• DOI: 10.29332/ijssh.v2n1.74
  • Corpus ID: 73649439

Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment Towards Critical Thinking on Mathematics Lesson

  • I. W. Sumandya , I. G. A. N. T. Jayantika , +3 authors N. N. Parmithi
  • Published 6 February 2018
  • Mathematics, Education
  • International journal of social sciences

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A needs analysis of hots-based assessment instruments for elementary school mathematics learning, analysis of learning higher order thinking skill (hots) toward english subject, design of social arithmetic students worksheets with rme approaches to improve critical thinking ability, design of module to increasing critical thinking ability for seventh grade students, analysis of 4c-based hots assessment module on critical thinking ability, development of higher order thinking skills (hots) measurement ability instruments in learning high school biology, the effect of realistic mathematics education on elementary students’ critical thinking skills, the implementation of mathematics comic through contextual teaching and learning to improve critical thinking ability and character, implementing “what-if” learning strategy to improve high order thinking skills (hots) of students in statistics method i subject, the effectiveness of realistic mathematics education learning approach on critical thinking skills of elementary school students, 25 references, impact of critical thinking on performance in mathematics among senior secondary school students in lagos state.

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Widana, I. W., et al. "Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment Towards Critical Thinking on Mathematics Lesson." International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities , vol. 2, no. 1, Apr. 2018, pp. 24-32, doi: 10.29332/ijssh.v2n1.74 .

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Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment Towards Critical Thinking on Mathematics Lesson Image

The research was intended for analyzing the effectiveness of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) assessment towards critical thinking skills of high school students in Mathematics lesson. The subjects of this study were students XII-IPA class, SMA Negeri 8 Denpasar, the academic in 2017/2018. Sample selection in this study was applied random sampling technique. The research design used was post-test only control group design. The critical thinking of the student's skill was obtained through tests using HOTS assessment. The data were obtained and analyzed using t-test (2-tailed). The analysis results were to show that HOTS assessment could improve student's critical thinking skills in mathematics lesson effectively.

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Mathematics teacher supporting higher order thinking skill of students through assessment as learning in instructional model Mathematics teacher supporting higher order thinking skill of students through assessment as learning in instructional model

Profile image of Rosaini, M.Pd Rosaini, M.Pd

2018, IOP Publishing

The Curriculum 2013 revised in 2017 emphasizes the implementation of higher order thinking skills (HOTS) questions in learning and it is required for teacher to employ kind of evaluation such as assessment in students'learning. The teachers as a supporter of both mentioned aspects needs to be given attention due to the difficulty of applying assessment as learning (AaL) and hots in mathematics learning. This is due to the unfamiliarity with the type of HOTS questions. AaL is a reflective learning based on obtaining feedback for both teachers and students. The current study is an experimental research aiming at assessing AaL in facilitating students solve HOTS problems. This mentioned aspect is the potential point helping teachers to assist their students learning and being successful learners. The subjects of this research are students of 7th grade in Sleman, Yogyakarta. The findings of this study are 1) an improvement has been found to happen after the integration of AaL in instructional model, and 2) The teachers succeeded employing portfolio for learners to facilitate HOTS in mathematcs learning. Teachers used the portfolio with conceptualization and characteristic of AaL bases portfolio with problems of HOTS type.

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This study aims to develop a mathematical assessment instrument for senior high school students based on higher order thinking skills (HOTS). This research is development research that aims to develop a valid, practical and effective HOTS assessment instrument. The development model used is the Tessmer’s model. There are five steps applied in this study, namely preliminary, self-evaluation, expert review, one-to-one and small group and field testing. The research findings explained that each item met the validity of content (content), construct, and language. Content validity is the compatibility between the questions and the indicators that have been set for each material. Fulfilling construct validity refers to the instrument measured by the HOTS concept. It met the validity of the language because the sentence structure in the question followed the correct Indonesian language rules and did not contain double meanings or ambiguity. Therefore, this item is appropriate to be used a...

higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

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Higher order thinking skills in maths

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This resource illustrates practical activities to improve learning and teaching skills. It will support improvement by utilising higher order thinking skills by tackling the following key areas:

  • Problem solving, seeking and identifying strategies and reasoning.
  • Comprehension and interpretation of statistics.
  • Flexibility of thinking.
  • Using and understanding appropriate mathematical vocabulary.
  • Identifying the steps and using a number of operations.
  • Realising the importance of accurate calculations.
  • Applying inverse operations.

