our forebears, but we also inherit problematic legacies.

2022 – Collaborative Advantage

Sophie lara neuber, anton meier, bryan kwang shing tan.

Collaborative Advantage: what should be written into a new intergenerational contract?

 The idea of a “generational contract” embodies the principles that younger and older generations rely on each other to provide mutual support across different stages of their lives. Inclusive education systems, sustainable welfare states and meaningful environmental action are some of many challenges requiring a cross-generational collaborative effort. Yet, with the climate crisis, rapid technological change and societal aging in many countries, the generational contract and notions of intergenerational fairness have been challenged. Members of the younger generation are raising their voices as they reflect on how their futures are being compromised by current decision-makers.

 What’s your specific and actionable idea that should be written into a new generational contract? Choose an area where you see evidence that intergenerational fairness is – or, going forward, will be – challenged and where the generational contract needs to be rewritten. Potential areas include, but are not limited to, business strategy and the economy, inclusive governance and education, the welfare state and health care, environmental sustainability, or the world of work. Describe your problem and offer concrete and practical proposals how inter-generational fairness can be restored or reinvented. Explain your idea’s impact for the future.

2021 – Trust Matters

Janz irvin chiang.

1st place – Peking University

Joan  Nyangena

2nd place – York University

Karl Michael Braun

3rd place – Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

A Matter of Trust: How Can Trust be Repaired When It’s Lost?

In recent years, we have seen many reports about “trust crises” in the realms of politics, health, business, technology, science, and media. Political and corporate scandals, mass protests, and deteriorating trust indicators in global perception surveys support this diagnosis. As a result, senior leaders in many of these sectors publicly aspire to “rebuild trust” in their decisions, products, or institutions. What would be your advice to them?

Choose an area in one of the above-mentioned sectors where you see evidence that citizens’, consumers’, regulators’, employees’ or other stakeholders’ trust has been lost. Describe your example of an apparent loss of trust; offer concrete and practical proposals on repairing damaged trust. Describe your idea’s impact for the future.

2020 – Freedom Revisited

Symposium  postponed.

As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the final review and communication of the results of the contributions to the Global Essay Competition was stopped prematurely.

Freedom Revisited: Which aspects of freedom need to be defended, or recalibrated, to meet the challenges of our time?

Domestically and on the international stage, values of individual, economic, and political freedom are subject to critical inquiry or outright attack. Diverse phenomena such as populism, global power shifts, climate change, the digital revolution, and global migration call for a reflection on the value of freedom for the way we live, do business, and organize politically in the years ahead. While some call for a defence of established freedoms, others call for recalibration of our concept of freedom, or the balance we strike between freedom and other values, such as equality, sustainability, and security. Where do you stand in this debate? Choose one of the following positions as you develop your essay:

In defence of freedom: Choose an area in the realm of business, economics, politics, or civil society where current concepts of freedom are under pressure and where they need to be defended. Describe the problem and offer a concrete and practical proposition of how established concepts of freedom should – and can be – defended. Describe its impact for the future.

In defence of recalibrating freedom: Choose an area in the realms of business, economics, politics or civil society where current concepts of freedom are unsuitable for the challenges we face and where they need to be recalibrated. Describe the problem and offer a concrete and practical proposition of how established concepts of freedom should and can be recalibrated. Describe its impact for the future.

2019 – Capital for Purpose

Reuben muhindi wambui (ke).

1st place – The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

Natalie Hei Tung Lau (HK)

2nd place – University of Pennsylvania

Toan Do (VN)

3rd place – Yale University

Is it as good as it gets? – What approach would you suggest to change the current purpose of capital?

Political volatility, environmental issues, precarious labour markets, technological monopolies, managerial and investment short-termism are only a few challenges we face. The time has come to counter excessive short-termism and start doing business as unusual. Think about the status quo and its implications. What would be an idea to change it? Develop projects or actions you would trust in to bring new and expanded purposes to capital and aim for a long-term positive impact. In your essay you should consider how the use of capital (financial, human, social,…) can solve complex challenges and address substantial changes, be it by individuals, civil society, businesses or governments. Your idea must inspire leaders worldwide to take on responsibility and put it into practice. Be bold and develop a truly impactful concept to win our prestigious award.

2009 – 2018

2018  – beyond the end of work, nat ware (au).

1st place – University of Oxford

Janis Goldschmidt (DE)

João abreu (br).

3rd place – Harvard University

Robots are coming for your job. How do you augment yourself to stay economically relevant?

Author Yuval Noah Harari claims that the rapid progress of artificial intelligence technology will render the human species economically useless within decades. Imagine a world in which humans fight back, harnessing AI and other technologies to stay economically indispensable – and, ultimately, competitive against the computers. Describe the job you aspire to in the future, how it will potentially be influenced by AI, and how you would augment yourself technologically if necessary to prevail in your chosen career.

2017  – The dilemma of disruption

1st Place – University of Oxford

Benjamin Hofmann (DE)

2nd Place – University of St. Gallen

Sigin Ojulu (SS)

3rd Place – University of Southern California

Breaking the status quo – What’s YOUR disruptive idea?

The notion of disruption captures today’s innovation zeitgeist. Nowadays, it seems everyone claims to be a disruptor – particularly young people with an entrepreneurial mindset. Let’s think beyond disruptive innovation in management and look at disruption more generally as something that breaks the status quo – be it in business, politics, science, or society. Pick the one of these four fields you are most passionate about, identify a problem of greater magnitude and come up with a disruptive idea to solve it. Your idea must aspire to inspire top-notch leaders worldwide. Do not free ride on the buzzword “disruption” but rather be bold and develop a truly novel and radical concept to win our prestigious award.

2016  – Growth – the good, the bad, and the ugly

Schima labitsch (at).

1st place – Fordham University

Alexandra Ettlin (CH)

2nd place – University of St.Gallen

Colin Miller (US)

3rd place – New York University

What are alternatives to economic growth?

2015  – Proudly Small

Laya maheshwari (in).

1st place – London School of Economic

Leon Schreiber (ZA)

2nd place – Freie Universität Berlin

Katharina Schramm (DE)

3rd place – University of St.Gallen

Essay Questions:

  • What is the next small BIG thing?

Think about unconventional ideas, undiscovered trends or peripheral signals that may turn into ground-breaking changes for societies. Present one idea which is not on the radar of current leaders yet but will change the game in business, politics or civil society – the best ones will be put to the test by the global audience of the St. Gallen Symposium.

  • Collaborative Small State Initiative

Although small states lead the global rankings in international benchmark studies on competitiveness, innovation and wealth, they are often politically marginalised. Explore a common agenda for small and prosperous countries and identify one joint project that would increase the relevance of small states on the global stage. Go beyond politics and diplomacy by also including economic and civil players.