The resource specifically focuses on numeracy and mathematics, but the principles can be used across all curriculum areas. By focusing on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Learning, this resource provides a basis for:

  • Extending knowledge and understanding of higher order thinking skills.
  • Planning learning and teaching.
  • Providing strategies to support learning.
  • Enabling opportunities for challenge.

Explore the resource

Planning for learning and teaching.

Well planned activities, incorporating Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy for Learning, are a useful tool for developing learners’ understanding and skills in numeracy and mathematics.

"One of the teaching approaches which contribute particularly well to successful learning in mathematics is - well planned opportunities for children and young people to learn through investigate, active approaches" Learning Together: Mathematics - HMIE

The following questions may provide a stimulus for discussion:

  • When planning learning and teaching what type of activities provide opportunities for learners to work independently as well as collaboratively?
  • What steps are planned to review, improve and sustain these types of activities? See: Skills in Practice - Developing Thinking Skills

The following activities have been developed to support staff to adopt the use of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy in their planning:

  • Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy planning tool for numeracy and mathematics can be used to support quality questioning.
  • Bloom’s Higher Order Fans provide: Plenary questions to promote higher order thinking in the numeracy and mathematics classroom; exemplar activities which can be used to develop higher order thinking in numeracy and mathematics from early to fourth level in number and number process, fractions, decimal fractions and percentages and measurement.

Activities to support learning and teaching

This section is designed to support staff and learners by providing practical activities for the numeracy and mathematics classroom:

Practical activity 1: Hinge questions

The Mathematics Excellence Group advocates strongly the planning of questions into lesson preparation. Such questions have been called 'hinge questions'. The idea is that the teacher plans every lesson with a 'hinge'; a point in the lesson when the teacher can check on student understanding, and then decide what to do next. 'Hinge' questions are typically designed to test learners' understanding of one important concept in a lesson—one that is critical for pupils to comprehend before the teacher moves on in the lesson.

  • Word file: Hinge Questions - Overview (168 KB)

Practical activity 2: Starter and stand-alone activities

Putting a different ‘spin’ on lesson starters is one way to stimulate thinking and problem solving and also generates some very interesting discussions between learners and staff. Longer starters could be used as stand-alone activities during lessons.

  • PowerPoint file: HOT Starters and Standalone activities (3.7 MB)
  • Word file - HOT Starters - Teacher notes (28 KB)

Practical activity 3 - Self and peer assessment

Peer assessment makes greater demands on dialogue between learners. It encourages learners to externalise their thinking, explaining their understanding to others. In endeavouring to support others in their understanding, the learner is involved in utilising higher order thinking skills.

  • Word file: Think Pair Share - Teacher notes (134 KB)

Practical activity 4: Using incorrect answers

Through their use of effective questioning and discussion, teachers will use misconceptions and wrong answers as opportunities to improve and deepen children’s understanding of mathematical concepts.

  • Word file: Using wrong answers - Teacher notes (169 KB)

Practical activity 5: Using summative assessment formatively

Using summative assessments in a meaningful way to raise learners’ awareness of their strengths and development needs is vital in promoting understanding in mathematics. High quality discussion and debate from analysing summative tests provides an opportunity for learners to further develop higher order thinking and questioning skills.

  • PDF file: Building the Curriculum 5

Reflective questions

  • What kind of techniques and activities do you find are useful and effective for evaluating learners' progress informally?
  • What kind of opportunities do you already provide for learners to discuss their progress?

Download(s)

Word file: Bloom's Fans - A Brief Overview (1.2 MB)

Word file: Bloom's Fans - Blank template (34 KB)

Word file: Bloom's Fans – Plenary Questions (47 KB)

Word file: Blooms Revised Taxonomy Planning Tool (32 KB)

Word file: Bloom's Fans - Number and number processes (62 KB)

Word file: Bloom's Fans - Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages (79 KB)

Word file: Bloom's Fans - Measurement (71 KB)

PowerPoint file: Staff CPD - Higher order thinking skills in mathematics (2.3 MB)

Word doc: SSLN findings - Improving Learners' Skills (295 KB)

PDF file: Learning Together: Mathematics (625 KB)

About the author(s)

This resource was created within Education Scotland’s Numeracy team in conjunction with Scottish Government.

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higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

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higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

Assessment Techniques and Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Yousef Abosalem

Department of Mathematics and Science, Preparatory Program, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Contributor Roles: Yousef Abosalem is the sole author. The author read and approved the final manuscript.

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higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

Improving students’ higher-order thinking skills is a collective experience; one teacher of a specific subject cannot alone improve the higher-order thinking skills, and it is a collaborative process between all subjects’ teachers and can be taught for all levels of studying (Lawson, 1993; Shellens, & Valcke, 2005). Moreover, Benjamin (2008) argues that these skills can be developed in a cumulative fashion as students’ progress through their courses and subjects and other experiences they get from their institutions. As well, by including their subjects by problem solving, critical thinking and decision making activities will help students enhance their higher-order thinking skills. In this paper a mathematics test in fractions was constructed and analyzed for both grades 8 and 9 to make sure how teacher-made tests are constructed and how much of them agreed with the Bloom’s Taxonomy levels. The test consists of five sections or content areas the test was analyzed according to the behavior matrix. The results showed that all test items measure the lower three levels in Bloom’s taxonomy which agrees with Stiggins, R. J., Griswold, M. M., and Wikelund, K. R. (1989) results that most of teacher-made tests measure the lower levels in Bloom’s taxonomy. Moreover, 57.14% of the test items are applications and 28.57% are recognition items. These numbers are consistent with Boyd (2008) study, which indicated that the majority of teachers’ assessment items focused on the lower levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Moreover, Boyd concluded that 87% of the teachers’ items that have participated in this study used level 1 of the taxonomy in 2003- 2004, and this percentage increased to 86% in 2005-2006. These numbers reflect the tendency of the assessment methods used in schools to ask students to recall information or to do routine question, which will not help students in improving their higher-order thinking skills.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2016. Published by Science Publishing Group

Assessment, Higher Order Critical Thinking, Mathematics

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Yousef Abosalem. (2016). Assessment Techniques and Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Secondary Education , 4 (1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsedu.20160401.11

higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

Yousef Abosalem. Assessment Techniques and Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills. Int. J. Second. Educ. 2016 , 4 (1), 1-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsedu.20160401.11

Yousef Abosalem. Assessment Techniques and Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills. Int J Second Educ . 2016;4(1):1-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsedu.20160401.11

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High order thinking skills: can it arise when a prospective teacher solves a controversial mathematics problem?

Alfiani Athma Putri Rosyadi 1,2 , Cholis Sa'dijah 1 , Susiswo 1 and Swasono Rahardjo 1

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics: Conference Series , Volume 2157 , The 5th International Conference on Combinatorics, Graph Theory, and Network Topology (ICCGANT 2021) 21-22 August 2021, Jember, Indonesia Citation Alfiani Athma Putri Rosyadi et al 2022 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2157 012038 DOI 10.1088/1742-6596/2157/1/012038

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2 Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang

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High order thinking skills are important for prospective mathematics teachers. This study aims to describe whether High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) can appear when prospective teachers solve controversial math problems. This research has been conducted using descriptive qualitative research. The instruments that have been used are controversial math test questions and interviews. The research subjects used were 150 prospective mathematics teachers, and three people who experienced controversy were taken to find out their HOTS. The results showed that from the three subjects, information was obtained that analysis and evaluation had emerged when solving controversial problems, but only one subject appeared for creating. Suggestions for the next researcher is to combine critical thinking and HOTS to bring up aspects of creating.

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What Is Higher-Order Thinking and How Do I Teach It?

Go beyond basic remembering and understanding.