  • Elites: small but superior groups rule the world – at what price?

Human history shows that the world has been ruled by tiny but superior groups of people. It is the elites who have been controlling societies and the allocation of resources. Given the rise of inequality, a devastating level of famine that still exists, ubiquitous corrupt systems of government, limited access to education for the underprivileged, to name just a few of the world’s greatest problems, elites are challenged to redefine their roles and agenda settings. Share your thoughts on how elites are supposed to emerge and transform in the 21st century.

2014  – The Clash of Generations

Ashwinikumar singh (in).

1st place – University of Mumbai

Martin Seneviratne (AU)

2nd place – University of Sydney

Set Ying Ting (MY)

3rd place – National University of Singapore

  • Balancing Generational Claims

The presumption of an altruistic relation between generations and its positive effect on the economic well-being of societies is illusionary. Welfare states have widened fiscal gaps to an irreparable extent for the next generations. When aspiring to a sustainable welfare system, how should intergenerational claims balance without having to rely on selflessness?

  • A Double-Edged Legacy

Let’s be frank: The generational contract has failed everywhere – but for different reasons. Exuberant public debts, zooming healthcare costs, unequal distribution of wealth, loss of ethical and moral anchors, loss of trust in existing institutions: each state is facing a unique set of problems. Briefly describe the situation in your country and propose a generational contract defining mutual responsibilities on an economic and social level.

  • A Prospect for the Young

Highly educated and ambitious, yet unemployed. A whole generation of young is entering the labour market with little prospect of success. The implications go way beyond individual tragedies as economies with lasting high levels of youth unemployment risk social instability. Present new solutions on how we can overcome this crisis.

  • Business between Generations

Slogans like “rent is the new own” or Botsmann and Rogers’s “what’s mine is yours” (HarperBusiness, 2010) mark the trend of shared economy. Although not a new economic phenomenon per se, particularly the Millennials are embracing this attitude towards doing business where they value access over ownership. The trend is gaining global mainstream acceptance which is resulting in a lasting impact on economic performance. Discuss the future of shared economy, its overall implications and the dynamics between supply and demand.

2013 – Rewarding Courage

Kilian semmelmann (de).

1st place – Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Dragov Radoslav (BG)

2nd place – Rotterdam School of Management

Bree Romuld (AU)

3rd place – University of St.Gallen (HSG)

The competitors must choose from one of four competition questions, which refer to the four topic clusters “Putting incentives right”, “Coping with institutions”, “Against the current – courageous people” and “Management of excellence”

  • Putting incentives right

How come that both in the corporate world and in politics, responsible courage (e.g. whistleblowing, courage to disagree with current paradigms, etc.) is hardly ever rewarded? Where the big decisions for the future are taken, anxiety, conformity and despondence prevail. How can this be changed?

  • Coping with institutions

Institutions of all kinds shape our behaviour – be it economic, political or social behaviour. How should institutions be designed in order to foster a sustainable economic and social development?

  • Against the current – courageous people

Observers lament that younger generations, as individualistic as they are, tend to settle for a highly streamlined social and economic world that does not ask for big decisions or unconventional thinking. Please share your opinion on this observation and explain why you agree or disagree. Please use examples that support your arguments.

  • Management of excellence

New insights can only flourish within a culture of dialogue in different opinions. No assumptions should be taken for granted nor should there be any unquestioned truth. However, most people (decision makers, managers, students, etc.) often fail to deal constructively with conflicting opinions. How can companies encourage their employees to build a healthy attitude towards unconventional thinking and acting?

2012 – Facing Risk

Rodrigues caren (in).

1st place – St. Joseph’s Institute of Management

Jennifer Miksch (DE)

2nd place – Geneva Graduate Institute

Jelena Petrovic (SR)

3rd place – King’s College London

Detecting Risks

  • The methodological tools that allow early detection of what will shape future trends are pivotal. While risks are emerging faster, these tools still need fostered advancement. What is the role of scenario planning and forecasting methods and who is or should be responsible for these aspects in the organisation? How should the detection of risks be addressed in an increasingly complex and interconnected global landscape?

Risk Aversion

  • In wealthy societies, most people tend to suppress risk taking. Given this increasing trend of risk aversion in saturated societies, what are the long term consequences for economy and society? What are the long term consequences of a high level of risk aversion?

Emerging Risks

  • There are tremendous risks facing the global community and many people have not yet become aware of their potential consequences (e.g. public debt burden). What are the societal, economic and/or political risks your generation of decision makers will be facing in the future? How could you convert these risks into opportunities?

Managing Risk

  • There is often a disconnect between taking risks and bearing the burden of the consequences of doing so (e.g. risk taking in investment banking). Who should bear the consequences of negligent risk taking and why? How can healthy risk taking be fostered in wealthy societies?

2011 – Just Power

Marcelo ber (ar).

1st place – New York University

Dhru Kanan Amal (IN)

2nd place – London School of Economics

Maria de los Angeles Lasa (AR)

3rd place – Università di Camerino

  • Justice and Power
  • Rethinking Leadership
  • Public Goods and Values

We asked you to contribute visions and ideas to the theme “Just Power” – Power in the sense of its use in various areas of politics and economics. We expected a professional work which could be an essay, a scenario, a project report or proposal, a multi- media presentation or an entrepreneurial concept. It should be constructive, provocative or instructive, inspiring thoughts and actions as well as introucing new approaches and unconventional ideas. Within the framework of the theme you may choose between three subtopics for your contribution.

2010 – Entrepreneurs – Agents of Change

Ainur begim (kz).

1st place – University of Oslo

James Clear (USA)

Christoph birkholz (de).

  • What makes an entrepreneur an “agent of change”?
  • Changing of the guard: Who are the new entrepreneurs?
  • Corporate entrepreneurship within large companies: a concept for the future or a mere pie in the sky?
  • Entrepreneurship between environmental risks and opportunities: What does it take to succeed?

2009 – Revival of Political and Economic Boundaries

Shofwan al-banna choiruzzad (id), jason george (us), aris trantidis (gr), 1999 – 2008, 2008  – global capitalism – local values, guillaume darier (ch), jacobus cilliers (za), feerasta aniqa (nz), christoph matthias paret (de), 2007  – the power of natural resources, benjamin block (us), gustav borgefalk (se), kevin chua (ph), 2006  – inspiring europe, maximilian freier (de), chen yesh (sg), elidor mëhilli (al), william english (us), 2005  – liberty, trust and responsibility, christian h. harding (de), luana badiu (ro), norbert jungmichel (de), fabien curto millet (es /fr), 2004  – the challenges to growth and prosperity, ravi rauniyar (np), peter g. kirchschläger (at / ch), xin dong (cn), 2003 – seeking responses in times of uncertainty, stefanie klein (de), rosita shivacheva (bg), 2002 – pushing limits – questioning goals, constantine (dino) asproloupos (ca / gr), manita jitngarmkusol (th), 2001 – new balance of power, marion mühlberger (at), uwe seibel (de), moses ekra (ci / ca), gerald tan (my), 2000 – time, martin von brocke (de), pei-fu hsieh (tw), tzvetelina tzvetkova (bg), 1999 – new markets, new technologies, new skills, peter doralt (fr), valérie feldmann (de), rajen makhijani (in).

“Partaking in the competition was one of the best decisions I’ve ever made. Not only was I able to come to St. Gallen and meet incredible young entrepreneurs and leaders who I’m still in contact with, but it provided me the opportunity to develop and share ideas with key decision-makers. The main idea I submitted was for a new way to finance retraining and healthcare at no cost to individuals or governments. Given the COVID- 19 pandemic, this idea is needed now more than ever, so I’m currently implementing the idea through a new organization I’ve established called FORTE ( Financing Of Return To Employment ).” NAT WARE , Founder & CEO of FORTE, Leader of Tomorrow at the 47th and 48th St. Gallen Symposium

international essay writing competition 2021
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    Harvard International Review

    HIR Academic Writing Contest Summer 2021 Medal Winners

    The Harvard International Review is a quarterly magazine offering insight on international affairs from the perspectives of scholars, leaders, and policymakers. Since our founding in 1979, we've set out to bridge the worlds of academia and policy through outstanding writing and editorial selection. We have featured commentary by 43 Presidents and Prime Ministers, 4 Secretaries-General, 4 Nobel Economics Prize laureates, and 7 Nobel Peace Prize laureates.

    Inspired by our growing high school readership around the world, the Harvard International Review Academic Writing Contest was created to encourage and highlight outstanding high school writing on topics related to international affairs.

    Congratulations to all Summer 2021 medal winners on the quality of your submissions! You can read the winning submissions below.

    Eva Zhong. Shekou International School. “ The Masked Crisis: COVID-19 And The Environment”

    Yichen Luo. BASIS International School Guangzhou. “Divergent Political Systems, Convergent COVID Strategies”

    Yinglun Ma. The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China. “Developing Countries Under COP26: Neocolonialism?”

    Ahaan Jindal. Dhirubhai Ambani International School.“ Of influence and ulterior motives—the Iran-Saudi proxy conflict and what its escalation means”

    Saki Maeda. Senzoku Gakuen Junior High School. “Taiwan: No Longer Alone in a Globalized World”

    Silver Medal

    Yuansi Li .Shanghai World Foreign Language Academy.“Commercial Surrogacy: Where is the Boundary of harm to women?”

    Ren Deng. BASIS International School Guangzhou . “African-Americans in China: A Shifting Cultural Dynamics”

    Tiantian Ye and Enzhe Yin. North Cross School Shanghai.“The German Case: A Torchbearer of the European Union’s War on White Pollution”

    Xiyan Pu. Chengdu Jiaxiang Foreign Languages School. Jiaying Wu. Jinan Foreign Language School.“Sanitary, Sustainable, and Sino: China’s Waste Ban's Impact on the Global Economy and Recycling Industry”

    Xuanchen Qian. Shanghai Pinghe Bilingual School.“Climate Refugees of Fukushima: A Lens to Environmental Responsibility”

    Xinyun Ma. YK Pao School.“A Battle of Wits: Human Trafficking Under COVID-19 Pandemic”

    Zilin Fang. YK Pao School.How Alibaba's PR Team “Cleans Up the Mess”

    Yandi Wu. Rabun Gap Nacoochee School.“Social Media and Hate Crimes: How Are They Related?”

    Shihong Zhu. Shanghai Southwest Weiyu Middle School.“With Prevalence of TikTok, Will We Have Talented Musicians after 2030?”

    Sizhe Zhou and Keying Liu. Guangdong Experimental High School.“Unheeded Marginalization: Nation, University, and International Students”

    Raymond Zhao. Morris Hills High School.“China’s Growing Super Grid: The Case for a Future Built on Renewable Energy”

    Benjamin Manens. Bellarmine College Preparatory.“The Trade Deal Gone South”

    Vishal Rameshbabu. James Clemens High School.“Abandoning The Sahel: An Insurgency Left Unmitigated”

    Haochen Wang. Auckland International College.“Markets, Finances, and Covid-19: Athletes' Other Barbells”

    Gabriella Naveh. Taylor Allderdice High School.“When the World is No Longer Watching: The Abduction of Nigeria’s Children”

    Siyu Li .The Experimental High School Attached to Beijing Normal University.“Legitimating the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: an analysis of China’s rhetorical strategies.”

    Bronze Medal

    Jiaxin Zhang. Saint John Paul the Great Catholic High School. “ Take the Anxiety Out of Social Anxiety: Artificial Intelligence and Big Data”

    Ying Feng and Taiyu Li. Tangshan No.1 Middle School.“Hear the unheard: Cuba's repression of human rights for decades”

    Shuo Feng. Shanghai Pinghe Bilingual School.“Anti-affirmative action: The Modern Discrimination in Disguise”

    Lingzhen Wang. North Cross School Shanghai.“The Gray Area of Law: Tech Giants’ Censorship and the Economy”

    Han Bao. Shanghai Starriver Bilingual School.“Behind the Release of Radioactive Waters: Questioning Motives”

    Yiduo Qian. Shanghai Southwest Weiyu Middle School . “Neglected Education Crisis: Teacher Shortage”

    Yanran Ma. Nanjing Foreign Language School.“Between Earth and Us: Influence of Media Discourse on Environmentalism”

    Aoxi Tu. Wuhan SanNew School.“COVID-19 and Repatriation: the Catalyst For the Occident-China Tension?”

    Weilan Hu and Yuxu Chen. Guangdong Shunde Desheng School.“Is the Arctic Becoming the Globe's New Trading Center?”

    Feier Shen. Shanghai Weiyu International School.“A brighter future and beyond—how international students make the United States stronger at home”

    Hangfei Lyv and Jingyi Zhang. Guangdong Shunde Desheng School.“Women’s Helplessness: The encounter of Nepalese Immigrant Women”

    Ziyan Li and Zhuolu Pan. BASIS International School Guangzhou . “COVID-19 in the United States: World wide Influence.”

    Shaojing Xie.Guangdong Experimental High School. “Women-Only Metro Carriage in Guangzhou: What’s the point?”