What is Higher Order Thinking? #buzzwordsexplained

Educators know that people learn in a variety of ways and that we often learn best when we can make connections to the material on a deeper level. That’s why higher-order thinking is such a valuable skill, one that serves students well throughout their school years and beyond. But what exactly does the term mean? And how can teachers build higher-order thinking skills in their students? Learn what you need to know here.

What is higher-order thinking?

A diagram showing Bloom's Taxonomy (Critical Thinking Skills)

Source: Vanderbilt University

Higher-order thinking refers to the top levels of cognitive thinking, as laid out in the Bloom’s Taxonomy model. When we use higher-order thinking, we push beyond basic memorization and recall to analyze and synthesize information. These are the skills that help us evaluate information and think critically. We also use these skills to develop new ideas and concepts, building on previous knowledge to create something entirely new.

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Benjamin Bloom headed a team of educational researchers in the 1950s and led the development of the model that bears his name today. He and his team broke cognitive thinking into six levels, shown as a pyramid. The bottom levels provide the foundation for the higher-order thinking skills at the top.

Chart showing Bloom's Taxonomy as publshed in 1956, and the revised version released in 2001. The revised version changed from nouns to verbs, and switched the top two tiers.

Source: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy/University of Michigan

If you first learned about Bloom’s Taxonomy more than 20 years ago, it looked a little bit different. In 2001, education experts decided to revise the taxonomy to make it more accurate and easier for educators to understand and apply. They changed the category names from nouns to verbs, showing the action learners would take for each. And they determined that the top two tiers should actually be switched, making “Create” (Synthesis) the highest order of thinking.

Learn more about the history and development of Bloom’s Taxonomy here.

What are the Lower-Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)?

A truncated version of Bloom's Taxonomy, showing the lower order thinking skills of remember, understand, and apply

Source: Lower-Order Thinking Skills/Helpful Professor

The bottom three levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy are referred to as the Lower-Order Thinking Skills (LOTS). It’s important to note that even though these skills are considered lower on the pyramid, they’re still extremely important. Think of these as the foundational skills students must have to support their higher-order thinking.

These are skills like memorizing math facts, defining vocabulary words, or knowing the main characters and basic plot points of a story. This is the kind of information you can check using flash cards, spelling tests, true/false questions, and more. There are many basic facts that kids must master so they can quickly recall them as needed.

Check out 21 Ways To Build Background Knowledge to learn more.

When you understand a concept, you can explain how it works to someone else. True understanding is more than memorization or reciting facts. It’s the difference between a child reciting by rote “one times four is four, two times four is eight, three times four is twelve,” versus recognizing that multiplication is the same as adding a number to itself a certain number of times. This is why we often ask students to “show their work” or “show their thinking” on math tests.

See 20 Ways To Check for Understanding for more information.

When you apply your knowledge, you take a concept you’ve already mastered and apply it to new situations. For instance, a student learning to read doesn’t need to memorize every word. Instead, they use their skills in sounding out letters to tackle each new word as they come across it.

Explore 25 Easy Ways To Make Math Practice Fun here.

Which levels constitute higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)?

A truncated version of Bloom's Taxonomy showing the higher order thinking skills of analyze, evaluate, and create

Source: Higher-Order Thinking Skills/Helpful Professor

The top three levels make up the Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), also known as critical thinking skills . When students use these skills, they delve deeper into information. Rather than simply accepting facts, they explore the reasons behind them and make cause-and-effect connections. They evaluate the validity of facts and use them to synthesize new concepts, ideas, and inventions.

When we analyze something, we don’t take it at face value. Analysis requires us to find facts that stand up to inquiry. We put aside personal feelings or beliefs, and instead identify and scrutinize primary sources for information. This is a complex skill, one we hone throughout our entire lives. When students compare and contrast multiple concepts, sort and categorize, or ask “why” questions, they’re analyzing.

Try these 25 Cause-and-Effect Lesson Plans and Activities to help kids analyze information.

Evaluating means reflecting on analyzed information, selecting the most relevant and reliable facts to help us make choices or form opinions. True evaluation requires us to put aside our own biases and accept that there may be other valid points of view, even if we don’t necessarily agree with them. Students evaluate when they debate topics, write persuasive essays, assess their own or others’ writings, and more.

Use these 35 Strong Persuasive Writing Examples to show students how evaluation works in practice.

At the highest level, students take the facts that they’ve mastered, evaluated, and analyzed, and use them to create something entirely new. This might be designing a science experiment, building a computer program, writing a paper putting forth new ideas, authoring a story or making art, and other creative activities.

Discover 40 Ways To Make More Time for Creativity in Your Lesson Plans .

Why is it so important to teach higher-order thinking?

An altered form of the Bloom's Taxonomy pyramid, showing the three higher order level skills spread across the top tier together

Source: Equal Levels/University of Michigan

While remembering, understanding, and applying are key skills, they don’t really develop students into lifelong learners and critical thinkers. As kids often point out, if they need to know the date of the start of the American Civil War or the third law of motion, they can just look it up in a book or online.

What really matters is what we do with the information we have. Higher-order skills are the ones people use in daily life to make informed decisions and create new products and processes. They help us think critically, something that’s incredibly vital in this age of constant information overload.

When we teach higher-order thinking skills, we give students the ability to solve problems, develop creative solutions, make smart choices, and evaluate the validity of information. Kids grow into adults who understand how to think carefully about the world and feel confident enough to share their own ideas, concepts, and creations with others.

Read more about the importance of higher-order thinking here.

How do I teach higher-order thinking?

A diagram of different colored

Source: The IDEA Lab

There are a multitude of ways to encourage higher-order thinking in your students. While some say that kids don’t really begin to develop these skills until upper elementary, others argue that it’s never too soon to challenge kids to make connections and ask questions. You can tweak these quick higher-order thinking strategies to work in any classroom, no matter the age or subject.

1. Ask higher-order thinking questions.

Keep a list of higher-order thinking questions on hand, and use them regularly in class. Consider making a bulletin board or anchor chart with some of your favorites, and refer kids to it as they learn. Get a huge list of higher-order thinking questions here.

2. Encourage discussion and debate

When kids learn to disagree respectfully and argue their own opinions using facts to back their beliefs, they’re preparing to take part in the discourse of the world at large. Encourage those with conflicting points of view to share them in your classroom, and teach kids how to analyze and evaluate those points though discussion and debate. Try these resources:

  • 60 Funny Debate Topics for Kids of All Ages
  • 100 Winning Debate Topics for Middle School Students
  • 100 High School Debate Topics To Engage Every Student
  • 110+ Controversial Debate Topics to Challenge Your Students
  • 60 Interesting Persuasive Essay Topics for Kids and Teens

3. Try STEM challenges.

STEM challenges encourage kids to come up with their own unique answers to problems. They use their knowledge and understanding of science, technology, engineering, and math to analyze and evaluate the challenge and create new solutions. Start with these 50 STEM Activities To Help Kids Think Outside the Box . Then, visit our archive of STEM challenges and science experiments for ideas .

4. Use graphic organizers.

Graphic organizers are tools that let kids make connections, create a plan, and communicate effectively. A good organizer simplifies complex information and lays it out in a way that makes it easier for a learner to digest. Graphic organizers may include text and images, depending on the purpose and student’s learning style. Read all about graphic organizers and learn how to use them here.

5. Incorporate project-based learning.

Project-based learning uses HOTS like analysis and evaluation, collaboration and communication, and problem-solving. As students conduct their hands-on projects, they dig deeper into a real-world topic and make personal connections to the knowledge and skills they’re gaining. In many ways, PBL is more like the work adults do in their daily jobs, especially because students collaborate with others outside their school community. Discover the basics of project-based learning here , then check out 55+ Real-World Project-Based Learning Ideas for All Ages and Interests .

Have more questions about higher-order thinking? Come talk it over with other educators in the WeAreTeachers HELPLINE group on Facebook .

Plus, what is critical thinking and why do we need to teach it .

Bloom's Taxonomy introduced the idea of higher-order thinking. Learn what this term means and how to teach it to your students.

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Teaching Strategies that Enhance Higher-Order Thinking

Janelle cox.