    Ran Zhao. Shanghai Pinghe Bilingual School.“Educational Involution in China: The Intensified and Wasteful Competition”

    Jing Feng. Guangdong Experimental High School.“Globalization vs Isolation”

    Jingxuan Tian. Tangshan No.1 Middle School.“Technology plays an important role in sports: The development of technology in the Olympics”

    Xiaomeng Ye. Hefei No.8 Senior High School.“Aging society in China”

    Yecheng Yue. Shanghai United International school,Wanyuan Campus . “Pros and cons of education for low income families”

    Tanvi Chaudhary. Kentucky Country Day.“Dementia’s Nordic Nation Fascination”

    Veronica Chang. Burlington High School.“Sea Cucumbers: The Earthworm of the Sea is in Grave Danger”

    Jin Schofield and Sarvnaz Ale Mohammad. St. Robert Catholic High School . “Re-Examining the Legacy of Fukuyama and His Critics in the Internet Age”

    Taryn Murphy. Mount Saint Mary Academy.“Vaccine Diplomacy: Lifesaving or a Geopolitical Force?”

    Seokhyun Baek. Gyeonggi Suwon International School.“Disputed borders with Pakistan and India regarding China”

    Skyler Zhou. Wayland High School.“Climate Change: A Situational Relationship”

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    International Youth for Resilient Infrastructure Essay Competition (ICDRI) 2021

    • Deadline March 8, 2021

    International Youth for Resilient Infrastructure Essay Competition

    Youth represents an important and dynamic segment of the population in every country. Today’s youth are tomorrow’s innovators, creators, builders and leaders. The assurance, devotion and vitality with which young minds work make them the most promising changemakers of the future. This is why the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) believes youth engagement is crucial to mobilizing change for positive social development.

    CDRI recognizes that infrastructure systems are key drivers of economic growth. Between 2016 and 2040, the Global Infrastructure Hub pegs the global annual infrastructure investment needs at US$3.7 trillion per year. Young people globally are poised to drive these investments as practitioners, academicians and policymakers. Realizing the unique potential of youth leadership in driving change for a resilient world, CDRI is proud to announce the “Youth for Resilient Infrastructure” International Essay Competition. This event will provide a platform to harness youth for resilience by engaging, inspiring and invigorating young minds and future changemakers in the field of disaster-resilient infrastructure.

    Looking for fully-funded opportunities, install the Youth Opportunities  Android  or  iOS  App here.

    Essay Competition Themes

    All entries for the essay competition should be aligned to any one of the following themes:

    • Nature-based solutions for disaster resilient infrastructure
    • Innovation and emerging technologies in disaster-resilient infrastructure
    • Indigenous practices in disaster-resilient infrastructure
    • Top 5 winners will receive cash prize of US $500 + certificates and an opportunity to be published on the CDRI website.
    • Top 10 winners will receive certificates and an opportunity to be published on the CDRI website.
    • Top 20 winners will receive certificates.


    The competition is open to all current full-time registered students enrolled in any undergraduate or post-graduate degree program or diploma course from any country.

    Application Process

    Apply online through the given link.

    Application Deadline: March 8, 2021

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    Harvard International Economics

    Essay contest (hieec).

    HIEEC provides students the opportunity to demonstrate an accomplished level of writing and understanding of economic theory. Through the contest, students hone their academic and professional skills and exhibit their knowledge. 

    HIEE C 202 3 -2024

    Hieec 2023-2024 is now closed. .

    The 2023-2024  Harvard International Economics Essay Contest is sponsored by the Harvard Undergraduate Economics Association (HUEA). This essay competition is open to high school studen ts of any year and is a fantastic opportunity to demonstrat e an accom plished level of writing and understanding of economic the ory. T hrough the contest, student competitors hone their academic and professional skills and exhibit their knowledge to future employers and academic programs. 

    Competitors must construct a convincing argument using economic theory and real-world examples. Winning essays will be published on our website  and will be available for the greater Harvard community to read. Essays should focus on argumentation supported with facts and references, although data-based support is also welcome.

    Yiheng Lyu​

    Audrey Ku k​

    Hyoungjin Jin

    Juyoung Chun

    Kevin Zhang

    Matthew Choi

    Mikayil Sadikhov

    Raunak Agarwal

    Vallabh Himakunthala

    Highly Commended

    Aronima Biswas

    Aryan Nangia

    Kridaya Gupta

    Leonardo Jia

    Rohan Mathur

    Anagha Chakravarti

    Amberlynn Gong

    Neha Shanavas

    Donghyeon Oh

    2023-2024  Essay Questions

    Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have the potential to affect growth, inequality, productivity, innovation, and employment. OpenAI’s ChatGPT, in particular, has greatly increased public awareness about the significance of AI and its implications for the future. What impact will the development of AI have on economic inequality, the composition of the workforce, and economic output as a whole? How can nations prepare for the micro and macroeconomic changes brought about by AI?

    Measuring national and global economic activity allows us to understand how economies change in size and structure—how they grow and contract. In addition to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), government budgets, and the money supply, alternatives like the Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross National Income (GNI) are used to assess economic progress. What are the advantages of our current economic indices, including GDP, HDI, GNI, government budgets, and the money supply, and in what areas are they lacking? Which of these indices do you find most helpful, and how can we enhance or combine them to improve our understanding of economic measurement?

    Proponents of income redistribution support the idea that redistribution policies will increase economic stability and give more opportunities to the less wealthy. Others, however, are more skeptical and believe it could have negative consequences for economic growth. Current methods of redistribution include taxation, welfare, public services, and other monetary policies. What strategies for income redistribution should the U.S. adopt from other countries? What economic impacts could a wealth tax or super millionaire tax have? What type of redistribution is most effective and feasible? What would be the impacts of the U.S. enacting universal basic income? Discuss the implications of any of these issues and feel free to expand on other areas of economic redistribution.

    As the United States weighs the impacts of China’s rise to global prominence, economics and national security have become increasingly intertwined. As a result, the United States government has imposed both tariffs and investment restrictions on China to limit the nation’s access to both US markets and intellectual property (specifically in sensitive industries such as semiconductors). What are the economic implications of these policies for United States firms, consumers, and workers? Discuss the most important perspectives of the US-China trade war and provide suggestions on how both countries can manage the prospect of a changing economic order.

    2nd November 2023 – Essay titles released

    11:59pm EST 5th January 2024  – Essay submission deadline

    Late February 2024*  – Highly Commended and Finalists notified

    Early March 2024 * – Winners notified, results published on the website

    *We received a high volume of submissions, therefore we anticipate  that it will take us a couple m ore w eeks to release the results. 

    Entrants must choose one of the four prompts and write a response to it with a strict limit of 1500 words. Submission must be via the HUEA website and entrants are limited to submitting one essay with only the first submission being considered. Each essay submission will have a $20 reading fee which should be paid upon submission of the essay. If this fee will impose a significant financial burden on your family, please email us. The deadline for submitting the essay is 11:59pm EST January 5th, 2024. ​

    Please submit essay submissions via this form.

    If the above link does not work, use:

    *Be sure to read all the details in the submission form carefully before submitting, as failure to complete any of the steps correctly may result in your submission not being considered.

    The essays will be judged by the board of the HUEA, with the top 10 submissions being adjudicated by the esteemed Harvard professor and 2016 Economics Nobel Prize winner Oliver Hart.

    The top three winning essays will be published ( with the author’s permission) on our website. A finalist s list of the top  submissions will be published online and adjudicated by 2016 Economics Nobel Prize Winner Oliver Hart. A list of names that will receive the "Highly Commended" distinction will also be published online​. The judges' decisions are final.

    Terms and Conditions

    The word limit of 1500 must be strictly adhered to. Any words past the limit will be truncated. This limit excludes references, footnotes, titles, headers and footers.

    Essays must be written only by the entrant. Any outside assistance must be declared in the beginning or end of the essay.

    Only your first submission will be accepted. Any further submissions will not be read.

    References must be included, and any plagiarism will lead to disqualification.

    References must be in Chicago or APA format. 

    The only accepted document formatting is PDF. Any other format will not be accepted, nor will refunds be given to those who do not follow this rule.

    No refunds are granted.

    Grades 9-12 are permitted.

    The essay must not be entered in any other competition nor be published elsewhere.

    No individual feedback of essays will be granted.

    The decisions made by HUEA by the final round of adjudication are final.

    All winners agree to their names being published on the HUEA website.

    Past Winners

    2022  prompts an d winners.

    In recent years and decades, many countries have seen fertility rates drop, potentially leading to falling populations. Currently, China has a fertility rate of 1.3, one of the lowest in the world. However, in 2021, China experienced GDP growth of 8% with output totaling $17.7 trillion. Will this lowered fertility rate (with potential to fall further) affect China’s economic growth and policy? How so? What, if anything, can the Chinese government do to limit the risk of falling fertility rates?

    U.S. mortgage rates recently passed 7%, making the purchase of a new home increasingly unaffordable. Meanwhile, the United States has suffered from a chronic shortage of available housing for decades, particularly in urban areas, leading to what many scholars and advocates call an affordability crisis. Why is housing so unaffordable in the U.S.? What can (or should) be done by private actors, state and local governments, and the federal government to alleviate the affordability crisis?

    It is often suggested that a tradeoff exists between economic growth and the health of the environment, especially now as the threat of climate change becomes more dire. What economic risks does a changing climate pose? Can economic growth be consistent with a healthy environment? What policies, either market-based or otherwise, should governments enact to protect the environment while posing the least danger to economic efficiency? 

    Central banks such as the Federal Reserve in the U.S. and the Bank of England in the UK manage their nation’s macroeconomies with the goal of ensuring price stability and maximum employment. Globally, inflation rates are rising to levels not seen since the 1980s, particularly in the U.S. and European countries. To what extent should the monetary policies of central banks in various Western countries differ or resemble one another as a reaction to the specific causes of inflation facing their economies?

    ​ Click below to view each winner's essay

    Ashwin t elang  *   nanxi jiang   *   duncan wong, 2019 wi n ner. oo-many

    2020 Winners


    The announcements of our International Student Essay Competition Finalists & Honourable Mentions 2024 are now available on our Winners page. The Grand Prize winner will be notified confidentially via email by the 22nd May.

    • See the 2024 Finalists and Honourable Mentions

    About the 2024 International Student Essay Competition “How can nature help us achieve the UN SDGs in my community?”

    Nature provides us with everything we need to survive and thrive – clean air and water, food, materials for shelter, medicines and so much more. Many people believe that nature can help us tackle major global challenges such as climate change, food and water security, biodiversity loss and disaster risk reduction, as well as improving human health, societal wellbeing and developing sustainable economies.

    We want to hear students’ own views on how they feel that nature can support the achievement of the SDGs in their own communities. Students are invited to approach the topic however they wish. They can choose to focus on one SDG, or multiple SDGs that they feel are a key issue within their communities and explore how nature could help to improve the situation. They are strongly encouraged to include their own personal views, perspectives and experiences to help bring their thoughts and visions alive.

    The judges are looking for  originality  and  creativity  in all formats – and the potential to contribute to constructive  national or international debate . Unique and well-argued perspectives score highly.

    Click here for details on how to register and submit your essay entries .

    • Tell a friend about the International Sudents Essay Competiton and Debate
    • How to enter
    • Entry resources
    • TSL 2023 Top 5 Secondary Essays
    • TSL 2023 Top 5 Primary Essays

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Keynote Speeches by 10 Nobel Laureates

    We are beyond excited to announce that multiple Nobel laureates have confirmed to attend and speak at this year’s ceremony on 30th July, 2024 .

    They will each be delivering a keynote speech to the attendees. Some of them distinguished speakers will speak virtually, while others will attend and present in person and attend the Reception at Cambridge.

    Essay Competition Professors (4)

    Why has religion remained a force in a secular world? 

    Professor Commentary:

    Arguably, the developed world has become more secular in the last century or so. The influence of Christianity, e.g. has diminished and people’s life worlds are less shaped by faith and allegiance to Churches. Conversely, arguments have persisted that hold that we live in a post-secular world. After all, religion – be it in terms of faith, transcendence, or meaning – may be seen as an alternative to a disenchanted world ruled by entirely profane criteria such as economic rationality, progressivism, or science. Is the revival of religion a pale reminder of a by-gone past or does it provide sources of hope for the future?

    ‘Religion in the Public Sphere’ by Jürgen Habermas (European Journal of Philosophy, 2006)

    In this paper, philosopher Jürgen Habermas discusses the limits of church-state separation, emphasizing the significant contribution of religion to public discourse when translated into publicly accessible reasons.

    ‘Public Religions in the Modern World’ by José Casanova (University Of Chicago Press, 1994)

    Sociologist José Casanova explores the global emergence of public religion, analyzing case studies from Catholicism and Protestantism in Spain, Poland, Brazil, and the USA, challenging traditional theories of secularization.

    ‘The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere’ by Judith Butler, Jürgen Habermas, Charles Taylor, and Cornel West (Edited by Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan VanAntwerpen, Columbia University Press, 2011)

    This collection features dialogues by prominent intellectuals on the role of religion in the public sphere, examining various approaches and their impacts on cultural, social, and political debates.

    ‘Rethinking Secularism’ by Craig Calhoun, Mark Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan VanAntwerpen (Oxford University Press, 2011)

    An interdisciplinary examination of secularism, this book challenges traditional views, highlighting the complex relationship between religion and secularism in contemporary global politics.