  • October 16, 2019

Words ‘Higher Order Thinking’ spelled out in blocks with a pink background

One of the main 21st century components that teachers want their students to use is higher-order thinking. This is when students use complex ways to think about what they are learning.

Higher-order thinking takes thinking to a whole new level. Students using it are understanding higher levels rather than just memorizing facts. They would have to understand the facts, infer them, and connect them to other concepts.

Here are 10 teaching strategies to enhance higher-order thinking skills in your students.

1. Help Determine What Higher-Order Thinking Is

Help students understand what higher-order thinking is. Explain to them what it is and why they need it. Help them understand their own strengths and challenges. You can do this by showing them how they can ask themselves good questions. That leads us to the next strategy.

2. Connect Concepts

Lead students through the process of how to connect one concept to another. By doing this you are teaching them to connect what they already know with what they are learning. This level of thinking will help students learn to make connections whenever it is possible, which will help them gain even more understanding. For example, let’s say that the concept they are learning is “Chinese New Year.” An even broader concept would be “Holidays.”

3. Teach Students to Infer

Teach students to make inferences by giving them “real-world” examples. You can start by giving students a picture of a people standing in line at a soup kitchen. Ask them to look at the picture and focus on the details. Then, ask them to make inferences based on what they see in the picture. Another way to teach young students about how to infer is to teach an easy concept like weather. Ask students to put on their raincoat and boots, then ask them to infer what they think the weather looks like outside.

4. Encourage Questioning

A classroom where students feel free to ask questions without any negative reactions from their peers or their teachers is a classroom where students feel free to be creative. Encourage students to ask questions, and if for some reason you can’t get to their question during class time, show them how they can answer it themselves or have them save the question until the following day.

5. Use Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers provide students with a nice way to frame their thoughts in an organized manner. By drawing diagrams or mind maps, students are able to better connect concepts and see their relationships. This will help students develop a habit of connecting concepts.

6. Teach Problem-Solving Strategies

Teach students to use a step-by-step method for solving problems. This way of higher-order thinking will help them solve problems faster and more easily. Encourage students to use alternative methods to solve problems as well as offer them different problem-solving methods.

7. Encourage Creative Thinking

Creative thinking is when students invent, imagine, and design what they are thinking. Using creative senses helps students process and understand information better. Research shows that when students utilize creative higher-order thinking skills , it indeed increases their understanding. Encourage students to think “outside of the box.”

8. Use Mind Movies

When concepts that are being learned are difficult, encourage students to create a movie in their mind. Teach them to close their eyes and picture it like a movie playing. This way of higher-order thinking will truly help them understand in a powerful, unique way.

9. Teach Students to Elaborate Their Answers

Higher-order thinking requires students to really understand a concept, not repeat it or memorize it. Encourage students to elaborate their answers by asking the right questions that make students explain their thoughts in more detail.

10. Teach QARs

Question-Answer-Relationships, or QARs, teach students to label the type of question that is being asked and then use that information to help them formulate an answer. Students must decipher if the answer can be found in a text or online or if they must rely on their own prior knowledge to answer it. This strategy has been found to be effective for higher-order thinking because students become more aware of the relationship between the information in a text and their prior knowledge, which helps them decipher which strategy to use when they need to seek an answer.

  • #CreativeThinking , #HigherOrderThinking , #TeachingStrategies

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An Assessment of Eighth Graders’ Mathematics Higher Order Thinking Skills in the Chinese Context

  • Published: 28 July 2023
  • Volume 23 , pages 365–382, ( 2023 )

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higher order thinking skills assessment towards critical thinking in mathematics lesson

  • Yongxiao Bai 2 ,
  • Haili Liang 1 ,
  • Chunxia Qi   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-9777-0105 1 &
  • Siyu Zuo 1  

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Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and the assessment framework of PISA, this study aimed to develop a three-dimensional assessment framework to measure junior high school students’ higher order thinking skills in mathematics in China. A total of 28,153 eighth graders from 11 districts and counties in Z city were involved in the test. The results showed that (1) in the Mathematical ability dimension, students scored the lowest in Problem-solving ; (2) in the Cognitive level dimension, students scored the lowest in Evaluate ; (3) there was little difference between students’ scores on problems in Realistic and Intramathematical situations ; (4) there were significant differences in the higher order thinking skills of students at different academic levels; and (5) there were no gender differences in students’ higher order mathematical thinking skills (HOMTS). Implications for assessment in HOMTS and suggestions for future study are discussed.