    ‘God is Back: How the Global Rise of Faith is Changing the World’ by John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge (Penguin, 2010)

    Micklethwait and Wooldridge argue for the coexistence of religion and modernity, suggesting that religious beliefs can contribute to a more open, tolerant, and peaceful modern world.

    ‘Multiculturalism’ by Tariq Modood (Polity Press, 2013)

    Sociologist Tariq Modood emphasizes the importance of multiculturalism in integrating diverse identities, particularly in post-immigration contexts, and its role in shaping democratic citizenship.

    ‘God’s Agents: Biblical Publicity in Contemporary England’ by Matthew Engelke (University of California Press, 2013)

    In this ethnographic study, Matthew Engelke explores how a group in England seeks to expand the role of religion in the public sphere, challenging perceptions of religion in post-secular England.

    Ccir Essay Competition Prompt Contributed By Dr Mashail Malik

    Gene therapy is a medical approach that treats or prevents disease by correcting the underlying genetic problem. Is gene therapy better than traditional medicines? What are the pros and cons of using gene therapy as a medicine? Is gene therapy justifiable?

    Especially after Covid-19 mRNA vaccines, gene therapy is getting more and more interesting approach to cure. That’s why that could be interesting to think about. I believe that students will enjoy and learn a lot while they are investigating this topic.

    Ccir Essay Competition Prompt Contributed By Dr Mamiko Yajima

    The Hall at King’s College, Cambridge

    The Hall was designed by William Wilkins in the 1820s and is considered one of the most magnificent halls of its era. The first High Table dinner in the Hall was held in February 1828, and ever since then, the splendid Hall has been where members of the college eat and where formal dinners have been held for centuries.

    The Award Ceremony and Dinner will be held in the Hall in the evening of  30th July, 2024.


    Stretching out down to the River Cam, the Back Lawn has one of the most iconic backdrop of King’s College Chapel. 

    The early evening reception will be hosted on the Back Lawn with the iconic Chapel in the background (weather permitting). 


    King’s College Chapel

    With construction started in 1446 by Henry VI and took over a century to build, King’s College Chapel is one of the most iconic buildings in the world, and is a splendid example of late Gothic architecture. 

    Attendees are also granted complimentary access to the King’s College Chapel before and during the event. 

    Confirmed Nobel Laureates

    Dr David Baltimore - CCIR

    Dr Thomas R. Cech

    The nobel prize in chemistry 1989 , for the discovery of catalytic properties of rna.

    Thomas Robert Cech is an American chemist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sidney Altman, for their discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA. Cech discovered that RNA could itself cut strands of RNA, suggesting that life might have started as RNA. He found that RNA can not only transmit instructions, but also that it can speed up the necessary reactions.

    He also studied telomeres, and his lab discovered an enzyme, TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), which is part of the process of restoring telomeres after they are shortened during cell division.

    As president of Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he promoted science education, and he teaches an undergraduate chemistry course at the University of Colorado


    Sir Richard J. Roberts

    The nobel prize in medicine 1993 .

    F or the discovery of split genes

    During 1969–1972, Sir Richard J. Roberts did postdoctoral research at Harvard University before moving to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he was hired by James Dewey Watson, a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and a fellow Nobel laureate. In this period he also visited the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology for the first time, working alongside Fred Sanger. In 1977, he published his discovery of RNA splicing. In 1992, he moved to New England Biolabs. The following year, he shared a Nobel Prize with his former colleague at Cold Spring Harbor Phillip Allen Sharp.

    His discovery of the alternative splicing of genes, in particular, has had a profound impact on the study and applications of molecular biology. The realisation that individual genes could exist as separate, disconnected segments within longer strands of DNA first arose in his 1977 study of adenovirus, one of the viruses responsible for causing the common cold. Robert’s research in this field resulted in a fundamental shift in our understanding of genetics, and has led to the discovery of split genes in higher organisms, including human beings.

    Dr William Daniel Phillips - CCIR

    Dr Aaron Ciechanover

    The nobel prize in chemistry 2004 .

    F or the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation

    Aaron Ciechanover is one of Israel’s first Nobel Laureates in science, earning his Nobel Prize in 2004 for his work in ubiquitination. He is honored for playing a central role in the history of Israel and in the history of the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology.

    Dr Ciechanover is currently a Technion Distinguished Research Professor in the Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute at the Technion. He is a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Russian Academy of Sciences and is a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences. In 2008, he was a visiting Distinguished Chair Professor at NCKU, Taiwan. As part of Shenzhen’s 13th Five-Year Plan funding research in emerging technologies and opening “Nobel laureate research labs”, in 2018 he opened the Ciechanover Institute of Precision and Regenerative Medicine at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen campus.


    Dr Robert Lefkowitz

    The nobel prize in chemistry 2012 .

    F or the discovery of G protein-coupled receptors

    Robert Joseph Lefkowitz is an American physician (internist and cardiologist) and biochemist. He is best known for his discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family G protein-coupled receptors, for which he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Brian Kobilka. He is currently an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as a James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry and Chemistry at Duke University.

    Dr Lefkowitz made a remarkable contribution in the mid-1980s when he and his colleagues cloned the gene first for the β-adrenergic receptor, and then rapidly thereafter, for a total of 8 adrenergic receptors (receptors for adrenaline and noradrenaline). This led to the seminal discovery that all GPCRs (which include the β-adrenergic receptor) have a very similar molecular structure. The structure is defined by an amino acid sequence which weaves its way back and forth across the plasma membrane seven times. Today we know that about 1,000 receptors in the human body belong to this same family. The importance of this is that all of these receptors use the same basic mechanisms so that pharmaceutical researchers now understand how to effectively target the largest receptor family in the human body. Today, as many as 30 to 50 percent of all prescription drugs are designed to “fit” like keys into the similarly structured locks of Dr Lefkowitz’ receptors—everything from anti-histamines to ulcer drugs to beta blockers that help relieve hypertension, angina and coronary disease.

    Dr Lefkowitz is among the most highly cited researchers in the fields of biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine according to Thomson-ISI.


    Dr Joachim Frank

    The nobel prize in chemistry 2017 .

    F or developing cryo-electron microscopy

    Joachim Frank is a German-American biophysicist at Columbia University and a Nobel laureate. He is regarded as the founder of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2017 with Jacques Dubochet and Richard Henderson. He also made significant contributions to structure and function of the ribosome from bacteria and eukaryotes.

    In 1975, Dr Frank was offered a position of senior research scientist in the Division of Laboratories and Research (now Wadsworth Center), New York State Department of Health,where he started working on single-particle approaches in electron microscopy. In 1985 he was appointed associate and then (1986) full professor at the newly formed Department of Biomedical Sciences of the University at Albany, State University of New York. In 1987 and 1994, he went on sabbaticals in Europe, one to work with Richard Henderson, Laboratory of Molecular Biology Medical Research Council in Cambridge and the other as a Humboldt Research Award winner with Kenneth C. Holmes, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg. In 1998, Dr Frank was appointed investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). Since 2003 he was also lecturer at Columbia University, and he joined Columbia University in 2008 as professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and of biological sciences.


    Dr Barry C. Barish

    The nobel prize in physics 2017 .

    For the decisive contributions to the detection of gravitational waves

    Dr Barry Clark Barish is an American experimental physicist and Nobel Laureate. He is a Linde Professor of Physics, emeritus at California Institute of Technology and a leading expert on gravitational waves.

    In 2017, Barish was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Rainer Weiss and Kip Thorne “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”. He said, “I didn’t know if I would succeed. I was afraid I would fail, but because I tried, I had a breakthrough.”

    In 2018, he joined the faculty at University of California, Riverside, becoming the university’s second Nobel Prize winner on the faculty.

    In the fall of 2023, he joined Stony Brook University as the inaugural President’s Distinguished Endowed Chair in Physics.

    In 2023, Dr Barish was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Biden in a White House ceremony.


    Dr Harvey J. Alter

    The nobel prize in medicine 2020 .

    For the discovery of Hepatitis C virus

    Dr Harvey J. Alter is an American medical researcher, virologist, physician and Nobel Prize laureate, who is best known for his work that led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. Alter is the former chief of the infectious disease section and the associate director for research of the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. In the mid-1970s, Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A or hepatitis B viruses. Working independently, Alter and Edward Tabor, a scientist at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, proved through transmission studies in chimpanzees that a new form of hepatitis, initially called “non-A, non-B hepatitis” caused the infections, and that the causative agent was probably a virus. This work eventually led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus in 1988, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2020 along with Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice.

    Dr Alter has received recognition for the research leading to the discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, the highest award conferred to civilians in United States government public health service, and the 2000 Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research.


    Dr Ardem Patapoutian

    The nobel prize in medicine 2021 .

    For discovering how pressure is translated into nerve impulses

    Dr Ardem Patapoutian is an Lebanese-American molecular biologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel Prize laureate of Armenian descent. He is known for his work in characterising the PIEZO1, PIEZO2, and TRPM8 receptors that detect pressure, menthol, and temperature. Dr Patapoutian is a neuroscience professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at Scripps Research in La Jolla, California. In 2021, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with David Julius.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Why should I participate in the Re:think essay competition? 

    The Re:think Essay competition is meant to serve as fertile ground for honing writing skills, fostering critical thinking, and refining communication abilities. Winning or participating in reputable contests can lead to recognition, awards, scholarships, or even publication opportunities, elevating your academic profile for college applications and future endeavours. Moreover, these competitions facilitate intellectual growth by encouraging exploration of diverse topics, while also providing networking opportunities and exposure to peers, educators, and professionals. Beyond accolades, they instil confidence, prepare for higher education demands, and often allow you to contribute meaningfully to societal conversations or causes, making an impact with your ideas.

    Who is eligible to enter the Re:think essay competition?  

    As long as you’re currently attending high school, regardless of your location or background, you’re eligible to participate. We welcome students from diverse educational settings worldwide to contribute their unique perspectives to the competition.

    Is there any entry fee for the competition? 

    There is no entry fee for the competition. Waiving the entry fee for our essay competition demonstrates CCIR’s dedication to equity. CCIR believes everyone should have an equal chance to participate and showcase their talents, regardless of financial circumstances. Removing this barrier ensures a diverse pool of participants and emphasises merit and creativity over economic capacity, fostering a fair and inclusive environment for all contributors.

    Subscribe for Competition Updates

    If you are interested to receive latest information and updates of this year’s competition, please sign up here.

    Berkeley Prize


    The Berkeley Prize has been suspended for the 2023-2024 academic year.

    Explore the past 25 years of the Prize through the pages below.

    About the prize.

    Raymond Lifchez

    The international Berkeley Undergraduate Prize for Architectural Design Excellence (BERKELEY PRIZE) was founded by Raymond Lifchez , Emeritus Professor of Architecture and City & Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley College of Environmental Design (CED), through the result of a generous gift to the CED's Department of Architecture by the late Judith Lee Stronach.

    Student Participants

    Awards granted, individual winners, berkeley prize through the years.

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Question To Past Winners: How do you think the Prize has influenced your professional life as an architect or in any other profession or career pursuit?

    Benard Acellam, Assistant Architect at DE-ZYN FORUM LTD; Assistant Lecturer in Architecture at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; BP Essay Prize Winner, 2015.

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Essay Prize

    Each year, the PRIZE Committee selects a topic critical to the investigation of the social art of architecture and poses a Question based on that topic. Full-time undergraduate students in an architecture degree program or majoring in architecture in accredited schools of architecture throughout the world, including Diploma in Architecture students, may submit a 500-word essay proposal responding to the Question. Entries by teams of two students are encouraged and the second team member can be an undergraduate studying in fields related to architecture.

    Philipp Goertz, Graduate Student at RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; BP Travel Fellow, 2018

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Travel Fellowship

    Semifinalists who select this option are invited to submit proposals demonstrating how they would use the opportunity to travel to an architecturally-significant destination of their choosing, preferably to participate in a hands-on service-oriented situation. This is an exciting opportunity to explore a different part of the world and to participate in an organized project that will assist the winner in gaining a deeper understanding of the social art of architecture.

    Past Fellowships

    Community service fellowship competition.

    Semifinalists who select to compete for a Community Service Fellowship are invited to submit proposals demonstrating how they would use the opportunity to initiate a program or join an on-going program that reflects the content of their Essay proposals. This is an exciting opportunity to explore how to start and/or to participate in an organized project that will assist in the overall understanding and application of the social art of architecture.

    Architectural Design Fellowship

    From 2008 to 2011 the BERKELEY PRIZE Committee offered students the opportunity to compete in the Architectural Design Fellowship Competition to foster the study of the social art of architecture by helping to sponsor local and regional architectural student design competitions that were run by students themselves. This competition challenged the candidates to produce a thorough and practical proposal for a design competition that would benefit their community and bring attention to the resources available to the community from their school.

    Teaching Fellowship

    From 2013 to 2014 a new BERKELEY PRIZE Teaching Fellowship was offered to undergraduate architecture studio design faculty from around the world. The primary goal of this Fellowship was to support innovative thinking by faculty as they work to focus their students' attention on the social, behavioral, and physical characteristics of the users of the buildings and spaces being designed.

    Each year the Berkeley Prize Committee invites a distinguished professor or scholar in the field of architecture or the related social sciences to write about some aspect of the year's Berkeley Prize topic.