S’appuyant sur la taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques de Bloom et le cadre d’évaluation du Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA), cette étude vise à élaborer un cadre d’évaluation tridimensionnel pour mesurer les capacités de processus mental de niveau élevé en mathématiques des élèves du premier cycle de l’enseignement secondaire en Chine. Au total, 28 153 élèves de huitième année de 11 districts et comtés de la ville de Z ont participé au test. Voici ce qui en est ressorti: d’abord, sur l’aspect des aptitudes mathématiques, les élèves ont obtenu le pointage le plus faible en résolution de problèmes; deuxièmement sur le plan cognitif, les participants ont réussi le moins bien en évaluation; troisièmement, on a constaté peu de différence entre les résultats des élèves sur les problèmes abordés dans des situations réalistes et intramathématiques; quatrièmement, on a vu des distinctions importantes dans les capacités de processus mental de niveau élevé des élèves à différents niveaux académiques; et finalement, on n’a remarqué aucun écart entre les sexes en ce qui a trait aux capacités de processus mental de niveau élevé en mathématiques des élèves (PMNÉM). On aborde les implications pour l’évaluation des PMNÉM et on suggère des pistes que les études futures peuvent examiner.

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Bai, Y., Liang, H., Qi, C. et al. An Assessment of Eighth Graders’ Mathematics Higher Order Thinking Skills in the Chinese Context. Can. J. Sci. Math. Techn. Educ. 23 , 365–382 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42330-023-00279-w

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    Based on these criteria, 14 primary studies were selected and reviewed. The results show that PBL improves mathematical critical thinking, problem-solving, and creative thinking skills. Second, teachers' and students' adaptation to the PBL environment encompasses multiple stages of conceptualization and reconceptualization of its basic features.

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    Higher order thinking skills, school-based assessment and students' mathematics achievement: Understanding teachers' thoughts March 2022 International Journal of Evaluation and Research in ...

  15. Assessment Techniques and Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills

    Improving students' higher-order thinking skills is a collective experience; one teacher of a specific subject cannot alone improve the higher-order thinking skills, and it is a collaborative process between all subjects' teachers and can be taught for all levels of studying (Lawson, 1993; Shellens, & Valcke, 2005). Moreover, Benjamin (2008) argues that these skills can be developed in a ...

  16. Test Score Gaps in Higher Order Thinking Skills: Exploring

    Today's economy demands higher order thinking skills (HOTS), and the public education system has a critical role in supporting students' acquisition of HOTS. ... and mathematics skills are essential to succeed in STEM fields (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2018). If the test score gaps in HOTS in mathematics persist, it is ...

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    5 higher order thinking skills activities. Socratic Seminars: Organize a discussion where students explore complex questions or issues related to a text, topic, or current event. Encourage students to formulate open-ended questions, analyze evidence, and construct arguments based on critical reasoning and evidence.

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    [26] Widana I W 2018 Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment towards Critical Thinking on Mathematics Lesson Int. J. Soc. Sci. Humanit. Google Scholar [27] Jacob S M and Sam H K 2008 Proc. 13th Asian Technol. Conf. Math. (ATCM 2008) Critical Thinking Skills in Online Mathematics Discussion Forums and Mathematical Achievement. Google Scholar

  19. PDF Development of Rubric of Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment on

    Plomp's developmental method, the Generic model for educational design, was deployed to develop the HOTS assessment rubric. The method consisted of 4 phases, namely; (1) preliminary investigation, (2) design, (3) development, and (4) implementation and evaluation. The rubric was designed and developed to measure students' higher-order thinking ...

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    Higher-order thinking takes thinking to a whole new level. Students using it are understanding higher levels rather than just memorizing facts. They would have to understand the facts, infer them, and connect them to other concepts. Here are 10 teaching strategies to enhance higher-order thinking skills in your students. 1.

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