    • They are meant to help focus students' thoughts on the issues surrounding the year's Question.
    • They are a model for excellence in writing.
    • They exhibit both how defined and how broad the range of possible response to a Question.

    The social art of architecture encompasses a large field of inquiry that links design studies to people studies. In an ever-growing corpus of published work, researchers from a variety of disciplines work with architects to investigate how to make architecture better for all people. The various topics of the history of the BERKELEY PRIZE give a glimpse into the range of these studies. Each year, the PRIZE publishes "resources" to help participants further understand the specific topics. Included in The LIbrary is a selection of these resources as well as other articles and links that detail why architecture is and must be, first and foremost, about people.

    Committee Members

    Click on the individual photos to see the member's full profile.

    Benard Acellam

    Elaine Addison

    Andrew Amara

    Sangeeta Bagga

    Erick Bernabe

    Aleksis Bertoni

    Paul Broches

    Himanshu Burte

    Thea Chroman

    Benjamin Clavan

    Roddy Creedon

    Howard Davis

    Charles Debbas

    Lynne Elizabeth

    Teddy Forscher

    Dorit Fromm

    Thomas Gensheimer

    Ann Gilkerson

    Alex Gonzalez

    Nicole Graycar

    Zachary Heiden

    Ocean Howell

    Neelakshi Joshi

    Rachel Kallus

    Daniel Karlin

    Thomas-Bernard Kenniff

    Barbara Knecht

    Aboubacar Komara

    Scott Koniecko

    Malini Krishnankutty

    Raymond Lifchez

    Ian Mactavish

    Christine Macy

    Padma Maitland

    John Q McDonald

    Jason Miller

    Anusha Narayanan

    Maire O'Neill Conrad

    John Parman

    Helaine Kaplan Prentice

    Ushna Raees

    Clare Robinson

    Daves Rossell

    David Salazar

    Magdalena Saura

    Corey Schnobrich

    Anthony Schuman

    Murray Silverstein

    Avikal Somvanshi

    Preeti Talwai

    Philip Tidwell

    Robert Ungar

    Leslie Van Duzer

    Jan Wampler

    Matt Werner

    Cynthia Whitehead

    Keith Wilson

    Friedner Wittman

    Bahram Hooshyar Yousefi

    Ghina Kanawati, Architect and Researcher at CatalyticAction, Beirut, Lebanon; BP Essay Winner, 2018

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Berkeley Prize In The News

    Conversations on social justice and design.

    The College of Environmental Design and the Department of Architecture hosted a day-long symposium in April 2022 titled Conversations on Social Justice and Design , to honor Professor Emeritus Raymond Lifchez, Founder and Chair of the BERKELEY PRIZE. The symposium featured a spectacular list of speakers who have been instrumental leaders in shaping contemporary practices addressing social justice, particularly in universal design.

    Speakers included Darren Walker, Maddy Burke-Vigeland, Jeffrey Mansfield, Elaine Ostroff, Valerie Fletcher, Victor Pineda, and Susan Schwelk with a keynote talk by Christopher Downey, our inaugural Lifchez Professor of Practice in Social Justice.

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Conversations on Social Justice and Design Part I

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Conversations in Social Justice and Design Part II

    Conversations on Social Justice and Design Part II

    international essay writing competition 2021

    Conversations on Social Justice and Design Part III

    WIPO National IP Essay Competition 2024

    May 6, 2024

    Every year on April 26, we celebrate the World Intellectual Property (IP) Day to learn more about the role that IP rights play in encouraging innovation and creativity, and ultimately in shaping our world. This year’s celebration is themed “IP and SDGs: Building Our Common Future with Innovation and Creativity”, highlighting the role that IP plays in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations.


    To build our common future and achieve the SDGs, we need to re-think how we live, work and play. This year’s campaign is an opportunity to explore how IP encourages and can amplify the innovative and creative solutions that are so crucial to building our common future. The SDGs are an interdependent blueprint for people, peace, prosperity, and our planet. The challenges we face are deep-seated and complex. Therefore, development efforts must balance social, economic, and environmental sustainability. We need to use our ingenuity, to achieve a sustainable future for everyone, everywhere.

    This year’s essay theme provides an opportunity for students of tertiary institutions to explore the various ways in which IP can support Nigeria’s goal of a addressing food insecurity. IP is especially important in achieving sustainable agriculture for long term food security in Nigeria. Sustainable agriculture encourages farming methods and systems which meet society’s present needs without negative effects on the environmental quality or the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

    The essay competition topic “IP and Sustainable Agriculture: Combating Food Insecurity in Nigeria” is an opportunity for students to reflect on the relationship between IP and SDG’s, with a primary focus on the opportunities and challenges for harnessing IP towards achieving food security in Nigeria.

    Essay entries will be assessed for factual accuracy, imagination, originality, creative and innovative thought, by an independent expert Panel of Judges drawn from leading IP practitioners and entrepreneurs, academics, policy experts, scholars, and regulators across the country. Participation in this competition will provide students with an excellent opportunity to research and learn more about the field of intellectual property and its interaction with SGDs, while yet contributing directly to policy making as they explore policy ideas along the lines of this year’s essay topic.

    Who can participate:

    The national competition is open to all registered students (undergraduate and postgraduate) of recognized tertiary institutions in Nigeria; Universities, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics, as well as professional or vocational institutions.

    Entry requirements:

    • Font- 12 Arial (Black);
    • The essay shall be written in English in not less than 500 but not more than 1,500 words (500min- 1500 max), bibliography and references excluded;
    • Double-line spacing and page numbered;
    • Submissions must be made in word and pdf format;
    • Do not include any pictures or other graphical illustrations;
    • Entries must not contain any indication as to the names, school, number, email address or other means of identification or affiliation of its author and/or any other person;
    • Plagiarism of any sort will result in disqualification;
    • Submissions received after the announced deadline of May 31, 2024 will not be considered.

    More information on submissions . Winners of the competition will be announced in June 2024.

    Prizes to be won

    • Five (5) scholarship spots to attend the WIPO Summer Schools on Intellectual Property.
    • Fellowship spots on the West African Young Innovation Leaders Fellowship.
    • Authors of the top 15 essays will receive special WIPO Packages and Certificates of Achievement.
    • The top three essays will be submitted to WIPO for possible publication in the WIPO Magazine, subject to WIPO publication schedule and review.
    • All authors of winning essays will receive scholarships to undertake any of the WIPO Distance Learning (DL) courses.
    • Several other exciting IP learning and professional capacity building prizes will be won!

    What our judges will look out for:

    • Originality;
    • Structural flow, clarity of thought and expression, grammatical accuracy and coherence;
    • Relevance to the field of intellectual property (IP);
    • Relevance to national, regional and/or international context;
    • Clear policy suggestions, proposals and/or pathways.


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